Seminar 4 (a) Copula BE and copula-like verbs (appear, seem, arise, happen, turn out etc) I.

Define Inflection in terms of its features. What are the bundles of functional heads that comprise Inflection? What are the strong and the weak inflectional features? What kind of feature is Tense? Give examples of strong and weak features in English. What is the derivational consequence of the presence of a strong feature in the English sentence structure? Discuss the following sentence in this sense: Mike has been studying Japanese for several years. II. What is the copula-BE analysis? Account for the interpretation of the complement of BE in the following sentences:


Everybody is anxious about this news. b.

Mary is at school now.

III. What is the base-generated position of the subject NP in a copular sentence? Explain your reasons. IV. Why are BE and the copula-like verbs (e.g. appear, seem, happen) considered raising verbs, i.e verbs that do not have an external argument or which do not assign an external theta-role? What is the syntactic difference between these verbs and other ergative verbs, like go (e.g. there goes the bell/the bell goes)? V. Derive the following sentences. Specify their predicates: 1. Mary is our new president. 2. What is already clear is this big mess. 3. The solution of any conflict is peace. 4. Stephen was the prize winner. VI. Identify the subject and the predicate constituents of each clause in the sentences below: a. Jane seemed so unhappy when she heard the news that she was of the opinion to leave town at once. b. There appeared to be many more problems than expected, so the boss was adamant in his decision. c. What is your final remark? d. Who would say that this is not true? e. Whoever happens to be there will surely break the news to everyone else. f. Where might John be at this hour? g. I wonder where everybody might be at this hour. VII. Apply THERE-insertion whenever possible. Account for the inadmissibility of this rule in examples 7 and 8: 1. A little boy appeared from behind the huge desk. 2. Some poor families existed/lived in that district. 3. A rebellion burst forth against the king. 4. A violent commotion began. 5. A field of corn lay behind the forest. 6. The 1914-1918 war followed. 7. The new problem of the status of workers arose again. 8. The same film has been on at this cinema for three weeks. 9. A rainbow will occur after the rain. VIII. How does Agreement apply in sentences with expletive THERE ? e.g. There were birds chirping on the roof. Draw the derivational tree of this sentence. What is the nature of BE in this sentence?

Seminar 4 (b) Copula-like verbs (link verbs) I.Give examples of sentences where the following verbs are link verbs (V+predicative phrase): go (pale, insane, mad, crazy, silent, stone-deaf, hungry, contrary to one’s nature, unwarned, bad, smelly, dirty, sour, out of one’s mind, in fear of …, bald, old, grey, rotten.), come (untrue, true, of age, square with sb., untied, to be stronger, stronger every day, undone, expensive, to a stand-still, to pieces, loose, unstitched, unsewn, become (extinct, ill, one’s friend, more and more at peace; get (old, scarce(r), cold, hot, to be fond of sb.; run (dry, out of sugar, short, to seed, high, low); grow (better and better, chill, old, into a beautiful lady, out of habit, big, tall); turn (yellow, red, black, scoundrel, politician, Catholic, 30 years of age, a good fellow, of a deadly colour, to ice, to rain; fall (flat, ill, lame, silent, vacant, out of favour with the Queen, a prey to, to blows; remain, rest, continue, stay, keep (hungry, silent, a prisoner, rest assured (certain, content, satisfied, secure); keep (silent, close to), stay rich, (asleep), continue (obstinate, poor); II.Look, sound, ring, loom: look ill, look one’s age, look as black as a funeral, sound harsh, ring true (to one’s ear), feel bound to accept, feel attracted by sb., feel in a false position, feel confident (Assured, certain), feel compelled, feel a queen/a king, old, loom menacing in the distance; III.Seem, appear, make, hold, wear, pass: wear thin, make a good speaker, pass current for a while, pass for a beauty, hold aloof, gold true, hold mute, hold close. IV.Identify the type of predicative int the following copular sentences: Somebody has been at my jewel-box again. I am at loose ends tonight. He is now at the top of the social ladder. He is after no good. He was fool enough to marry her. This student has always been excellent, don’t you think so? Yes, he is an excellent student. He is even better than his word. He was dead broke. This actor is a slow study. This seems to be a tall order. He seems to be easy meat. The island was the haunt of the pirates. I couldn’t believe whether the fellow was he/him or not. This is John’s wife. Red hats are the thing today. He was

*There the children play in the schoolyard every week. toate reactoarele sunt demodate si nu mai functioneaza conform cu standardele Agentiei Internationale de Energie Atomica. X. dar nici unul nu cred sa fie adevarat. The merchandise is aboard. Clinton was the US President 6 years ago. when extracting a constituent either from the Subject or from the Predicative Constituent. 3. b. *There occurred the mistakes that Mary made last week. VI. d. * There will be Michael Jackson at the party tonight. V. Their main preoccupation was getting ready for the party. Creionul ii cazu din mana. . IV. by resorting to the Raising analysis of seem. John seems as if he is hungry. VII. Sosesc (toti) musafirii. What are the syntactic characteristics of unaccusatives in English? Do these characteristics hold crosslinguistically? What is the Italian case? Derive the following sentence and explain how case and theta-role features are assigned to the “logical subject” of the predication. Why cannot the Unaccusative verbs assign Case to their subjects? Give examples of unaccusatives in English and describe their basic semantic feature. Generalize on the main constraint for subject – predicate inversion in Equi-copular sentences. 1 The colour of the wall is the reason why I hate this room. Derive the following sentences and identify their arguments: a. Au sosit (toti) musafirii. by using there-insertion. . Mike is the new president of the association/The new president of the association is Mike. John seems like he is hungry. what kind of argument is this subject in relation to the unaccusative verb that selects it? II. It seems that John is hungry. b. The team was already hard at it when the inspector arrived. Sa incercam sa aflam adevarul despre concentratia de azot din produsele de carne ca sa intelegem de ce a fost oprita productia pe acest an. b. They walked slowly along the sea coast. From behind the curtain appeared the young actress and everybody acclaimed her. Downstairs are a lot of people waiting for the president to come.A. VIII. Copilul inainta cativa pasi si se opri brusc. The soldiers were all at ease when the captain came in. Account for the ungrammaticality of sentence d. V. a. E. Seminar 5 (Unaccusatives: diagnostics.not blunderer enough to betray his thoughts.g. What makes the following sentences ill-formed? Describe the properties of expletive THERE and its subject function and specify its context of occurrence. is gone) in Romanian? What makes this operation possible and how are the agreement features checked ? Consider the Romanian sentences below and apply the Split-Inflection Hypothesis in their derivation (I=AGR/T).g. Sunt sositi (toti) musafirii. Try to apply subject – predicate inversion and check the acceptability of these sentences. Read the following sentences with equative predicates. 2. d. a. dar el nu observa. chiar in fata aparatului. Consider the following sentences including the verb seem and see whether there is any difference in meaning: a. Oricum. The Marathon man ran on his track for more than 4 hours. b. *There walked John in front of the house. What syntactic rule applies in the following sentences and what does it show? a. c. c. syntactic derivation and distribution) I. b. sit. lie (on the ground) and make up sentences of your own. IX. then identify those predicates that lack CAUSATION in your English version. *John seems that he is hungry. situatia nu mai poate continua in acest fel. Are they unaccusative verbs or not? Circula multe zvonuri privind oprirea centralei nucleare. Translate into English. III. What are the syntactic and semantic features of unergatives? Give examples of your own. Give the argument structure of the following verbs: remain. What kind of verbs admit the auxiliary ESSERE in forming a compound perfective tense? (e. c.