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) Constituents of a NP = Determiners + Premodifiers + Head Noun + PostModifiers Determiners: specific/general; specified/non-specified; predeterminers/central determiners/postdeterminers Modifiers: Premodifiers: quantifiers(indefinite pronouns) / qualifiers (adjectives) Postmodifiers Heads: Nouns, Pronouns, Adjectives THE SIMPLE SENTENCE The smallest sentence unit consists of: NP + VP • • The NP has the syntactic function of subject, and has the pattern: DETERMINER + PRE-MODIFIERS + HEAD NOUN + POSTMODIFIERS
The VP has the syntactic function of predicate, and has the pattern: VERB (auxiliary / operator) + PREDICATION (OBJECT: DO, IO, PIO, PO) / COMPLEMENT (SC / OC) / ADVERBIAL MODIFIERS (Adverbial Clauses) e.g. His good friend gave him a nice present on his birthday. NP = his good friend VP = gave him a nice present on his birthday Verb = gave Objects = him (IO); a nice present (DO) Adverbial Modifier = on his birthday THE SUBJECT GROUP (THE NOUN PHRASE). The Subject Group consists of the noun or noun equivalents (e.g. pronouns, numerals) plus attributes. The Subject Group is also called the Noun Phrase (NP) and has the syntactic function of Subject. The subject, or NP (in English grammar): -typically precedes the main verb in a sentence and is most closely related to it. -determines Concord -refers to something about which a statement or assertion is made in the rest of the sentence. That part of the sentence containing the verb or Verb Group (VP) and which may include Objects, Complements, or Adverbials) is known as the Predicate (syntactic function). The predicate is that part of the sentence which predicates something of the subject. For example: Subject Predicate The woman smiled. Fish is good for you. DEFINITION The term phrase is used to mean group(s) of words e.g. the student or single words, e.g. Henry, they. The Noun Phrase (NP) is a word or group of words with a noun or a noun substitute (pronoun or numeral) as its head and functioning like a noun in a sentence. CHARACTERISTICS Its function is equivalent to that of a noun, e.g. Living alone in the sentence Living alone has its advantages. The NP can consist of a single noun or pronoun, or of a noun or pronoun with modifiers, e.g. Henry, the assignment, happiness, he, it, somebody, the white iron gate of the house, the assignment which Henry had to write, he who runs, etc. Besides nouns as heads (Mary, staff, friend, present, word), occasionally we use pronouns and adjectives as heads of NPs, e.g. One of the worst (pronoun as head); the blue of his eyes (adjective as head). In some Traditional Grammars, a Participial or Infinitive phrase which could be replaced by a noun or pronoun, for example, the participial phrase mowing the lawn in: George just hates mowing the lawn.
She left without another word. • as adverbial modifier: e. this box.g. A professional man. the great American romancer. etc. many people NUMERALS. • as object of a preposition: e. three chairs. her house. for example expensive in this expensive camera. • as postmodifier: e.g.g. • as free modifier: e. an AdvP.g. a pencil. a VP. . in the English NP: the fat lady in the floral dress the noun lady is the head of the phrase. for example with a stumpy tail in The cat with a stumpy (short and thick) tail.g.g. the garden DEMONSTRATIVES. my bicycle QUANTIFIERS. For example. that car POSSESSIVES.g. He is one of the worst candidates.g. he retired when his wife died. e. • as object complement: e. For example. I wrote to him last month. and which limits the meaning of the noun in some way. Modifiers after the head are called postmodifiers. e. e.g. the first day. SYNTACTIC FUNCTIONS of NOUN PHRASES Noun phrases may function: • as subject of a sentence: e. a spectator who had enough troubles of his own. in English the following words can be used as determiners: ARTICLES. A Modifier is a word or group of words which gives further information about (“modifies”) another word or group of words (the Head).g. Other elements in the phrase are in some grammatical or semantic relationship to the head. A Constituent is a linguistic unit. CONSTITUENTS (of a NP): DETERMINER + PRE-MODIFIERS + HEAD NOUN + POSTMODIFIERS A Deteminer (Det) is a word which is used with a noun. e. Modifiers before the head are called premodifiers. • as premodifier: e. Modification may occur in a NP. (usually in sentence analysis) which is part of a larger construction.could be replaced by it: George just hates it. Have you seen these Romanian paintings? • as subject complement: e.g. Mary looked at the boy attentively. some milk.g. e. This is the Queen of England’s Palace.g. They elected him President of the company. The Head is the central part of a phrase. It was written by Nathaniel Hawthorne. • as object: e. He felt helpless.g. The red dress on the bed is hers. an AP.
several All. neither Much. e. The two beautiful women two = quantifier beautiful = qualifier A Qualifier is. fewest Enough. our. e. a lot of. fewer. and which shows quantity. e.g. They are: articles: a / an.g. Premodifiers can be quantifiers or qualifiers. their. more. or talking about them generally without saying exactly which ones you mean. no Each. and follows the head. a piece of. your.g. b. Young people don’t like these operas. least A few. For example. in a noun phrase) e. much. a loaf of. several. an adjective.g. A Quantifier is a word or phrase which is used with a noun.g. little.g. half . Some quantifiers in English are: many.g. either. all the day three whole years enough trouble either arm There are two types of determiners: specific and general. They are: Some. etc.g. DETERMINERS A determiner / a determinative is a word used in front of a noun and before any adjectives in the phrase to indicate whether you are referring to a specific thing or just to something of a particular type. these. when the person you are talking to will know which person or thing you are referring to. b. expensive. plenty of. her. both. an element of clause structure with adverbial function. In Halliday’s Functional Grammar. It may function as an adjunct word (a. e. They are used when you are mentioning people or things for the first time.g. The nice lady in grey the = determiner nice = premodifier lady = noun head in grey = postmodifier Determiners can be specified or non-specified e. a phrase. few. a qualifier is any linguistic unit that is part of a group. We cannot put two determiners from any group a. any linguistic unit (e. the possessive determiners: my. three kilograms of . his. General determiners (most of them quantifiers) say how much or how many we are talking about. her. The students are good. any. Students are good. e.The Constituents of a NP are: Determiner + Premodifier + Noun Head + Postmodifier e. c together. in Traditional Grammar. your. demonstrative determiners: this. and from Paris are qualifiers in the NP: her expensive blouse from Paris. The man began to run towards the boy. less. gives added information about the Head of the group. from Paris is a qualifier in the noun group her expensive blouse from Paris. For example. every. most Little. Specific determiners are used to help to identify persons or things. those. a / my / this/ book. that. modifying word or phrase depending on some other word or phrase. many. or a clause) that is part of a Noun Phrase and gives added information about the noun. I’d been waiting a long time to park my car.
making its meaning more precise: e. We meet every few days. half multipliers: once. your. But where we use two or more determiners together. what. e.g. which. whichever One.g.g. his.g. our. their some quantifiers.g.g.g. postdeterminers. articles: a. the order is as follows: Predeterminer + Central + Noun e. a few more of those cakes plenty more of our books two or three more of the teachers any more of my brothers Central + Postdeterminer + Noun e. etc.g.g. etc. intensifiers: such. There were several reasons for this. no. wh-determiners: what. whose Not all predeterminers can be used with all central determiners – for semantic reasons. which. both. but we do not use them in random order. these. all that year both these girls half the distance just her appearance only the prize Predeterminer + of + Central Determiner + Noun (Countable Nouns) e. Predeterminers e. According to that criterion. You can stop at any time you like. other e. They usually stand between any determiners and the head in a NP. two.g. some quantifiers: all.. whatever. her . etc. Central determiners (the most important group) e. central determiners. we identify 3 (three) groups of determiners: predeterminers. some. the two leading social orders the two = determiners leading social = premodifiers . all these six boys only the first two days half my books all the other days MODIFIERS A modifier is a word or group of words which comes in front of a noun and adds information about the thing which the noun refers to. those possessives: my. Have you got any more coffee? Determiners usually precede the noun they determine. There was a man in the lift. the other side the third time her two hands the same thing Predeterminer + Central Determiner + Postdeterminer(s) + Noun (less frequently) e. an. three. each of these girls enough of his money a large number of books either of the films Predeterminer(s) + of + Central Determiner + Noun (Countable Nouns) e. that. any.What. twice. double. the demonstratives: this. We can put together two general determiners if the combination makes sense.
proof positive.g. lords spiritual. attorney general. the Theatre Royal. the Post Laureate.g. This is the main part of the course. no one .g. astronomer royal.orders = head Modification is a structure and it may be described in terms of the arrangements of the units of which it is composed: PREMODIFIER + NOUN HEAD + POSTMODIFIER A premodifier (quantifier or qualifier) is a unit (a word. interesting. a live-and-let-live individualism devil-may-care characters Postmodifiers can be: adjectives: e.g. the Postmaster General.g. giving more precise meaning to the head.g. they are also called qualifiers because they show quality. ugly. the president elect syntax proper all the people present The idea came from the party concerned. chairman elect. Knight errant. involved e. e. (which is possible) A road fifty feet wide The house ablaze (on fire) is next door to ours. The tennis teacher is in the gym. phrase. lords temporal. a phrase. a very interesting book to read. concerned. letters patent. a man of strong will Premodifiers can be: adjectives: e. e. each. nouns: e. adverbs: . beautiful. both. … the now secretary compounds: e. mostly abstract nouns. You will be informed about the event by the person available. gorgeous. present. neither. William the Silent It is the only thing notable It is the only solution possible. nor.g. postmaster general. … the music industry adverbs: e. are complements that complete the meaning of the head. or sometimes a clause) that is placed between the determiner(s) and the noun head (unless it is one of the degree modifiers of a modifier): e.g.g. all. … easy-going people … heavily-built machine sentences: e. A postmodifier is a unit (a word. A harder mattress often helps with back injuries. The overhead projector is there. i. half. every. heir apparent. from times immemorial. or a clause) immediately following the noun head.e. these postmodifiers. proper (’as strictly defined’).g. absent. a very interesting book Premodifiers (determiners and pronouns) are also called quantifiers because they show quantity or amount. heir presumptive. Compare: the stars visible (at a time specified) the visible stars (at appropriate times) Notes: The following adjectives: elect (‘soon to take office’). Postmodification is also called noun complementation. In a few fixed phrases: court martial. e.g. body politic.
She sent a message that Castor would be out.g. clauses (relative and appositive) e. (‘The Double Genitive’) noun (apposition) Apposition is the use of a word or phrase immediately following another word or phrase and referring to the same person or thing. down in the cellar beneath the long march back he alone the crowd outside a reflection of life today in Romania The house there is ours. The river Thames. e.To.g. A noun (phrase) in apposition is used to qualify or identify another noun.e. e. news. the capital of France This novel was written by Dickens. I do not mean to be rude. (non-defining) . hope. So where which can alternate with that. Captain Cook. we have: Uncle Tom. which have a similar relationship to the preceding noun head. Both appositive and relative clauses may start with that. (appositive clause) I bought this dictionary. the clause is likely to be relative and not appositive. doubt. who had been killed at his side. Aunt Mary. The premature news that this battle was lost … caused consternation. probability. Mary had a strong belief that her husband intended to leave her. (appositive clause) He was no older than his brother. … pile of stones (‘Partitive Genitive’) … a man of tact (‘Qualitative Genitive’) … his angel of a wife (‘Appositive Genitive’) … We’ll be staying with friends of Joe’s. With the stress upon the apposition. Appositive clauses are nominal clauses marked off by commas.g.g. Noun phrases in apposition are of equal rank. . (appositive clause) Notes: The head preceding an appositive clause is always an abstract noun. My friend Joe. e.g. proof. like: appeal. (relative clause) The news that he has died is not true. fact. certitude.Wh clauses. certainty. (relative clause) The belief is that Michael has been sent to India. e. etc. which has helped me a lot. (relative clause) Appositive clauses may be defining and non-defining: e. resulted in reality. a man with long hair his criticism of the project authors of today The walls of my room are white. stand next to each other and refer to the same person or thing. (appositive clause) The premature news that / which said the battle was lost … caused consternation. rumour. But appositive clauses may not start with which. decision. belief. (relative clause) It’s a question of how to attain it. that her husband intended to leave her. indication.g. They may be: . The discussion afterward was very interesting. idea. prepositional phrase: e.That clauses. as relative can.g. evidence. Look at the wings of this butterfly. . e. That’s the boy who found it.g. thought. possibility. sign. the great English writer. They helped the children of the poor.Infinitive clauses. (defining) Mary’s belief.g. Lewis knew what bitterness was in his mind. Paris. Professor Albu. likelihood.