Wilson, (Sir) James The dialect of the New Forest in Hampshire
8JOOS pue ajoos) jas
PUBLICATIONS OF THE PHILOLOGICAL SOCIETY
THE DIALECT OF THE
SPOKEN IN THE VILLAGE OF BURLEY)
SIR JAMES WILSON. -
OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS
LONDON AMEK COKNER EC EDINBURGH NEW YORK TORONTO MELBOURNE BOMBAY
PUBLISHER TO THE UNIVERSITY
OXFORD UNIVERSITY PKESS
LONDON EDINBURGH GLASGOW NEW YORK TORONTO MELBOURNE BOMBAY
presume that the
be taken as fairly
typical of the speech of the New Forest.
order to give some idea of the differences between that dialect and standard spoken English. and idiom.INTBODUCTION
short visits to Burley. from standard spoken English.
WILSON. on the farthest-north
native dialect. and as representing what remains of the language of the West Saxons. who had spent all I have now put them together. have tried to make them accurately represent the actual language still used by the present generation. the differences are often in an opposite direction from those noticeable in the
dialect of the
Forest. a quiet country village Forest in Hampshire. so far as they go. grammar.
J. if he were speaking
vocabulary. I hope soon to publish a more complete account of the Perthshire dialect. in their lives in the village. where
has for centuries bordered on the Gaelic-
speaking country north-west of the Grampians. It has been
interesting to me to compare it with that of Perthshire. not taken from books. I
unthinkingly in his
They are by no means exhaustive. in pronunciation.
59 CADOGAN SQUARE.
which will show that. as spoken by the older residents.
but. I have in illustrative bold sentences type) giving (printed written every word of the sentence as I understand an old resident of Burley would pronounce it. I made some notes of the dialect. That is a pure English dialect. boundary of English
speech. descended no doubt from the language of our Angle ancestors. the words and phrases having been noted down In from the mouths of the people. LONDON. 20 November.
faadhur). In such cases it must be remembered that.
man. on the whole. two or more
less confusing to the ordinary
letters often represent a single simple vowel-sound. best
. and (2) that the letters
employed should be those which will most readily suggest the
sounds to the reader of ordinary English. English reader to adopt the somewhat clumsy expedient of using combinations of vowels to represent different vowel-sounds.
they.DIALECT OF THE
THE system of spelling the sounds which I have adopted is based on two principles (1) that the same sound should always be represented by the same letter or letters. pet. word
a aa ae
ai or ay au or aw
far (faar). may
haul. last (laast).
hen. but I have distinguished the two sounds which
are both written th in English. as in English.
thicJc f month. As in English. hat
as in the E.
as in thin. instead of using diacritical marks.
The consonants have all the same sound as they most commonly have in English. sail. maid. father (dhis. breathe. as in this. breedh.
(aw). I have thought it.
In representing vowel-sounds.
breath. a doubled consonant has the same sound as a single consonant. father (faadhur)
lengthened sound of e below.
by using th for the voiceless sound. dhay. day. and dh for the voiced sound.
the standard pronunciation spelled in italics according to the system I have adopted.
t. I sometimes use such expressions ' the as that English vowel is changed into some other.
As compared with
characteristics of the
standard English. go (goa). especially at the beginning of a word.
along with the written word. I have in
clearly the sounds indicated by New Forest dialect
For convenience sake. of course. die (dii).
I do not.
NOTE. eye (ii).
E. b for p.
CHANGE OF CONSONANTAL SOUNDS.
DIALECT OF THE
Sound as in
feet. one of the most marked Forest dialect is its tendency to substi-
tute voiced consonants for voiceless ones. moist
would (wood) how.
eu. but. Common in the pronunciation by a Scotchman of such English words as mine. (mee) Not found in English like the Dutch ei o ij. roll (roal)
oil. cool. tile (mein. pin. mean to imply that the New Forest dialect is derived from standard English. as z for s. house. see.
the spelling. word
deed. g for k. dh for th. mill I (ii).
hot. v for f. or that a consonant is added to or dropped from an English word. must Not found in English similar
food. teil). lost road.
o. but merely that it differs from
in these respects. night. zh for sh. and the difference between the and standard English as spoken. cow sun.
DIALECT OF THE
Examples of non-participles
in that direction.12
noticed the following instances
DIALECT OF THE
N.F. and sometimes inside a word.
umbrella umbrella umbrellur vaalur value valyoo awkward awktvurd aarkurd daartur daughter dautur vellur fellow felloa yaalur yellow yelloa
. Written Spoken
N. Written Spoken
E. Written Spoken
DIALECT OF THE
oa. F. Examples :
is sometimes prefixed to a word beginning in English with and y to a word beginning with ai or ee. Written
generally added at the end of a word ending in the vowelu .
ADDITION OF CONSONANTAL SOUNDS. Examples
yaiprun yaeker yeer
N. fast (not Examples quite so long as the long aa in Scotch).
. so common in standard English.
CHANGE OF VOWEL SOUNDS. father.
In a few words the consonants are transposed.
E. F. is generally lengthened into a sound like that of the a in far.
The short a sound.
TRANSPOSITION OF CONSONANTS.
DIALECT OF THE
aa in standard English often becomes
or a sound between the English e and ii. which I spell ae. Examples
E. short or long.PKONUNCIATION
Sometimes the English ai becomes e.
ee of standard English becomes ai. Examples
DIALECT OF THE
In a large number of common words.
li. in many words in the New Forest (as well as in Scotch).
E. pronounced more like the Dutch ei or ij.
common in standard English. is. and still more Cockney English.
In a few words a different vowel
is substituted. Written Spoken
accord ing according accaardin orchard orchard aarchurd
ordinary ordinuray aardinuray horse hors haars.
DIALECT OF THE
lengthened into boa-ay.
poot roof cood
yoa but put
E. the sound of eu in French.
o o oo
Before an r. followed by another consonant.
and noise (now)
naaeez. a short often vowel is given a long sound like a modified oo.
earth bird fern
u u u u
In some words the English
substituted for oo. F.
substituted for u.
N. approaching I write it ui.
In some words the English oo undergoes a change. Examples :
plurals are peculiar
are as follows
N. F.DIALECT OF THE
hous vuz deer
houzin or houzinz vuzin
deerz childern or chillern veet or veets
After a numeral nouns of time do not take the s or z of the
yoo. slurred into
often used in short phrases for mee. You mustn't go. g.
e. yee. I tell you. Bist gwein wee uz ?
on em. Gi'z (or gee uz) dree Let's av mei speks. 't
All genders. ee dhee. Are you going with me ?
In the second person singular dhee is used in all cases (dhou and dhy are not used).
too ee. en.
The pronunciation Ei
for I is
Singular Fern. Obj. ee dhee. Laiv us aloan. ee
Masc. Are you cold ?
How'z dhee mudhur
Doant dhee goo.
dhee a clout 'n dhe yeer.
it. Can't you go ?
tell ee. Leave me alone. Caas'n dhee goo ? Dhee woald zow. Dhee mus'n goo. 'n
dhay dhur dhem. EiV hurt mezelf (I've hurt
Are you going to see him ? How's your mother ?
Don't go. un. Give me three of them.
Bist dhee cooud P Bist dhee gwein too see
I tell you (thee).
shall I see
you again ?
Give me one. Let me have my spectacles. and is often slurred into ee. ee
PERSONAL PRONOUNS. 'urn
old sow. I'll give you a cuff on the ear. Us.
more common than Oi. yee.
Poss. shaal Ei zee dhee agen ?
Good morning to you (thee).
Ei dhaut 'twoz. un. Get hoald on un. in or n him. I saw him yesterday.
I don't think
has two of them.
third personal pronoun it is often slurred into
before a vowel or w. when speaking of such an object.
I have noticed the masculine hee.24
DIALECT OF THE
The second personal pronoun dhee is often omitted when the termination of the verb shows that the second person singular is meant. Ei doant dhink much oa un.
Ei aess un hiz naaeem.
It isn't fair.
Hee laivz dhum yeer.
How bist ?
Dust meind ?
Dist eer oi ?
are you (art thou) ? Can't you go ? (Canst thou not go Do you (dost thou) remember ?
Do you (dost thou) know ? Did you (didst thou) hear me ?
See other examples under the verbs.
I suppose I thought
them. not wair hee iz.
None of them. Examples
used of the sun. Yoo cood heer em a-draashin.
Baint much good. en. where he
In the third person singular the slurred forms.
leaves them here. F. nun oa um. could hear them thrashing.
He isn't much
Nun oa um Wee em. ur for hur.
Ei spoaz 'tiz.
Sometimes other pronouns are omitted. Ei het 'n on dhe laig. the
oa um). Ei zin in yesterday. I don't think much of him.
Doan dhink much oa dhay. to use the masculine or feminine personal pronoun instead of the neuter.
on em). and em or um for dhem are very common.
Hee'z got too on
I asked him his name.
It is much more common than in ordinary English to personify an inanimate object and.
fair. With them. Get hold of him. I hit him on the leg.
Haast zin un yet?
Hee'll wair yoo out.
fails. If it
necessary to distinguish between a near and a distant object. spade. cigar. knife. shan't
don't we ? did she come from ?
They'll go too.
at shee. house. motor-car. un shee swairz at hee.
The demonstrative pronoun
stands for either
dhem. I was going to lend him one.
We do. waggon. and ditch. spaid wull. He swears at her. and poem and the feminine sh. and (except at the beginning of a sentence) the objective form is used for the nominative.
will. train. bicycle. Examples
Hee net oi. the spade
Yoo'll aul bee yeer too-mor-
woant dhee ? Hee zung verray well.
Have you seen him
out. Ei woz gwein too lend hee
hit me. book. which or that (dhat). won't you ? sang very well. ur of a ship. and she swears at him.GEAMMAR
We'll go. a tree.
. woz'n us ? Wee'll goo. won't they?
more curious mixtures
pronouns are sometimes heard.
The nominative form of a pronoun is often used for the objective. diddin ur?
rur. doant us ? Wair did ur cum vrom ? Dhay'll goo too.
Before him on her. woant um ? Wair wood um doo it now ? Diddin um ?
We were there.
Ei jumpt oavur ur. shaant us ? Wee doo.
moon. and in the plural dhay or stand for either these (dheez) or those (dhoaz). hur.
jumped over her
Teim shee woz claind
cleaned out. Examples
Hee nivvur feilz.ee. didn't he ?
all be here to-morrow.
Did you hear
wun. kite. Dist eer oi ?
on shee. which
is in the singular dhik.
Hoo'z caul hee
Who dost thou call him? What
Hoo'z caul dhair vellur gooin long?
dost thou call (what do you call) that fellow going
that used to work. Ei cood'n ait dhay. Look at those dogs. In dhem baugz.
Dhik wooud baich. which stands for who. is wot.
hoalz. I couldn't eat those. don't use those.
This is hard work.
That old beech.
These books. or that. F.
Those dry summers dry up the
I don't want any of those. Look at dhik dhing
Ei doant noa dhik
A bird that builds in the trees. masculine and feminine.
As in English. F. books. Look at dhay daagz out
who camp in the
N. Dhik air mair can goo.
Ei doant want nun oa dhay. Examples
A man wot wuirks in vaarist. Wee doant yooz dhay. the interrogative pronoun is in the masculine and feminine hoo (who) and in the neuter wot (what).
Yeer'z moar oa dhay cowz. That mare can go.
in vaarist. There was a big fire of those
Voag wot caamps
A man who works in the forest. Dhe haas wot yoost too wuirk. I don't know that fellow. both singular and plural.
Dhem air drei zummurz dreiz
up dhe daid Dhem'z stroyd. In those bogs.DIALECT OF THE
Here are more
of those cows. Dher woz a big veier oa dhem
this is done by inserting the adverb yeer (here) or dhair generally slurred into air.
at that thing. killed off (destroyed).
E. buird wot bildz in dhe treez. Dhik air haas. ^vhich.
Dhik's hard wuirk.
cut this turf.
never hear that.
Yoo cuts dhis turf.
3. Dhe vust doour yoo cumz too. F. seem a little empty (hungry). forget. or (after a sibilant) iz.
Ei trots out.
1. Wee caulz im haarts
Caanst goo ?
like to hear them. most other verbal meanings are expressed by means of auxiliary verbs followed either by the The only root of the verb or by its present or past participle. yooziz dhern now.GRAMMAR
REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS. zaimz a bit leeray.
PRESENT INDICATIVE. F. F. nivvur eerz dhat.
Oh how empty
Canst thou go ?
Wee moastly caulz it Maaee'.
exceptions are the indefinite present and past of the indicative. use them now. Examples
E. I trot out. and the infinitive is expressed by the root
preceded by the preposition to (too) . F.
pronoun the possessive form used throughout.
'. the imperative consists simply of the verb.
We usually call it May We call them hearts
root of the verb in both
indicative adds s or z. Oa how leeray Ei feelz.
second person singular.
Ei Ei Ei Ei Ei
leiks too eer
vorgits. to the numbers and in all persons except the
hurzelf ourzelvz yoorzelvz dhurzelvz
root of the
in standard English.
He calls (caulz)
I I I I I
caulz Yoo caulz Dhay caulz
door you come
caulst caulz N.
I call (caul)
. in which the termination
They get about all right.
Dhay treiz haard.
They try hard.
As in English.
DIALECT OF THE
N. They tell me.
E. F. Dhay gits about aul reit.
PAST INDICATIVE. Vyoo peepul burnz it nou. Dhay lets dhem out.
Dhay keeps dhem
too. F. A vyoo dhingz cumz acraas
mee. Dhay noaz too well. They make wine. They know too well. and the only inflection it takes is the addition of st or 1st in the second person singular. d.
come across me
(occur to me). the past tense is generally formed by adding ed. They let them out. Dhay tellz mee.
Zum caulz dhem Wot dhay caulz
them. Some peculiar pasts
N. Dhay maaeeks wein.
too. or t to the root.
They keep them
Ei dunnoa wair dhay gooz
know where they go to.
A few things
a-shiftin. I asked him his name.
kept on talking. Dhik man cum th' our plaes. regularly in the New Forest dialect.
The present participle is formed by adding in to the root. by adding or t to the root.
often prefixed to the present participle.
Ei zeen in.
Bist a-gwein too shoa ?
Hee woz a-waakin awaaee.
jist a-zayin. Yoo cood heer em a-draashin.
I saw him.
the past. taakin. ed.
N. The present
That's the same pony I saw
They keep changing.
The syllable a
thou going ?
NOTE. F. as zay (say).
PRESENT PARTICIPLE. F.
I was just saying. Ei zid en. Ei zeen wun oa yoor winshiz.
Win French woz
E. When the French were coming.
which in English have an irregular past participle. dii-in taak (talk).
Hee kep on
NOTE. Are you going to the show ? He was walking away.
zez. English going
. d. zayin dii (die). F.
past participle is generally formed.
In narration the present of the verb zay Examples
N. . and there is a tendency to use the past as a past participle where in English the latter has a form of its own. You could hear them thrashing. English go (goa). F.
(goaing). Dhik's dhe zaaeeni poanay Ei zeed laast yeer.
participle of goo. That man came to our house.
N. I saw one of your girls. There are many exceptions to this rule. Ei aess in hiz naaeem.
E. as in English.
DIALECT OF THE
are you (art thou) ? Are you (art thou) cold ? Are you going too ?
I know it isn't. Ei bee reit shramd wee dhe cooud.
you eating ?
Are you going ? Are you cold ? Are you coming home ? What horse are you going
Hou'z gettin on. I'm glad (pleased). P. Wot bist aitin ?
Bee yoo gwein ? Bee yoo cooud ? Bee ee cumin ooum ? Wot haas bee yee gwein too
We are going too.
Yes. Tidd'n wuth it. Those are fine ponies. yoo ?
(art thou) getting
Wair bist gwein ? Hoo bist taakin too
Where are you (art thou) going?
are you (art thou) talking
Wee bee gwein too. Ei bee plaizd.
How bist or best ? Bist dhee cooud ? Bist dhee gwein too ?
Both woz and wer are used indiscriminately for both numbers and all persons except the second person singular.
dher. I'm quite benumbed with the
Are these good ponies ? There are plenty more branches. which is wost.
tiz. Dhat's zum fein poanayz
There are wrens about here. She's not at home.
iz of the third
the third person plural.
Bee dhay good poanayz ? Dher bee laats moar braanEi baint gwein. Shee idd'n at ooum.GRAMMAR
Dher'z renz about eer. The negative form is woz'n (wasn't). It isn't worth it.
Ei bee cooud.
feet are cold.
NOTE. Ei noa tidd'n.
I'm not going.
DIALECT OF THE
N. Wee woz at Ringood.
Ei wer dher.F. F. They were ill.
Yoo woz reit. I shan't go. Shall I go with you ? Shall you be at home to-mor-
there. Ei'll goo. Both ears were cut off.
E. Boouth yeerz woz cut off. I shall. woz'n
His eyes were bad. weren't they
Dhee wost dher.
Noa. They were there. woz'n dhee? Dher woz a good mennay. weren't
There were a good many.
E. as in English.
E. The negative form is shaant and woant.
Will you go along with
. woz'n ?
Yoo boyz woz
dher. F. Ee wer. Ei shaant goo.
Yes. Shaal Ei goo widhee ? Shaat dhee bee at ooum too-
No. Dhay woz dhair. Dhay woz ill. The
second person singular
N. Dhik vuz wer aul burnt.
formed by the use of shaal and will
(sometimes slurred into '11) in much the same way as in English. iiz woz bald.
We were at Ringwood.
(thou wast) there.
Wit dhee goo laang oa mee ?
That furze was
burnt. weren't you ? You boys were there.
OTHER AUXILIARY VERBS.
Ee'z bin gon awaaee.
He has been very They've got to do
Ei bin too staaeeshn. Ei got cleen up dhaat air
Hee bin taarbul Dhay got doo it.
been to the
Aul dhe squirrlz bee gon.
E. Cuckoos have become very
All the squirrels have gone.
E. F.DIALECT OF THE
has gone away.
sometimes used instead
of have in English.
I've got to clean
Haast got a neif ? Wot's caat dhair P
What have you
(hast thou) a knife ? (hast thou) caught there ?
eef dhee coodst ? Haas'n dhee got it ? Woos'n goo ? Haas'n dhee sin mei woald cow bout ?
go if you could ? Haven't you got it ? Wouldn't you go ? Haven't you seen my old cow about ?
(have) is sometimes
NOTE. Gookooz bee got taarbul
Yoo doant eer nun oa dhe yung unz zay zoo. To the
fair. only '.
Ei nivvur killd noa voxiz. as well as to most educated Englishseldom '. and hardly are negatives. To adverbs the men. educated the Scotchman.F.
NOTE. meaning to agree with you.
You don't hear any of the young
so. I never killed any foxes.
got er a neif bout
dung to sell me ? Haven't you got any little old mare?
E. I wouldn't give anything for him. will begin his answer a Scotchman will begin his with Yes with No
Haast got ar looud oa dung
Do you happen
have a load
Haas'n dhee got nar woald mair ?
NOTE. They want a platform only for the auctioneer.36
DIALECT OF THE
N. Ei wood'n gee naut vur un. an three those of one sentence a adverbs.
E. Dhay doant waant a platform oanly for the auctioneer. I take no notice of it. containing you say
' ' *
N. Ei doant dhink ivvur ee ad'n enny moar. Ei doant talk noa uoatis on't.
I don't think he ever
more. If or uneducated. Tidd'n herdly fair. Ei nivvur aits noa braid.
Hassin got ner a neif bout
got any knife at all on you (any sort of a knife) ? Haven't you got any knife at
on you? (Have you no
sort of a knife
Perhaps in the following sentences ar stands for er a and nar ner a. F.
A double negative is common. F.
slurred for at.
. they are affirmatives.
N. I never eat bread.
Out oa Ingland. Ei bee glad on it.GRAMMAR
Dhat iddin vur dhee. Bist gwein wee uz. A good lot oa appulz.
Too on um. Zummit vur too maik wingz. Zum on em laarnz too much.
Yoo may stop too Maarch. Wee un wee um. F.
A cuppul oa bob.
Keep dhe daag a
Ei lookt a un. Git hoald on um. Ei bee gwein in zillur. T'woz maaeed a purpus.
Wot's dhink on
. A bit oa mait.
DIALECT OF THE
WOEDS AND SLUEEING OF PEONUNCIATION
to omit short
a stronger tendency than in standard spoken English words and to slur their pronunciation. Count into the hat.
Oarum stoarum poopshee loarum. kip. Out in groun.
Tell in haat.
When the French were coming. Those who work in the forest.
In the winter time.
choog. Bist gwein too staaeeshn ?
out. Go back.39
CALLS TO ANIMALS
In the French war.
O-u-t spellz 'out*. way
dher. definite article dhe is often omitted. Commands to a horse
.cumin. to the right.
In winter teim.
ponies by kip.
Win French woz
In French waar. spaid
Go Go Go
to the left.
faster.F. Stoar dhe vinegar in dhe paan. Are you going to the station ? In the night.
Woag. Dhay wot wuirks in vaarist. Out in the fields. choog
. The spade will wear you out.
N. I was never taught that. F.
Ei nivvur woz laarud dhat.
Dhis twintay yeer.
The preposition too Examples
sometimes omitted before an
Half a dozen. Ei'v aird taak. art wanting
Oi. F. I had some difficulty in doing it. I've heard say. Dhay did'n yoos too goo. I've got one.R
weif. Dhay bee keind oa leik ovenz. I don't know that I ever heard of him.
They used not to go.40
DIALECT OF THE
wife. F. aaf a duzn.
taarbul lot oa
used to come often. Ei got a job too doo it. Dhik's woald-faashn taak. Eer'z taakin. Ei doan noa dhat ivvur Ei heerd on un.
offin teimz. Dhay'd keep sukkin doun.
That 's old-world speech.
They'd go on being sucked down.
E. Bist gwein on too baid ?
These twenty years.
SLURRED WORDS. I used to kill a great many deer.
He's got to help to catch the
z Ei gottun wun. Are you going to bed ?
Hee yoozd cum
neis girt maaeed.
At the other
side of Burley.
A fine big girl.
They're something like ovens.
N. wantin? In dhe vurdher paart oa
Here 's talking.
Hee'z got udherz.
adv. eight (a#). had not.
baird. bacon (baicon). baavin. n. bog. beard (beerd).
agg. ordinary. n. agin. n. eighteen. boourd. blackbird. n. hollow. across. adv. stay p. sing. a. agoo.
aux. before the event. born. v.i. a. have (hav). ago (agoa). beetle. baist. n. avert. baid. num. v. bellur.
v. and. n. shilling. best. beef. and adv. a. art thou. adv. brichin.i. believe (beleev).
bellow. boouth. burch.
booay. prep. n. broak. prep. beskit. bed. n. bid. v. (athwart) across.
beech. prep. bisn. birch.
v. or bissint. had. prep.
bee. num. n. bait. n. v. orchard. bid. air. bebee.
abaid. break. beg. v. n. order. v. beggar. about.
bload me. blessin.
bair. slurred for on.t. edge (ej). be. bottom. p. n. adv. baitul.
isn't. asked. n. bundle of small boughs. prep. num.
n. eat (eet). abed. according. aaeeteen. n. blaidur. all. broken. v.
billis. prep. agen. bee. ad'n. n. aij. a. accaardin. n.
after. n.t. v. n.i. am not. n. n. baarur. be-est not. adj. board.
baif. robin. p.p. n. blessing. prep.
quarters. v. afoar. bladder. off. baint. baby (baiby). bird. n. beast (beest). beer. sloe bush. eighty. prep. haven't. n.p. a.t. adv.
aarkurd. aaf. interj. aaeetay. 2nd pers. before seldom avoar. v. n. strap round
awaaee. are. basket.
. p. aux. bread (bred). again. across. egg.p. bobbeen. away.
barrow-pig. tobacco. been. v. baecun. larger than a faggot. v.
. blow me. shaft of a cart.
blaid. a. n.
aess. aren't.p. p. avoarhaand. aan't.
baich. n. bettermost. against. aaeer. belaiv.
awkward. bond. braid.
. n. be not.
av. low-lying land. n.
v. alive (aliiv).
. stayed. baarn. both.p. boy. aardlay. n.. east (eesi). adj. by. n. baggur.t. a. acraass. v.
bist. back. adv.
blair. afraid. baug. bellow. adhurt. beid. ait.
aardinury. art. band. beat (beet). aarchurd. of beid. braaeek. am. hardly. n. aaeet. prep. baakay. aleiv. bellows. blaakay. buird. n. adv. aess. v. slurred for at before a gerund. n.
a. n. barrow. v.
aist. bad. v. ask p. aardur. castrated pig. bibee. ale (ail). bean (been). ad.ndprep. v.
addur. afraaeed. of braaeek.
drei. v. cud. don't (doant). prep. of kech. deich. thumb (thum). a. block of wood. v. dhetzh. adv. through (throo).
didn't. n. a. thirty. dim. chiffay. ditch. or coosint. n. that. chaffinch. dheen. n. n. thy.
n. wagtail. v.)
cowpen. those. draeen. dhirtay.
caaeek. cousin (cuzn). n. thimble. cake.
n. dhink. there (dhair). chilblain. cork. door (doar). couldst not. thief (theef). a. clot. v.i. v. Dorset.
n. draash. n. v. butterfly.
a. this. contrairay.
corral. n. dead (ded).
Cherlay. dunnoa. n. n. drop. aux. n. Daarset. thirteen. these. Charley. themselves. canst.
(creem). chaisnut. thing. didst. chimney. cheek. of deer. coos'n. droad. donkey. driin. pron. cozn. dus'n or dussint.DIALECT OF THE
bust. Thursday. v. n. cluck (of a hen).
childaag. drain. don't know. thatch.
n. caan. can't. n. (1) he dhee. craitur.pron. three. clock. n.
dhimbul. dhee. v. n.
. butter. n. to
. those. wren. a turf.
dree. dhinkin. t?. the horse in the
shafts. flail. n.
did'n. throw p. boot.i.
craim. thrush. (if so be)
if. n. dost
(dustnt}. num. caarn.
dhay. chaffinch. draashul.
(hee). conj. n.
droiT 9 p.
drush. n. or caasint.. n. think p. a bang.
daag. p. thee. n.
coout. dem. dhaut. chestnut. didst not.. clout. n. n. a. chimlay. of course.
. caint. thin.
droa. coat. buskin.i.
ee.p. adv. dunkee. butturvloi. v.t. canst not ? caat. clean (cleen). gaiter. n. v. pron. creep. v. dhing. cum. they.
v. thee (dhee).
. droo. pron. n. clain. of dhink. thinking. n. of come.
dhum. v. caarner. buzgin. draap.p.i.
dheezelf. n. v.
dhik. num. n.
buttur. v. pres.
deerz. daughter daid. v. could (cood).i. throat.
dhaier. dhaiuf. n. dist.p. caark. then. n.
dishwosher. pi. or trush. num.
dhill-haars. caught (caut). handle clumsily. a cuff. creature (creetyoor).
coz. doaan. thick. conj. dhirteen.
dhaarn. v. dhem.
p. chock. droat. Dhurzday. v. n. dog. chaik. pron. but. dis'n. caanst. coors. thought
(thaut). climb (cliim). v.
cold (coald). thorn.
kettle on. a. think.
cowshed. contrary. thousand. dhouzun. chinkay.
cooud. daartur. pron. chukkul. n. v. n. n.
. and p. driven. wheat.
p. corner. thresh.i. n. doour. and bust. them. corn.
conj. n. v.. thyself. because.p.
doaant. v. num. adv. n. dry. (2)
eef a bee. n.
chimblay. dhik. clum.
haach. a. n. a.
p. adv. pron. glad. hear (heer). adv. gate. gev. gee. n. horn. harvest. n. health (helth). pinafore.
foar-haars. a. (any
time. gape. the fields. n. er.
en. horse. house. n. hay. n. n. iron.t. handkerchief. hearth (haarth). get. hardly.
heth. isn't. gown (gouri). hunderd.
idhout. gaun. em. girl. interj. without. gev.
grudeirn.p. fusty. haad. fousty. given.
girt. before. gless.t.
. hear (heer) p. heath (heeth). large.
(#0a). scarecrow. n.
heid. George. haas'n. himself. glaid. n. shock of wheat. idhur. v.
v. pron. him. grass. head.
(goaing). haih! eh! what! baud. hid. a. p. in.
n. or haassint. hollow. n. n. haant.i. herth. hither (hidher). them. evening. and #. n. granfer.
a. n. hob. grunt. ever. geldin.^.
n. n. prep. p.
Ei. forest. also heerd. n. a. heerd. v.
haaee. hid. pron. glass. n.
gaalay-baagur. heer. heidin. n. hide-and-seek (hide -and-wh oop)
extray. gress. n. eerd. n. p. high (hii). herdly. n.
eer.a. hat. ant. hast. git. fever (feevur). hous.
gookoo. heard (herd). part. pron.
irrjin. n. hiding.t.p. frock. potato-pit. hiding. adv. fish.
v. adv. heidee-hoop.
. heerd. garden. eirun.
hitch. hit. v. yet. num. n.
eier. husband. n. foaray.
v. higher (hiier).
haast. n. interj. half (haaf). pres. haas. him. haand.
gerdin. n. pony.
adv. jigger. v. gelding. n.
fust. a.t. n. heat (heet).
hin. eerd. horse.
n. a. hemp. n.
n. groun. houzinz.
feesh. hand. p. pron. big.
husband. n. hervist. v. grandfather. v.
(giv). leading horse in a team. n. v.
gi.i. v. v. gwein. haat. haven't. n.
n.i. slurred for one. fail. also heerd.
grammer. v. houses (houziz). engine.
gaaeet.i. insect. eevnin.
insek. n. p. in.
het. w. grandmother. eet. cuckoo. hef.
id.. n. hundred.t. grandfather. n. heard (herd). v.
extra. of heer.
enny wen. haankee. hide (hiid) p. of heid.
Feboouray. hard (haard). n. haaeel. head (hed).
erm. haars. prep. give p. herd. guvnur. aux.t. hast
ass. grumble. v. heil. a. v. n. n. haarn. n. thrashing. n. haalur. n.. faivur. pi. het. gaep.
undo (undoo). master. mezelf. never. woollen.
I (It). make. noobody.
v. prep.1 stiks. long. n.
. nudhin. n. mertin.
oap. May. n. kite (&*). adj. v. learn. nothing. near. quoits (koits). mimray. laig. n. kettle. leave.
n. adv. adv. meedlinish.
luncheon. and v. num. might.
job. of noa.
Maaee. yes. n.
leeray. luncheon. noise. difficulty. laugh. along.t.
long. v. mait. known. myself. low. n.p. n. looud. stroll. n. slurred for dhan.
mid. n. lot.
adv. livin. pron.
mum. n. joaay.p.
a. such as. a. nation
(naishun). larch. nest.
offin. look ye. him.
a. nog. maaeed. catch p.
a. naist. v. leaf. man. load.
kees.p. caat. v. ma'am.
oa. slurred for my. heap of corn in the straw. laugh. n.
empty. naarth. think.
kep. v can't (caant). nothing. beech-nuts and acorns.
mei. n. eleven. n. me. meat (meet).
naut. maan. n.*.
nail. meadow. n. maistur. kneel.
laeun. n. kent. leg.
. noo. prep. n. n. n. key. w. kit can du. num. oolln. living.
kay. n. must not.
n. martin. n. ollay. might not.
v. w. often. a.i. n.
neerhaand. never. maaeek. n. interj.
naaeez. slurred for in. n.
moak. kept. n.pron.
nus. most. *>. n. levn.
wood. holly. kiddil.
a. knife (niif). remember.
laaeedee. a threepenny-bit. lady. nurse. p.
wander. nestay. n.
n. name. morning. p. lead (led). n. v. mid'n. nine (niin). n.
home. naaeeshun. pron. n. meddur. naamit.)
meind. memory. adv. my (mil).
v. north. nasty. n. generally.
lane (Zam). ner.
n. v. pole or perch (measure of
area). dare say.
nein. nobody. no. nail. and p. will
wisp.i. gilly flower.
adv. kid. mump.
naaeem. along with. loo see.
kich. wool. n. lerch-vnr. n. mile (miil. and w. n.
moour. middling. snack of food. interj.t.
laaf. v. pron.
ood. lug. v. hope.
cover (cuver). living. teach.
n. child (chiild).
Oi. allow. v.
adv. mooust. mauz.
leik. n. maarnin.
n. kiss. and interj. v. knew. n. conj.DIALECT OF THE
jillay staak. very.w. chunk of wood.
. n. rain. cease (sees).
horizontal projection on
. souf. straw.
slurred for us. and v.
a. w. plaiz. e. same. n. saas.VOCABULARY
qwair. n. sucker. n.
spaid. shaed. cock.t. sloe. kill
off. n. ours. spay.
(reep). plate. of run.
shood'n. rooster.t. n. a.
n. shalt not. young
run. v. notch. n. sort. v. heap of hay. p. quiet. n. sofa. soavur. shilling. and v. seen. 'snoa. stone.
paaeent. pillow. pinafore. n. ourn. shade (shaid). spaik. pus.
shait.t. a. praps. cud. plaaee. squirrel. storm. Scotch. saddle-chain
colt. qwid. ran.p. queer. n. squeiur. do you
pyooit. roof. smert.
plaes. screech. n.p.
raabit. art. castrate a sow-pig.
destroy. shaart. raaeek.
n. n. a. suppose.
(sweed).i. n. n.
n.. pais. rake (raik). n.
stroy. n. qweiut. stretch. n. a. n. station (staishun). n. stray. scraich. perhaps. pole. v. lapwing. Scaach.
thoroughly. snail. v. n.
v. n. me. n.
paepur. v. write (riit) p. please (pleez). a measure of area. n. roaup. n. short. n. house.
n. n. n. speak (speek). put down. raaeel.
pocket. v. sais.
sillir. n. ruff.
paipul. v. pudding. spire. perch.
people (peepul). spade. n. shaat'n. peat (peet). a. rail. n. v. play. a. n. purse. stocking. sauce. piece (pees). boar
stag. south more often zouth.
know. saasur. taaeek. sheet. stack. plag. sweet.
. n. n.
(smidhereenz). n. take. v. shaat..
rail. starling. n. pait. plague. n. cellar. slurred for ist.
snaaeel. n. n. adv. reit.g. saart. spek. snag. paper pag. place (plats). plaet. seat (seetf). n. rabbit. a. a.
n. entire animal. n. straaeh.
raip. pear. shillin.
. expect. v.
(paiper). real (raial). n. n. and v.
rick. fairly well.
woman. put (poot) p. saucer.
reit. slurred for dost know. snoch. n. staaeeshun. hound. smart. v.
n. M. putt. w.
should not. pinnee.
pay. n. stag.
plaen. staarm. n. sait. n. v. quite. spoaz.
ous. scuggee muggins. potato. putt. cultivate.i.
horse. stooun. pea (pee).
raaeen. n. n. n.t. plain. n.p. rope. n.i.
vaach. vaardin. 'tiddn't.
few. and adv. a. talk (tauk).
fell. a. tea. voar.i. a. veesh.
vuirn. treat (treet). fine.
n. very. tight (tiit). pron.
veier. n. a.
tooud. fat. vifteen.
verray. ur. potato.
n. forest. try (frit*). v.
vurdher. n. potato. torment. n.
viftay. n. a. prep.p. .
p. foot ^?.
n. comp. for. twenty. train. n. fog.
veil. slurred for it is (# i).
a.i. n. adv. forty.
fire (fiir). towards (toaurdz). folk (foalc). fern. n. vaarmur.
taichur. vellur. toordz.
voot. terribly. n. v.
tremendous. n. w. fortnight.
to-morrow. twoald. till. faggot. tooud. teacher. n. before. teim.
un. taanur. n.. num.
off. vetch. toad.
farthest. j?rep. n.
vaagit. a. afore. veind. n. feast. n. count. vrog. num.46
vound. tell. one (wuri). face (fais). adv. fellow. n.
n. pron. father.pl.
tugz. her. twelve.
a. n. num. fly (flii). n.
vaartneit. Friday. n. v. fifty.
vaist. fork. ver. v. finger. table (taibul). fir. twaalv. farthing. him.
holding cooking vessels by the
trash. n. to
found. time. furrow.
DIALECT OF THE
veilit. on n. found.
vloi. told (toald). Vreiday. n.
teit. the other. fourteen. fox. fan. n. t'odher. n. un. tired.
.p. toad. taebul. voag. toe (too). pron. n. tay. voul. warmer. earth
(erth). far (faar).
. violet. warm.
. find (find)
. value. veet.
turxnit. fowl. them. frog. n. n.
very. five. from.
vaark. or. n. num.
umbrellur. vaaees. thrush. veiv.
voal. vaes. n.
n. vorgit. thorn.
vaarm. num. a sixpence. full (/ooJ).
vound.t. a. vur. told (toald). hames. v. vool. trei. four.
n.. slurred for it isn't
(it iznt). told (toald). n. forget. of tell. a. vur. taarmint.t. v.p.
van. #rep. n.
v. adv. conj. n.
taitay. num. n. n. n. vog.
a. n. n. fifteen.
zeit. winker. n. v.
zich. wii. worth (wurth). wasp (wosp). yoorn. such.t.
num. n. zayin. a. n. wus. zeventy. v.
(woch). n. sixteen.
seek. of zet. without. n. n. p.p.
a. master-tree of
plough. zeid. apron.
wair. woons. yes..
zell. wench. who. wippul-tree. num. zoa. n.
n. wippin. cider (siidur).
waach. saucer. the boy who seeks in
heidee-hoop. woots. n. said.
a. wuirk. weeout. worn.
wer.#. acorn. prep.
(weet}. interj. n. were. windur. num.
adv. num. old (oald). zoidur. wops.pl. adv. same.
v. ear (eer). n.
. n. n.
(wait). willow. would not. work (wurk). v. a. n. sixty. prep. sat. was. interj. n. zhoin. seen. salt (sault).
yungin. wust. side (siid).th. wit'n. Saturday. swingle-tree of plough.
zizurz. weight (wait). zloo. wait.t. zertin. v.
Wenzday. a. sow (soa). sell.
n. seem. certain. p.
zillur. seven. p. n. zay. why. or wozzint. wouldst (woodst). zid. waark.
rel. castrated ram. zevnteen.
wast not. zay. zixteen. a. num. zin. zeed. see.
. a. see-saw. a. a.
zaaeem. widhee. num.i.
woak.. zet. v. yaaprun.
pi. a. sing. n. P. yeer. zeen. worse (wun). saying. &ndp. or woosint.
zilvur. woar. conj. n.
pres. a. v. v.
young one. six. scissors (sizzurs).
yaandur. furze vyoo.
. oak. set. wi t wee.
n. n. n. girl. shine (shiin). wik. n. tU.
sit. n. seventy. zee-zaw. few.
. side (gtYcZ). n.
a. old (oald).
zoid. n. yaeker.
zet. Yaipril. watch waaee. wood'n.p. n.
n. worst (wurst). way. n. v.i. n.
walk (wauk). n. once (wuns) woos'n. wouldst not. num.
wikkur. yonder. slow (sfoa). old-fashioned.
zed. adv. v.
zix. self. here (heer).
waar. n. worm wab. well. web. Zaturday.
a. wire (wiir).
zoavur. woald-faashun. (Aipril).p. sight (siit). what. word (wurd). zit.
waaeet. week. yeer. work.
wu. sit p. tU. went.
pron. v. wilt not.pron. sofa.VOCABULARY
vuz. v. yoa. seventeen. you (yoo).i. zelf.
v. cne (wun).
where. ewe (yoo). youngster. zixty. zing. n. wet. v. v. n. and v. spider. n. v. which. war (waur).i.t. a.
n. scythe (siith). zooud.
Horace Hart M.
n. n.. swallow (sivolloa). w. sun.
zwaalur. of zell. adv.
sow (sou). adv.
DIALECT OF THE
n. sold zouth.
Sunday. south. some (sum). so (soa).
zoiv. rather.p. Printer to the University
VQVNVO 'OIUVINO 'oiNOdoi
(Sir) James The dialect of the New Forest in Hampshire
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