Lecture 1 Introductory Course Key notions: UG (faculty of language); I-language: intensional, internalized, mediation bet.
sound and meaning, speaker’s intuition, speaker’s competence, tacit knowledge of the language); E-language: externalized, the factor of the natural world which triggers the development of I-language through the subject’s being exposed to the linguistic data; language transcended), structure-dependency, constituency tests, phrase marker(s), hierarchical structure, the principle of full interpretation; lexical and functional categories The structure of the simple sentence Aim: descriptive, explanatory: presentation of the structure. Behaviour of syntax (basic sentence patterns) The European tradition of the study of grammar: - the construction approach (Aristotle): dominance and dependency (structural relations): e.g. – determiner + determined term: these apples (agreement in number) - Agreement: an inherent feature of the determined term is copied on the determiner; - Government: the main term imposes on the subordinate term a property for which the main term is not marked – interpretable feature: see him (the verb imposes the case (acc); - Rigid word order (I gave him the book/I gave the book to him). - Intonation (You are pleased, aren’t you?) Structuralism (Bloomfield, Nida, Z. Harris): the sentence Syntax – study of sentence constituency; Constituent – a string with formal properties The tests for constituency: 1. substitution = any string which may be replaced by one fixed element = constituent E.. g. Mary and John/they came early. They have left the book on the table/it,there. 2. Ellipsis: Identical VPs can be omitted within sentences provided their content can be recovered from the context: John will leave for Canada but I won’t [leave]. 3. Movement: preposing – for emphasis reasons some parts of the S can be preposed (moved to a position higher in the sentence, to S-initial position. My students can’t stand GG. GG, my students can’t stand. *Grammar, my students can’t stand generative. Up the hill they ran. 4. Focalized structures: Cleft and pseudo-cleft sentences (instances of Move a). 5. It is John whom he saw yesterday. //What they will have to do is go to the market.
A constituent is allowed to move if it has to check some of its features. head directionality principle: head-first. Moreover. i. Students who like generative syntax and inflectional morphology are rare. as can be seen in the examples: a. He relied on Mike and on John alike. Sentence constituency is the central concept of syntax. government. LEXICON D-STRUCTURE: PSR T-component (Move a) S-STRUCTURE PF level PF REPRESENTATIONS LF level LF-REPRESENTATIONS
The lexicon – the speaker’s mental vocabulary/dictionary (a repository of idiosyncratic information). * The organization of the grammar Phrase Structure Grammar String – any sequence of two or more than two adjacent elements A constituent – a string which has formal properties. which are heads. Relations within the structure of a sentence: . Phrasal categories of the same type can be conjoined. Category analysis is also part of the syntactic analysis (PS level of representation. The lexicon contains information about the lexical and functional items. D-Str – projection of the info stored in the lexicon. (theta-marked positions) Move A – transformational component (Move is a last resort operation). D-STRUCTURE – an internal interface level where lexical properties are expressed in a form accessible to the computational system.e. The projection of the lexical properties. the constituents must belong to the same class. It is the Grammar’s task to assign an analysis to any sentence.The coordination test: Only constituents can be conjoined by coordination within a sentence. Word-level analysis – as part of the Lexicon study – level of lexical representation (lexical categories.Subcategorization relations (c-command. which has internal cohesion. head-last). each constituent belongs to spem specific syntactic category). b. . m-command).Selectionaal restrictions (thematic relations: theta-grid)
. to exhibit its proper constituent structure.