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should forward It. other postage will be refunded AH persons are hereby warned that the unauthorised retention or destruction of this document nan offence against the Official Secrets Act . S. LONDON. MILLSANK. HANTS TECHNICAL NOTE No: ARM. upon obtaining possession of thit document. by finding or otherwlie. 407 i '•• TECH.W I CM Letter potti|e need not be prepaid. Tht officers exercising thli power of communication art rtspomlWe that luch information i imparted with due caution and rtttrvt Any ptrion other than the authorlied holder. 407 REVIEWED ON: Illt+IrS Dat« _2ai*—. NOTE ARM. together with hit name and addeess.TECH. O) It li Intended for tht ui* of the recipient only. MINISTRY OF SUPPLY. NOTE ARM.and for communication to such officers undtrhim at may rtqulre to bt acquainted with iti eonttnti m the course of their dutlti. 407 Decl PADS FARNBOROUGH. Signatort ^ LUBRICATION OF CLOCKWORK FUZE MECHANISMS FOR BOMBS THIS DOCUMENT IS THE PROPERTY OF H M GOVERNMENT AND ATTENTION IS CALLED TO THE PENALTIES ATTACHING TO ANY INFRINGEMENT OF THE OFFICIAL SECRETS ACT. >n a closed envelope to:THE SECRETARY. I9IUI920.

Ref: Arm.A. LIST OF CONTENTS Page 1 2 3 Introduction Method of Test Results 3 3 3 3. FARNB0R0UGH Lubrication of Clockwork Fuze Mechanisms for Bombs by F. Some tests with no lubricant are recorded.2 3*3 3*4 3»5 4 Non-Mineral Oils Mineral Oils Silicone Fluid and Grease Colloidal Graphite Lubrication Absent 3 4 4 4 4 4 5 Conclusions Advance Distribution .1 3.E. 1948 ROYAL AIRCRAFT ESTABLISHMENT. It is concluded that silicone fluids and greases are at present the most suitable for aircraft bomb fuze requirements.407 December.1426/RRG/FH/31 SUMMARY Tests of the value of mineral and non-mineral oils.S. silicone fluids and greases.Technical Note No. Hov/ick R. Arm. The work has particular reference to the efficacy of the various lubricants under extremes of temperature. and colloidal graphite as lubricants for clockwork fuze movements are described.

II. -2- .III A.407 LIST OF APPENDICES Appendix Test on Fuze Ivi.III A. Lubrication with Silicone Grease I II III IV Extracts from records of tests on Colloidal Graphite List of Lubricating Oils.4A Technical Note No.II lubricated with Fluid Silicones Fuze M. etc. Arm.

This deteriorated during storage. The balance included a static condition between each beat with rapid acceleration and deceleration. 3 3*1 Results Non-Mineral Oils Tests with non-mineral oils on both the American and the British mechanisms established their unreliability at low temperatures. The tests made with colloidal graphite required preliminary preparation of the bearing surfaces by smoothing. e. were chosen with known records. with one winding.Technical Note No.. especially the escapement. For assessing the value of a new lubricant. run and would be further diminished by deterioration of the lubricant. movements. The object of this Note is to collect and record the results of the experimental work carried out on lubrication of fuze mechanisms for adverse conditions. An essential requirement of this movement was its capacity to self start. the M. further smoothing of the graphite after its application being done with peg wood. where pressure for impulsing the balance is by point contact. until failure to complete a 21+ hr. Arm. Early tests at high temperature comprised a 21+ hr.407 1 Introduction Failures which occurred with flare fuzes. countersinks made for the terminals of the bearing pivots. 2 Method of Test • The value of a lubricant as such was assessed by comparison with the best of the non-mineral types of oil such as Ezra Kelley oil used by watchmakers for over a century. usually 12 in number. period occurred. were shown to be due in part to the lubricant. the American M. Running tests were confined to the 2" drum type as above and preparation of the test movement involved reducing friction to a minimum and ensuring uniformity of balance wheel performance. Points to be lubricated included low and high pressures with inverse high and low speeds.III fuze movement deterioration of the lubricant would soon cause failure due to the heavy loading at the pressure points. especially at high temperatures and failed when called upon to function at extreme low temperatures. Cleansing was effected with petroleum ether with separate rinsing.92 seconds and an escapement speed of 196 beats per second. Movements were placed in sealed canisters for both high and low temperature tests.III fuze movement. This time was.g. The first was an ordinary 2" drum lever movement as used in British flare fuzes. and if not provided. (All the American flare fuzes had the same basic clockwork mechanism).III (American) during the war years. Silicone fluids and greases were treated in the same way as normal lubricants. had a range of 6 . ^^»^> With the M. Satisfactory functioning below -30°C was rarely obtained and -20° represented -3-' . The balance wheel arc would naturally diminish at the end of a 24 hr. Care was taken to avoid over-lubrication which would defeat the object of the provision of these countersinks. Tests were carried out with two types of movement.later increased to 48 hrs. period at +60°G. the balance giving 4 beats per second. capable of running for 30 hrs. In contrast. and a timing datum provided by runs at normal temperature. Main springs were best treated with Alcohol Resin dispersion. the second.

Nos. 3. Results of this test appear in Appendix I (Table I).33 had equally valuable properties.Technical Note No. The inferior lubricating qualities were not considered to be detrimental for the 'once only' run required of fuze mechanisms at the time of their expenditure.2 Mineral Oils As a result of the failure of non-mineral oils the Americans in early 1944 changed to a mineral oil WS. There is a great liability to creep as viscosity diminishes. 10 and 11 (see Appendix IV) represent substitutes for the usual watch and clock oils with slightly lower temperature limits. 3»4 Colloidal Graphite Clock parts prepared as shown on Pig»1 were subjected to a continuous running test. -4- .III fuzes established their unreliable performance in this condition. Satisfactory results down to below -70°C were obtained. 4 Conclusions The effective low temperature range of the non-mineral types of lubricants is limited to approximately -20°C. Arm. its low temperature limit being approximately -45°C to -50°C. Work directed to finding a mineral oil lubricant for British fuze mechanisms led to similar results.407 the lowest temperature at which functioning could be relied upon. The tendency to oreep was overcome by the use of a 'non-spread dope'. Creeping was countered by the use of a liberal application of the lubricant. 9. Its liability to spread and evaporate limits its usefulness. the oil DTD.44/D being finally chosen. 3»3 Lubrication Absent Tests with degreased and unlubricated M. Silicone grease DC. The mineral types Nos.8. showed that as a lubricant silicone fluids did not compare favourably with conventional lubricating oils. with earlier gumming.429* This lowered the temperature limit to about -50°C "but introduced difficulties due to creeping and gumming on storage. They have good lubricating and staying qualities. Their stability and small viscosity change at high and low temperature were however remarkable. 3*3 Silicone Fluid and Grease A comparative running test over considerable periods. Detailed results of the tests appear in Appendix III.but the performance of colloidal graphite as a lubricant at normal temperatures is inferior to that of any of the fluid lubricants tested. Particulars of these tests are given in Appendices I and II. Evaporation and gumming under prolonged high temperature storage still remained a problem but the rapidity of fuze expenditure under wartime conditions permitted it to be temporarily shelved. These effects become extremely pronounced under tropical conditions. and they gave reliable low temperature operation to -50° to -55°C. No.5 is the best general low temperature lubricant.6 and 7 are spreading types with gummy residue after evaporation.

OB 2 CEAD GSAR TPA5AIB ~ 60 DRAE DDRAE(W) IAP Dept. Arm. but in order to lessen friction. Where a higher viscosity was roquired. Attached. . run appeared to be satisfactory.IV.407 Colloidal graphite can only "be applied where the bearing surface is sufficiently generous* Point contact as for balance v/heel "bearings of the 2" drum clockwork movement. Dept.Ill being equivalent to no lubricant. In the tests the balance pivots were oiled for the continuous running test at normal temperature. The range from 500/50 C. Silicone Fluids and Greases cover a wide range of viscosities and advantage can be taken of this fact to suit a particular requirement.55524- Appendices I . Any tendency to creep with the lower viscosities can be countered by the use of non-spread dope.Technical Note No. With these rofinements its 84 hr. long delay clockwork fu2e had an appreciable thickness of graphite on the scape wheel teeth.S. as for mainsprings. Arm. to 500/200/CS. hardened and polished steel inserts were included for pivot bearings.1 Drg.10 Library .17. Atkinson) Arm. Note: The German No. as it would scrape off in action. Silicone Grease D-33 is satisfactory. or scape wheel to pallet of the id. and the normal coating gave best results. and no incompatibility has been observed. (Mr. Dept. etc. was found to be most suitable. Advance Distribution:DArmRD ADArmR ADAmiRD RDArm5 RDArmR2 RDInstA Sec. Honick) Chein. (Mr.2 -5- .Pig.

S. Sixteen of the fuzes in groups of four were lubricated with Dow Corning silioone fluids of four viscosities. 100 and 50 Centistokes.S.1019 dated 14 Jan.COMiilDENTlAtTechnical Note No. Methods of Test 1 Six fuzes were degreased and tested at normal temperature with a setting of 92 seconds. The fuzes were placed in an oven at 70°C for 48 hours.III fuze was originally lubricated with porpoise jaw oil (Grade 1 watch oil U. causing the fuze to fail. Am.III A. the fuzes being maintained at the stated temperature for at least two hours. 407 APPENDIX. Attention was given to the pivots and bearings to ensure smoothness. The mainsprings were treated with colloidal graphite in a resin-alcohol dispersion* The remaining two fuzes were lubricated throughout with mineral oil to DTD.1947) Introduction The M. 3 To investigate the performance of the fuze at low temperature after prolonged storage at 70°C when lubricated with fluid silicones. 1945.44D. and conforming to U. Countersinks were provided for the lubricant and nonspread dope was applied ijo the adjacent parts. 2 and 3. After being taken from the refrigerator. AN0. viz. Spec. Three timing tests with the fuzes set to a nominal 92 seconds delay were made at normal temperature (20OC) and the mean of the three tests for each fuze was used as the value for the determination of the errors in subsequent tests. 1944* the lubrication was changed to a mineral oil (V. the -6- . Dow Corning. Spec. Tests Nos. These fluids. Efforts have therefore been made to find a lubricating fluid to enable the fuze to withstand prolonged tropical storage and subsequently to function satisfactorily at a low temperature. The fluids investigated in these tests are a series of fluid Silicones manufactured by Messrs. 2-47) > "but in January.4). preceded by 16 hours at ~32°C. 200. it was found that the lubricant crept and evaporated during tropical storage. The results are given in Table I. I Tests on Fuse M. are very involatile and their viscosity does not change greatly over a wide range of temperature. 350. Object of Tests 1 To determine if lubricant is necessary for the fuze. are given in Table II. 2 Eighteen fuzes remaining from the batch of forty eight tested in June.429 manufactured by the Standard Oil Go. 2 To investigate the performance of the fuze at low temperature when lubricated with fluid silicones and to compare the results with a fuze lubricated with mineral oil.S.The results. 1. (Test Record F15&) were dismantled and degreased with petroleum ether.F85j« Although the use of mineral oil gave a slightly lower temperature for reliable operation. They were then taken out and placed in a refrigerator.II lubricated with Fluid Silicones (Test Record No. Fuzes lubricated with Grade 1 watch oil were found to function satisfactorily down to a temperature of -35°C (Test Record No. obtainable in a range of viscosities.

fuze.7.6. The results of the tests at -60°C.4. on seventh test.. whilst the remainder failed after several tests.4. Conclusions Of the six fuzes tested without lubrication. and at normal temperature Fuze No.. 92. 3 The fuzes were placed in an oven maintained at a temperature of 72° to 74°C during working hours. 93. 92. The six weeks period of storage was made up as follows:2 periods of 48 hours at high temperature 2 ii ii 24 " " " " • • 26 g " II " II 8 ~Z " I) " It " II " II Total 370 After removal from the oven. -53°C and -50°C are given in Table II Tests Nos. three stopped after a few seconds on the first test. The lubricating property of fluid silicones being less than oils.0.2. etc.2. on third test. The results are given in Table II Test No. 100 or 50 Centistokes.8. Lubrication is therefore essential to the. when lubricated with Dow Corning fluid silicones Type 500 of viscosities 200.4.4.6. 90. 91. be made as smooth as possible. after about 1 sec. the lowest temperature at which the tests were made. 91. 91. the fuzes were placed in a refrigerator and tested at a temperature of -60°C.0. 90. the fuze is still capable of functioning correctly at -60°C. The results are given in Table II Test No. Further tests are being made "with fuzes lubricated 'with silicone grease which has the advantage that the application of nonspread dope to the mechanisms is not necessary.Ill A. Started and stopped Time in sees. setting of 92 sees.Ann. The use of fluid silicones instead of oil greatly improves the performance of the fuze as comparison of Table II with Tables I and II of Test Record No. . from release of clockwork to firing Started and stopped after about 15 sees. TABLE I Timing Tests on Fuze II. -7- . Started and stopped after about 5 sees. on ninth test. 92. After a prolonged tropical test.6. F156 will show.SECRET Technical Note No. it is considered advisable that all sliding surfaces such as pivots. 91-0. 5 and 6.407 fuzes were immediately timed at laboratory temperature with an accurate stop watch. 90. During other hours the oven was switched off. 1 2 3 4 92. 93.II without lubricant All fuzes tested at max. started and stopped after about 15 sees. the lubrication of the mainsprings changed from colloidal graphite to Dow Corning Silicone Crease D33* the mechanism lubricated again with the silicone fluids and a test made at -60°C. 91. 4 Twelve of the fuzes were dismantled.8. 4. 93«6.6.6. 92.

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for a supply of 30 fuzes to give reliable operation at -50°0.T. its. and previous tests have been'made with" G'.adjustment.I.E.III are G. as being more reliable. The refrigerator being used at night gave at least 12 hrs. ! Results For the purpose required the results are quite satisfactory. 1947. Object of Test To provide 30 fuzes M. where-any slight resistance due to increased viscosity of the lubricant could be sufficient to hold up the mechanism. This was used and tested as shown without alteration. .II.' CONFIDENT!.I.O. A comparison of the results obtained "oy the use of Silicone Grease as against Silicone Fluids would. The two sources of manufacture of Fuze M.. Lie t hod To provide a means of examining the clockwork escapement in action. has yielded results which are considered to be of sufficient interest to be presented in the form of a Test Record. Conclusions The provision of sufficient mainspring torque to ensure selfstarting .1019 (14th January.I.at the test temperature before timing the fuzes. hook (provided to jerk .the clockwork into action.A. and to assist in self starting.Co's manufacture and were used for the test. iffPMDIX U : Technical Note No.T. delay for Bomb Tail Smoke Generator. the temperatures used being -63°C.. The lubricant was applied very sparingly during assembly. the working surfaces were finished smooth.III . was reduced in height by approximately one half.. were given a final test at -59°C Fu'zes Nos.of G.sec. issued previously.. 1026 dated 16 my. 1947/ Introduction The requirement of Bomb Group. R.require a further test using identical fuzes. 19 by a fuze' from a previous test on Silicone Fluid 500/100 cs marked (5).:9 and 19 were rejected. but those available at present are of V/'. Ann* Dept.i. arm.CCo. and W. -57°C and -53 °C Doubtful fuzes.407 Fuze l. and to lessen the likelihood of failure of the starting detent to eject. Subsequent tests with Silicone Grease D»33 have given good low temperature results and its use makes the application of non-spread dope unnecessary.would assist at low temperature. to function at -50°C.Ill. Timing was at longest delay of 92 seconds with errors on the + side as the tendency is to gain at low temperature.T.5"92.f II Lubrication with Silicone Grease (Test Record No. the former being replaced by x (included for emergency) and No. The performance of Silicone Fluids as lubricants is given in Tost Record No. manufacture. To improve self starting it was necessary to hand finish tho working surfaces.witliout resorting tc the hooked detent .by its being pheld in position by the slot in the timing disc. after . it was necessary to provide sighting holes as in "fuzes . i.

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4. 12. i. The results may be compared with movements lubricated with suitable oil from which reliable service for at least twelve months has been obtained. Winding was continued and complete failure to run occurred after approximately three months. 2. 13 and 14. until after about four months on October 25th. after about six months test. 1946. The coating of the mainsprings with 'dag' dispersed in a resinaloohol solution proved very satisfactory. By December 12th 1946.407 APPENDIX III Extracts from records of tests on Colloidal Graphite "All "bearing surfaces and gear teeth ware treated with 'dag' colloidal graphite dispersed in industrial spirit to provide either a dry graphite film or an adsorbed film. 6. the position was that No. 7. where the total running time including testing is short. would not complete a 24 hour run. 12. after running 108 hours. It was observed that the balance wheel arc was approximately 280°. "The parts were assembled. Arm. some with diminishing balance wheel arc and occasional failures. whilst the spring strips were treated with a Resin/Alcohol dispersion which our experiments show is more suitable for this type of treatment than the other product". The first movement to fail was No. 8. after about seven months test.15 which. Nos. except at week-ends and any stoppage during the 24 hour test period noted. At the end of 24 hours the movements ware rewound. 2.Technical Note No.e.11 to 15)« The difference in performance between Nos. Nos«4.1. For such purposes however as f uzo mechanisms. The movements in this test gave reliable service for about 30 to 50^ only of this time. On January 10th 1947. whilst the remaining five. the balance wheel pivots were lubricated with Kelley clock oil and on 19th June. Nos. 6.1 to 5 and 6 to 10 is insufficient to justify the application of the coating to the gear wheel teeth and the pinions.15 would not run. 13 and 14 would not complete 24 hours running. The results show that a slightly better performance has been given by the normal coating (Nos. -12- . 9 and 10 would generally run for 24 hours but their balance wheel arc was only about 180°. The remainder of the mechanisms continued to run correctly for 24 hours. would not run for 24 hours.1 to 5 and 6 to 10) as oompared with the adsorbed film (Nos. The rewinding was carried out daily. 8 and 11 also would not always run for 24 hours. Nos»3j 5. as the design was unsuitable for this lubricant.1. 1946 the movements were set running. The surfaoe remained intact and became more polished with continued use". The balance wheel pivot bearings were not lubricated with graphite. the performance might be regarded as satisfactory. 11.

R. 15.S. 16. 14.T»D#561 British equivalent of No.T.427.1 500 500 500 » » " it 11 11 11 11 ti Grease D. 8. Type as used lay Commercial Type as Gommerical Type as used Commercial Type as used Intava 691. ii ii n II Notes Porpoise Jaw Porpoise Jaw substitute Blackfish head oil ii Stafford & Allen.)0ut °f ) service as Low Temperature 11 11 7. Nye Aliens.44A W.ii. 9. Silicone 12. = D. Aliens R.P.D.429/A.6. Ibeing )corrosive W«S« Edgar Vaughan Gcmrnercial contractors• Z. W.N. Ma3s.04 Standard Oil Go. 4. Non-Mineral 1.407 APPENDIX IV List of Lubricating Oils. Silicone Fluid Type 200 " " 11 35O C. 13. Arm. I/Iobius Hannover by contractors. etc. 10. Mineral 5. 11.1211 Alexander Duckham used by contractors. U. D.304.S. Ezra Kelley Watch or Clock Oil. 2. London.S. 6.8119 by contractors.C33* -13- .D.CONFIDENT!* Technical Note No. New Bedford. D. Dow Corning 200 100 50 High and Low Temperature » " .T.

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gov. Surrey. Kew This document is now available at the National Archives. . Normal Closure before FOI Act: 30 years Former reference (Department) TN ARM 407 Held by The National Archives. VA 22060-6218 U.nationalarchives. Kingman Road. Suit 0944 Fort Belvoir.uk) and found the document is available and releasable to the public. DTIC has checked the National Archives Catalogue website (http://www. namely the Public Records Act. (The vast majority of records selected for permanent preservation are made available to the public when they are 30 years old.[dstl] Information ('nitre Knowledge Services [dstl] Vuium Down. Access to UK public records is governed by statute.S. This is commonly referred to as the 30 year rule and was established by the Public Records Act of 1967). 1967. Kew. The document has been released under the 30 year rule. AD#: Date of Search: 13 February 2007 Record Summary: Title: Lubrication of clockwork fuze mechanisms for bombs Covering dates 1948 Availability Open Document.A. This document may be treated as UNLIMITED. United Kingdom. 1958. and the Public Records Act. Open Description. Salisbury Wilts SP4 aiQ Id 0I9S0-6I37S3 Fa> 0IM0-6139W Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC) 8725 John J.

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