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Losco, Joseph (2010). AmGov. New York: McGraw-Hill. p. 3.

Politics (from Greek: politikos, meaning "of, for, or relating to citizens") is the science of influencing other people on a civic or individual level. More narrowly, it refers to achieving and exercising positions of governance organized control over a human community, particularly a state. A variety of methods is employed in politics, which include promoting its own political views among people, negotiation with other political subjects, making laws, and exercising force, including warfare against adversaries. Politics is exercised on a wide range of social levels, from clans and tribes of traditional societies, through modern local governments, companies and institutions up to sovereign states, to international level. A political system is a framework which defines acceptable political methods within a given society. History of political thought can be traced back to early antiquity, with seminal works such as Plato's Republic, Aristotle's Politics and opus of Confucius. Modern political discourse focuses on democracy and the relationship between people and politics. It is thought of as the way we "choose government officials and make decisions about public policy"

Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott. "A Greek-English Lexicon". Perseus Digital Library. The word politics comes from the Greek word (politika), modeled on Aristotle's "affairs of the cites", the name of his book on governing and governments, which was rendered in English in the mid-15th century as Latinized "Polettiques".[2] Thus it became "politics" in Middle English c. 1520s (see the Concise Oxford Dictionary). The singular politic first attested in English 1430 and comes from Middle French politique, in turn from Latin politicus,[3] which is the latinisation of the Greek (politikos), meaning amongst others "of, for, or relating to citizens", "civil", "civic", "belonging to the state",*4+ in turn from (polites), "citizen"*5+ and that from (polis), "city

ELEMENTS OF POLITICS
Power, rule, authority, influence

GOVERNMENT OF THE PHILIPPINES

The Government of the Philippines, also known as the Philippine National Government is the national government of the unitary state of the Republic of the Philippines. It is a presidential, representative, and democratic republic where the President of the Philippines is both the head of country and the head of government within a pluriform multi-party system. The government has three interdependent branches: the legislative branch, the executive branch, and the judicial branch. The powers of the branches are vested by the Constitution of the Philippines in the following: Legislative power is vested in the two-chamber Congress of the Philippinesthe Senate is the upper chamber and the House of Representatives is the lower chamber. Executive

power is exercised by the government under the leadership of the President. Judicial power is vested in the courts with the Supreme Court of the Philippines as the highest judicial body.

Legislative Department
The legislative power is vested in the Congress of the Philippines which shall consist of the Senate and House of Representatives. The upper house is located in Pasay, while the lower house is located in Quezon City. The district and sectoral representatives are elected for a term of three years. They can be re-elected but they may not run for a fourth consecutive term. The senators are elected to a term of six years. They can be re-elected but may not run for a third consecutive term. The House of Representatives may opt to pass a for a vacancy of a legislative seat, which leads to a special election. The winner of the special election will serve the unfinished term of the previous district representative, and will be considered as one elective term. The same rule also applies in the Senate, however it only applies if the seat was vacated before a regular legislative election. The current Senate President is Juan Ponce Enrile, while the current Speaker of the House of Representatives is Feliciano Belmonte, Jr.

Executive Department
The executive power is vested in the President of the Philippines. The current executive branch is headed by President Benigno S. Aquino III of the Liberal Party. The President is also the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of the Philippines, and is elected by popular vote to a term of six years. The president then appoints his or her cabinet over whom he or she presides. The executive seat of government is administered officially from Malacaang Palace in Manila. The president may not run for re-election unless he or she had become president through constitutional succession and had served for no more than four years. The president was assisted by his or her cabinet that is made up of different departments and is headed by a secretary. The president appoints the secretary with the consent of the Commission on Appointments. The second highest official, Vice President Jejomar Binay of the PDP-Laban party is also elected by popular vote. The Vice-President is first in line to succession if the President resigns, is impeached or dies. The Vice-President usually, though not always, is a member of the president's cabinet. If there is a vacancy in the position of vice-president, the President will appoint any member of Congress (usually a party member) as new vice-president. The appointment must then be validated by a three-fourths vote of the Congress.

Judicial Department
The judicial power is vested in the Supreme Court of the Philippines and lower courts established by law. The Supreme Court, which has a Chief Justice as its head and 14 Associate Justices, occupies the highest tier of the judiciary. The justices serve until the age of 70. The justices are appointed by the president on the recommendation of the Judicial and Bar Council.[1] Other court types of courts, of varying jurisdiction around the archipelago, are the: Lower Collegiate Courts:

Court of Appeals Court of Tax Appeals Sandiganbayan

Regular Courts: Court of Appeals Regional Trial Courts Metropolitan Trial Courts Municipal Trial Courts Municipal Circuit Trial Courts

Muslim Courts Sharia District Courts Sharia Circuit Courts

Office of the Ombudsman


The government and all three of its branches are independently monitored by the office of the Ombudsman. The Ombudsman is given the mandate to investigate and prosecute any government official allegedly guilty of crimes, especially Graft and Corruption. The Ombudsman, or otherwise called as Tanodbayan, is assisted by six deputies, namely the Overall Deputy, the Deputy for Luzon, the Deputy for Visayas, the Deputy for Mindanao, the Deputy for the Armed Forces, and the Special Prosecutor.

List of OFFICIALS
1. President - The President of the Philippines (Filipino: Pangulo ng Pilipinas) is the head of state and head of government of the Philippines. The president leads the executive branch of the Philippine government and is the commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces of the Philippines. The President of the Philippines in Filipino is referred to as Ang Pangulo or informally by the Spanish title, Presidente

Chief Executive Under Article 7, Section 1 of the Constitution of the Philippines, the President heads the Executive branch of the government, which includes the Cabinet and all executive departments. The executive power, as such, is vested on the President alone.[5] Section 19 gives the President power to grant reprieves, commutations, and pardons, and remit fines and forfeitures, after conviction by final judgment, except when the President is under impeachment.[5]

Section 20 provides the president to contract or guarantee foreign loans on behalf of the Republic of the Philippines with the prior concurrence of the Monetary Board, and subject to such limitations as may be provided by law.[5] The president exercises general supervision over local government units. Commander-in-Chief Section 18 of the Constitution of the Philippines: the President is also the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of the Philippines. As Commander-in-Chief, the President can call out such armed forces to prevent or suppress lawless violence, invasion or rebellion. In case of invasion or rebellion, when the public safety requires it, he or she may, for a period not exceeding sixty days, suspend the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus or place the Philippines or any part thereof under martial law.[5] Power of appointment The President appoints, with consent of the Commission on Appointments, members of the Constitutional Commissions, ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, or officers of the armed forces from the rank of colonel or naval captain, and other officers whose appointments are vested in the President in the 1987 Constitution. The members of the Supreme Court are appointed by the President, based on a list prepared by the Judicial and Bar Council. These need not the consent of the Commission on Appointments. Government agencies The Office of the President also has attached government agencies under it. It includes agencies such as the Film Development Council of the Philippines, the Metropolitan Manila Development Authority and the Securities and Exchange Commission (Philippines). These agencies are not under the different cabinet departments and are under the direct supervision of the president. 2. Vice President - The Vice President of the Philippines (Filipino: Pangalawang Pangulo ng Pilipinas, informally, "Ang Pangalawang Pangulo" or "Bise Presidente" derived from Spanish). It is the second-highest executive official of the government of the Philippines, after the President. The official residence and office of the Vice President of the Philippines is the Coconut Palace, CCP Complex, Pasay. The Vice-President of Philippines is the first in the Philippine line of succession, assuming the Presidency upon the death, resignation, or removal by impeachment and subsequent conviction of the incumbent. The position was abolished by Martial Law in 1972, and was not included in the original text of the 1973 Constitution. Amendments to this version restored the position in time for the "snap" elections of 1986. The present constitution retains the position. Unlike other countries, the Vice President has no official responsibilities other than those assigned by the incumbent President. Traditions governing the position date back to the Commonwealth of the Philippines, and its inaugural holder, Sergio Osmea (while there was a similarly named position in governments prior to the First Philippine Republic, the position did not exist under what is considered the first official national government set up in 1898). This includes the Vice President to be given the highestranking cabinet portfolio

Duties and responsibilities: Article VII Section 3 of the 1987 Philippine Constitution mandates the existence of a Vice President "who shall have the same qualifications and term of office and be elected with, and in the same manner, as the President." The Vice President may be removed from the position in the same manner as the President, and can be appointed as a Member of the Cabinet. The Vice President shall be put into office by direct popular vote held every second Monday of May (or as provided otherwise by law) for a term of six years which starts at noon of June 30 the year the official was elected, and will end at noon of the same date six years after. Section 4 states that the Vice President is not allowed to serve two consecutive terms, and if any case the official renounces his position in the duration of his term, it will not be considered as an interruption in the term for which he was elected. He/She also assumes the duties and responsibilities of the President (as Acting President) if (1) the position of the latter has not yet been chosen, until such has been chosen and qualified, (2) the latter has died or became permanently disabled, and will serve the unexpired term, and/or (3) the Members of the Cabinet submits to the Senate President and the House Speaker a written declaration that the President is unable to effect his responsibilities and duties. 3. Senator: Qualifications of a senator You must be at least 35 years old and a natural-born citizen of the country to qualify as a senator. This means your parents must be Filipino citizens when the time you were born to run for the position. Apart from that, you must be able to read and write, a registered voter, and a resident of the country for at least two years. Length of termL Just like the President, senators are elected to six-year terms. Unlike the President, however, a senator can seek re-election after his/her term is finished. In short, one can hold this position for 12 years if elected for two consecutive terms. Every three years, half of the 24 positions are vacated, which is the reason the country has mid-term polls every three years. For instance, those who won in the 2010 elections will vacate their positions in 2016 (unless theyre eligible for re-election). Meanwhile, the winners of the 2013 polls will serve until 2019. The job of a senator: Once elected, senators of the Philippines have eight basic duties to fulfill. Since the Congress power is largely legislative in nature, thats the full extent of what these elected politicians can do. Heres a snap shot of a senators job description: Pass bills during the term and amend those that are no longer relevant. This means senators can alter bills to adapt to the changing times. 1. Pass bills during the term and amend those that are no longer relevant. This means senators can alter bills to adapt to the changing times. 2. Part of the job description of each senator is to vote whether to approve, suspend, or entirely disapprove bills. 3. These legislators have the power to impeach public officials. For instance, last years impeachment trial showed how two-thirds of the Senate voted to impeach former Chief Justice Renato Corona. The Philippine Senate cannot impeach an official, unless he/she is impeached first in the House of Representatives. 4. Create and develop the final national budget every year, before passing it to the President for approval. 5. Ratify or turn down treaties and international agreements with the approval of the President.

6. Senators can also vote whether to extend, revise, or promote Martial Law and the right to warrantless arrests. However, proclaiming martial law needs the approval of the House of Representatives first. 7. Examine people or policies in relation to the Senates legislative function. This is the reason there are senate inquiries on issues of national concern. Apart from these duties, senators also receive a monthly salary of 35,000 pesos and 200 million pesos from the Philippine Development Assistance Fund or PDAF every year to fund their projects. They also have immunity from offenses that are punishable by not more than six years. Senators are also not liable from speeches or debates as long as theyre made inside the Congress within their term. Voting is a right that every Filipino must exercise. Thousands gave up their lives to give us the democratic rights that we enjoy today. Make your vote count and let your voice be heard on May 13 4. Congressman - The House of Representatives is modeled after the United States House of Representatives; the two chambers of Congress have roughly equal powers, and every bill or resolution that has to go through both houses needs the consent of both chambers before being passed for the president's signature. Once a bill is defeated in the House of Representatives, it is lost. Once a bill is approved by the House of Representatives on third reading, the bill is passed to the Senate, unless an identical bill has also been passed by the lower house. When a counterpart bill in the Senate is different from the one passed by the House of Representatives, either a bicameral conference committee is created consisting of members from both chambers of Congress to reconcile the differences, or either chamber may instead approve the other chamber's version. Just like most lower houses, money bills, originate in the House of Representatives, but the Senate may still propose or concur with amendments, same with bills of local application and private bills. The House of Representatives has the sole power to initiate impeachment proceedings, and may impeach an official by a vote of one-third of its members. Once an official is impeached, the Senate tries that official. Duties of the job: 1. Legislator 2.committee members- serve on smaller political bodies to which proposed laws (bills) are referred in each house. They must screen those proposals and decide which of said proposed laws will continue on to floor consideration (full membership of respective chambers [i.e. House of Representatives and The Senate]) 3.representatives of their constituents (people of their states or districts) 4.servants of their constituents 5.Politicians 5. Governor - Provincial governors are government administrators in charge of a particularly geographic region, called a province. Either appointed by a nation's leader or elected by the region's people, a provincial administrator's duties will center around implementing policies beneficial to his constituents and the national government. Although the position dates back to at least the Roman Empire, provincial governors still exist in some countries, including Afghanistan and the Philippines. Although duties vary between positions, most provincial governors share a similar set of task Tax Collection Provincial governors are responsible for ensuring that all revenues that the government is owed by the region under their administrator are correctly collected and delivered to

the proper authorities. Usually, the bulk of this revenue is made up by taxes, which the governor must correctly assess. However, in certain resource rich provinces, such as in parts of the Philippines, the governor is responsible for overseeing the extraction and sale of minerals and other natural resources. Budget Preparation Provincial governors are also responsible for helping to draw and implement a yearly budget for the region. Governors must ensure that the local budget is balanced and that the money received is sufficient to cover all expenditures. While the specific amount of funds that the province receives may be decided by the central government, the governor often has discretion as to the disbursement of the funds Provide Services Governors must oversee the development and implementation of all government services provided to the province. This includes programs developed by the national government, as well as local initiatives. Governors must make sure the programs are being conducted as directed, and monitor their results. These services can include civil services, such as sanitation and electricity, as well as military protection. Law Enforcement One of the governor's main jobs is to make sure that the nation's code of laws for the province is correctly enforced. In the Roman Empire, the provincial governor went so far as to judge individual civil and criminal cases, which included deciding fault and ordering punishments. In modern democracies, however, a governor's law enforcement duties usually extend only to developing policies for law enforcement agencies and signing new laws into effect. Constituent Representation In addition to implementing policies developed by the central government, many provincial governors also act as a conduct for requests and complaints made by people who live in their province. Governors, particularly those elected by the residents of the province, often attempt to represent the interests of the constituents, exerting some sway with the central government as a means of improving local conditions. 6. Vice Governor - Act as the presiding officer of the Sangguniang Panlalawigan and shall only vote to break a tie. Sign all warrants drawn on the provincial treasury for all expenditures appropriated for the operation of the Sangguniang Panlalawigan. Subject to civil service law, rules and regulations, appoint all officials and employees of the Sangguniang Panlalawigan, except those whose manner of appointment is specifically provided in R.A. No. 7610. Assume the office of the provincial governor for the unexpired term of the latter in the event of permanent vacancy as provided for in R.A. No. 7160. Exercise the powers and perform the duties and functions of the provincial governor in cases of temporary vacancy as provided for in R.A. No. 7160. Exercise such other powers and perform such other duties and functions as may be prescribed by law or ordinance.

Upon assumption of office, make a full disclosure of financial and business interests in accordance with R.A. No. 6713 and other related laws. Disclose any business, financial, or professional relationship or any relation by affinity or consanguinity within the fourth civil degree, which he may have with any person, firm, or entity affected by any ordinance or resolution under consideration by the Sangguniang Panlalawigan, which relationship may result in conflict of interest. 7. Mayor 1. Act as the chief executive of the city or municipality which elected him. 2. Has power to veto any ordinance or resolution passed by the Sangguniang Panlungsod or Sangguniang Bayan. 3. Exercise general supervision and control over all programs, projects, services, and activities of the city or municipal government. 4. Enforce all laws and ordinances relative to the governance of the city or municipality. 5. Implement all approved policies, programs, projects, services and activities of the city or municipality and exercise its corporate powers under R.A. No. 7160. 6. Initiate and maximize the generation of resources and revenues, and apply the same to the implementation of development plans, program objectives and priorities of the city or municipality, particularly those resources and revenues programmed for agro-industrial development and country-wide growth and progress. 7. Ensure the delivery of basic services and the provision of adequate facilities. 8. Exercise such other powers and perform such other duties and functions as may be prescribed by law or ordinance. 9. Upon assumption of office, make a full disclosure of financial and business interests in accordance with R.A. No. 6713 and other related laws. 10. Disclose any business, financial, or professional relationship or any relation by affinity or consanguinity within the fourth civil degree, which he may have with any person, firm, or entity doing business with the city or municipality 8. Vice Mayor 1. Act as the presiding officer of the Sangguniang Panlungsod or Sangguniang Bayan and shall only vote to break a tie. 2. Sign all warrants drawn on the city or municipal treasury for all expenditures appropriated for the operation of the Sangguniang Panlungsod or Sangguniang Bayan. 3. Subject to civil service law, rules and regulations, appoint all officials and employees of the Sangguniang Panlungsod or Sangguniang Bayan, except those whose manner of appointment is specifically provided in R.A. No. 7610 4. Assume the office of the city or municipal mayor for the unexpired term of the latter in the event of permanent vacancy as provided for in R.A. No. 7160. 5. Exercise the powers and perform the duties and functions of the city or municipal mayor in cases of temporary vacancy as provided for in R.A. No. 7160. 6. Exercise such other powers and perform such other duties and functions as may be prescribed by law or ordinance.

7. Upon assumption of office, make a full disclosure of financial and business interests in accordance with R.A. No. 6713 and other related laws. 8. Disclose any business, financial, or professional relationship or any relation by affinity or consanguinity within the fourth civil degree, which he may have with any person, firm, or entity affected by any ordinance or resolution under consideration by the Sangguniang Panlungsod or Sangguniang Bayan, which relationship may result in conflict of interest

9. Councilor 1. As a regular member of the Sangguniang Panlungsod or Sangguniang Bayan, participate in the enactment of ordinances, approval of resolutions and appropriation of funds for the general welfare of the city or municipality and its inhabitants in the proper exercise of the corporate powers of the city or municipality. 2. Initiate proposed ordinances and resolutions necessary for an efficient and effective city or municipal government, the generation and maximization of the use of resources and revenues for the development plans, program objectives and priorities of the city or municipality, the granting of franchises, the issuance of permits or licenses, the levying of taxes, fees and other charges, and the efficient and effective delivery of the basic services and facilities. 3. Upon assumption of office, make a full disclosure of financial and business interests in accordance with R.A. No. 6713 and other related laws. 4. Disclose any business, financial, or professional relationship or any relation by affinity or consanguinity within the fourth civil degree, which he may have with any person, firm, or entity affected by any ordinance or resolution under consideration by the Sangguniang Panlungsod or Sangguniang Bayan, which relationship may result in conflict of interest.