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DLR

Institut fr Strukturmechanik
Braunschweig

IB 131-2002/38
Development of a Two-
Dimensional Piezo Finite Element
in an ANSYS Environment


Partha Bhattacharya, Michael Rose

DEUTSCHES ZENTRUM FR
LUFT- UND RAUMFAHRT e.V. (DLR)
INSTITUT FR STRUKTURMECHANIK
Braunschweig, September 2002 Der Bericht umfat:
32 seiten
4 Tabelle und
8 Bilder
Institutsdirektor: Verfasser:
Prof. Dr.-Ing. E. Breitbach Dr. Partha Bhattacharya, Dr. Michael Rose
Leiter der Organisationseinheit:
Dr.-Ing. H.P. Monner

IB 131-2002/38

Development of a Two-Dimensional Piezo Finite Element in
an ANSYS Environment

3
Development of a two-dimensional piezo finite element in an ANSYS
environment


1. Introduction
In the last two decades there has been a flurry of activities in the area of application of
piezoelectric materials for the control of shape and structural vibration. Various theories
have been developed and a lot of efforts have been undertaken to demonstrate the
advantage of using these materials for the control application. In the course of
development of the theoretical aspects, usage of the computational mechanics and along
with it the finite element techniques is all but natural. In the present work an attempt has
been made to develop a FE code for the piezoelectric analysis in a general-purpose
software (e.g. ANSYS) which can then be implemented for modelling complex structures
with integrated piezo layers.

Before going into the review of some of the works carried by the previous
researchers, it is proper to explain a little into the behaviour of piezoelectric materials.
Piezoelectric effect is the two-way effect between stress/strain and electric field/ voltage
difference in materials without central symmetry. The anisotropy of a crystal structure
enables it to retain its polarisation in the absence of an external field. These materials if
integrated with structures as distributed sensors and actuators are found to be very
effective in controlling the flexible structures without much increase in weight and
spillover effects. In a piezoelectric material coupling of elastic and electric fields is
manifested through direct and converse piezoelectric effects. When a piezoelectric body
is bonded or embedded in a structure (beam/plate/shell), it undergoes deformation along
with the deforming structure and a charge/electric potential is induced in it by virtue of
direct piezoelectric effect. The distributed measurement of this induced charge/potential
gives a distributed measure of the deformation of the flexible structures. On the other
hand if a charge or voltage is applied to a piezoelectric body attached to a flexible
structure, it undergoes deformation and in turn generates distributed forces (moments) on

4
the parent structure. Hence both sensing and actuation of a structure are carried out using
piezoelectric materials.

The first reported piezoelectric effect of crystalline structure was made in 1880 by
Pierre Curie and his brother. Voigt in 1915 presented the fundamental equations on the
behaviour of piezoelectric materials. The discovery of PVDF in 1969 by Kawai was one
of the milestone achievement in the history of piezoelectric materials and its usage in the
electro-structural application.

Mindlin (1952, 1962 and 1972) presented a series of works deducing two-
dimensional equations from the three-dimensional piezoelectric equations and thereafter
employing the variational principle to analyze low frequency vibration of anisotropic
plates. Tiersten (1969) derived the constitutive equations of the piezoelectric from energy
considerations. He also developed the three-dimensional linear differential equations, its
appropriate boundary conditions and presented the solution of pertinent three-
dimensional standing wave problem. Based on that he developed approximation
techniques to model the dynamic behaviour of piezoelectric plates.

One of the earliest works in using finite element technique that included piezoelectric
effects was done by Allik and Hughes (1970) for piezo-ceramic transducer design. They
proposed a tetrahedral (3-D) unit as the basic element for their FE model. Various
researchers have already worked in this area and a huge variety of Finite Elements are
already being theoretically developed and tested upon some simple geometry. These
elements being user specific, has got its limitation to model complicated structures or to
combine with other effects as well. Taking these backgrounds into consideration an
attempt has been made in this present work to develop an isoparametric 8-noded, 2D-
plate element in an ANSYS environment using the special USER feature provided by the
ANSYS. The element developed has got six mechanical degrees of freedom (five for 2D
case) and a single electrical degree of freedom. Although there exists a brick (3D)
element with piezoelectric features but it is limited to static cases only. In the presently
developed piezo finite element (USER102) the dynamic effects are also included. In the

5
next section the detailed deduction of the governing equation is shown. The developed
matrices are then coded using FORTRAN. The developed element is then tested for its
convergence criteria. In the next step, results are obtained for the static and free vibration
cases considering only the mechanical degrees of freedom and they seem also to work
very good. Results are then obtained for piezoelectrically activated structures and are
compared with both theoretical and experimental results. Results are also obtained for
cylindrical piezo actuator and the results seem to follow the predicted physical behaviour.
The performance of the developed element is sufficiently good and the developed
element seems to fit well with the existing elements in the ANSYS. The results obtained
so far seem to be quite encouraging and in the future the developed element can be used
for different structural geometry as well.

2. Constitutive Equations

2.1 Introduction
The analysis of an engineering system usually begins with the isolation and identification
of an idealised model of the system. The next step is to give a precise mathematical
statement to the static or dynamic behaviour of the model. This is done by applying
appropriate governing principles to the model to formulate differential equations of
motion. For mechanical systems the governing requirements can be divided into three
categories:

1. Geometric requirements, including kinematic relations.
2. Equilibrium requirements on the forces for static analysis and dynamic-force
requirements, including relations between forces and rates of change of momentum
for dynamic analysis.
3. Constitutive relation for forces in deformable elements and velocity-momentum
relations for inertial elements.

The main emphasis of this section is to develop the field equations governing a
deformable body, the interaction of the electrical field with the displacement (stress) field
and subsequently developing the material model with a focus towards achieving the
objective.

6

The mechanical systems considered for the present analysis are laminated beams and
plates made from fibre reinforced plastic with piezoelectric patches/layers (active layers)
bonded to or embedded in them. The system is subjected to contact forces (e.g., surface
traction) and body forces (e.g., force exerted by the electrical field developed due to the
presence of the active layers).

The composite laminate is assumed to consist of n number of laminae, which
includes one or many active layers. The other layers are fibre-reinforced laminae, in each
one of them, the fibres may have arbitrary orientations, and the laminae may have
different thicknesses.

The bonded or embedded piezoelectric actuators/sensors are considered as an integral
part of the structure. Perfect bonding is assumed between the layers themselves and
between the piezo layers and the substrate. The lay-up details are shown in Figure 2.1.

One set of piezo layers may act as distributed actuators, whereas the other set, as
sensors. It is assumed that a piezo layer is much thinner compared to the thickness of the
structure substrate, and it is either distributed over the full structure or placed in patches.
A distributed sensor generates a voltage output when the structure is subjected to some
external disturbances due to the direct piezoelectric effect. In the actuator layer external
voltage is applied across the layer thickness and it is strained due to converse
piezoelectric effect which in turn induces stress and strain in the structure proper onto
which it is bonded.

2.2 Laminated Composite: Macro-Mechanical Behaviour

As has been discussed, the structural forms under consideration consist of two
distinctly different materials exhibiting two different behaviours. The composite layers
contribute to the stiffness characteristic and the piezo layer act as active elements
responding to the external excitation owing to their piezoelectric characteristics.
However, it is assumed that the active elements may also contribute to the stiffness
characteristic of the structure. In the following subsections, the constitutive relations for

7
( ) 2.2
Q 0 0 0 0 0
0 Q 0 0 0 0
0 0 Q 0 0 0
0 0 0 Q Q Q
0 0 0 Q Q Q
0 0 0 Q Q Q
12
13
23
33
22
11
66
55
44
33 32 31
23 22 21
13 12 11
12
13
23
33
22
11

'

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
]
1

'

( )
2
LT L T TT
TT
L 11
E E 2 1
1
E Q

both the composite and piezo layers are discussed in details and an attempt is made to
bring the coupling characteristic to the fore.

The heterogeneity in a composite material is introduced due to not only the bi-phase
or in some cases, the multi-phase composition, but also laminations. This leads to
distinctly different stress-strain behaviour in the case of laminates. The anisotropy caused
due to fibre orientations and the resulting extension-shear as well as the bending-twisting
coupling and the extension-bending coupling developed due to an unsymmetric
lamination add to the complexities.

2.3 Lamina Constitutive Equations
Generally speaking, the elastic moduli Q
ij
relating the cartesian components of stress
and strain depends on the orientation of the co-ordinate system. When the elastic moduli
Q
ij
at a point remain invariant for every pair of co-ordinate systems that are mirror images
of each other in a plane, the plane is called the plane of elastic symmetry for the material
at that point. For a lamina, there exists three orthogonal planes of elastic symmetry and
for such a case the on-axis (orthotropic) stress-strain relationship for a unidirectional
composite in a three dimensional elastic domain can be written as
{ } [ ]{ } (2.1) Q
j ij i

i.e.,






where [ ] [ ]
T
12 13 23 33 22 11
T
6 5 4 3 2 1


and [ ] [ ]
T
12 13 23 33 22 11
T
6 5 4 3 2 1


with

8
( )
2
LT L T TT
LT
T 13 12
E E 2 1
E Q Q


( ) ) 1 ( E E 2 1
E E 1
E Q Q
TT
2
LT L T TT
2
LT L T
T 33 22
+







Q
44
= G
23
; Q
55
= G
31
; Q
66
= G
12

where, E
L
= E
1
; E
T
= E
2
=E
3

and,
LT
=
13
=
12
;
TT
=
23

In the present case, a general laminate is made up of many such orthotropic layers
with arbitrarily oriented fibres. It is now of interest to relate the elastic moduli in one co-
ordinate system to those in another co-ordinate system. The elastic moduli Q
ij
of an
orthotropic material (with the material symmetry axes coinciding with the x
1
x
2
-axes) are
related to the elastic modulii
ij
Q in the xy-global co-ordinate system by the relations
(figure 2.1)












Figure 2.1. Laminated plate with arbitrarily located Piezo Laminae

[ ] [ ] [ ][ ] (2.3) T Q T Q
3
T
3


Surface Bonded Piezo
h/2
z
k-1

z
k
h/2
x
z

Embedded Piezo
x
1

x
2

x, u
y, v
z, w

h
a
b
( )( )
TT
2
LT L T TT
2
LT L T TT
T 23
1 E E 2 1
E E
E Q
+
+


9
where, [T
3
] is the transformation matrix that allows one to transform the elastic constants
from material symmetry axes to a global (or problem) co-ordinate axis matrix is given by

[ ] (2.4)
) n m ( 0 0 0 mn 2 mn 2
0 m n 0 0 0
0 n m 0 0 0
0 0 0 1 0 0
mn 0 0 0 m n
mn 0 0 0 n m
T
2 2
2 2
2 2
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
]
1


with m = cos and n = sin
The off-axis stiffness matrix [ ] Q for a lamina is defined in the following stress-strain
relationship:

where,
4
22
2 2
66
2 2
12
4
11 11
n Q n m Q 4 n m Q 2 m Q Q + + +
) n m ( Q n m Q 4 n m ) Q Q ( Q
4 4
12
2 2
66
2 2
22 11 12
+ + +

2
23
2
13 13
n Q m Q Q +

3
66 22 12
3
66 21 11 16
mn ) Q 2 Q Q ( n m ) Q 2 Q Q ( Q + +

4
22
2 2
66
2 2
12
4
11 22
m Q n m Q 4 n m Q 2 n Q Q + + +

2
23
2
13 23
m Q n Q Q +
n m ) Q 2 Q Q ( mn ) Q 2 Q Q ( Q
3
66 22 21
3
66 12 11 26
+ +
mn ) Q Q ( Q ; Q Q
32 31 36 33 33

m Q n Q Q ; n Q m Q Q
2
55
2
44 55
2
55
2
44 44
+ +
mn ) Q Q ( Q
44 55 45


66
2 2 2 2 2
22 12 11 66
Q ) n m ( n m ) Q Q 2 Q ( Q + +
( ) 2.5
Q 0 0 Q Q Q
0 Q Q 0 0 0
0 Q Q 0 0 0
Q 0 0 Q Q Q
Q 0 0 Q Q Q
Q 0 0 Q Q Q
xy
xz
yz
zz
yy
xx
66 63 62 61
55 54
45 44
36 33 32 31
26 23 22 21
16 13 12 11
xy
xz
yz
zz
yy
xx

'

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
]
1

'


10
2.4 Laminate Behaviour with Displacement Model

In the present study two different types of displacement models are considered and
compared. The details of the models are presented in the following subsections.

Flat Plate Laminates
Let us consider a flat laminate of thickness h consisting of unidirectional laminae
bonded together to act as an integral part (figure 2.1). The bonds are infinitesimal and are
not shear deformable.
The assumptions made for two different models are stated as follows
CASE 1.
zz
= 0
(i) The material behaviour is linear and elastic.
(ii) The thickness of the laminate is small compared to other dimensions.
(iii) Displacement u, v, w are small compared to the laminate thickness.
(iv) Normal to the mid-surface before deformation remains straight but is not
necessarily normal to the mid-surface after deformation.
(v) Constant normal strain is present.

Employing a first order shear deformation theory the displacement u, v, w at any
point on the plate can be expressed as,

u = u
0
(x, y) + z
y
(x, y) (2.6a)
v = v
0
(x, y) - z
x
(x, y) (2.6b)
w = w
0
(x, y) + z
z
(x, y) (2.6c)
where, u
0
, v
0
and w
0
are the mid-surface displacements and
x
,
y
and
z
are the shear
rotations.










11
2.5 Strain-Displacement Relations
The strains at any point of the laminate are given by,
xx
0
xx xx
z +
yy
0
yy yy
z
(2.7)
0
zz zz

xz
0
xz xz
z +
yz
0
yz yz
z +
xy
0
xy xy
z +
The curvatures are expressed as,
x
y
xx


;
y
x
yy


;
x
z
xz


;
y
z
yz


;
x y
x
y
xy



and the mid-plane strains are expressed in terms of the mid-plane displacements as,
x
u
o
0
xx

;
y
v
o
0
yy

;
z
0
zz

x
w
0
x
0
xz

+ ;
y
w
0
y
0
yz

+ ;
x
v
y
u
0 o
0
xy



2.6 Stress-Strain Relations

The stress-strain relation with respect to the global axes, xyz-system can be
expressed as

[ ] (2.8)
0
z Q
xy
xz
yz
yy
xx
0
xy
0
xz
0
yz
0
zz
0
yy
0
xx
xy
xz
yz
zz
yy
xx
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
]
1

'

'

'


The stress resultants are given by


12

'

'

2 / h
2 / h
xy
xz
yz
zz
yy
xx
xy
xz
yz
zz
yy
xx
(2.9) dz
N
S
S
N
N
N

and are computed as,
[ ] dz
0
z Q Q Q Q dz N
zz
yy
xx
o
xy
0
zz
0
yy
0
xx
2 / h
2 / h
2 / h
2 / h
16 13 12 11 xx xx
1
1
1
1
1
]
1

'

'





[ ] [ ]

'

'

xy
yy
xx
16 12 11
0
xy
0
zz
0
yy
0
xx
16 13 12 11
B B B A A A A
and so on.
Similarly, the moment resultants are expressed as,

) 10 . 2 ( zdz
M
R
R
M
M
2 / h
2 / h
xy
xz
yz
yy
xx
xy
xz
yz
yy
xx

'

'


and are computed as,

[ ]

+

+
1
1
1
1
1
]
1

'

'


2 / h
2 / h
h/2
h/2 -
xy
yy
xx
2
0
xy
0
zz
0
yy
0
xx
16 13 12 11 xx xx
dz
0
z z Q Q Q Q zdz M


13
[ ] [ ]

'

'

xy
yy
xx
16 12 11
0
xy
0
zz
0
yy
0
xx
16 13 12 11
D D D B B B B
and so on.
From equations (2.9) and (2.10) the stress and moment resultants can be written as,

[ ] (2.11) D
M
R
R
M
M
N
S
S
N
N
N
xy
xz
yz
yy
xx
0
xy
0
xz
0
yz
0
zz
0
yy
0
xx
xy
xz
yz
yy
xx
xy
xz
yz
zz
yy
xx

'

'


where,

[ ] (2.12)
D 0 0 D D B 0 0 B B B
D D 0 0 0 B B 0 0 0
D 0 0 0 B B 0 0 0
D D B 0 0 B B B
D B 0 0 B B B
A 0 0 A A A
A A 0 0 0
A 0 0 0
sym A A A
A A
A
D
66 62 61 66 63 62 61
55 54 55 54
44 45 44
22 21 26 23 22 21
11 16 13 12 11
66 63 62 61
55 54
44
33 32 31
22 21
11
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
]
1





14
( ) 2.13
Q 0 0 0 0
0 Q 0 0 0
0 0 Q 0 0
0 0 0 Q Q
0 0 0 Q Q
12
13
23
22
11
66
55
44
22 21
12 11
12
13
23
22
11

'

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
]
1

'

TL LT
L
11
1
E
Q

TL LT
T LT
12
1
E
Q

TL LT
T
22
1
E
Q

CASE 2:
zz
= 0

In this particular case the stress strain relationship given in equation (2.2) is expressed
differently because of the assumption that the stress in the normal direction equals to
zero.







Where,








Q
44
= G
23
; Q
55
= G
31
; Q
66
= G
12


The transformation of these coefficients from on-axis to the off axis is carried out using
the same procedure as described for the case 1.

The assumed displacement model for this case is expressed as





) t , y , x ( w ) t , z , y , x ( w
(2.14) ) t , y , x ( z ) t , y , x ( v ) t , z , y , x ( v
) t , y , x ( z ) t , y , x ( u ) t , z , y , x ( u
0
x 0
y 0


+

15
The stress resultant strain relationship is expressed as follows








2.7 Piezoelectric constitutive equations
As has been discussed earlier, a piezoelectric material shows both direct and converse
effect and depending on the usage one can exploit the behaviour of the piezoelectric
material. The constitutive relationship that relates the piezoelectric, dielectric and the
structural properties are given as follows:
{ } [ ]{ } [ ] { } Effect) (Converse E e Q
T
(2.16a)
{ } [ ]{ } [ ]{ } Effect) (Direct E e D + (2.16b)






{ }
{ }
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
{ }
{ }
{ } [ ]{ } (2.15b) G Q
(2.15a)
D B
B A
M
N
0

'

1
]
1

'

[ ]
1
1
1
]
1

66 26 16
26 22 12
16 12 11
A A A
A A A
A A A
A
[ ]
1
1
1
]
1

66 26 16
26 22 12
16 12 11
B B B
B B B
B B B
B
[ ]
1
1
1
]
1

66 26 16
26 22 12
16 12 11
D D D
D D D
D D D
D
[ ]
1
]
1

55 45
45 44
G G
G G
G

16
3. Modelling the potential distribution through the piezoelectric layer
The following assumptions are made when modelling the potential distribution through
the thickness of the piezoelectric layer:
(a) The distribution of the potential across the piezoelectric thickness is linear.
(b) The surfaces of the piezoelectric layer in contact with the substrate is suitably
grounded such that the potential at the interface is zero.
(c) There is a perfect bond between the piezo layer and the elastic substrate.

Under such an assumption the applied voltage across the layer can be expressed as

) y , x (
h h
h z
) z , y , x (
a
0
1 n n
1 n a

(3.1)

The electrical field vector is defined as


,
,
,

E
E
E
z
y
x
z
y
x

'

'

(3.2)

At this point it is very important to mention that it is assumed that an electric field vector
perpendicular to the layers is assumed (Lammering)

E
x
= E
y
= 0

Therefore



4. Energy Formulation and FE Modelling

In this section the energy formulation of the piezoelectrically activated structure is
presented and the governing finite element equations are derived.

The total energy in the system can be contributed due to the potential and the kinetic
energy. The potential energy is a combination due to mechanical strain and electrical
strain energy. The mechanical strain energy is expressed as,
(3.3) ) y , x (
h h
1
E
0
1 n n
z


17
The electrical strain energy
{ }{ }

V
E
dV D E
2
1
U (4.2)
Now replacing equation (2.11) in equation (4.1) we obtain the energy terms leading to the
mechanical potential energy

Potential Energy due to mechanical part alone


Kinetic Energy (Note: The deduction is shown for the 2D constitutive matrix case. For
the 3D case the development is similar)

with I
1
, I
2
, I
3
=

2 / h
2 / h
2
dz ) z , z , 1 )( z (
4.1 Finite Element Formulation

In the present work an 8-noded Isoparametric 2-dimensional plate element is developed
and the displacement degrees of freedom as well as the actuator voltage is expressed
using the same shape functions. The details is given in the subsequent formulation,





{ }
{ }
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
{ }
{ }
{ } [ ]{ } (4.3) dA G
D B
B A
2
1
U
T
0
A
T
0
M
+

'

1
]
1

'

(4.1) dV
2
1
U
n
1 k
V
k k
M


(4.4) dA w
v
u
I 0 0 0 I
0 I 0 I 0
0 0 I 0 0
0 I 0 I 0
I 0 0 0 I
w
v
u
2
1
T
y
x
0
0
0
A
3 2
3 2
1
2 1
2 1
T
y
x
0
0
0

'

1
1
1
1
1
1
]
1

'

&
&
&
&
&
&
&
&
&
&



8
1 i
zi i z
8
1 i
yi i y
8
1 i
xi i x
8
1 i
i i
8
1 i
i i
8
1 i
i i
N ; N ; N ; w N w ; v N v ; u N u
(4.5) N
8
1 i
i i



18
( )( ) 5,7 i for 1 1
2
1
N
i
2
i
+
( )( )( ) 4 to 1 i for 1 1 1
4
1
N
i i i i i
+ + +
( )( ) 6,8 i for 1 1
2
1
N
i
2
i
+
Where











Now combining equations (2.6a) to (2.6c) and (4.5) we can express the generalised
strains as



Combining equations (2.16a,b), (3.3) and (4.2) we finally obtain the energy component
due to coupled field as follows

{ } [ ] [ ] [ ][ ][ ]{ }


V
ae
o p
a
p
T T T
e 1 E
dV B Z e Z B d
2
1
U (4.6)

{ } [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ][ ]{ }dV d B Z e Z B
2
1
U
V
e
T
T
a
p
T
p
T
ae
0 2 E

(4.7)

and the energy component due to dielectric effect as given below

{ } [ ] [ ] [ ][ ][ ]{ } dV B Z Z B
2
1
U
ae
0 p
a
p
V
T
a
p
T
p
T
ae
0 3 E

(4.8)

Similar procedure is carried out for the mechanical strain energy too and the final
expression and now applying the Lagrangian on the total energy we obtain the final
governing finite element equations as follows


Here the mechanical Stiffness matrix [K] is given by
[ ]

'

,
_

u
B
[ ]{ } [ ]{ } [ ]{ } { }
[ ]{ } [ ]{ } { } (4.10) Q K u K
(4.9) F K u K u M
a a u
m a u
a a a
a
+
+ +

& &

19

Similarly the coupling matrix is expressed as
[ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ][ ]

V
P
a
P
T T T e
u
dV B Z e Z B K
a
(4.12)
and [ ] [ ]
T
e
u
e
u
a a
K K


and the stiffness due to electrical part alone is given by
[ ] [ ] [ ] [ ][ ][ ]



V
P
a
P
T
a
P
T
a
P
e
dV B Z Z B K
a a
(4.13)
Finally the mass matrix is given by


Equation (4.9) and (4.10) is then modeled as a single matrix equation


The final equation is then modeled in the ANSYS USER102 routine (details in
Appendix) and results are obtained.

5. Results and Discussion
The verification of the developed element is carried out by comparing with both
theoretical and experimental results. The numerical results for different cases are
compared for both with piezoelectric layers and without piezoelectric layers. The results
for the cases without piezoelectric layers are compared with those obtained using
SHELL99, a standard ANSYS finite element. In this section the results are presented in
two sub-sections namely (a) Without Piezo Layer and (b) With Piezo Layer.

5.1 Without Piezo Layer
Convergence study
As a standard test for every developed element, a convergence test is carried out for the
developed element (SHELL102). As it has been pointed out earlier that the SHELL102
element has been developed using two different constitutive relationships, the results for
both the cases has been presented.

[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ] [ ][ ] (4.11) dA B G B B
D B
B A
B K
S
T
S B
T
A
B
+
1
]
1

[ ] [ ] [ ][ ] (4.14) dV N N M
V
T


(4.15)
Q
F u
K K
K K
0
u
0 0
0 M
u
u

'

'

1
]
1

'

1
]
1

& &

20
Example 1:
Model Data
Length = Breadth = 1m
Thickness = 0.009 m ( 3 layers @ 0.003 m); Fiber Orientation = 0/90/0
All sides Clamped ( u = v = w = rotx = roty = rotz = 0)
Material Properties
E
1
= 140 Gpa; E
2
= E
3
= 10 Gpa

12
= 0.3 =
13
=
23

G
12
= 7 Gpa; G
23
= G
13
= 6 Gpa

Table 1. Midpoint displacement ( x 10
-5
m) due to a point load of 1 N applied at X = L/2
and Y = B/2
Element Type
Mesh Size
SHELL99 SHELL102
(2D)
SHELL102
(3D)
2 x 2
4 x 4
6 x 6
8 x 8
10 x 10
12 x 12
0.194
0.172
0.177
0.177
0.177
0.177
0.163
0.139
0.169
0.174
0.175
0.176
0.160
0.140
0.166
0.170
0.171
0.171

From the results it can be concluded that the developed SHELL102 element performs
quite well with the SHELL99 element which is an in-house ANSYS product. In the next
step a study is carried out to get an idea how the developed element performs for dynamic
cases compared to the SHELL99 element.

Comparison of the Frequency
In the following two examples the comparison of the dynamic behavior of laminated
composite plates have been studied. The results are presented below.
Example 2:
Model Data 1
Structure: Square Plate clamped on all sides
Length = Breadth = 5m; Thickness = 0.03 m
Fiber orientation 0/90/0
Material Properties
E
1
= 140 Gpa; E
2
= 15 Gpa
G
12
= 6 Gpa; G
13
= G
23
= 5 Gpa

12
= 0.3

21
= 1500 Kg/m
3

SHELL102 (2D) have been used.

Table 2. Comparison of the free vibration frequencies
Frequency Shell99 User102(2D) User102 (3D)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
12.881
18.058
28.479
32.755
36.240
44.086
44.107
57.663
62.832
65.191
12.982
18.270
28.915
33.272
37.217
44.810
46.155
61.530
64.382
66.153
13.202
18.828
29.991
33.669
37.850
46.559
47.275
63.238
65.051
68.760

Example 3:
Model Data 2
Structure: Cantilever Beam
L = 200 mm; B = 27 mm; Thickness = 2 mm
16 Layers (0/45/90/-45/0/45/90/-45)
s

Material Properties
Similar to example 2.




Table 3 Comparison of the free vibration frequencies

Frequency All - Shell99 Shell102 (2D)
1 (B)
2 (B)
3 (T)
4 (D+T)
5 (B)
44.711
247.78
579.66
660.81
717.73
44.346
276.920
590.89
675.69
773.63

In both the examples it has been observed that the free vibration frequencies for
SHELL102 compares exceedingly well with the frequencies obtained from SHELL99,
which is a proven and tested ANSYS element. With this level of confidence numerical
experiments were undertaken to test the developed element with the results available for
piezo-structure coupled behaviour.




22
Comparison of piezoelectric displacement
Example 1
As the first example an aluminium beam (Fig 5.1) with piezoelectric layer bonded on the
top is considered. The material properties of the beam is given as follows:
Aluminium: E
1
= E
2
= E
3
= 68.9476 GPa, = 0.25
Adhesive : E
1
= E
2
= E
3
= 6.894 Gpa, = 0.4
Piezoelectric: E
1
= E
2
= 68.9476 Gpa, E
3
= 48.258 Gpa,
13
= 0.25
e
31
= -10.126, e
33
= 18.81 C/m
2


11
=
22
=
33
= 0.1153 x 10
-7
F/m
To simulate the conditions as reported by Robbins and Reddy [13] and Saravanos [14], a
uniform voltage of 12.5 KV is applied on the piezoelectric layer. The result obtained is
illustrated in Fig 5.2








Fig 5.1 Schematic diagram of an Aluminum beam with bonded PZT
The tip deflection as reported by Saravanos equals to 0.355 x 10
-3
m and the tip
deflection as obtained by the present FE model in the ANSYS environment also equals to
0.360 x 10
-3
. The deflected pattern obtained from the ANSYS post-processing file is
illustrated in Fig 2.

15.24 cm
1.524 cm
0.1524 cm
0.0254 cm
Aluminium Beam
Piezoelectric Layer
Adhesive

23

Fig 5.2 Displacement pattern of a cantilever PZT-bonded Aluminum beam subjected to a
uniform voltage of 12.5 KV.

Example 2
In this example a comparison study is done with the experimental results on a laminated
composite beams with piezoelectric patch bonded on to the surface. The details of the
model is given as below
Geometry data
Length = 200 mm; Width = 27 mm
16 layers @ 0.125 mm = 2 mm;
Lamination sequence is shown in Fig 5.3 and Fig 5.4

24

Fig 5.3 Lamination sequence of the bare beam

Fig 5.4 Lamination sequence of the bonded area of the beam

25
The material properties for the different materials are as follows
Material 1 (Orthotropic)
E
1
= 140 GPa, E
2
= E
3
= 9.784 GPa,
12
=
13
= 0.276;
23
= 0.35; G
12
= G
13
= 5.310 GPa
G
12
= 1.313 GPa
Material 2 (Isotropic)
E
1
= E
2
= E
3
= 22.3 GPa,
12
=
13
=
23
= 0.38
e
31
= e
32
= -15.3 C/m
2
; e
33
= 16.4 C/m
2

11
= 9.31 x 10
-9
F/m =
22
;
33
= 7.62 x 10
-9
F/m
Material 3 (Isotropic)
E
1
= E
2
= E
3
= 19.02 GPa,
12
=
13
=
23
= 0.25

The location of the piezoelectric patches is shown in Fig 5.5.






Fig 5.5 Schematic layout of the PZT bonded laminated composite beam

A uniform voltage of 100 volts is applied on the top piezo layer (material 2) and the
transverse deflection pattern obtained from ANSYS is illustrated in Fig 5.6. The results
are then compared with the experimental results. The results are shown in Fig 5.7. It has
to be noted that the FE results compare very well with the experimental results in the
lower voltage zone. From the experimental results it can be easily understood that the
piezoelectric behaviour does not show any more linearity and to capture the experimental
behaviour exactly the FE model has to be modified by incorporating a voltage dependent
function for the piezoelectric material property.








50 mm 50 mm 100 mm
27 mm
PZT

26
Fig 5.6 Plot of the transverse displacement (UZ) of the laminated beam subjected to a
uniform voltage of 100 volts applied on the top piezo layer














Fig 5.7 Comparison plot for the transverse displacement of the laminated composite
beam
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0 50 100 150 200 250
Volts
D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t

(

x

1
0
-
3

m
)
Experimental

FE Results

27
6. MATLAB Programming

In the present work a MATLAB program is also developed (Ref. IB 131-
2002/30). The binary files obtained from the ANSYS program are analyzed and the mass
and stiffness matrices are read. The resulting matrices are then used to obtain the free
vibration frequencies. The results are tabulated and are shown in table 4. From the results
it is clear that the MATLAB program works very well.


7. Future Plans

In the future some of the works that can be carried out are as follows
To obtain the modal matrices and use them for control application
To do some dynamic experimentation and comparing the results
To include the pre-stress effects
To include the radius of curvature effect


Acknowledgement: Mr. Johannes Riemenschneider & Mr. Christian Anhalt

8. References

1. Curie, J. and Curie, P., 1880, Piezo effect in Quartz and some other Materials, C. R.
Acad. Sci. Paris, 91,294(1880); 91,383(1880)

2. Voigt, W., 1915, Remarks on Some New Investigations on Pyro and Piezoelectricity
of Tourmaline, Anal. Physik, Vol. 46, pp. 221-230

3. Mindlin, R. D., 1952, Forced thickness-shear and flexural vibrations of piezoelectric
crystal plates, J. appl. Phys., Vol. 23, pp. 83-88

Table 4 Comparison of the frequencies obtained from ANSYS and from the
MATLAB program
Mode Number ANSYS MATLAB
1
2
3
4
42.015
157.46
268.23
427.98
42.0146
157.458
268.230
437.97

28
4. Mindlin, R. D., 1962, Forced vibrations of piezoelectric crystal plates, Q. appl.
Math., Vol. 22, pp. 107-119

5. Mindlin, R. D., 1972, High Frequency Vibrations of Piezoelectric Crystal Plates,
Int. J. of Solids Structures, Vol. 8, pp. 895-906

6. Tiersten, H. F., 1969, Linear Piezoelectric Plate Vibration, Plenum Press, New York

7. Allik, H. and Hughes, T., 1970, Finite Element Method for Piezoelectric Vibration,
J. Int. J. for Num. Methods in Engineering, Vol. 2, pp. 151-168.

8. Nailon, M., Coursant. H. and Besnier, F., 1983, Analysis of Piezoelectric Structures
by Finite Element Method, ACTA Electronica, Vol. 25, No. 4, pp. 341-362

9. Ray, M. C., Bhattacharya, R. and Samanta, B., 1994, Static Analysis of an
Intelligent Structure by Finite Element Method, Comput. Struct., Vol. 52, No. 4, pp.
617-631

10. Tzou H. S. and M. Gadre, 1989, Theoretical Analysis of a Multi-layered Thin Shell
Coupled with Piezoelectric Shell Actuators for Distributed Vibration Controls, J.
Sound and Vib, Vol. 132, No. 3, pp. 433-451

11. Bhattacharya, P., H. Suhail and P. K. Sinha, Finite Element Free Vibration Analysis
of Smart Laminated Composite Beams and Plates, Journal of Intelligent Material
Systems and Structures, Vol. 9, No. 1, pp. 20 29, January 1998

12. Lammering, R., 1991, The Application of a Finite Shell Element for Composites
Containing Piezo-Electric Polymers in Vibration Control, Computers and Structures,
Vol. 41, No.5, pp: 1101 1109

13. Reddy, J. N. and D. H. Robbins, 1991, Analysis of Piezoelectrically Actuated Bems
using a Layer-wise Displacement Theory, Computers & Structure, Vol. 41, No. 2,
pp-265 279

14. Saravanos, D. A. and P. R. Heyliger, 1995, Coupled Layerwise Analysis of
Composite Beams with Embedded Piezoelectric Sensors and Actuators, J. of
Intelligent Material Systems and Structures, Vol. 6, pp-350 363

15. Rose, Michael, 2002, Dokumentation einer Schnittstelle fur MATLAB zum
Einlesender Modell und Ergebnisdaten aus den binaren Ausgabedateien von
ANSYS, IB 131-2002/30, DLR, Braunschweig






29
Appendix A

Important Features

USER102 element definition (et,*,102)

1. 8-noded element based on SHELL99.
2. Shear deformation and Rotary Inertia taken into consideration
3. 5 degrees of mechanical degrees and one electrical degree at the element level (for the
3-dimensional constitutive matrix, 6 mechanical degrees taken into consideration.)
4. 6 mechanical degrees of freedom after transforming into global level.
5. Piezoelectric inputs should be given through TABLE, PIEZ option

Notes for the User

1. The 6
th
degree (ROTZ) must be locked for the 2-dimensional case.
2. The input for the poissons ratio should be minor (NUXY, NUYZ, NUXZ).
3. When defining a PIEZO layer, the material number should be always assigned as 2.
4. Even for Isotropic cases, all the material property inputs needs to be supplied.

Description of the programs

The user102 element comprises of the following *.f files:

uel102.f: This program is the heart of the element programs and all the ANSYS input are
read in this program and passed onto the subroutines. The element stiffness and the mass
matrices are calculated in this program and returned. The bending and the shear stiffness
for the mechanical part are calculated separately and then added up. The piezoelectric
coupling matrix and the dielectric matrix are calculated using 3-point (Gauss) integration.
The mass matrix is also calculated using 3-point integration. The parameters used in the
program is described below:

nl: Layer number
nj: material number
prop(100): Array to read the properties
ex, ey, ez: Modulus of Elasticity
anxy, anxz, anyz: Poissons Ratio
thk: Thickness
gxy, gxz, gyz: Shear Modulus
tk: Fiber Orientation
dens: Material Density
rvr: Array to read the real numbers for the layers
bdi(48,48): [K
uu
] matrix, Mechanical Stiffness (N.B: For 2-dimensional case the size of
the matrix is 40 x 40)
bdf(48,48): Final form of the mechanical stiffness matrix after transformation
ftrans(48,48): Transformation matrix

30
bdcouple(48,8): The piezo-mechanical coupling matrix (N.B: For 2-dimensional case the
size of the matrix is 40 x 8)
dd(7,7): ABD Matrix. Calculated in the dmat.f subroutine and passed on to uel102.f.
gg(4,4): G Matrix. Calculated in the dmat.f subroutine and passed on to uel102.f.
aplace(3,3), wgt(3,3): Matrices defined for Gauss Integration
en(8): Shape functions, defined in shape1.f routine
anx(8), any(8): Derivative of the shape function, defined in shape1.f routine
bb(7,48): Strain-displacement matrix defined in bmat.f. (N.B: For 2-dimensional case the
size of the matrix is 7 x 40)
amat(6,6): Inertia Matrix
bdelec(8,8): [K

] matrix
apr(ip): Array for defining the piezoelectric coefficients.

uec102.f: See details in the ANSYS help menu. In this file the degrees of freedom are
defined.
Uex102.f & uep102.f: See details in the ANSYS help menu
bmat.f : The strain displacement matrix [B] is defined in this file.
bpiezo.f: The relation between the mechanical displacement and the electrical voltage at
the nodes is described in this file.
coeftran.f: This file is important for the development of the reduced piezoelectric
property in case of the 2-dimensional constitutive matrix. The material properties are read
and are reduced according to the plane stress theory (Lammering, Computers and
Structures, Vol. 41, No. 5, pp. 1101-1109).
dmat.f: In this program the ABD matrix and the G matrix are calculated.
shape1.f: The shape functions and their derivatives are calculated in this subroutine
matden.f: The material density matrix amat is calculated in this subroutine.















31
Appendix B
Transformation of the Element Matrices into Global Matrices

The element matrices as has already been described takes six degrees of mechanical
degrees and one electrical degree of freedom. Therefore there are 56 degrees of elemental
degrees of freedom per element. The voltage being a scalar quantity needs no rotation
and therefore the transformation matrix is a 48 x 48 matrix and the details of the matrix
are described in this section.
In the first step the local coordinates are transformed into the global coordinates using the
following transformation


[O] being orthogonal
[O]
-1
= [O]
T


Similarly the relation between the local and the global degrees of freedom are expressed
as




[ ] { }{ }{ } [ ]
3 2 1
e e e O
[ ]

'

'

l
l
l
g
g
g
z
y
x
O
z
y
x
{ } { } { }
{ } { } { } e , e ; e
w
v
u
e w ;
w
v
u
e v ;
w
v
u
e u
zg
yg
xg
T
3 zl
zg
yg
xg
T
2 yl
zg
yg
xg
T
1 xl
g
g
g
T
3 l
g
g
g
T
2 l
g
g
g
T
1 l

'

'

'

'

'

'

{ }
{ }
{ }
{ }
{ }
{ }
{ }
[ ]{ }
g
zg
yg
xg
g
g
g
T
3
T
2
T
1
T
3
T
2
T
1
zl
yl
xl
l
l
l
l
U e
w
v
u
e
e
0
0
e 0
0 e
0 e
0 e
w
v
u
U

'

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
]
1

'


32
The electrical degree (volt) is a scalar quantity and therefore needs no transformation.
Hence the transformation is carried out only on the mechanical degrees of freedom and
the transformation matrix [T] is as follows



The final matrices in the global coordinates before the assembly process can therefore be
written as


And the mass matrix in the global coordinates is expressed as




[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
]
1

e
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
T
[ ] [ ] [ ][ ] T K T K
Luu
T
Guu

[ ] [ ] [ ]


Lu
T
Gu
K T K
[ ] [ ] [ ][ ] T M T M
T
G