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The Declarative Sentence: - affirmative statement: The war is still going on. - negative statement: They haven’t arrived yet. - question/surprise: You haven’t met him? - exclamation/confirmation: It was awesome! - warning: That slope is very steep. 2. The Interrogative Sentence: - asking for information: Who is the leader? Is this the way to Rome? - asking for an explanation: Why didn’t she come? - confirmation: She is beautiful, isn’t she? - exclamation: Wasn’t he lucky? - suggestion, advice: Why don’t you simply leave him? - offer, invitation: Will you join us? 3. The Imperative Sentence: - order: Go out! - request: Help me, please! - offer: Have another drink! - warning: Mind your steps! - instructions: Turn it off (when hot)! 4. The Exclamatory Sentence: - exclamation: admiration: What a beautiful film! - exclamation: disgust: What a stinky man! 1. THE DECLARATIVE SENTENCE (propoziția enunțiativă) = a sentence which is in the form of a statement (to convey information, to make a statement, to express an opinion, etc.) e.g. I’m leaving now • May/may not have the function of a statement e.g. I suppose you’re coming this evening. (question) I’d like you to leave immediately. (order/request) I suppose you’ll be there. (question)
• Can be negative or positive: 1) Negative declarative sentences o Negation can be expressed by: a) Auxiliaries b) Negative words (no one, none, nobody, nothing, nowhere, never, neither… nor, either … or) c) Adverbs (hardly, scarcely, barely, rarely, seldom) d) Negative affixes (dis-, mis-, -less, un-) e.g. a) I was not shy. • -He did not dare look up at us.
The story didn’t make her happy. They met nobody in the street. Many people neither sing nor play at instruments. They aren’t here. No one was there. Hardly had John talked to us. The story made her unhappy. I can’t understand her and neither can her sister. Scarcely can she walk. None of them speaks French. They rarely/seldom meet nowadays. I can’t understand her and my sister can’t either. DO. . IO. She disliked the man. Barely could she believe her eyes. The sentence is without meaning. He doesn’t remember me. His name was not mentioned to us by anybody. b) They had no case against the young man. She didn’t like the man.• • • • • • • • The guests will not be coming tonight. They’re not here. Seldom do they meet today. either … or Neither player deserves applauses. => No one/nobody = only function as Subject. * Subject Mary had done nothing to harm them. John had hardly talked to us. She could barely believe her eyes. She was afraid of nobody and nothing. They did not have any case against the young man. The sentence is meaningless. The weather was not propitious for walks. Neither John nor Jim likes to study. c) She can scarcely walk. Mary hadn’t done anything to harm them. The manager hasn’t seen the papers yet. Maria did not attend her sister’s wedding. PIO None looks at me. Nobody mentioned his name to us. Neither … nor. Its isn’t fair. It’s not fair. Neither of them was present. Mary likes neither John nor Jim. *Anybody didn’t mention his name => anybody/anything = only function as DO/IO. I couldn’t do it.
he will. No. When? How? (Short Questions) c) Disjunctive interrogative sentences: . What is your father? He’s a teacher. When did he come? Where did he go? Why did you do it? How do you make it? How long does it take? How often do you go? How much do you need? How many have you counted? Who left? She (left) What happened? Nothing (happened) Which of them left? She (left) Whom have you seen? I have seen Mary. May I have some more ice-cream? Of course. b) Special interrogative sentences: e. I have. Did you open the window? • Do not always function as questions: e. Which (of the men) is your father? The tall man with a hat. e. I’m not. Have you got any/some matches? Yes. THE INTERROGATIVE SENTENCE (Propoziția interogativă) = a sentence which is in the form of a question. please. Who is your father? John Smith. Will he come tonight? I hope so. Could you shut the window? (request) • Types: a) General (yes/no) b) Special (Wh-) c) Disjunctive (Tag/Tail) d) Alternative (either… or) e) Other: Negative. Rhetorical a) General interrogative sentences: e. he won’t.g.g. I think so. I’m afraid not. No.2. Do help yourself.g. Have you failed the exam? I’m afraid so. Will you have some more cakes? Yes. thank you. Do you go skiing in winter? Never. Are you a student? Yes. Echo. the speaker asks for information.g. Which of them do you like best? (I like) the red one best. No. Statement-like. Yes. I expect so. What have you bought? I have bought some apples. I am. What/Which will you have? Ice-cream. please. Who are you looking for? What are you looking at? Mary is getting married.
I can) You can’t drive a car.g. do you? He hasn’t come yet.g. right? d) Alternative interrogative sentences: e.g. Don’t you like tea? Didn’t you go to see her? Of course. would you? Echo Questions: e. You are going to see her? Going to see her? What have I done? Done? Statement-like: e. Yes. I can’t) You don’t know the answer. has he? (No.e. Are you going to show it to me or to her? Will they come by train or by car? Why didn’t you tell me or her? e) Other interrogative sentences: Negative Questions: e. speră că așa este) You lost the keys. Then he is a liar. can you? (A: No. No Rhetorical: e. Isn’t he happy? Isn’t that wonderful? How should I know? . did you? You didn’t lose the keys. So you have never met him. Aren’t you going to the seaside? Haven’t you seen them yet? Won’t you have a seat? Why don’t you go there? I can’t find a good book anywhere.g.g. can’t you? (A: Yes. No. Where can’t you find a good book? You wouldn’t know where I can find her.g. You can drive a car. I didn’t. And you won’t tell her? No. did you? You were there. I did.
THE IMPERATIVE SENTENCE (propoziția imperativă) = a sentence which is in the form of a command. will you? (threat) Don’t tell him. an offer. it can also express a request. a piece of advice. an uge. Leave the room! Stand up! Come in! Give it another try! Do not enter! Don’t cry! Do not always function as an order: e. an invitation.g. a suggestion.g. • . will you? (request) Never say I’m sorry! Always remember to say “Thank you”. Look what you’ve done! (annoyance) Do sit down! (request) Do stop crying! Let me help you (offer/suggestion) Let’s do it.3. e. shall we/ can we? Sit down.
4.g. etc. but they do not reverse the order of the subject and the auxiliary verb: e. How clever she is! What a good boy! How nicely she dresses! What weather! Silly girl! There he goes! Off she went! Off went the girl! Oh. THE EXCLAMATORY SENTENCE (propoziția exclamativă) = an utterance which shows the speaker’s or writer’s feelings (admiration. disgust.) Exclamations begin with a phrase using what or how. what class! What a bright idea! (admiration) What a stinky man! (disgust) .
So vet him. The Secret Pilgrim) ANSWERS: State the kind of each simple sentence and its communicative function: 1.. right? 15. You’re good at it. non-certainty 3. = declarative/statement 13. You can play Mr. This is a vetting matter. can’t you? = interrogative/disjunctive/positive orientation. The Pool’s also empowered to make vetting enquiries. You can run a phone cap. We run in front office and listen to the lonely hearts. = imperative. 11. (I explained. 7.. Why should I do that? = interrogative/special/explanation 5. I can) = interrogative/disjunctive/positive orienttion. Why should I do that? 5. right? = interrogative/disjunctive/requires confirmation 14. right? 14. 9. can’t you? (If you get me a wararnt. He might even get us alongside Brother Modrian back in Moscow.EXERCISES (Popa. Suppose I do = interrogative/dubitative/suggestion 10. You’re good at it. Not unless you authorize it personally) = declarative/statement enforced by ‘they say’ 9. Suppose I do 10. (I added doggedly) 4. urge enforced by the use of ‘so’ (John. can’t you? 8. by all accounts.. requires confirmation. 2. We run in front office and listen to the lonely hearts. You’ve done that a few times. You can brief watchers. requires confirmation 8. You can play Mr. This is a vetting matter. The Pool has no charter to function operationally. The Secret Pilgrim) . (I explained. 13. by all accounts. Ecaterina: Elemente de sintaxă engleză: 23) State the kind of each simple sentence and its communicative function: 1. Who knows? 3. The Pool’s also empowered to make vetting enquiries. can’t you? (If you get me a wararnt. Who knows? = rhetorical interrogative/ doubt. Then presumably you’d prefer to hand the case to the Russia House. (they say. Then presumably you’d prefer to hand the case to the Russia House. And Frewin’s due for a vetting top-up. You’ve done that a few times. And Frewin’s due for a vetting top-up. You can run a phone cap. = declarative/statement 12. So vet him. You can brief watchers.) 6. I can) 7.) = declarative/statement 6. right? = interrogative/disjunctive/ requires confirmation 15. (I added doggedly) = declarative/statement 4. The Pool has no charter to function operationally. (John.. 12. le Carré. He might evenget us alongside Brother Modrian back in Moscow = declarative/statement 2. (they say. Plod. Plod. le Carré. Not unless you authorize it personally). = declarative/statement 11.
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