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A.S.

HYBRID ENGINE

Pat n. P9701056

Author: Antonio Snchez Vargas Mlaga. Spain http://www.terra.es/personal/sanchezv/ email: asmotor@gmail.com

INDEX

Abstract Basic engine Description Stator Ignition device Rotor Oiling Drawings (ac8dwg2d.zip) Operation Advantages Comparative Conclusion Mode AC-800 Cooling Ignition Oiling Sealing Carburetor AC800: drawings (ac8dwg2d.zip) AC800: parts Model AC800: drawings (ac8dwg2d.zip)

4 5 6 6 7 7 8 9 10 10 11 11 11 12 12 13-14

A.S. HYBRID ENGINE

ABSTRACT The fuel profit in the conventional reciprocal engines is still very poor. In 4-stroke cycle engine (the one of greater efficiency) this profit supposes less to 25% of the total energy produced by the combustion. To obtain this yield it is necessary to equip them with a complex and expensive valves train, that besides of limit its elasticity, consumes a part of the useful output power. The reciprocal motion of the piston, that must be accelerated and decelerated until stopping 2 times in each return of crankshaft, is another reason that diminishes the output power of these engines. The rotary engine (Wankel) was designed to suppress the previous disadvantages. In the basic configuration it is equipped with a rotor and a stator. The rotor function is almost similar to the piston. Its movement is rotary (in fact almost rotating), reason why does not make reversion of its mass. In the stator are located two distributed passive ports for the intake and the exhaust that replace the valves. Theoretically the rotary engines would offer a performance very superior to the conventional reciprocal piston engines, but actually it has demonstrated that it is not thus. This must mainly to the following causes: The thermodynamic efficiency in the Wankel engine is harmed due to the unfavorable surface / volume ratio of its combustion chamber, that being long and narrows obstruct the combustion process. Although the intake and the exhaust are made without valves, the rotor shape prevents to optimize the intake / exhaust interaction (overlap), being harmed the volumetric efficiency about 25%. This provokes furthermore unstable operation on low rotations regime and high pollutants emissions. To prevent low volumetric efficiency some Wankel engines must be aided with turbochargers. The torque still is little elastic. The sealed one not yet is as satisfactory as in the conventional engines; being left the compression ratio still limited enough.

The A.S. Hybrid Engine conjugates the advantages of the conventional pistons engine with those of the rotary engine, eliminating the main disadvantages of both. It consists of a 4-stroke engine of positive displacement devised with rotating and reciprocal technology, reason why it have the advantages of the rotary engines in relation with its packaging size, power density and operation simplicity, and the proven reliability and fuel efficiency of the reciprocal pistons engines. The main advantages are as follows: The volumetric efficiency is even greater to the conventional reciprocal pistons engines. Due to the fact that the intake and exhaust

ports can have equal section that the cylinders, the "breathing" capacity is very great. This novel engine does not incorporate valves train or parts under reversion, allowing simultaneously to simplify its manufacture that to increase the output power. Neither need for heavy flywheel (the rotor operates also as inertial flywheel). The overall number of parts is fewer about 30% to the equivalent conventional engine. The moving parts are reduced about 70%. The volume occupied and the overall weight is reduced in more than 50%. The operation without valves reduces the nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions. The theoretical volume / power ratio and weight /power ratio must be widely superior to the one of the conventional engine. The mechanical simplicity makes this engine very reliable. The technical level required for its manufacture is relatively low, because it does not have parts of difficult mechanization or particular technological processes. Its final price must be sensibly less to the conventional engine of the same power. Its maintenance also is simple, being able to be made by non-specialized workers. Because of these characteristics this engine is very appropriate as power plant for the future hybrid vehicles and in light aircrafts.

DESCRIPTION This engine consists of a stator that houses a cylindrical rotor, that it contains two transversal cylinders. Each cylinder contains a piston connected to its crankshaft through a connecting rod. Each crankshaft is geared through a satellite with a fixed planetary in the stator. In operation, all its mobile parts rotate continuously always in only one direction. Intake and exhaust is accomplished by distributed passive ports. Its operation is based on the alternative acceleration and deceleration that effect the pistons in relation to the rotor. The 7 mobile parts are rotary. Pistons and connecting rods describe a path "quasicircular". This engine is circularly symmetrical with a central shaft. All its eccentric forces are balanced by mutual cancellation. The engine consists of thirteen principal parts: the stator (1), the spark plug (6), and a rotor (2) that contains two pistons (3), two crankshafts (5) two connecting rods (4), two satellites (7) and two seals (13). Each satellite rotates jointly with its crankshaft. This crankshaft is permanent geared with the planetary (1c), that is stationary. When the rotor rotates, the parts that it contains (pistons, connecting rods and crankshafts) rotate jointly. Simultaneously, the planetarium forces to the satellites to rotate on its own axis, in the same direction that the rotor, but with double speed, because the diameter of the satellites is the half that the diameter of the planetarium. When the rotor rotates, a complete rotation of each crankshaft is converted by its connecting rod in two reciprocating movements of the pistons, resulting that the pistons are slid inside the cylinders being advanced and being delayed in relation to the rotor. This produces a variable volume inside the cylinders (2a). The rotor as well as the crankshafts rotates in only one direction, that show in figures 21, 22, 23, and 24, equal to the movement of the needles of the clock. This is the norm followed to express the angle measurements.

STATOR The stator (figures 6, 7, 8 y 10) consists of a hollow cylinder that houses the rotor. The planetary is located in its rear part, and in its circular surface are located the intake distribution port (1a), the exhaust distribution port (1b), and an orifice, where is screwed the spark plug. The intake and exhaust ports occupy contiguous positions on the stator, being separated 10 degrees. Each port encompasses 95 degrees. Between them is found the spark plug, separate 93 degrees of the beginning of the exhaust and 67 degrees of the end of the intake. The two distribution ports lead and regulate the intake and gases exhaust toward or from the cylinders.

SPARK PLUG It is employed an only spark plug, that has the function of inflaming the mixture that it is admitted inside the cylinders.

ROTOR The rotor (figure 14, 15 and 16) is a cylindrical part that contains two hollow cylinders located transversely, and that are parallel and opposed between if. Each cylinder is opened to the stator for its front extreme. The rear part of the cylinder houses the crankshaft. The rotor rotates on its own shaft (2d), being slid on the stator, where fits exactly. The rotor operates at the same time as inertial flywheel, accumulating part of the energy in the power phases. Each cylinder contains a piston with its corresponding connecting rod and crankshaft (figure 14). About front extreme of each cylinder, and in the outer rotor surface is housed a circular seal (13) (figures 17, 18, 19 y 20). Each seal is anchored in the front extreme of each cylinder, creating an elastic circular band around the rotor that is branching over the cylinders heads forming here three circular segments. Each seal is maintained continually applied against the stator. Have the mission of assuring the integral airtightness inside the cylinders and between the cylinders and the ports Each piston is connected to the crankshaft through a connecting rod articulated in both extreme. The connecting rod converts the revolving movement of the crankshaft into reciprocating movement of the piston. The heads of the pistons have oblique profile, in order to creating a butt-end chamber "spherical" that improves the combustion process. Furthermore, this configuration increases the contact surface of the piston with the combustion chamber, increasing the power efficiency.

OILING The oiling device is explained in the AC-800 section.

OPERATION

The engine operation show in figures 21, 22, 23 and 24. In each cylinder is accomplished a complete cycle by each complete rotation of the rotor. Meanwhile, each satellite makes two complete rotations on its own axis. Each piston makes four times or phases to complete a cycle. In each phase the rotor rotates 90 degrees, reason why each crank turns 180 degrees in the same direction and on its own axis. Figure 21 shows intake stroke in cylinder A and power stroke in cylinder B. The cylinder A is discovered during the entire stroke by the intake distribution port, while the cylinder B is closed by the stator. In this phase the pistons rotates with less relative speed that the rotor and make a negative stroke, being provoked in the cylinder A the charge (input) of fresh air and being produced in the cylinder B the expansion of the gases inflamed by the spark plug. The piston of this cylinder pushes in this phase to the crankshaft. Its satellite transmits this push to the rotor as rotary torque. The gases are admitted mixed previously with fuel by a carburetor installed on the entry of the intake conduit. Figure 22 shows compression stroke in cylinder A and exhaust stroke in cylinder B. The cylinder A is closed during all the phase by the stator, while the cylinder B is discovered during all the phase by the exhaust distribution port. In these phases each piston accomplishes a positive stroke, therefore rotates with more relative speed that the rotor, being provoked in the cylinder A the compression of the gases and in the cylinder B the exhaust of the gases burnt. At the end of this phase, the interior of the cylinder A enters contact with the spark plug, which inflames the combustible mixture. Figure 23 shows power stroke in cylinder A and intake stroke in cylinder B. The cylinder B is discovered during all the phase by the intake distribution port, while the cylinder A is closed by the stator. In this phase the pistons accomplish a negative stroke rotating with less relative speed that the rotor, being provoked in the cylinder B the charge of fresh air-fuel mixture and being produced in the cylinder A the expansion of the inflamed gases. In this phase, the piston of this cylinder pushes the crankshaft, and this push is transmits by its satellite to the rotor as rotary torque. Figure 24 shows exhaust stroke in cylinder A and compression stroke in cylinder B. The cylinder B is closed during all the phase by the stator, while the cylinder A is discovered during the entire stroke by the exhaust distribution port. In these phases each piston accomplishes a positive stroke, therefore rotates with more relative speed that the rotor, being provoked in the cylinder B the compression of the gases and in the cylinder A the exhaust of the gases burnt. When the rotor completes a rotation, in each cylinder have been accomplished the four operation stroke, beginning then in each one a new cycle.

ADVANTAGES "MULTIFUEL" CAPACITY With the incorporation of a continuous injection device instead of the spark plug, extending the duration of the combustion, and the possibility of adjusting the intake distribution and the capacity of operating at high compression ratio, this engine can use various types of fuels, liquid and gaseous.

VOLUMETRIC EFFICIENCY The intake and exhaust distribution ports can have equal or greater section that the cylinder, therefore the volumetric efficiency is limited only by the inner-outer differential pressure. With the installation of a supercharger, the theoretical volumetric efficiency can exceed 100%.

COMPRESSION RATIO As is known, in an internal combustion engine, the maximum efficiency is obtained accomplishing the ignition from the high-pressure mixture. Most of the rotary engines known present the drawback of not to be able to work to high compression ratio. The incorporation of a conventional sealed system, and the operation without valves permit this engine operates to high compression.

LOW FRICTION The rotor rotates supported in the stator through its output shaft, and supports in the stator only its two compression seals. Between the rotor and the stator must exist a minimal working clearance that assures the optimum operation.

COMPARATIVE
A.S. HYBRID ENGINE Mod. AC-800 CYLINDERS VALVES CYCLE POWERS PER TURN VOLUME DISPLACEMENT PORT SECTION IN HEAD CYLINDER BORE x STROKE HYDROGEN CAPABILITIES ENGINE BRAKE EFFECT OVERALL NUMBER OF PARTS OVERALL NUMBER OF MOVING PARTS OVERALL VOLUME OCCUPIED 2 NONE 4 STROKE 2 760 cc 40% OR MORE 84 mm x 68 mm YES YES 70% (30% REDUCTION) RECIPROCATE ENGINE 768 c.c. 2 TWO OR MORE 4 STROKE 1 768 cc LESS THAN 25% 83 mm x 71 mm NO YES 100%

30% (70% REDUCTION) 100% 50% (50% REDUCTION) 100%

CONCLUSION The A.S. Hybrid Engine concept represents a notable advance in the search of internal combustion engines more efficient. This engine have the advantages of the piston reciprocal conventional engine as well as the rotary engine (Wankel), upon incorporating a stable seal, be efficient thermodynamic and volumetric, to have a hard structure, and be free of valves train and masses reversion motion. These advantages make an economic engine in construction as well as in maintenance and fuel consumption. Into not to incorporate valves, reduces the pollutant emissions, being able to use hydrogen as fuel.

A.S. HYBRID ENGINE


ROTARY- RECIPROCATES HYBRID ENGINE MOD. AC800 In this model have been developed the cooling, oiling, sealing and ignition systems, as well as other secondary devices, for equipping the engine with a stable operation, independently of the time and work conditions. COOLING The cooling system is double. The engine is cooled fundamentally by air forced on the outer surface of the cylinders (2a) of the rotor (2). The oil flow inside the stator (1) and inside the rotor completes the cooling. The cylinders are shaped with wings externally. The flywheel (9) works as well like fan. When turning, their fans (9b) force to the air to circulate on the outer surface of the cylinders around the openings practiced between the fins of these. Two movements make the heat transference from the cylinders to the air. One is the air that moves axially, impelled by the flywheel fan, and another is the own cylinders rotary movement, that affect this airflow perpendicularly. With this system, the cylinder cooling is very balanced in its entire surface. In operation, the interior of the rotor is crossed by a continuous lubricant flow in the form that will be explained in the oiling section. This lubricant oiling and at the same time cool the internal rotor and internal stator surfaces. IGNITION The air-fuel mixture is inflamed by a conventional ignition system made up of the spark plug and a distributorless electronic ignition device (14) (DEI). The sensor will be installed on the flywheel, where the magnetic control pin (14b) is inserted. The position of the spark plug (6) allows an advance margin to the ignition of until 60 degrees. The engine also is able to operate with a system of continuous or synchronous injection of the fuel, being able to work in the Miller cycle.

OILING (fig 26) The engine is oiled by forced oil flow, not being necessary to add it to the fuel. The lubricant is deposited in the carter (1j), of where it is aspired by a pump of gears (8) that is dragged by the flywheel gear. The oil pump impels the lubricant at a first moment towards the chamber of the oiler roller (11). This roller is dragged (rotate) by the central band of the seals (13) when rotates. It has the function to lubricate and to cool this central band, against which it is applied, impregnating it a fine film of lubricant when it turns. When the roller contacts with this seal (central band), pushes it outwards. Then, the oil that is to pressure in its chamber is expelled by the groove (1q) practiced in the stator. When the roller no contact with this seals, (which takes place in the passage of the cylinders heads), its spring (11b) applies against the stator, closing the window and cut the oil flow.

From the oiler roller chamber, the oil flow is led inside through the shaft support arm (1l) toward the output shaft (2d), by whose internal channel (2j) is send toward the crankshafts (5), lubricating them. From here, the oil flow go across inside the connecting rods (4) and will be send toward the heads of these connecting rods, lubricating them, to be finally expelled toward the interior of the pistons (3), to refrigerate them. From here, the lubricant is centrifuged by the rotor, being expelled through the crankcase windows (2l) toward the periphery of the rotor, lubricating the internal circular surface of the stator. From here, the lubricant will fall by gravity by the filler outlet (1i), going to deposit itself again in the carter. The toric seals (2k) along with the rotor outer seals (2i) provide a complete airtightness inside the rotor, preventing any oil escape outside. The drain of combustion gas will be made of conventional form by means of a connection conduit from the oil-filling plug to the carburetor

SEALING (fig 17, 18, 19 and 20) The pistons are sealed with three conventional segment seals (3a) for compression and oiling. The rotor semicircular seals are flexible. This seals are anchored in the cylinders heads, that is branching about the cylinders heads, forming three semi-hoops seals segments in the form that is detailed in the drawings. The force of expansion of this seals maintains continuously and uniformly applied them against the internal circular surface of the stator providing complete sealing, as much to the cylinders heads as to the intake and exhaust ports In a semicircular seal, the expansion forces are as follows (figure 20): A. Torsion of circular profile recovery B. - Force of recovery of the original radius (greater) on radio of the arc (1). C. - Circular force of expansion on the radius of seals (2).
(1) The arc expands in radial direction, relating to the rotor axis. (2) The 3 semi-hoops expand in radial direction, relating to the cylinder axis.

The seal mechanization will make with these on plain or mounted on circular guide, where they will temper and drill. The cut direction of the seals throats on the head cylinder must be radial, so that it is possible the expansion of these without the sealed one is harmed (23 degrees of inclination on axis of cylinders).

CARBURETION A conventional external carburetor will be installed on the intake conduit.

AC-800 DRAWINGS
Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. Figure 8. Figure 9. Figure 10. Figure 11. Figure 12. Down plant Upper plant Rear view Section A-A Section B-B Section C-C D-D stator section E-E stator section Exhaust port view F-F section G-G Position section G-G Section Figure 13. Figure 14. Figure 15. Figure 16. Figure 17. Figure 18. Figure 19. Figure 20. Figure 21. Figure 22. Figure 23. Figure 24. Figure 25. Figure 26. Oil pump Rotor section Rotor rear view Rotor view Head of the cylinder Head of the cylinder and seals Head of the cylinder and seals section Details of sealing Operation: A intake / B power Operation: A compression / B exhaust Operation: A power / B intake Operation: A exhaust / B compression Pistons path circularity Oiling circuit

AC-800 PARTS

Figure 4 1, 2, 6, 7, 8 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 8 1 1, 2, 5, 10 3 7 1, 2 6, 7 4, 5 2, 5 4 1 6, 8 8 2, 8 4, 12, 14, 17, 19 17, 19 18 15, 16 12 16 14 14 5, 16 4, 16 12

n. 1. 1a. 1b. 1c. 1d. 1e. 1f. 1g. 1h. 1i. 1j.1l.1n. 1p. 1q. 1r. 1s. 2. 2a. 2b. 2c. 2d. 2g. 2h. 2i. 2j. 2k. 2l.3. -

Part Stator Intake port Exhaust port Screws of the oiler roller Lubricating oil filler body Planetary support arms Oil drain plug Oil filler inlet Engine bearer Oil filler outlet Carter Shaft support arms Oil pump input Oiler roller cap Oiler roller groove Dowel Upper screws Rotor Cylinder barrel Seals channel Seal bearer Output shaft Cylinder head Dowel Rotor outer seals Oil central channel Toric outer seals of the rotor Crankcase window Piston

14 14 14 12, 14 14 2 12, 15 1, 5, 13 13 13 13 3, 13 1, 4 1, 3, 5 3, 5 3 1,2, 5 5 10 10 10 10 8, 10 10 5, 12, 14, 16, 18, 19 17, 19 3, 9 3, 9 3 3

3a. 3b. 4. 5. 5a. 6. 7. 8. 8a. 8b. 8c. 8d. 8f. 9. 9a. 9b. -

Piston seals Gudgeon pin Connecting rod Crankshaft Balance weight crankshaft Spark plug Satellite Lubricating oil pump Gears Pump input channel Pump output channel Pump gear Oil input filter Flywheel Screw Fan

10. - Pulley 10a. - Pulley screw 11. 11a. 11b. 11c. 12. 12a. Oiler roller Roller pusher Roller spring Oil input Fix planetary Screws

13. - Seals 13a. - Pusher spring 14 14a 14b 14c Distributorless electronic ignition device Flywheel sensor Control pin Spark plug wire

AC-800 MODEL DRAWINGS

MODELO AC-800 DIBUJOS 3D