You are on page 1of 22

Name

Class

Index Number

PIONEER JUNIOR COLLEGE


Mid-Year Examination
PHYSICS
Higher 2

9646/02

Paper 2 Structured Questions


27 June 2012
1 hour 45 minutes
Candidates answer on the Question Paper.
No Additional Materials are required.
READ THESE INSTRUCTIONS FIRST
Write your name, class and index number on all the work you hand in.
Write in dark blue or black pen.
You may use a soft pencil for any diagrams, graphs or rough working.
Do not use staples, paper clips, highlighters, glue or correction fluid.
Answer all questions.
At the end of the examination, fasten all your work securely together.
The number of marks is given in brackets [ ] at the end of each question or part question.

For Examiners Use


1

12

16

12

Total

72

This document consists of 22 printed pages.

2012/PJC/PHYSICS/9646

[Turn over

2
Data
speed of light in free space,

c 3.00 10 8 m s1

permeability of free space,

0 4 10 7 H m1

permittivity of free space,

0 8.85 10 12 F m1
1 36 10 9 F m1

elementary charge,

e 1.60 10 19 C

the Planck constant,

h 6.63 10 34 J s

unified atomic mass constant,

u 1.66 10 27 kg

rest mass of electron,

me 9.11 10 31 kg

rest mass of proton,

m p 1.67 10 27 kg

molar gas constant,

R 8.31 J K1 mol1

the Avogadro constant,

N A 6.02 10 23 mol1

the Boltzmann constant,

k 1.38 10 23 J K1

gravitational constant,

G 6.67 10 11 N m2 kg2

acceleration of free fall,

g 9.81 m s2

2012/PJC/PHYSICS/9646

3
Formulae
uniformly accelerated motion,

1 2
at
2
v 2 u 2 2as
s ut

work done on/by a gas,

W pV

hydrostatic pressure,

p gh

gravitational potential,

displacement of particle in s.h.m.,

x x 0 sin t

velocity of particle in s.h.m.,

v v 0 cos t

Gm
r

x 0 x 2
2

mean kinetic energy of a molecule

3
kT
2

of an ideal gas,
resistors in series,

R R1 R2 ...

resistors in parallel,

1/ R 1/ R1 1/ R2 ...

electric potential,

alternating current/voltage,

x x 0 sin t

transmission coefficient,

T exp 2kd where k

radioactive decay,

x x 0 exp(t )

decay constant,

Q
4 0 r

8 2 mU E
h2

0.693
t1
2

2012/PJC/PHYSICS/9646

[Turn over

4
1

A ball bounces inelastically down a flight of steps in a plane perpendicular to the front
edges of the steps, as shown in Fig. 1.1.

0.20 m
0.30 m

Fig. 1.1
Each step is 0.20 m high and 0.30 m deep. It is observed that the ball always bounces
exactly in the middle of each step, and that after each bounce, it rises to the height of the
previous step. Air resistance can be neglected.
(a) Calculate the vertical component of the balls velocity uy, immediately after impact.

uy = ........................................ m s1 [2]
(b) Show that the magnitude of the ratio of uy to the vertical component of the balls
velocity immediately before impact, is 0.71.

[2]

2012/PJC/PHYSICS/9646

5
(c) Calculate the horizontal component of the balls velocity.

horizontal component = ........................................ m s1 [3]

2012/PJC/PHYSICS/9646

[Turn over

6
2

(a) Define the joule.


.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................. [2]
(b) A light helical spring is suspended vertically from a fixed point, as shown in Fig. 2.1.

spring

mass
Fig 2.1
Different masses are suspended from the spring. The weight of the mass and the
length L of the spring are noted.
The variation with weight W of the length L is shown in Fig. 2.2.

Fig. 2.2
L / cm

W/N
Fig. 2.2

2012/PJC/PHYSICS/9646

7
(i) On Fig. 2.2, show clearly the area of the graph that represents energy stored in
the spring when the weight on the spring is increased from zero to 5.0 N.
[1]
(ii) For a spring undergoing an elastic change, the force per unit extension of the
spring is known as the force constant k.
Show that the energy E stored in the spring for an extension x of the spring is
given by the expression
1
E kx 2 .
2

[2]
(c) The mass is pulled downwards and then released. The variation with time t of the
displacement y of the mass is shown in Fig. 2.3.
y / cm

t/s

Fig. 2.3

Using information from Fig. 2.3,


(i) explain why the graph suggests that the oscillations are undamped,
..................................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................... [1]

2012/PJC/PHYSICS/9646

[Turn over

8
(ii) calculate the angular frequency of the oscillations,

angular frequency = ........................................ rad s1 [2]


(iii) determine the maximum speed of the oscillations.

maximum speed = ........................................ m s1 [1]

2012/PJC/PHYSICS/9646

9
3

(a) A stationary electron experiences a force in the direction of the field in which it is
placed. State, with a reason in each case, whether or not the field is magnetic,
electric or gravitational.
(i) magnetic,
..................................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................... [1]
(ii) electric,
..................................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................... [1]
(iii) gravitational.
..................................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................... [1]
(b) Fig 3.1 shows an electron travelling at right angles to a uniform magnetic field. The
electron travels at a linear speed of 3.4 107 m s1, in a circle of radius 2.8 cm.

region of uniform
magnetic field into
plane of paper

Fig. 3.1
The magnetic field is directed into the plane of the paper.
(i) On Fig. 3.1, mark the direction of motion of the electron at point P.

2012/PJC/PHYSICS/9646

[1]

[Turn over

10
(ii) Calculate the magnitude of the field strength.

field strength = ........................................ T [2]


(iii) A uniform electric field is now produced in the same region and in the same
direction as the magnetic field. Suggest and explain the shape of the resultant
path of the electron.
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................... [2]

2012/PJC/PHYSICS/9646

11
4

(a) A coil of wire 1000 turns and resistance 23 enclosing an area of 4.0 cm2 is rotated
from a position where its plane is parallel to the Earths magnetic field (Fig. 4.1) to
one where it is perpendicular to the field (Fig. 4.2) in 5.0 ms.
B
C

C
A

D
Fig. 4.1

Fig. 4.2

Fig. 4.3

(i) Calculate the average induced e.m.f. if the Earths magnetic flux density at the
coils location is 6.0 105 T.

average induced e.m.f. = ........................................ V [3]


(ii) Calculate the average induced current flowing in the coil during the 5.0 ms.

average induced current = ........................................ A [2]


(iii) The coil is then rotated from the position in Fig 4.2 to Fig. 4.3 in 5.0 ms. State the
difference, if any, between the average induced current now and in (a)(ii) for the
current flowing in wire AB.
..................................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................... [1]

2012/PJC/PHYSICS/9646

[Turn over

12
(b) In Singapore, the transmission of electric power over long distances from the power
station to the HDB flats is through the use of transformers. A transformer near the
power plant steps up the plants output root-mean-square (r.m.s.) voltage from
12.0 kV to 240 kV and a series of step-down transformers near the flats reduces the
r.m.s. voltage to a final value of 240 V to the flats.
(i) Calculate the turns ratio of the transformer that is located near the power plant.

Ns
= ........................................ [1]
Np

(ii) Explain why


1. the voltage is being stepped up near the power plant, and
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................... [2]
2. a.c. voltage is required to transmit the electrical energy.
..................................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................... [1]
(iii) An electric kettle is connected to a power socket in the flat. In Fig. 4.4 below,
sketch the variation with time t of the thermal power P generated by a kettle in a
time interval of one period.
P/W

t/s

Fig. 4.4
[2]

2012/PJC/PHYSICS/9646

13
5

Some of the energy levels in atomic hydrogen are shown in Fig. 5.1.
0.378 eV
0.544 eV
0.850 eV
1.51 eV

energy
3.40 eV

13.6 eV

Fig. 5.1
(a) A photon of wavelength 91.4 nm interacts with atomic hydrogen.
(i) Calculate the energy of the photon in electron-volt.

energy = ........................................ eV [2]


(ii) Hence, state the energy transition that will result from this interaction.
........................................................................................................................... [1]
(b) The visible line emission spectrum of hydrogen is formed when electrons fall to the
3.40 eV level.
(i) Show that the wavelength of red light is 658 nm.

[2]

2012/PJC/PHYSICS/9646

[Turn over

14
(ii) On Fig. 5.2, sketch the pattern of the visible line emission spectrum of hydrogen.
Mark the red and violet ends of the spectrum.

increasing wavelength
Fig. 5.2
[1]
(c) The momentum of a photon of the red light is related to its wavelength through the
de Broglie relation.
(i) State the de Broglie relation.
..................................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................... [1]
(ii) Use the equation in (i) to calculate the momentum of a photon of the red light.

momentum = ........................................ kg m s1 [1]

2012/PJC/PHYSICS/9646

15
6

A serious hazard for fire-fighters is the explosion of containers of 'liquefied gas' (butane)
that have been heated in a fire. When the butane suddenly burns in an explosion, the fire
spreads very rapidly in the form of a spherical fireball of increasing radius that is at very
high temperature.
In order to study such fireballs, a series of experiments is carried out. Some butane of
volume 12.5 103 m3 is put in a sealed container and is then heated until it explodes.
The variation with time t of the radius R of the fireball is determined. The results are
shown in Fig. 6.1.

R/m

t / ms
Fig. 6.1
(a) Use Fig. 6.1 to
(i) describe, without any calculation, the variation with time of the rate at which the
radius of the fireball increases,
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................... [2]

2012/PJC/PHYSICS/9646

[Turn over

16
(ii) suggest why, in a room of length 12 m, width 5 m and height 3 m, such an
explosion would be very hazardous.
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................... [3]
(b) It is thought that, for a fixed volume of butane, the radius R of the fireball varies with
time t according to the expression
R n kt m
where n and m are integers and k is a constant. Some corresponding values of Ig t
and Ig R for the data in Fig. 6.1 are plotted on the graph of Fig. 6.2.

lg (R / m)

lg (t / ms)
Fig. 6.2
(i) On Fig. 6.2,
1. plot the point corresponding to time t = 40 ms,
2. draw the best-fit line for all the plotted points.

2012/PJC/PHYSICS/9646

[2]

17
(ii) Determine the gradient of the line drawn in (b)(i)2.

gradient = ........................................ [2]


(iii) Using the values from (b)(ii), suggest values for the integers n and m. Explain
your working.

n = ........................................
m = ........................................
[3]

2012/PJC/PHYSICS/9646

[Turn over

18
(c) The experiment is repeated using similar containers but with different volumes of
butane. The results are shown in Fig. 6.3.
volume of
container / m3

R/m

t / ms
Fig. 6.3
Without drawing a further graph, use Fig. 6.3 to show that, at time t = 40 ms, the
radius R of the fireball is related to the volume V of butane by the expression
R 5 cV

where c is a constant.

[3]
(d) The equation in (c) may also be applied to other exploding gases. Suggest one
physical quantity on which the constant c will depend.
.......................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................. [1]

2012/PJC/PHYSICS/9646

19
7

When sound of a certain frequency is passed into a pipe closed at both ends, standing
waves can be set up in the pipe. The standing waves can be made visible by sprinkling
light powder along the inside length of the pipe. A possible shape (mode of vibration) set
up in the pipe is shown in Fig. 7.1.

Fig. 7.1
The speed of the sound wave in the pipe is thought to depend on the pressure of the gas
in the pipe.
You are provided with a loudspeaker connected to a signal generator which can
generate a large range of unknown frequencies. You may also use any of the other
equipment usually found in a Physics laboratory.
Design an experiment to find how the speed of sound in an enclosed pipe depends on
the pressure of the gas in the pipe.
You should draw diagrams to show the arrangement of your apparatus. In your account
you should pay particular attention to
(a) the equipment you would use,
(b) the procedure to be followed,
(c) the control of variables,
(d) how the velocity of the sound would be measured,
(e) any precautions that you would take to improve the accuracy of the experiment.
[12]

2012/PJC/PHYSICS/9646

[Turn over

20
Diagram

....................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................

2012/PJC/PHYSICS/9646

21

....................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................

2012/PJC/PHYSICS/9646

[Turn over

22

....................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................
End of paper
2012/PJC/PHYSICS/9646