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La concietJcia de la mestiza
Towards a New Consciousness
Pola t1111je1' de mi razn
htJM,mlol espfrittl.
jose Voscocelos, MeJCican philosophcr, envisnr,cd Nlla raza
miiTth, una mezel,; t raza.r afineJ, N lid raza de eolor- la. pri
mera r.tza sfmuis del p.fobo. Clllle<l ir a cosmk roce, la raza
e6smiea, n fifrh rnceembracing me fnurmajor roces of the worlcF
Oppv>IC 111 thc: thL'<try nf tbe pure Arynn, and ro che pnlicy nf
rucial purity that while pranicc), hL' theory is one of
inclusiviry M rhe conflucncc nf twn or more generk srream.,,
with chrnmnsomcs cons1andy "crossing over," this mixture of
roces, rnrher thnn resulri ng in on infcrinr bcin,provldes hyhrid
progony, u mutnblc, more malle a ble spectes with n l'ich cuc pool.
from thls rncinl, ldeological, culrurul und biolnnicnl crt>ss J
pollini zntion, ron "alicn" consciuusncss ls prese11tly In tbc
ntukilt,L;- lli1Cw me.rtiz4 consciousness, 11na coocit:ncitJ de ntJ.ier.
lt a consciolusncss of the Bordedo11ds.
Utsa lucha de frotJStras 1 A Strnggle of Bordcrs
Beca use 1, a tnettila,
continuaUy Witlk otll of one culture
aod nro anothcr,
because .1 a m in all culrure_\ at the same time,
altna enerc doJ mrJtJdoJ, lr6r, C11a1ro,
tne zumba la cabc7.a C<Jrl lo conlradt&l or1o.
lii11J)' urtctttla tudar laJ IJ0&8J q11e 1110 hablaJ
lA aJtf(l.,ltltl tl1 /11 Toward.'- a Ntw ConscmuJI\tU
The ambl\lllencc frnm rbe clash uf voices in rnenral
nntl emorionnl srn1es of perpiLxlty. Interna! suife in
insecuricy uml lndecisivcness. TI1e mcstizn's dqnl or tllLI tlple
personttlity is >luued by psychlc rcsdessness.
In a cuntolll srnre of rncncal nepr11cilisrn, un i\1.rcc worc.l
meaning corn berwccn ways, la 11/ltlltza is a produCt of rhe
rr>mfer of rhe uhural and spiritual nf one gruup 10
anorher. llcing triculrurnl, o\ooolingual, bilingual, ur
gual, spealdng o pawi.s, andina statc uf perperual
meJtiza faces rlte dilemmn of tite mixed hrccd: wbrch wlkcuvny
does cbuAluer of a durkskinned mmhcr llsren tu?
Bl chotIIO du ""alma atrap11d11 011tro el mum/( del 8fj1frit11 :Y
el mtmdo dula t&tlica a vc&er 1,, deja #tltl'llada. Cradlcd In one
culture, sandwtchcd bccween rwo cultures, scrnddliug all rhrce
cultures and chcrr value syscems, lo melliza undergoes a
of flesh, a MCUII81e of burdcrs, an inner wur. Like all pcople, we
pcrccive the version of realiry chat our culrure communicucs
like orhers having or living in more rhun une culrurc, we gec
mulriple, nfren oppusi11{l messages. Thc conung cogc1her of rwo
buc habimnlly iiiWlllj)llllble f1amcs of rcfcrcnccl
causes un cbotIIB, n culnu:al collision.
Wichin us anc.l within , "'ll1<r11 ciJieatla, commonly hcld
belefs uf the whnt :utack communly held belld of the
Mexican culture, and bntl\ auack cumrnnnly held bcliefs of che
indigenousculwrc. Subconsciuusly, wt see nn ottack 011
and our bcllcfs ns a thrcat and we acrempt ro block Wtrh n
But ic l$ 1101 tnough m stand on rhe npposice rivcr bank,
shouting quesuons, chnllcngmg pnrriarcltul, whice
A coumerstance locks one intu a duel uf oppressor and
oppressed; lockcd in mnrcal combllc, like rhc cop and thc crimi-
nal, botb are reduced toa common dcunmrnawrof v10lence. The
counrerstllncc refutes che dmnlnanc culrnre's views and beliefs,
nnd, fut' this, Ir ls pmudly tlefiant. All ,cacrioo is linlitcd by, and
dependenr cm, what h is reactirll{ agnlnsc. Oecause the councer
scnnce sccms from n problem with nuchority-ouccr as wel l ns
inner- it's n srcp rowards liberatinu from cultural domination.
Bur ir is nnt a way of life. /\e sorne poinc, cnr our way w a
cumciousness, wc will ha ve 10 lea ve che opposite bank,che 'phc
becween che twO morrnl combatonts somehuw bealed su rhac we
are on both shores nt once nnd, nc nncc, see 1hrough scrpent und
lA COHC,HCI4 tl1 mm:"' f 01 Nc:w
caglc o:yes. Or we will decide w dt'ICngage from the
domtnam culture, wme it off almecher ns o lost muse, und CI'OSS
thc border inca'' wholl y new nnd scpurntc cerricory. Or we tlll111t1
go nnothcr mute. 1.'he nre nurncruus nncc wc decide
tll ncr ood 1101 rcuct.
A Tolcrance Fur Ambiguit)'
Thesc numerous possibilities len ve In tmutiza fluuudcring
in unchnrced In perceivinA confl ,cting informncion nnc.l
pnillL\ uf vicw, she is :.ubjccred ro a swampin}l of hcr psycholosi
cnl bordees, S he hns discovered rhuc she cat hold concep1s or
idons in rigid boundnrics. The bor<lcrs nnd wulls chuc nre suo
posed w kccp rhe undestrablc ideas out are cmrenchcd ltabirs nnd
pnnerns of bchuviur: rhese habits uoKI parrerns are lhe er'lemy
wulun. Rigidiry meon< dcarh. Only by rcmaimng flexible is $he
able to stretch the psyche borizuncally and verlic-dlly, lA m6Jii'ld
con<rnnrly has LO sltifcuuc of habitual from conver-
gemthinking, nnnlyl icnl rcasun i ng r hnt tencls 10 use raciona 11 t)' tu
move cowar a (a mode), to divere111
tltl uking, charnctcrizcd by movemcut uwny from ser potreros
nnd goals and cuwnrd n whole perspecrive, ane thar>
rorher rhan excludc'
Thc new 1116SIt4 copes by developcn u tnlcr.mcc fur conl
rradiccions, a wlcrance for ambil{utty, S he lenrns ro be an lnd11tn
iu Mexican ctll ture, to be Mexican (rorn un Angln point uf vicw.
She lenrns w usgle cultures. She hus n plural perso!Hlily, slte
u pernees in n plurollsdc mocle-nothlu 1,, rhrust onr, che good
rhe bad and the ugly, nothing rejeueci, no1ltin{l ab:lndoned. Not
only does she sus ca in conrrodiction>, shc turns rhe ambivalence
inco someching else.
Shc can be jarrcd ourufambivalence by"" imen.\C, and often
poinful, emocional whicb f1vercs 11r resol ves rhe nmbival-
ence. l'm uot ;ure exnccly hmv The work rakes ploce
underground-subconsciously. lt is work chncthcsoul pcrfurms.
Thut focal point or fulcrum, rhnt juncturc wltcrc thc rncstiza
srunds, is whtre pltcnomena tenu lll cullide. lt is wnere che
po55ibliry of uniting all rh31 i.< separare occurs. 'f'his assembly is
no e one whcre se ve redor separa red pieces mtrelycome
Nnr is it blllancinA uf opposing powers. In uncmpcing w wurk
out a synrbesis, che sclf hns addcd u chi1d element which is
((mciendll In me .. rli4a 'foward> 1.1 Ntw ln'iC:HUSI)tU
greacer n che su m uf its severed Tllnc chi rd ele me mis a
ncwcon;.ciousness- mestiu consciousnes-and chough ic is a
source of incense puio, its eoergy come' frnm continuo! cmcive
mncinn chal keep5 breaking duwn che unirary of ea eh new
IJn unas fJOCM centuri<JI, che: future will be long en che mes-
thc fmurc depends on rhe hrcakinJl down uf para-
cligms, it dcpcnds on che strnddling uf twn or more cuhures. l\y
crcnun a new mythos-rhat is. a change in wuy we perceive
reoliry, che way wc see ourselves, oml thc ways we pchll ve-/a
'IJUJJ'IiZ(l crea tes n new <:onsduusuts:'i.
'J'he work uf musza consciousness is ro break down the
suhjccc-ubjcct uuaJicy rhnr keeps hcr u prisrlllerond wsh<)W in rhe
flsh llml thruugh che lmages in he work how dunlicy is t1ilns
cended. Thc LO the problem hccwccu whitc race ami
rhc culorcd, between males 2nd femalcs, lies in heallng che split
e ha e originares in thc ''l'I)' fouodacion ofour ourculturc, nur
thougbu. /1 mossivc uproming of dualistic think
m 10 the Individual and cnllective ls che begin
ning of a lnn s1ruggle. bm one thar cnuld, in our be" hopes.
brin; us 10 the end of m pe, uf vmlence, of wor
lA 1 l'he Crossrmds
A chi.ckeo is be in; sacrlfced
uta c:rossroads, o simple mound of eurth
a mud shri ne for IJ,hu,
Yom(m gou of lndeterminucy,
who blesses her choke of path.
She hegins her journey.
Su C116rflu es una buCRcalle. La mestiza has gone frum being
the .aCttficial goac to lx.-cmrung the officiating priesress at the
As me11iz11 J ha ve no country, my homeland Cal>l me out;
yer all coururie are mioe because 1 a m cvcry woman's siscer or
potencial lover ( As a lesbiau 1 have no roce, my own pc:ople
dlsdaunme; bu e 1om oll races bccuuse rhere is rhc queerof me in
oll rnces.) l u m cuhureless beca use, as a fcminiSI, 1 chullcnge rhe
collccrlve cultural/ rcligious mn le-derivecl bchefs of 1 ndo-H is-

l.t &Q,ICi N&tlf Je /11 me"Jiiza Tuwards a ConKIOUsneoss
panics oncl Anglos; yet 1om rulcured because 1 a m partlcipnting in
che creation o( yct anothcr culture, n new .rnry 10 cxplain che
world and our parridpa<ion init, a new value system with imagcs
and syrubols tbat c:onna-r cr, each other and 10 rhe planee. Soy
un 1 aman act of kne-Ading,of unido and jolning
thor nm only has produced boch a crearure o( dnrkness and a
crearure of lghr, butabo creature rhnc questlun che ddinidons
uf light ond dork ond gives rhem ncw meaninJlS.
We urc the pcople who leap in rhe dnrk, we ore che people
on the knees o( rhe gods.lo our vury flcsh, (r)c:vnlution works out
thc dash of cultures. lt mokes tJs crazy consrnncly, bm if rhe cencer
holds, wc've mude snmc kind of evolucinnury srcp forwurd. Nua.r
tra alma ellra.bajo, che opus, che grcat alchcmcnl work; spirhnaJ
tJICJtiztJjo, u "murphogenes is,"
a n i nev i rnble unfold i ng. W e hn ve
become che quickenlng serpcm rnovcmcn1.
lndlgc:nnus like com, like corn, the 1/ICJti::a is a produce uf
crossbreeding, designed for prcscrvation undcr a ''ariety of con-
didons l.ike an ear of com-a female seed-hearing organ che
mCJiiu is tcnacious, tigluly wappcd in rhc huk uf hcr cultur<\
l.ike kernels she clings coche cob; with chick stalks and srrong
bracc rtK>l>, she hulds tighr t<l rhe will urvfvc thc
Lava mio y remoja,.d(J el m.alz q agua d11 &al, dnpoja1do el
po/lujo. mixteatJdo, amaJatJdo, bacie11do tortiii11J du
Shc Slccps thc com in lime, it swdls. soft.cns. Wit h scone
roller on metttte, she grinds che corn, hen grinds agoin. Shc
kneads a nd mould> the dough, pnr.s the round hnl 1,, llw to,ttlltu.
\V/e are the porous rock In che sronc molto
squJJtLing un thc ground
\V/e are che rolllng pin, el malr )' ap,utt,
ltt 11/ttltl han11a. Sonuu
Somos lo molido 871 el me111te.
We are che &ormJ si:zzling hor,
the hot lorlilla, che hungry mn111h.
\V/e are the roarse rack.
\Y/e <C tbc Jlfindin, n'lotfon,
the mixed pocion, romo! el molcaJCIII.
\Y/e are thc pcs tle, che comi11o, ajo,
La euiJ,if411CI.- 111 f Towanls Ncw
We ore rhe cbile colnrado,
che reen shutll rhat crocks thc rock.
We wl ll ubitle.
El camhm de la mastixll 1 Thc Mesrizu Way
Caught between thc sudden contraction, rhe hrcath
sucked in and thc cndless spnce, thc browo womuo srnods
srill, looks at the slcy. She dccrdcs ro go down, digging hcr
way nlong rhe roo of rrces. Slfring chrough the boncs, she
shakes chem w scc if chere is uny marrow in rbcm. Then,
rouching che<lirt to hcr fnrchcnd, co her rongue, she rukcs a
fcw bones, lenves thc rest in chel1 burinl place.
She 80<.!' through her backpack, keeps hcr journal und
address book, rhrows away the munlbllrtmetromaps. The
coins ore heny and rhey go ncxt, theo rhc grcenbacks
fluner rhrouh rhe a ir. S he keeps her knife, can opencr aod
eycbrow pencil. S he pues bones, picces of bark, bierbaJ,
eagle fcarhcr. snakeskin, rape rccorder, the rnttle nnd clnun
in hcr pnck nnd shc scrs out 1'0 bccornc tbe complete tol
Her first scep i> tu cake invenmry De1pojando, d1ra
nando, qaiiando paa. Jusc wha< did she inherit fTOm her ances
rors? This wc1ght on hcr back-wh1ch the bnggagc from rhc
lntlian mother, which tbe baggugc lrom che Spanish furher.
wbich rhe buggnge from thc Anglo?
Per/1 et dificil cllffercntiati ng becwccn lo bcrcdfldn.lo
rido, Jo impuesto. She pues history tl 1rou:h n sicvc, wlnnows out
rhe lies, lm1ks at the fon:csthat weas a nK"C,ltS women, ha ve been
" purt of. Lsugo hola lo que 110 vale, l111 tkJmicntoJ, loJ dc.r<!ll
&11611101. e1Bmbrutl&imifmlt1. Aguarda 11 j11icio, honQ y tllral
Zttdo, de la ge1116 anti;u11. Tbis scep is a cunscious rupture wich ull
oppresslve rrnditirms of nl l t:ulmre> und religions. S he comnnuti
caces dmt rupwre, clocuments che struggie. She rcinterprets
hiswry and, using uew symbols, she shapes ncw myrhs Sl1e
ndoprs new perspecrives roward che darkskinned, wumcn nnd
quLoers. She srrengrhcns ber rolerouee (aod inwleronee) for
ambiguicy. Shc $ willing ro shurc, tn make hetself vulnerable ro
foregn ways of seeing autl thiolclng. Shc surreoders nll oocions ,,
su.[ecy, of rhe fumili<tr. Deconsrruct, consrruo She beconleS n
Lt. &tmCtiHtt;r l11l "'-11/i:a / Tuwarcb :1

able ro trun5form he.-sclf inro a cree, o coyore, ;
nnuther persnn. She learns ro rra nsform rhc smaU 'T' inru rhe
totnl Stlf. Se moldeadora 1le 111 <tlma. Segn 1, concopcMn
que de .1'1 111111/w, " rl
Que 110 se llflS oltidlm hm11bres
'7 A 110 rirves nad-
ynu' re good for nmhmg.
lirsJ pun1 zteja."
"Y' 1 1 ,. '
. re not Hug lUC il won"'un menns you are clcfcccive. lts
IS 1111 macho. l'he mo<.lcl'tl meaning of che worcl
.maclusmo, wcll ns the cunccpc, is nctually au Anglo in ven
non. Formen l1ke my father, being "mut:htt" meaor bein 'lrnng
cnuugh ro suppurr m y mother and t15, )'el belng nblc
ro sbow !uve. 1 oda y' macho has duubrs about bis sbility m fL'ed
ond pro.tect hi. fnmily. Bjs "mnch;mu" i.> an adapcarion to
nppress1on and I)Overty an<l luw 'l:lfesreem. 1t , thc rcsulr of
hiera.rchical mnle domina nce. 'l' he Anillo, feel ing inndetUlrc and
and o1 11nnsfers rhese fcelings to
Clucanu hy shnu11ng l11m. ln thc C. ringo world, C:hicnnu
,uffers from cxcessive humilry nod scl(-effacr:ment shnmc ol
se!{ and self1eprccutinn Around Larinos he suffcrs fr:un u sen se
of mndequacy and irs nccompanying discomfott ; wul1
NuuveJ\mencaus he suffers frnm n ncinl nmncsiu. which ignores
our common blood, 11 11d fro rn guilL bccnusc che Spanlsh pnrt uf J
hlm took thcir land onu oppressed rhem. Ue an excesshe
compcnsnrory hubris when arouutl Mcxicnns froru the mhcr sidc /
Ir overlays a decp seme uf mdal shame. 1
Thc loss of a scnsc uf digolty and respccr in the mucho
brcL'<b false wbich lcuds him ro put dowu wumc1
und e veo to brucollze rhem: Cocxisring wlth his scxisc bchnvior
n love for rhc morher wl11ch rnkes precedente over rha1 of o.ll
others. D.evored so.n, mucho pig. To wush cl()wn rhe shnme of
acts, of l11s very bc1118, norl to handlc the bnue in thc mirrnr, he
takes ro che bmrlc, rhe soort, rhe needle, and tbc Jisr J
Thr)ugh we "undcNmnd" che root mole hocred and
fear, and rhe subsequcm woundinJlnf women, we do oot excuse.
wc do nor condone, and we will no longer put up with fr. I'rom
l11 crmdnna Ja 11lfii11A j 'loward!i a New tonsdm111netec
the mcn o( our race, we dcmand rhe admissionfncknnwledg-
mcncfdisclusurcfcesthnony rhnt rhey wound us, vinlace us, are
nfrnid uf us and of our puwcr. We need rhem ro say rhcy wll
bcgin ro elimina' rheir hurcful put-dnwn ways. nm more rhan
rhe we <lemand uccs. Wc sny to rhem' Wc will devclop
C<jliUI powel" wirh yuu nnd lih)Se whu shamed us.
lt Imperad ve rhnr tizas supporr each ttrltCt' in chang-
ing the in che Mexican-lndiun cultute. luug as
woman put down, rhe lndian uud t.he Black in nlluf us ls pur
duwn. The srntggle uf che mcstiu ls above :tila femlnist onc As
long as lnr hmnbrtu think rhey hove tu ehingarmujttrer nd ea eh
uthcr to be men, as long mcn are taughr rhar <he y :tre superior
and cherefore <lllrurally lnvored over la mujer, as tu be a
viaja ls a <hm of derision, rhcrc cun be no real hcalng of our
psycltes. We're hul fway rhcre-we hnvesuch loveof rhe Mmhet,
rhe good mmhcr. The frsc srep is to rhe jlllla/virgen
uidJ(Jtmy nnd ro sec <:rul/./apopeuhCOfltlic"a in the Morhtr.
Tcndcrness, a sign uf vuluerabillt]', is so fea red thnc ir is
showered on wun1cn wlth verbal abuse and blows. Mcn, evcn
more rhan women, are ferrered w ;ender roles. Wumen ntleast
ha ve had rhe gurs m break out of bondngc. Only gay mcn hae
hnd rhe couragc to eJCpose rhemsdvcs ro the woman imide 1 he m
und ro cballenge rhe curre m masculiniry. l've cnctluntered fcw
scnuered nnd isvlntcd gencle srrnighr rncn, the beginnings of
ncw brccd, but rhey ore cnnfuscd, and enc.1nglcd with. se>rlst
behnviors thn< thcy hu ve not been nble ro cmdlcnre, Wc nced .A
new mnsculiniry and rhe new nmn needs a movcmcnt.
l.umping thc males who dcviatc from the general norm
with man, theoppressur, ,u ;ross inusrice. Aunnbra po1mnqri
nos brmws en e u po:o otcuro donde el mtmd11 tm&imt a
/ lt:rbian<H. Atombr pomar qHe hemos, como fermmisi<H y
lttJbiauas, eerradtl llllff.rtrOJ eoraz611er a lo! hombres, a IINttstror
bsrmamu loJ jo1os, deshsr4Jdtldw y mari11aler cumo 110101m.r.
Bclng che sur reme crossc" of cuhures, hornt1sexuals ha ve st.rong
wirh thc: queer whire, lllack. Asian, Nurive American,
Lutino. and wirh che qucl!r In ltal), Ausrralia an<l rhe t'CSt uf tbe
planee. We "'me frnm nll colurs, all classes, all ruces, nll rime
periods. Our role is ro link peuple wirh each mher-rhe Olac.ks
wirh Jews wirh lndiaus with Asinns wirh whites wirh cxtraterres-
(l/11 WtJf/U'II / 'ruwards a Ncw (ouscicw'inC'1s
trials. le is tn rronsfer and mfurmalion frnm une cuhurc
nnmhcr. Colored homosexuub mure uf orher
r:ulmres; lmve nlways bccn nt che furefront (ahhuugh somedmcs
tu rhc closer) .of al l. libermion!lgles in chis cttu11cry; ha ve
suffcrcd more n11<1 ""''" survived rhcm despltenll udds.
(h ttn nos ro nclmuw lcdge cite poli rica 1 and arriscit' conrribu
l'lnus of rher Peoplc, listcn to wbur suying.
Tlu:: mesw.o aud che quccr cxisr Rl time J>Olnt un
thc evolucJonary conrinuum For H purpose. \'(/e src o blcnding
that prnves that all hlood is imricorely wuven rogerher, uud rhar
we nre Sp;!wned out nf ,mi lar snuls.
Somos una gmle
Hay Jant.simar J r(nuenl!
que divtdon " 111 e m u.
pero un Clldt!frrm/qoa
exiua ltlmln'n tltl puente.
-Gina Vulds
Oividt.od J.oyaltic,. Mony wnntcn and men u( cnlnr do 1101
10 ha ve an dealin.' wirh whice pcnple. Ir rakestO<l cnuch
and energy w cxploin to thc downwardly muhile, whue
rr:uddl.:cl:t." chat ils uktty (or usen wnnr ro own " pussc<
never havmg had nny u ice fnrniturc cmnur dirr floors or
"luxurics" like wnshing machi oc.,. Many feel thnt whitcs shouJd
heJ11 their owo people du rhcn>selves of cace hnrred and fcur first.
l. eh o ose ro use so me of 111)' enery to serve as medioror. 1
'!>tnk wc need ro whltes to be: our nllies. Tltrough nm
ltr.crnrure, an, corrtdor, and fulkrnles wc must shore ouo histoty
wtth rhcm so when tllcy 'CI upcommittces ro help Hi Muuutain
or the Chica no or lot NicnragtmiDf rhey
wun r tnrn away becau'c uf rheir racial fears nnd ignoran
ces ThC) wo 11 come 1n S<'C rhoc chcy are nor hdpmg us bur
folluw i ng Q\1 r lend.
lndividunlly, bur also as a rudal enrity, we nccd w vuice our
nccds. We nc;cd ro soy ro whitc .1o<iecy: We ncct.l you m nccept che
fncr Lhat ChJtanos are dlffcrenc, 10 ackunwledge your rejecLiun
nnd nc:atton of us. Wc need you ICl own the fan t.hat yuu lnnked
Upun US nsless than human, thut )'Ull srole our lauds,nur ['erson-
huod, our self -respecL \Y/e "'''.. you ro makc public resricm ion: to
lA 11, /4 mIUU. f 'l'uw;m.b .l Ncw Co.nsciuu ... ness
>Ay tbat, ro for yuur nwn of uefecrivctless, yuu
\lrivc for powcr o ver us, you erase our hi\lnry 11nd tJurtxpcriencc
bccuusc it mnkcs you fecl gui lry- yuu'd rnrher forgcr your brurish
ncrs. Tu suy y<Ju've Sf'lit lmrn minorhy groups. tiHtt you
disown IL\, that your rhtal cunsciousness spllrs off pMt. of your
sclf, rransfcrriorhc "negarive" porrs onro us. (Where rhere is
>ersec:uuon tJf there is shaclow projectilln. Whcre
thcre ls vllllcnce and wo r, rherc 1& reprc,,siol1 uf s httdow.} To y
rhot youore afraid of U>,thar ro put disrancc us, yuu weor
rhc of contcmpr. Adnlttthnr Mcxico rs yuurdouble, rh;u she
cxlsts in rhc s hndt>w of rhis w untry, chat we ore rrrev<Jcably ticd
m her. Grin<), accept t.hedoppclgonger in your psyche. lly rakin
back ynur collecrive shoduw the intrnculmnal splir will beal. And
fillally, ccll us whn< you need from us. Your True We Will Know You
1 :un visihle-see rhis lndinn facc-yer l tllll invislble. l bnth
bllnli rhcm with m y bcnk nosc uoJ o m thclr bllnd spor. Burl el(is t,
we cxisr. Tht!y'd like w t.bink 1 Ira ve mclted in tite pot J3ur 1
havent. we hovct.
The dom!nanr whitc colrurc ls ki ll io us slmvly witlr irs
ignonancc. By takinJl nway our sell-dcterminotion, ir los us
WL'llk and cmpty. As o people we bave resrsred and we hove rakcn
expcdienr but we hove ttever bcen allowcd ro dcvelop
unencumbered-we hnvc bccJ'I allr>wctl to be ful ly nur
selves. Thc whires in power wnt us penple of color tu barricude
uurselves behind our separare rribnl sn rhey cnn pick us off
onc ara time with rhelr hrdden wtapons; sn they can whircwfls h
and di;'turt hlstory. lgnorancc splirs pcople, crctltes ptcjudicc>. /1
misinfomu:d peoplc is 8 subjuoted penple.
Befcre the Chknno and the undocumcnrcd worker ond rhe
Mcxican from thc 11ther sidc cnn come togcther, befare the
Chiconocnn ha ve uniry wirh Nntive !lmericans and orhcr groups,
we na'<i ro know rhe histary of their srru88le and rhey need ru
know ourR. Our mmhers, our and brothers, rhe guys who
han: our on streer corncrs, thc children in rhe playgt'<Junds, cnclt
of us rnusr know our Jndian llncage, our airo-meuisaje, our
history uf resis<ance.
LA tuufiNdJ Jr lt1 lmtJiizA 1 Tu""anh 1 Ntw C,onsctUUla..'l
Tct che irnrnignurt 1/Je;..'icauo uJ the ecenr wc muH
<ach our hisror)' 'l'he !10 million mexic4nfl and the latinos
from Cemrol and Scou<h Amcric11 mus< know of onr
!!u eh ouc of us tnusc know basic facts abonr Nicaragua, Chile and
the resr of l.nrin \ mc:tica. Thc l.utinoist 1110vemenr (Chicanrl5,
Ricans, C:ubans and orher Spamsh-spenkingx ..oplc wurk
toethe.' racial discriminnrion in the mnrket pbce)
rs good bl" " s not cnou;h. Otbu r Ll '"" a crunmon cul ru re wc w ill
ha ve llOthin!l w hukl us toetl1er \V/e need ro mcct nn a broader
cnmmunal ground.
Thr: st nrggle is l nner: Chicnno, indio, Amcricnn Jodinn,
11/0jddo, mexitd11o, immlranr d uo, AnAIO in powcr, w Jrkln
class Anln, Black, Asian-our l>syches resemblc <loe border-
tnwns and are popul nred by rhe same pcnplc. The srrugle
nlways becn inner, and is pluycd >Lit irlthe ourer rerrnill,\, Awnre
uf nur suuatioo musr come inncr chanes, which in
turn come before chnncs in sncu:ry. Norlung happens m the
"renl" world u fi rs t happens in rhe imagcs iu uur heads.
Bl tUa de la Chicana
1 will nut be uuin
Nor will J shame ll.lyself.
1 am ptl\sessed by u vision: rhar we Chk:wa.< and Chicanos
ltavc taken bnck or uncovered our rruc faces. our digniry aud
self-respecr. lt\ u validutiou vishm.
St-ei n rhe Olicann anew in lihr nf hcr bistory. 1 seek an
exooerarion,ll seeing rhmugh the fictions of whire suprcmacy,
sccin11 of ourselves in our crue guises and rH)t as rhe fa lse rdal
personality tlrat hus been give11 10 us nnd t htH wc hA ve given w
ourselves. l seck uur wnman's facc.our true fe:uurcs, thc positive
and tlre negntive seen dCllrly. free uf <he rointed biase, uf male
dominancc. 1 &eek new imnges vi idcn<ity, new bellefs ubuut
ourselves, our humanity nnd wonh no longcr in ques tlon.
f!!lamos viviendo 111 la 11ochcd" la Ra2a. tm tiempo c11ando
N baco a lo tlliato, o/ T!l cuando acctltll
mos 111/ y COtltll mmt/1 )'fiara en do11de li!J1/IIIJ' )' porq11e-ec
rqr el d de/11 1<11%11. l'11 lcugr> &mtpromiso de tnrp"Jilr mi

,., c.alfctt!HCiil la mrso:11 1uw"ni5 a New Cnscimlsttc-II J
vt1i611, mi sctmbiJuJad, mi pcrup&i11 de la revnlidacultt d1 ,
gente 1ntt.YIUnA. JN m dril(), eslnuci6n, honr11, aprcoo,y t111liduz.
Oc1 Decembcr 2nd when my sun oes cnco m y first house, 1
celebrare old{a de/a Chicana y u/ Chicana. On chut tlay J el can m y
ni'" liJllH m y Coatlalofnmh en ndle, hu rn sage and ccpul, wke q/
haflo pam ssfulrllitl' baflll'tl, $Wccp cny bouse. On dtAt dny 1 barc
my soul, make mysclf vulncr11ble ro frcn<.l s nnd fnmll) by
<'xpn:sslng my feclin)ls. On rhnt dny 1 nffirm who wc 11re.
On chat day llook lnsldc uur coniJicrs and uur b3Sic intro-
vertro mcial rempenmcnt. 1 idenrify ouc needs, voicc thcm. 1
ucknowledge thar che self nd che race have been woundro. 1
re<ognize rhc ueed ro cnke corc uf our personhood, of our racial
self. On thac dny 1 gurhcr the splincered and disown<-d partS of la
geme mexica11a and hold che m in tny am1s. Toda.r laJ do
llOIOiros vallm.
Oo that duy 1 say, "Y es, nll you people wound us when you
rejcct tu;. Rejection strips us nf seJf.wonh; our vnlncrubiliry
exptlSl!.< us to sbacne. le is our in nace identiry you find wuoting.
Wc are ashamed rhor wc nced your good opinion, rhut we need
your acceptanre. \V/e can 110 longercnmoull:lge our nccd>, can no
lungcr Jet defenses and lences sprout arouod us. We can no
lungcr withdraw. Tu ragc And look upun you with cmuempt is tn
raj:lC and be conccmpwous o ( ourselvcs. We can no lnnger hlamc
yuu, nor disown tbe whice pnrrs, thc maJe parrs, rhc parhologirul
parts, the quccr parts, the vulnerable parrs. He re wc wcnprln-
less wirh opcn arms, wlrh unlyour magic.'s try it Ottr way, the
mes riza way, che Chicunu way, rhe womnn way,
On thar da y. 1 search for our essential dgnit y ns n penple, a
pcopJe wirh a sensc nf purpose- ro belmc)l and contribute ro
sumerhinggrearer rhan nur purblo. On charday 1 seek w recover
aod reshape my spl<nual identiry. A,.mau! Raza, a cDirbrar l
dla de , Chica111J.
El retomo
All movcments are ucmmplished in six
nnd thc seve11ch l>rinxs retuco.
- J
Tanto tl811lfJO sb1 vcrtu casa tna
mi cu,.11, mi bo11drJ ,,Jt, de la IJifcrta.
- "Solcdad"t
LA tum,itn-ti.i de :a 1 New <..vnscmltnc'll
1 scand ar rhe rivcr, watch 1hc curving, rwi<ling serpeo!, a
serpent nnilcd ro the fence where rhe mnutb of the R iu Grande
cmpties inro rhe Gulf
1 lmve come back. dolr>r me coJt el AIDjamluJo. 1
my eyes nnd lnok up. Tlcc booe beak of ,, huwk slowly
c,.cling ovcr mc,checkin me om ns pocemial crtrrlon In wukc
a lltt lc bml flickering irs swnnrmng sporudically like a
fi sh. Jn rhe distan<'C thc cxprcsswuy and che slouflh of rraffc like
an lrrltatcd sow. Tbe sudden pull in my gut,/a lie'fd,lru agufiCI1
r111 M y land, el viemo J'oJ!Irmlloltt are/la, el l11gartij" tlab11to d6 1111
114pallto eomo u a ""'"' {lua regi611 desirttCa du
''" 1111 1/amtraJ, cort11ras d4 haj11 de es usa lllwia, de cbapar-
rrtles formatJJ por merq11itet y IJui;;.ucbtlr. lf lluok real hnrd 1 """
almost scc thc Spanish fnthers who wcrc called "rhc l1tvJry of
Christ" enter rhi s val ley ridln cheir burros, scc lite clush uf
cultul'es commcnc<.:.
'l'iemt This is hot nc, Lite smo 11 co\v ns in 1 he Vn lley, lo.r
p11cblhQs with chicken pens and gnacs picketed ro mcsqune
sltrubs. E11lai colo11ias on thc uthcr side of che cracks, juc1k cnrs
liue !he front yor<l nf hoc pink and laveodcr-tmnmed
Chicanoarcbite<ture we call ir, hove nusscd che
TV shows where hos" spcak iu half ood half, an<.l whece nwarth
are gven in the cacegory o( Tex-Mex music. 1 hove mis,cd the
Mcxicou cemereries bluumin with artificial flowcrs, the fields ni
doe vern ond red pcppcr, cows of sugnrcunc, nf corn hanglug 1111
rhe se u lb, thc cloud of f>(ll'll!lf'uda i u the di cr mutls llehin<i n
pickop trud<, ttl 111bor de l!tmales de rezy 11e111tdo. l hu ve
missed lrt yegtra colorada gnowing thc wc>OJen gare of hcr
rhc smc!J of hocse flcsh frnm Gtrito's corraJs 1-lu becbo
/a calie11tes .ti11 aire, de Jimernas y lacbN'Uil
making holes in che nighr
1 sci!J feel the old desp2cr when 1 look ar thc unpnnred,
dilapidnted, scmp lumber houses consisti ng moscly of corrugutccl
nluminum. Some of rhe pcopJe in che U.S live tn che
Lc1wec R loGram:k Vnlley, un orid nnd semiurid lnnd of itrigutcd
furllling, inrense nn<i heot, citrus grn"cs nexr to chapar
t'n 1 n nd occncs. 1 walk 1 hrongh rile clcmcmary sclwol 1 uttended so
long ago, thoc remancd crc,qa1ed unrll reccutly. 1 remcmbl!'r
how rhe white r:eachers used to punish us fDr being Mcxicnn.
f A tntrt.'lltleia t:lc;IN flltJ#itu 1 TnwllrdJ 11 Ncw r(lllM:iowmt: ss
J-l ow 1 lovc this trar,lc vnlley of South Texas. ns Ricardo
SnchtiCll tls h; ohis bordcrluoul between ene Nueces and the Kio
Grande. laml hos survived pusscssinn and llluse by ivc
ccmnulcs: Spain, riw Rcpublic o( Texas, thc U.S., rbe
Conlederacy, and the U.S. again. h has survivcd Anglo-Mexicnn
bluod fcuds, lynchings, burnlngs, rapes, pillage.
Toda y 1 see che Valle.')' ,ti JI struggling tu survivc Wherher it
does or no<, it willncvcr be as 1 remember it. The borderhu1d'
depression thac WAS ser off by the 1982 peso devaluation in
Mexico resulred in rhc: closure o( hundreds uf Vallc:y businesses
Many ><:uplc their homes, cors, lond. Proor to 19112. U.'
owncrs chrived on retail soles w Mexocons who en me across che
border for groccrics and cloches nnd npplianccs. While guod. nn
rhe U.'i. side ha ve become 10, 100, 1000 times more cxpcnsive
for Mexicon buyers. g<K>th un che Mexican side ha ve bccome 10,
100, 1000 times chcaper for Bccause che Val k'Y is
hcavHy dcpeodenc on ogricuhurc and Mexican retail tracle, it hns
the highesr unempluymcm rates along che emite border regiun;
ic is thc Vallcy thnt hns been hurdcst hit.''
"lc's been n bnd ycur forcurn," my brot her, Nunc,suys. As he
calks, 1 remcmber ony fn ther sconning thc ' ky for a rain dlUt
wuukl cnd the clroughc, I<Jokin; up ittttl the sky, day aftcr dny,
while rhc corn withcrt d <lntts sud k. M furher loa;. beeo dend fnr
29 ycars, huving worked himself w dcndt. The life uf :1
Mexicnn foo:m lnbwcr is 56-hc livcd ro be ,; 8. le shocks me rhnr 1
o m oldcr thun he. l, too, the sky for ruin. Like rhe ancicn<s,
1 worshlp thc tn ln gocl nnd thc muize oddess. hut unltke m y
fnther 1 hnvc rccnvcrcd t hcor naones. Now for run (ioTogncion)
onc offcrs not a sacrince of hloud, but uf money.
"Farmlng ls in n bud wny," ony btother snys. "Two to rluee
rhousand smull aml blA formers wenc bunkrupt in tbis councry
laso year. Six yeaos ngo rhe pdcc uf curu wos StUJI) pcr hundred
pounds," he ;()e:. nn. "Tiois year it ls H .!/0 per htuJ<.lred pounds."
Ami, J thi nk to mself, ofcer takin inflatlou into u:ount, not
plnn1ing nnyrni ng yuu 11head.
1 walk 0111 10 1he back yard, More 01 lot du 111a111t. She
wnrs me ro hclp hcr prune 1he rose hushcs, dig ou< rhe carpet
jlrass cha1 is choking rhem. Jlfa""'J!.'""d' Ramo na tambin 1e11<l
rorakt. Herc cvcry Mcxocon ,11rows lf they don'r havc a
La HHJt'UtnCttl 1 'l'uwurds n Ncw ("'"
piccc uf dirt, chcy use car ri res, juos, Ctns, shoe boxes. Hoses are
rhe Mexican's fnvnn tc 1 thlnk, huw syl11bulic-thutns
und ull.
Yes, oloe Cloicunu uud Chicnnn hnve alwus takcn cure uf
growing rhings and the loml Aa111 l the fout' of u.s ki<ls
:cniu uff tloc school bus, chnnging loro our work duthe.,, walk-
lng in1o ohdieh.l wltlo Papl u111.l Mtutl,ult.ix uf u. bcndlng 10 tbe
ground Reluw our feeo, under 1 he eanh lie che watermelon seeds.
We cuver thcm wirh ppcr pl;<!cS, putting tcrrcmoleJ unwpuf
rhe piares e o keep 1 he m f rom be in blown a way by t he wind. The
papcr pla1c keep the free>e away Next day ur the ne><t, wc
remove 1he plates, bare thc tn grt:cn w the clemems.
They survive nnd grow, give (:ruic hun<lreds of cimes the sie of
rhc sced. \Y/e water chcm and huc che m \VI e lmrvcsr d1cm. The
vines dry, roe, are plowed under Growth, deoth, decay, borch. The
soil prcparl'<i nuin und ngain, worked un. Acuo
stnnc chanA<IlJl of forons, rtJtlllctmiemo.r d61a ltura madre.
Tit' luou.l wus :Mcxocuu uutc
wns t ndlnn nl w<IYS
Aud will be
1 J.oo Ti are\ del Nurtc A> rt1nj1mlb bYrx.l.
1 Jack U llorbc-J. A {/6(111 Ntmr. TI1c thica.nos of t\ulin. {Circen-
wkh. CT: fawn:n Puhliali<m"' Prender 1973), 13. 18}; Eric R.. \'(lolf.
Sons of Shalung Earch ((Juc:aftO, 11..: Umvcr!ufy uf rhasu l'teJ.S.. Phocnix 19191. }2
3 j11hn R. C ltivct.. Thc l.oit L!nd; lhtChlrAno 1mamnf
(Aibuquerqut. NM o/ N"" Mcxocu 1981>. 9
1 C'hive1, 9. 1\eudct d1c A4tt<t. tht U re, G3bn1Uno of <:ahlonua, Pim3
of Pur:bltuf Ncw
T:arahunla,.. u( Sin.tloa tnd UvranAU. and che lluidMII ur Jdi.sco spcalt: thu-
A:ttC(\Ul and IIft dttcendcd fruru che <.:&>c:hic
Rcay Tomuhitl, (1\nortlff MamJT. NY: tlnd
Dayf Publshcrs&tHbotOuAt'l 19RO). 30R.
6. Chivcz. 21.
7, babel l'o. rra, U/ 1 ;bro Af.11tM , ywJ1 P,.rrt6 (M11t..lrid, fisr:tll: Edki
ones Mcho)' S.A., 19a)), 1 )6.7.
M. fnm1 Mcxicon corndo, "f)u/ pfhgtJJ / Viccmt' T.
Mtudoo,n, Hl Corrido ( MCxic:o 0 .1'.: ttcmt.lo De C:ulr\Ha Ec:uu(Hnku,
?. Oc J,c6n, Thcy C:pllcd rhgm Auu.lo Aulrudcs
MexLCII UB Jn ' ftxu'i. J 1900 (Au:nlu, 'l'X: Utlyershy ol Tcxa$
1981). 23.
1 O Tho Plan nt Oitgu, 1'cx1u.:. druwl"' on jAnuory 6, l91 ), 'alle<i for-
rhc indc:pc:ruh:nc.:c: wnt.l o( the .JI .u es htlrdc:ri ug New
Mtx.ic.:u, Arixuuo, CoiUJado, 111111 CRIHOI' nia. lndians wuul..l Aec lhcir land luck.
Blu.cks Wt)uld gec six SIOrc (run'l lhe !1HIId1 and rorm lhelr own mdt:pt.udetU
rt"t>ubHc. OlheJ:, 7?.
1 t , Mcllla, "V,ult'mf in thr Rtcl G!'J.ndr VaJlc: y." t:l.l!t1l!!J Qan/Ftb.
12. Nmnlr-aJ ,,, tJobtYI .., u che first Mcxinn film tht ""''" '"'lf Muicau
aud au)l n mirttlon fluropctn film h nrc>IIC'd tht tf.c.votiun nd lbvr tha1
should hn-c lnr rhcir mmht'r .and how lack wuut..l kOO ro 1hc:
diuip:uion uf thcir c:hara(tcr 'f1,js (ilm St"IWncd gcrtaatioo of mothcr
dr:mtHHt/ungnrcful-suns fllms
Prou\ the Navajo (tu be 11pon guiug inro
buttlc) r.cor,Ae \VI (ironyn, ed .. Alllcl'irru'l llllH11u Puctry. Thc Stlluda.rd
Amhol8.V uf Sones !1\iJ (Ncw Yurk, NY. i8Ju, l9:l4), 97.
J4. <nce l h ls<lll, LOJ iltJ!MI .. rr nl\5 Mo)'O Amuulu SJ.J:bez (Ediror-
iotl MrAiu, 197?)
15. MarRuir n. Mch' Hic, \'(IOmt'll Adapt to .Migntiun,- lnrn Rcvirw. 197g
Al oi'Mint-"S tle rtbtldln roltiiNJ tfll# trttiri()Noil
t 1-nann'.it'U( iut:rm. 11'W' 1re C..ulu1nban l.f1nd. A srudy
sexu:al tfu ...cb drugt alltslln_g bth.&YIOOr. 11mJ thc uuimdl! wwarth.lifc
:and detth. with :a JtiiVt'f ur P:\HhtUilIM' In f t\cw
Yotl. NY! Scminr PtM1:. 11)71 J
E1utring lnw thc Serptnt
1 Pront ".'iMifiO Con .. by Stlv1o Rodrif,H<'S. (rom rhe
sJhnm Dhsz UonJ.1'nn,Jccd tly Ullu.c with thC' mllahurao n of R in<1
Bt.'.urnuunr and [llores
2. VrtAifltt,
3 Ou;,, f/Nt cul#bf*ll like to i u.:k thi tbNr: thc;:y s.1y soakes ltkt: to .suck
wometi' s teat,.,
4. /i_//,, lllltJtW : shu hns puwc r from her ' ' t11u1u.J suul,
1 he /t)fl.
QuIJt.: wcod.
6. Acndon: huc.
7 Ve11ttnt1: n umn, roison,
R. d41 mulr'iuukc.
9. In Juruc N"htll\11 dl nleGtll Tmumi i6 1'1mlzJ'n, lil't'.rall)' "Our
11nly Morhet." wn' n n"mc: '" Nohtoul co severJ omunwins.
Llu::.'-C: bcinA rhc cougclwtiun$ of lht' liuch Mwl-rer At spocs con,MueUl (ur lu:r
wurship." The Mexira moumwiJI mall!l .;nurhwcsr of
tO be 1ltt-ar mmhcr, Bur r C.nwriJihl 1"Jn: Pitrh Sun: A7r('!(' Gods
Aucc World (Auuin, TX: Unhtnily uf Tcx=-s flrru. 1979). 242.
10. E na ""'The Virg,iu uf <tua.dahap<' and he fttnakSdf-lanat,.'l:
A Me:XIctn r.uc Hmury; Mmhtr Wonilup: Thcnlc,' nd VariJtions.Ja.mnJ.
l,rruon. ed (Chapcl Hill. NC; Univcrsny o( Nonh <.:aruliu 19R2), 22.
1 L Aln R Sandsttnl, ''Thc: Tonanu1 t.u.h n( cl)f! Ea.uun N'ahuu .. -
MU!hcr Worshlp 'l"hcmc." and Vuiadoos.JomesJ Pr"(On, i
12. U"" '*lttjith ton /ibnu h '' 111 nhliin& ritlfh thar
h11n.g.s o"et bti..k and tks tQgcther across the houkkn
13. 1\ndrc..-c (HKa:U.1C5 N111tl,..., Sttilur ,
GIIAIJJtiMf!l and 1<11.:.. in rhe Dcvrlopmtnl or .. Chica no 'l'heoi!)Ar uf
Uhenuinn ( Ann Arhor, MI Unlversity Micmlilrm lmcrnatu)nal, 19M), 12l.
14. AIJ(MNUJ Jic,11 q GNatlalu-pe tr NiiA pMIII/JY
11r4bfttNI .. 1</tJ Otttllu. '"Tumic de Paul3, Thc T .ady o(Ciupda! urc{Nc"'
YClrk, NY: lloll<l>)' Hou>c. 41.
1 S. ''l);u{/u ir/ t/e/rl NJt/J hqrmolti I!Ja0oUa
" frc.m /'ropl'fn t/1 ftt fllh-lf, de
NNII tlt'lt d GNtuLI.INfH!, GucrrC!ru, 12<1.
Pro1,1 " llh'9tW l<tmtiJ,;,'II", 127.
( ' 17 J.., Vtl"g#ll Jlilf rllf lS o(u:n c:quatc:d with rhc A t ll c: Maya
t tht Inca :.ud dlf Yuraba
\ 18. Cto((tty \X/urkJ Relig;um: Frtlm Ande:111 1 lt.!iotory tuthr
(Nc-.: Vurk, NV F:aCTson FUe tubllatiUtb.l971 11.
19 which Of"JlOSitJ lt.1111ft ll1 Culturt i1nd (tmalf-10
malc: h'l uu \u...h validity in dxurty hi$toryof r lndian rortobelf1. junc Nash.
Azu:<:t. and thc: ldt'UkJSY u( MK Duminance.- Si& M (Winrc:r,l971ll. 349
20.. 72
l l P :u rlndtr, 77
22. N.,h, 3)2.
Nu h. no, !)).
24, Ptmrudc:r. 3,.
25. jftt'qliC'$ SO\ISie lle. The D:U1y _LJft: u( thc on che: l!\'c: nf' thc
Spuuh tmrguc:.!ot (Nc:w York. NY: M:\cmill:tn PubJI1hlus Com>ll l')'
Olhr:.r bir.ccniuts gm their infnrm:ui.on rrnm !he r.rnncrs(an
f:uhcr, tkrn,,dino de Saluagu, chlef duuniUer uf Jnd111n hfc.
26. N.,h, lS22H.
27 I'Oa>h, 3)11.
za Na>h, 361-362.
29. Karl \Y/ l.uc:krrc, Olmc:c Rc:ligon: A KC"y m Mddll'! Amero and
!l!'.!st!!!l (Noronan,OK: Uolvt'tJityn/Okluhwn Vre., I97G),(>l!.GY,87,lll\l.
iO Uelnardfnl) de CeocrulHistry u( tbc ' l'Jdugs oC Ncw Spilin
(FIHrc1ulnc God<")t), Vnl. l tr-.tns A rrh11r A ndarson antl t>ibblc
(Sutllt' tJe, NM. SehuHI u( Amerkan Re.'lt:Brch, II)SO), J l.
} J l'l1c A .tero murcd Swdcc \Xfnnan's parron01p ,.f lhktbtr th nd ,.t'gcra
wn b) pJaclnA nniGcial.knJlt' in rhe wPfr cradlc shc c . .,ncd on hrr b.uic
($tgnr(yil'l.A .. t:hdd whu dicd in chi(Jbinh), chcf'C'hr htr c!Mow-er o(
urn(k:iiJ ru1J.Sn.1ke Wnm:.o had rhl!' .abiliry luthanA<' hcrM:II into.a
ur en m lo"cJy youug wnmaumcnttCt young mcn wlm ;rnrJdinf
ahtt wnh hc:r. Sbe was Jmuwn :u .. wnrh amJ ShJpt''-hiftt-r.
,2. AnlluupnloAhtl.ud.rltla:Y)'Bruhl Hucd rhe jJJrttflp(t/ttm HIJt
uqu. Act:ord.nA e u " It dent6 u pc.:ulun kintl u( P'Y4 htlloglcgJ Cl1011t'ctmn
. (in wtuch) 1hc subjec:t coonur dea. rly cllsdugui'ih J1i1U\c:Jf from Lhc:- nhject
hur i11 bouud ro h br o rluec:t rclotuumhrp which tO jJurtllllti!' IHft).'
V 1 J J UI IJt, " JJrfinldow .'' In TYJ.Jt>. Thc CoJh:crt:(! l)f C.G.
,1!!.!!8 Vol G ( Pdu'wn, NJ Pnnc:<l iCtr T fnive1 Stt)' Pr't'U, 195">, 111.1r. 71( l .
H l l111ve lo'\1 rhc s.ourc:t of ll ri5 quolt'. lf' km'I\VI wh.Jt f1 IJ, ple'a.SC!
fe1 t ire publh: bc:r knuw.
\4, al"'d Uun nos dsnnJtui, h !)(le wn:u 11it'l!, a.b, aud
lliJlY(I, II)C tvil SfHriL' hkh f"t'SIe n rhc a1r
1 Munus Sdmcid4:'r. El ng.., d.1 Jet ., .,, .,.,
.,,oJogJ r {, -trllltr (llarcelun,
2 <:A. Uur!Juad arw! \'<lc:.rncr n. t-carhcred .und
Mlrro1. rhc CuJo- nnd l.ullurcs ul Andent Mcxku (Nc<w Yurk, NY: G.P.
1'1"""" .
(icrsll t t\ K:.urmllu, rhe PHWCI' oJ C:tr! llM MA:
Sdn:1aknurn Uutk!i, lnc. 1980J, \' .i1. 'lf'his hnok wutt in'III' III U: Itlol ill lll ) unrl cl'
ul xhnrne..
1 Alfun11inn S.turni, dmul.ogfa Pnhlt11. Sprhn11 Wuent)J 1\ltes.
IHR<n<il l'rlltonol l.o .. d>, S. A., 1951\), 42.
' 11.e urtia ts oNt w 1. Jady. -twJI'"
no.c uul) xrpem., ir also 1 wm
6 Aotdm& tojuJJg and James. HjJirn:tn, .. lhr lft'.JC'fKT:S
o( gndsotkl a(Kides.56 in rhe J")'Chc. Hillm;ln'i buuk,& V&\tntng v .. rctu;l&ogr
( Ncw York, NY: H1rpcr l:ultpho h.,_, bttn tbr
u( my choughr
?, J!l ul'lo known as l11=: win<l, O pi :as t ht whlrlwf1hl. w
J uiuh Telsh! 1 a m c.l llU,Elhter (1( rcm"')'I, Wtlh O)'l the noL.hcr who
11 Auuthrr (onn of rht' g1>ddcss ls Shit-ld i lan<l, 11
nakt\1 cave tOtJ.e.'-' ol who WIJ prrstuun 1\ zlln whcn rhc
Azrco ldr from that rolm uf u.iAin. Burbl'kl. 166167
9. A $Culp1lt rt, dcscribetl :u lllt:< mn$1 1Jorrlfyi!'1g ln thc
wodd. w:u t.lC.YIItetl rrnrn beot:orh rhe Zucalo. tllt: ('llthcJral qunre in Mexic.'tl
Chy. iu 1824. whc::rc h had la lo sinrc t ltt dc:srtU<Uuu nf rhe- 1\ttcc c3picu_l uf
lh>ery rnr $-I'l' tlw: C.on'-JUO, peoplc: had COIc: durin& 111
a:utumn lt1rival wtth Aihs uf fnu1 ml Oowe-rs whi(h tht:)' on tht pvcment
u( ceutNif SfJUII rc. Tlle Judi11ns, ulainqunhl thnr 1hetc: ' '<HY
lmly ctnd puwc:: rfuJ uudt:l'fleitdJ. 1\nl'l,, utl, 39(0
lO J u:an Edu,rdt 1\ Oktlurury uf Symbols, unsl31td lmm rht
SJ>ilmh by J&clt SA (New York, NY: l'hikoohkd 1 obnry. 191\2), 76.
lfow w Ttuue 1t Wild Tonguo
1 R"')' Moorland 11 Cold C.axan1ry, unpubhshtd bouk.
2. Jrf"rt:l Klcpf" .. Vi Juurucy Hotuc:.'' in Tlle Trlbc u(
l.liuA: A Wruucn's AnlhuJc,ay. Md ::tniC' 1\.tl)'C/ T<:tnii'OWiu. 11.nd II'IWU
Klep(a.u, cf'ls. ( Mnnrcflcr, VT Si.ui'\ICr Wixlcmt l9R), 19
\ R.( .. Ortega. o, ... k\.udual? l.)cl ft3ffl0, U'UO't Horlt'tKi:a Alv..w (L.n
LA R.C. Or-ce& l'ubU,hcr 1'. llcksel1oc. 1?77), 132.
4. Cd\J;'Irh llcrnnndi:zCh4vcl, A111.lrcw 1), Cohc n, F. Bd
Lr.arno. El Leng11ajM Jt l.oJ C:hit4tttn Regional sand !,oclal of
l.anguuc U.scd Dx Mesinn At1x:rigrb: ( Arfingum, VA: Cc.nael" (or Applicd
Linj\ulscla, 197$),
' llcrnund1.Ch4vez
G lrcnot Klcpfiu:, "Sa.ulat Jtwi'h ldC'Othy; Yidishh ys in Ameuc.a; in
Thc ]'r1be nl Dio". KJ'('/K.ant.nawitz :and Klcp(b4cd$., t\
1. Mt-funlc K3ye Kanrro wiu., In \'Ue Sutak fn CQ,Jr; Poem.snnrt
Othor \Xlritings (PiltshnrAh, PA: Molllemor ttubliaaricns, IJtc., 19RO),
R .Roduiiu 1 1\m luamaln/Yo Sor fuoguin ( Ntw York, NY:
Rancuuc .. 1972) h ,...,.r.,., l"'bli<hed in 19/17.
t.>. Kaufmauf 68.
10 Chvcz. titi 90.
11 "H.aspamc .. ls ft1Mn IIIJp..uis (P.I/hf ll, a n.ame to rht
lhct bw "' 11 ncn=m nmn whtn ir was a 1 re o( tht R. omon EU1pi1"t' )
nnrl i$ U U;:.rm desiguBt('d b)' Lhe r.s 8-t)n:rnmeOl W mnke U fO hfl nt.lJe Uli
on P\IJ.lCr
L2. ' L he Trcuy of Gu11tltdup.e Hjd.u..Jgu creacl rhc iu
1 A.ngl,_, in orde:1 lJ> alk:viace 1bdr guil1 fclrdispoSJtillllg &.he: Crano,
Spuuio;h fl<ll'l o( "" ttnd pet> the "'Y' h of chr. Sp.tnlsh
S.nuhwcs-1 \V/e l1uvc: ac:ccptcd th(: fktif)o 1 hnc we 11re 1 nk, rhttl is
iu mdc-r m acccunuludstc 1n thc domltHIOt cuJuue 11nd rs ::Jbhorrum'l:
lud.b.m .. HB-91
'17/111, 71apalll: The Paclo uf che Red and IJI,.t k lnk
J. IC Curdwl \X
asso.o. 'l'lle \"X'undrous Muahruuru MyccIMH iu Mc:'tu.t
u\rrkll ( Nc Vorl. NY: Mc.Cirow HUl Uouk lWO), 1'). ID}
2. Robe-re l' luu nu: of tunsdruasnrss.
f\h1h. nnJ 1\((cc:ting Presc(lt.: (Philrulolphm, l' J\: t.'l f
!'"'-" 19R1l. 11. 20
3,. Arrn:s.tNng. 10.
) M{:tlleJ Ltuu-l-'urr111!1, l.(Jf" A nltgNOJ J\fexit:.cuw.r: .11 Jc fiiJ' udm'
(Mxico. D. F.: f'ooctode-t:uhura fconmiC1&. 1'.>61), 19,1.1
6 l.rou l'unilla.. 12).
7. In Xdcbtll iu Cui&dlll$ Niihuatl (()1' nower suld 't. Unp.. jfnt' )' CHUI U.
8. Nicc7.scht. io 1'hc WHlco Powa,uy$ rhtt 'be utH.\t livcot undcr"
of bcing Vlt.mparrzcd by tus t .. cnr
Lit t:uttciendtt lrt mE<stha / R New
t. Thi, itt rnyown tgkc Ylbtuncclo.s' ldcu.. joK- v ...
lA R11Z4 C4tmtr: Atui4Ntll Ibero (Mbk
WocKKlCS, 19l )
2. VlSCOt'lC:elus.
J. Anh11r Koesder rcrm('(i thJJ .. 1\lbttl H.mhenberg. Thc
Crcarivc An,Sqcnct. a nd C>rhcr Fttds (CIIUJ(.II..: 1Jniversur o(
l'ress, 197?), 12.
4. lo J>lll'l, 1 Jer.wc: "')' dc(inhiuus Jur ''nnvrrAl'l t '' u11d
rhinklng lrurn 1\nrh<rnborg, 12 1}.
5. To horrow d emL"l llyl'l l)ngoguk:'" thcnry of "dssil,.., tve st.n.a:turt!!.."
UJ.!ICU\'f"fcd l hlt inrc i'RCI UOl lu pret.lic: wblc WRY5 as ,, Wll.S
tnughl in sCI'ICC, buL in dUlc:rtnrnntl fluu1.1111iug ways ro J11'01.111Ct'" nc:w auJ Ulttrr
C0111pltx a kind o( binh he: nt.llcd ... which (rtMtd
unprcdiu.ahlc iunuvau un'i l laruld {iilli.unl, Se-mrchln; (or tt Nc:w Wnrld
Votw," 'lh" W<u!.l l}auuary,l981), 2},
6. 1 orlll/,u J, mM ti"-"''": co(n tonillu are ol rwo ''1J'C."- lllC'
uni(orm onts m.Wc in,. ronlla prcss and u.sualtr hnulu ar 11 wnill.a (atuMy 01
suprrmtrkC!I, and xordi111r, made: by mixins mtUJ whh lard OC' 01
huncr (my muchcr puL'l in bit.' u( bat::un m thirb.trront/).
7. (fwt Vafd,, Plt#nlllll Cnhl111 Chlc11nlls CA
Lu;dc 1982), 2,
a. Rl(horrl Wi lhcl m, J'hc 1 Ching oo llook o! ChpJW. """' C".nry F
(Ptluc'C!'tun. NJ; Prim:cm11 trnhc:nqr)' 9R.
?. sung h)' rhc group, 1-l:finntitl Pun1u c n Orru
10. t"hu 11( tht! hordCI' In d,(' ro u r hclrdcr 'i tutt:",
1 fid11 lgu f uunf)' (11Rmcd ftu' F':uhcr who wu shm 111 IRIO
11111118Qrm,y Mcxicn' 'l rev>lt ag-:unst Spamsh rule undcr rhc hQmu:r ulln Vrgw1
(r'ttttd.ifN/!rl ) i11 1hc- nu.n-t pmcr ty-.suk:keu t:uunry in thc: wr:IJ 1be
(,luuo whh LltperisJ iu C...HlumJa) lu1 U1lgron ft'rm
wotktrs J1 WIS bett thl l J wubom raillrd. 1 a u\ IUIUI:Ced lhtt boh ir 1nd 1
h:tVt SUM'I\I('d
Un Agitado Viento
fhcatl, The Wind
Gloria Anzalda
is also che co-edicor of
'this Bridge Called My Back
Gloria Anzalda
La frontera
The New Mestiza
spinsters 1 aunt lute
topyrlglu (1 19H7 by (-flmiot
All righu n:liarved
P'ir-s1 P.dirion
10 9 8-76 H
Spinsrcrs/ Aunr IJHc: Bonlc Glmpany
1'.0. llox 110<>8?
.,, Ci\ Yll4 1
, Joly Rclic!l" fi r!l t appcarcd in Cmul1tim11 Six, i9RO
flr,u ppc11rcd m 1.11/J)'nJ, A F#mit1111 Aru }owrti.JI, V ni. 4, '" '
.. e, .J "u"'''"'' tulrlr mJ,.,n '1'" h"" pBnliJu ,., hyw ,, 14 g,;..,.,. .. fim
in IKON: Crldlll-'''1 1111d Clumg#, Serre.'l, 14, 19S).
Cover an\,t 'l'ext Osig11 l'dmcb \'\/il"uu Stuc.H.
Are: Pan1cla Wilsun
Prinrcd in 1hc U .. c;: A
OndyO .. ry
Motrrh1 navls
l>ebru Ot'Uumh
Amclia Cinnu lc1
lurraint CNJSM\0
Atubro.sla M.arvln
Sukcy Wildcr
K.tll hJetn Wll.kinson
l..ibt:at) or Cun1tc:u Oati
1\nraldOa, Gloria.
Thlrdetllmd$: lhc ntw nu:s1i1o1 = lA frontcJa 1 Oloa Amal
da.- 1!11 cd. - Sn l'mncisco : Sp!n>ters/1\unt Lutc. <1987.

..,., ..... s,. .-.
Soaw- .. --
MlUI, Uo-4 Cfbl.) : \.t.S
J. .Mu.ftuAti!Clk'ul Urtl! l lkk,.,- l'otl.l f, 2. Mubn Amttll"'lf'
wt>mm- I"('M!oy. ) , MubnAmuOn tlouhtr 1.
Till11, 11 Tilk: fitOn!m
PSJ5Sl.N9SII6 1987 811'.*-<1<19 IH0780
Tu ynu whu wulkcd with me npt>n my patb nnd whu lu:ld out
n hnnd when 1 srumhled;
tu yuu who brushed past mear eros:. ruad. never ro rouch me
ro you whnm 1 ""'"' chauced co meet bm who mhnb J
si U1ilttt' e o mine;
w you for whom rhe ;., unkoown ' crnwry;
'" Kit Quan, for feeding me nnd li"cning ro me r-...111 1Ul<i
ro Melanic for helieviug iu me nnd hcing
rhero for me;
10jonn t' inkvoss, m y cdiwr a11d publis her, midwife ex1 rnor-
dinnire. whnsc wtdcrstat'ldulg, caring, nnd b:ilaoced mixture of
:entle prodding nnd prcssurc 1101 only helx.-d lile brtng rhis
"b:Jby" to cerm. but helped ro creare u ; thcse imnge.s and words
are for you.
Tn the producilon s tnff ur Spi n<tc:rs/Aun l.tttc whtl boe
che pressure of !nlpMslble deadlines wall ; Morthu Dnvis whose
iuvaluable and exa:llcnt cnpy-ediung has madc the marerial
mMc rcaduble and cohesive; Debra OcBond1 who wurked long
and hard tu kccp the book oo schedule: Pam Wilson nnd Grace
w Frauce.< Dt1ughry, Junnirn Ramos, Judirh \1(/atcfluaJl,
lrena Klepfisz. !Undy Conne<,janer Aalphs, Mur ha N. Quiura-
nalcs, Mandy Covey and nlana Dykewomon for thctr supporr and
encouragcrnem. as well ns feedback, ou various picccs; to my
fric11ds, swdent.< u11d Ctllleagues In che ADP progrnm in VcriL\Oill
Cl>llege, Women's Voiccs Wriciug Woks hnp, UCSC, nnd writcrs
whn parucipated in my writing wnrkshops in NYC, New Hnven,
San l'rancisco. Berkclcy, OakJaod, and llu.,tin, Texas, in particu-
la.r: Pearl Ol.soo, Pauta Russ, Marcy ll lancraig, Mllya Val verde,
llriban, Tirsa Quiones, Berh Brunt , Chrysros, Elvn !>rez
Trcvio, Victnria Christian Mcilwen, Ro7. Cnlvcrt, Nina
Ncwingcon, and l.indu Smuckler;
J. The HomeiRnd, 1 El Ot-ro pttge 1
El deJtitJrrr; 1 The Land
El crurar delmr>jatltl 1 JJJeguJ Crossing
2. Muvi111111111W d11 robq/t/la y lar culttmu qNt! tmi&iotllm, puge 15
The Strength o( M y Rebellion
\.uhurul Tyrnnny
Half and llulf
l'ear of Going Home Homophohio
lmim:uc Tcrn"i'm Lifc in che Borderlnnds
The \'qounding of the iudra-Mesria
3 Emering Jmo the JNtge 25
Hila tilm11 111 10110
Cuat/,tiiJflttNh, Sht \XIhl) Duonittion Over Serpcrrrs
Por Wnging Wnr ls M y Cosmit" Dnry
S11cn11 con rorpionto.r
Tbe Prcscnccs
4. La here11eia de Coatlictte 1 "l'he Ct>nrlirne Statc,tuga 41
Tln/rc111trm.ioJlltu "'''Jtl 11/ tdtn,,
El ectoto terlible y la ryadllra
NQplll do criJ'Iilla
Thc Stutc
The Coatlic11a Srnr.e ls A l'relnde ro C.ross lltJl
That Which Abidc:,
5 How to Tamc a Wild 1onguc, pap,e 53
Ovcrco111ing the Trnditinn f)f Si le roce
Oy6 corno l11dra: ullollf!.llaJO de la frontqm
Chica no St>nnls h
J.illguistic Tcrrurism
"VittAJ," corrido, y &amida: M y Nativc Tongue
s; 16 prcgunJtU a tlli tlla'lnt, f'qu eres?'t
6. T/11/i, Tlapalli: che l'nch o( the J{cd nnd Obck lnk, paf(e 65
lnv(lking Art
Ni 1, the Singer
'J'he Shamanic Sra ce
Wriring is a Scn.uoll5 ACI
Sorncrhing To Do With rhe l>axk
7 La de/a merttu. Towards a Ncw
N mes
pae 77
Una lucha de /ro11teras A StruAAic uf Borders
A Tolcrance for Ambiguity
La 111crutiiada / The Crossroads
1!1 eamit1o la mestiza 1 The Mestiza Wuy
Qua 110 se tiQs ott!de lo.r fJ11111hr11J
Somor 1111a gente
By Yu\11' '.l'rue Faces Wc Will Know You
El dlt1 de la Chicatla
/U rlfONJO
t t\1,r a .un e11lur nmehos
Whore-wing pagq 102
Cervcdc, pagc 104
hurse, pae 106
lmmuculu1e, lnviolate: Crww 1'.1/<t, page JOR
Nopttlitor, page 112
U u p6rd11Ja
tu.l'ji!Ut/ldl el t1teutn. Pilge 116
Cultures, pagc 120
.rrINo piedrat co11 laganijo.r, pagu 121
el JOIIIJVtlbitche, page 124
mar de reprlll<u, prge 130
A &u uf Cabbugc. {ulg 132
\V/e Call Thcm Creasers, fJag 134
Mturi: riuiNmba 11 "el bao de la IIJIIlll ", page 136
Ul. CI'OS$ers y otror ,travesador
Pucrs ha ve srrangc e:tcing habits, pae 140
Yo no /NI,,.., Tet, page 142
TI1c Cannibal's Cancin, page 143
ll11 mi corazn re inc11ba. pago 144
Curncr of 50Th St. 11nd Pifrh Av., 1aga 14)
wa11do am<ibamfiJ, page 146
lntcrfucc, page 148
IV. Cihual/yotl, Womau Alunc
Hui y Rclics, f>tlge 1 >4
E11 e/11ombre de Mda.I fal 111adre1, pae 160
l.erring Go, /64
1 liad Tu Down, 167
Cagado abimlo, rablf, fJIII(II 170
th>r dark 'hining rhing, page 171
Cihllal/yoll, Woman Alune. f'at 173
V Animas
/,a ttmmdera, 176
mujor CtlCtfl, 11ftge 1/10
CuyanMca, page 182
My Blaclc Angslo.s, pags 11!4
Crearure of Dnclmess, pago 1 R6
A111igua, mi diosa, page 188
VI. 1il Re1omo
Arriba mi gente, pagc 192
To live in the Bor dcrlnnds mca>L' ynu, pag11 194
Cancitln de la dioJa de la tJociJe, page 196
No re raJe, chtcamta, pago 200
Don't Give lo, Chica11ita. p11ge 202