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ORGANIC FARMING: HOPE FOR THE SUSTAINABLE LIVELIHOODS OF FUTURE GENERATIONS IN PAKISTAN

A.Sattar Anjum, Riaz.A.Chattha, Mr. Ali Khan, Mr. Imran M.Imran Kasana National Institute of Organic Agriculture (NIOA), NARC, Islamabad Corresponding email: abdul_sattar40@yahoo.com Cell # 0923435047421

ABSTRACT Pakistan was founded with the vision to develop a prosperous and progressive society estimated, making the benefits of scientific progress accessible to all, is ruined. Factors were ignorance of the realities of indigenous land with unforsightedness avoiding the involvement of local bodies that have strengthened the globalization agenda of the IMF and other international traders cruel. Now, in 2013, Pakistan is an agricultural country with over 188 million people facing economic collapse continues to force the country to sink into horrible debt and mass poverty. With the introduction of the Green Revolution in 1960, a good food production has been achieved - thanks to the massive use of chemical fertilizers, chemical pesticides and varieties of high-yielding seed which causes many health and environmental risks . It is threatening more than 60% of Pakistan's population lives below the poverty line than their daily income is less than two dollars a reality. Smallholders face high prices of agricultural inputs, such as in 2010, the use of chemical pesticides has been almost 73,632 MT Rs 13.855 billion with almost double the amount used in 2002. Similarly, in 2010-11, the use of NPK was 3133.5, 767.0 and 32.3 million tonnes. Other major dilemmas in agricultural progress are natural disasters, land degradation, scarcity of irrigation water, climate change, scarcity of high-yield seeds, poor coordination among stakeholders, the sharing of inherited land and poor marketing system. Agriculture can be stimulated by improving the livelihoods of poor rural communities by adapting techniques of organic agriculture, the introduction of small agricultural enterprises in rural areas, empowering small farmers and peasants landless by providing interest free loans easy, giving training and marketing opportunities. Organic agriculture is based on environment friendly techniques such as crop rotation, green manure, and mulching and natural methods of plant protection. In this scenario, Pakistan can learn much from the Brazilian experience and flexible model combining the resources of all the provinces of Pakistan under the strong socio-political system.

Keywords: Agric. development, food security, population, organic farming, livelihoods, future prospects.

INTRODCUTION

The socio-economic structure of Pakistan was strongly emphasized due to a rise in the population (about 3 percent) the most horrible and among developing countries. In the mid 80s, the international communities, national intelligentsia and the press had shown the gloomy scenario of Pakistan future. The root causes of these emerging stems on many factors including three factors seem to be important. The first factor is the heavy debt that Pakistan's economy has survived up to 90 loans, the international monetary system and the benefits of loans are rottened when continuous changes have occurred in the financial system over time. Complications finally resulted in bleeding of country finance in the trap of horrible debt, and international trade spiders are sucking the blood of the injured State of Southeast Asia, which was once called the golden sparrow. Second factor prevails poor conventional agriculture with centurys old feudal system, dragging the potential state in cruel depths of unforsightedness and disappointment. The land of the country is unevenly distributed; even one of the countries of South Asia is not the same type of similarity. Some people have more than twenty five thousand hectares of land estimated nearly 0.8 million acres, a total of 49 million hectares of cultivated land in Pakistan. In other words, the landlords grabbed the movement for the independence of Pakistan and the feudal aristocracy finally seized state power in the early days. Political absentee landlords sabotaged land reforms introduced by the Pakistani government by using tricks that the distribution of land among tenants, personal servants and poor parents, with the help of corrupt local revenue officials. The third factor is the huge capital devoted to the defense forces of Pakistan. The forces have been ruling the country for 33 years in its 66 years of existence. These exercises have resulted in the total destruction in the distribution of resources for defense and development. The past few years have been challenging for global food security. The combined effect of malnutrition, high food prices and scarcity of safe food has driven an estimated over 105 million people in to hunger. These events pose a threat to world food and nutrition security and create a state of developmental, environmental socio-economic and security related challenges. Health risks are increasing day by day due to the contaminated food having toxins contributed by chemical pesticides and fertilizers. Vegetables, fruits and grains contain carcinogenesis compounds which permeate in to the final produce. The dangerous ill effects of pesticides are respiratory problems, less reproductive ability and skin diseases. Wild life is badly affected such as earth worms have become scarce and soil life seems to be dead. Sulphar and sulphar containing pesticides are quite dangerous and destructive for beneficial insects and arthropods. The organic food on the whole is nutritive and meets anatomical and physiological requirements of humans. It contains vitamins, minerals, enzymes and micronutrients 50 % more than average (Iqbal, 2004). Now, during 2013, Pakistan being an agricultural country with over 188 million people facing economic collapse continues to fall the country in to pit of high debt and mass poverty. Pakistan heavily increasing population needs extra food grains in next coming times. Overall the country needs 20 million tons of wheat to cope the dietary needs of the population. According to the experts, nearly 24.32 million tons of wheat will be needed to meet the food requirements only in Punjab province. The experts say that 10-15 percent crops per year during grain storage become contaminated due to harmful food grain pests. Besides, the post harvest losses are so terrible that researchers and government authorities must take immediate wise measures to tackle with these serious problems (Jang,2013). Pakistan is blessed with natural resources and skilled manpower which state must use

to improve the quality of life of humans of Pakistan. The World Bank has warned through a report that 60% of Pakistan's population is living below the poverty line than their daily income is less than two dollars a day. During sixties, Green Revolution was practisized in poor countries by introducing chemical fertilizers, chemical pesticides, machinery and high yielding crop seeds by which good food production has been achieved which causes many health and environmental risks . The world food problem related with safe production endangers millions of worlds most vulnerable people, and threatens to reverse critical gains made towards reducing poverty and hunger. It requires an urgent comprehensive and coordinated response. (FAO, 2011). The future threat to human generations knocks. Billions of people in both rural and urban especially in poor countries will face significant changes in climate patterns. The agricultural community in some poor countries faces a serious shortage of water for irrigation or heavy floods every year due to melting glaciers, increased temperature continuously, causing changes in growing seasons, resultantly it will increase the distribution of diseases and severe food shortages, putting humans at serious risk of life and health. The expected temperature rise of 1 to 2.5 C by 2030 will have serious negative effects on crop production and farm productivity to decline especially in countries in Africa and 40 % in Asia. Agriculture produces about 1/3 (one third) of global greenhouse gases by the use of chemical fertilizers, chemical pesticides, machinery and livestock. On the other hand, salinity and sodicity affected nearly 6.28 million hectares in Pakistan. Most saline soils are saline-sodic soils, which are at the origin of the potential yield reduction. Water and soil erosion has damaged 13.05 million and 6.17 million, the highest rate of erosion is estimated at 150-165 tonnes / hectare / year (Bhutta, 2010). Organic farming can help to mitigate the emission greenhouse gases through the use of eco- friendly farming techniques that improve environment and soil fertility, reduce the use of synthetic fertilizers, pesticides and prolong the eco-system. These techniques include the introduction of legumes in crop rotation, composting, soil conservation, mulching, soil cover and a wide range of biodiversity (FAO, 2011). Organic farming is the solution to recover the soil made of salt intake by local natural organic matter as a ground cover with compost and organic fertilizer. The source of the production of compost and organic fertilizer which contributes much to the economy of Pakistan is livestock. Livestock sector plays a very important role in rural life and the economy as a support supplement family income and jobs in Pakistan especially among the landless, smallholders and women. Approximately 30-35 million rural population is engaged in livestock farms with 2-3 cattle / buffaloes and 5-6 sheep / goats per family to help them 30-40 percent of their income . The total number of cattle, buffalo, sheep and goats in Pakistan are 29.55, 27.33, 26.49 and 53.79 million while in KPK, they are 5.91 (20%), 1.91 (7%), 3.4 (13 %) and 9.68 (18%) of the total population that still needs the immediate attention of govt. authorities to make comprehensive strategy to form the agricultural community to better breeds and good management programs where women farmhouse should be given remarkable action (Sajjad, 2006). It is estimated that around 0.539 million tones compost from only farm yard manure can be prepared on farm daily in Pakistan which can save million of rupees, consumed in buying chemical fertilizers. In 2010, the use of chemical pesticides was 73,632 million tones of Rs .13.855 billion with almost double the amount used in 2002. Similarly, in 2010-11, the use of NPK was 3133.5, 767.0 and 32.3 million tones putting huge financial pressure on the poor economy of Pakistan. Organic farming can contribute in filling the fertilizer gap with organic and bio-fertilizers, compositing, vermi-compositing and introduction of crop rotation with cover and leguminous crops.

Livestock contributes about 55.1% of the agricultural value added and 11.6% of GDP during 2010-12. The gross value of livestock sector to the cost of constant factors increased Rs.672 billion (2010-11) to Rs.700 billion (2011-12) showing an increase of 4.0% compared to the previous year. Similarly, the share of fisheries in GDP of 0.3%. Even if the contribution is very small, it significantly increases the national income through export earnings. A total of 84.498 billion tons of fish and fish products were exported in 2011-12 from Pakistan (Tech.Times Weekly, 2012). During these periods, the last few years have been difficult for global food security. The horrific events such as climate change, natural disasters, land degradation, pollution of the environment and biodiversity decline pose a threat to food security and nutrition in the world and create a state of development challenges related to the environment, socio-economic and security. The world food problem related to safe production endangers millions of the world's most vulnerable people, and threatens to reverse the gains made in reducing poverty and hunger. It requires urgent and coordinated global response. (FAO, 2011). The international food crisis has worsened the situation of food security in Pakistan over the past two years. Strongly relying on imports to feed its population, the country's agricultural production is threatened by a combination of factors, including the decline in soil fertility, massive flooding, the continued use of chemical inputs and their high prices, bad law and order situation and the poor supply chains. According to Narayanan, the modern system of conventional agriculture becomes unsustainable as evidenced by the decline in productivity of crops, environmental damage and chemical contamination, etc. (Narayanan, 2005). Organic farming is an alternative way to produce quality foods using ecological data. Methods and equipment used for the promotion of organic farming include cover crops, intercropping, mulching, composting, EM, humic acids, green manure and manure (Willer, 2011). It was concluded that the system of organic farming is a new network of alternative agriculture emerges from the mobilization of social concerns of stakeholders dedicated to the creation and promotion of Community standards (Brett. 2010).

Some important points to ponder in future agriculture:


1-Potential of Organic Farming in Pakistan The present agricultural system in Pakistan is an important component of its economy as it contributes 21 % to GDP. This sectors offers about more than 45 % of the human labor for employment opportunities while 60 % of the rural population depends upon this sector for its livelihoods. Pakistan has a great potential for organic farming as most of the farming community is interested in adapting organic farming technologies for their sustainable livelihoods and biodiversity besides reducing their farm expenses. The area under organic farming will increase as public awareness is boosted up by the agriculture related organizations and Govt. authorities towards adaption of simple techniques and change in behavior. The reasons for slow progress of organic farming include lack of awareness among communities about its benefits. Organic products exports are very limited along with lack of inspections and certification agencies. Govt. price policies on markets of agriculture produce, causing low agriculture income. It is the need of the day to disseminate organic farming technologies among small farmers and to empower the rural women for organic production by supporting them with easy loans and continuous trainings on small agricultural enterprises. The sustainable agricultural approach promotes the ability of farmers, particularly smallholders community especially women farmers to gain access to and own their productive resources, such as land, water, forests, pastures and seeds and to use

these to secure their livelihoods, growth and development with the supply of socially, economically and environmentally appropriate methods and technologies. This sustainable smallholder agriculture led by small scale farmers an especially women farmer is the key to save millions of people suffering hunger and poverty. Various initiatives like farmers field schools, small agricultural enterprises, seed banks, IPM techniques and raring of beneficial insects, kitchen gardening in homes, small plots and roof top gardening, water and soil conservation, rain harvesting, provision of livestock to poor families and creation of women cooperatives to promote rural and urban life can work as an alternate option. The women with half segment of Pakistani population play a major role in agricultural production and have livestock raring. The women farmers produce 80 % of food historically have a close relationship with land and food production of Pakistan.

2- Plant protection and low yield: There is an important role of financial and technical support to the farming community on the part of better livelihoods as extension education, agricultural finance, and the availability of inputs in time, soil quality, marketing system and the role of the middle man, plant protection techniques, sowing time and the population of the existing plant. The difference between extension and research is very broad, however, that can be filled with mass education and toddlers. In Pakistan, performance at the national level of the selected crops is 50 to 83 percent lower than the highest averages achieved in other countries. The realization of this potential could offer unfinished tremendous opportunity for the future growth of agriculture. The introduction of valuable crops such as saffron, herbs, mushrooms and dried fruits in specific areas can bring a revolution in the lives of people in a few years after the establishment of local cooperative system with the possibility of export facility supported with the organic certification system. The natural farming methods such as bio-dynamic agriculture and little or no tillage techniques can be revolutionary tools in rural and urban life. Two thematic evaluations regarding organic agriculture and poverty reduction were done by IFAD during 2001-2004 related with Latin America and the Caribbean and other on Asia (China and India,). The evaluations examined the practices of organic methods associated with poverty reduction, food security and trade. They also analyzed smallholders having success in adapting eco-friendly technologies and in marketing their organic products. The results of the evaluations were very encouraging (IFAD, 2013). Energy crises can be met by introducing inexpensive solar energy and biogas units systems in rural areas as well as wind energy and hydro energy in the northern regions. As the use of chemical fertilizers is concerned; its use can be minimized by the preparation of organic fertilizers on the farm which is quite simple. Different organic substrates are easy to find in rural areas such as plant debris, leaves, grasses and weeds, farmyard manure, phosphate rock, press mud, gypsum, sulphar mud and green algae etc. Material is decomposed after mixing the ingredients and covered with plastic which usually takes 45 days. This simple activity can save huge amount of the farming community and the county as well. Organic fertilizers give excellent results when used in crop rotations and green manure. After 4 or 5 years, with earth return each year and the activities of the organic produce excellent results in maintaining the health and vigor of the soil and crop.

Local poisonous plants like neem (Azadharacta indica),Aak (calotropis procera), Arosa(Adhatoda vasica), chilli, garlic with insecticidal properties play a vital role in the control of dangerous pests. These natural pesticides are highly effective against Lepidoptera while having repellent action against sucking pests. These natural pesticides can save billions of rupees per year which is another huge pressure on the shoulders of small farmers and the economy of Pakistan. 3 Conservation agriculture Minimum ploughing is done associated with mulching and adding organic matter in the soil to retain moisture. Conservation agriculture minimizes water requirements of crops by 30 %, reduces intensity of climate change, and reduces energy requirements by 70 %. Conservation agriculture is being practisized on about 10 % of world crop area, mainly in Latin America (FAO, 2010). In Pakistan, over 52 years, farmland has increased by 48.6 percent to a rate of less than 1%. The majority (82%) of the arable land is irrigated while the rest (18%) is rainfed. The cultivable wasteland about 9 million hectares can provide a good production if irrigation water is driven by the development of rain water collection tanks. Nearly 21.5 billion rupees in a year can be saved if theses soils are recovered with the provision of drainage and the use of organic amendments. 4- Poor marketing system Pakistan is blessed with variety of climates. However from the fruit growing point of view, the land can be divided as comprising of warm and cold climate areas. Fruits like, citrus, mangoes , melons etc are grown in the warm plains of Punjab and Sindh, while fruits such as apples, plums, apricots etc. are grown in three cold climate distinct regions; Quetta valley, Swat valley and Gilgit Baltistan. Most of the fruit grown in Gilgit Baltistan ripens at the end of summer and the start of rainy season. Evidently this is not the ideal climate for sun drying of fruits. Even when the day is sunny and cloudless, the night temperature falls rapidly, resulting in dew and even frost. Any fruit left out in the open is thus damaged. The situation is worsened for want of enough farm-to-market roads, outdated post-harvest techniques, and shortage of skilled labour and absence of institutional credit. An estimated 30-50 per cent of the total produce is lost. Chitral and northern areas of Gilgit Baltistan produce large quantities of fresh and dry fruits. The valleys of Baltistan, Gilgat and Hunza are producing apricot, dry mulberry, almond, apricot seed (dry), cherry and Apple (fresh).Normally in these areas, each village is producing apricot ( 8-10 tone dry) ,Dry mulberry (1-1.5 tones) , Almond (1 tone),Apricot (5 tones dry seed), Cherry (2 tones) and fresh apple (25 tones).It depicts that at the moment thousands of tones of fruits is being produced but due to lack of necessary management, nearly more than half o f the quantity is being wasted. The reports show the serious constraints in these areas regarding harvesting , processing and marketing of these fruits from northern areas to abroad to earn huge capital for the upbringing of the livelihood of the people of northern areas. Moreover, the scope of sea buckthorn and wild mushroom is very bright in these

regions to earn billions of rupees every year. Sea buckthorn is abundantly available in northern areas where a heavy capital can be earned and employment can be offered to the local people. Land of AJ& K is bestowed with rich soil and good climatic conditions to the production of wide spectrum of vegetables and fruits. The northern areas of Kashmir produce Apples, walnut, pear, cherries, while southern areas provide mangoes, citrus and guava. The better marketing system associated with local farmer associations, agricultural extension department and local traders with national and international mechanisms facilitated with organic certification and local participatory guarantee system can result in earning million of dollars annually. The same areas in Baluchistan, Sind and desert regions must be given priority for training facilities, storages, small equipments like solar driers, bio-gas units etc, post harvest technology, packing, labeling and transportation. The drains, alleys and fields below the fruit trees here are strewn with dropped fruits. With only a little cure and preventive measure, this loss can be prevented and converted into a profitable plan. With the world becoming sensitive to food quality issues, Pakistans fresh fruit export industry will have to ensure compliance with the international standards and certifications mainly focused on food safety, traceability, residues of different agrochemicals, lack of good agricultural practices, reduction of post-harvest diseases and pests and safety of food packaging materials. The fruit production here is mostly organic, and therefore acceptable to the world. Government intervention was very low in the areas of marketing for many decades and the middle man in urban and rural areas is sucking the blood of rural economy. The political system in Pakistan is very weak and traders would support the govt. authorities to obtain benefits and having liberty for looting the farmers markets. Public-private partnerships can play an important role in establishing a system of local markets in the busy urban and rural areas with stores and cold storages with the ability to export organic food in neighboring countries. The farming community in northern regions, pothowar, AJK and Punjab can produce huge amounts of organic food with the provision of technical trainings and easy loans. 5 -Propagation of small farms Authorized loans for small agricultural industry in rural areas and the city were diverted and divided among the culprit fake people for long periods. The spread of small farm units established in the most remote rural areas with local expertise would have checked the migration of rural young minds from villages to cities causing enormous burdens on the economy. Unfortunately, the weak and unstable political system has always favored the land lords and elite class who snatched the rights of rural smallholders who were already overwhelmed by health risks, malnutrition, limited educational resources and sharing of inherited land. Local natural resources are destroyed as burning wheat straw after harvest, removal of weeds and grasses of the field, the post-harvest losses and huge grain losses due to inadequate storage facilities. Many parts of Pakistan have a warm climate which is very favorable for the cultivation of flowers and herbs with a huge export potential in other countries. Value added is another activity to earn huge capital, and the circumstances are still very favorable if only a small support is filled from the corners of the government to smallholders. Every year increased agricultural loans provide only nominal relief to the smallholders and tragedy occurs when influential landlords take off the agri.loans against the names of their servants and tenants. Pakistani planners should learn a lesson from neighboring Indian province Punjab. The credit

requirements are calculated by the staff in the radius of 5 km called focal point. The credit and seed is distributed within community and recovery is made in cash or kind according to the convenience of the farmers. This policy proved in remarkable increase in crop production which has now been extended to other Indian states. Women farm house can bring a revolution in the community by providing organic food on the cost of small and simple loans in Pakistan. 6 Plant Breeding Techniques and issues of certified Seeds In developing and low-income countries, agricultural research and development (R& D) refers to be the most productive investment to favor the agriculture component, associated with investments in infrastructure, education and input credits. Investments in R&D have very high potential of return and long-term benefits. During 1965-2000, almost 50 % of global crop production was achieved due to better crop management and improved plant varieties. In Pakistan, the plant breeding sector has been badly affected due to very less investment of various organizations related to plant genetics. India is earning millions of dollars annually on sale of crop and vegetable seeds. Nearly more than 50 percent Pakistan seed market is overwhelmed by the Indian seed industry. Conservation and sustainable use of plant genetic resources through well managed plant breeding can be developed to produce high yielding varieties which are more efficient in using water and nutrients and more adaptable in stress conditions along with safe from diseases and pests. During the past times in Pakistan, the activity of private seed companies has increased due to the liberal govt. while policies that produce seeds and farms govt. organizations make very poor business for the supply of good quality seeds in the most remote rural areas. Priorities must be given to private farms near agricultural research stations for seed production. In addition, seed certification services must strengthen its role to ensure food standards. Monsanto and other multinational seed organizations are trying to seize the global seed market to take control and make the farmers slaves. This is a great threat to the future of all nations in the developing world; the solution is to save our own indigenous local seeds which are adaptable in our conditions. 7-Water scarcity The benefits of water irrigation are very important however judicious use of water plays a very important role in crop production and sustainable agro eco-system. It is estimated that irrigated agriculture in poor countries with 20 % of all arable land, accounts for 47 % of all crop production and about 60 % of cereal production. The use of best irrigation techniques contribute, feeding 9 billion people with expansion of irrigated areas. Water harvesting techniques and conservation of soil moisture are the important practices to enhance the soil fertility and to minimize the input costs of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. During rainy days, the water courses can be channelized to the drought hit and desert areas and water reservoirs, besides check dams can be built up for future needs. Many ancient techniques can be used to expand the cropping areas in the deserts which results change in local climate and food production. Improved agricultural management, storage and pricing of irrigation water will boost agricultural production mixed with simple organic farming techniques and environmentally supported by the system of local organic certification. Evidence suggests that agricultural production could be doubled with the sustainable management under the canopy of strong socio-political system. Improved water management is immediately necessary to provide an adequate supply of irrigation water for 80% of agricultural land in the country. Pakistan was one of the most short of water in the world, with less than 1,000 cubic meters per person per

year. The abundant use of water tanks caused acute shortage for drinking and irrigation purposes. Today, the storage capacity of water is limited to 30 days of supply, below 1000 days recommended for countries with a similar climate. Increase in temperature affects the snowmelt and reduced flow in the Indus River, the main power source. It is necessary to manage periods of low snowmelt rehabilitation of the distribution system to reduce losses (Elizabeth, 2011). 8 -Urban Agriculture The population will increase in the cities of Pakistan by migration from rural villages putting enormous economic pressure over environmental pollution and health hazards. Top roof gardens became popular among residents of large cities in the world by creating greenhouses on the rooftops. Food produced in this method is safe and economical and less resources are needed. Moreover, the empty places on the edges of roads, canals and parks can be taken to grow for legumes, leafy vegetables and fruit trees. Herbal, vegetable and flower gardens can produce organic food on the one hand and employment opportunities on the other for the poor masses of the cities. At the same time, environmental pollution can be reduced and the fresh air is available for good health. The city waste can be turned in to compost and huge capital can be earned by this activity with the cooperation of private-public partnership.

9-Ecologically-based organic model in Brazil: The progress in eco-friendly agriculture in Brazil was initiated by rural elite agriculturists and agriculturebased professionals (Brandenburg, 2002). Ecologically-centered farming system was promoted by strong political system that is involved with the progress of a new model of society, associated with equality and justice. It is an interesting fact that during 1960, Brazil and Pakistan began land reforms. Their populations are roughly equal with Brazils 190 million slightly more than Pakistan 188 million. Majority of both populations is residing in rural areas and depend on agriculture. The climates of both the countries are quite similar ranging from sub-tropical to arid and semi-arid. More than 55 % of the Brazilian population is part of the middle class. It is mentioning that in Brazil 70% of all the food consumed comes from small holders. The great success of Brazil s multiplying the food population without expanding the use of lands and damaging the environment. This is also a tool against climate change and ecologically imbalance. The main tools of agricultural production in Brazil are elimination of subsidies, enough funding and resources allocated for R&D and agro-based industry in rural areas. Moreover, strengthening of contact farming, promotion of family entrepreneurs, domestic markets and cooperatives. Small holding farmers were promoted in the area of direct sale-system and market safety. The modernization of agriculture in Brazil started in the southern states during 1970s with a movement against monoculture with the loss of genetic bio-diversity especially agro-biodiversity, along with soil erosion, water contamination, food and humans, loss of capital in rural sector. A great diversity of products is produced for both domestic and export. There is a wide range of processed products is available on the domestic markets especially grape juices, tomato sauce, fruit jam, cereal flours from small holders. During 2009, the area 887637 hectares were under organic farming with 14000 farmers and the statistical data about the Southern Region are harder to find (IFOAM, 2009).

Post-harvest losses 12-14 percent of fruits and vegetables are destroyed during the post-harvest crop due to improper handling. Due to extreme temperatures, high humidity, improper packaging results in huge losses. Very high losses occur during transportation and marketing. Recycled organic matter is simply used for packaging instead of plastic and paper bags in which large quantities of perishable fruits and vegetables can be stored. The main three objectives of postharvest technology applications are quality maintenance (appearance, flavor and nutritive value), protect food safety and to reduce losses between harvest and consumption. Simple, low cost, eco-friendly technologies can be more appropriate for small volume, limited resource commercial operating stallholders for supplying the food items to exporters in poor countries. Moreover, the growing demand for organically produced fruits and vegetables offer new skills for smallholders growers and traders (K.Lisa, 2003). FAO recommends the use of fibrocement for the establishment of storage facility in tropical regions, with thick walls to provide insulation. For citrus the storage method are common in underground or basements while the apples are stored in caves in Northern regions of China. Conclusion The food is in abundance and never existed. As it does, it is enough food available is that everyone has the food they need, yet there are nearly 1 billion people worldwide face hunger and another 1 billion suffer from malnutrition having lack of micronutrients they need to lead a healthy life (FAO, OECD, 2011). Most people due to poverty cannot approach the food or access it. This is the situation of extreme poverty, natural disasters, conflict and war, and poor infrastructure destroyed and overexploitation of the environment are common contributing factors (WFP, 2011). The international assessment of agricultural scientific and technological knowledge to the 400 scientists and supported by 60 countries and recommends support for agro-ecological sciences that could help solve environmental problems in improving the productivity development (IAASTD, 2008). It also promoted the local community and local innovation know-how contributed to scientific knowledge and best practices to solve problems, needs and opportunities of the poor rural masses. Organic farming is a simple and cheap effective in helping poor communities around the world to have healthy food and better living conditions by adapting the methods of good natural cures culture and community. It is very important to know that all farmers can improve their production and resilience in adapting the best appropriate agricultural techniques that are environmentally friendly. In addition, it is very important to advance emergency documentation and training under good biological technologies to ensure that smallholder farmers can have the best sustainable food production for future human generations. Pakistan can learn much from the Brazilian experience and flexible model combining the resources of all the provinces of Pakistan under the strong socio-political system.

Fig 1: Organic land area, Land use, Producers during 2008

Area of organic agriculture in developing countries


Afghanistan
Bangladesh Bhutan China India Nepal Pakistan Sri Lanka

Source: FIBL/IFOAM 2010: The World of Organic Agriculture

Fig 2: Countries covered by the global organic survey 2010

Europe Asia Africa South & Central America North America Oceania World

Source: FIBL/IFOAM 2010

Fig 3: Organic Agri. Land and Shares of Total Agri .Land 2008
40000000 35000000 30000000 25000000 20000000 15000000 10000000 5000000 0

land (ha) Land (%)

Source: FIBL/IFOAM Survey

Fig.4: Area and Production of Fruit Crops in AJ& K during 2008-09


25 20 15 10 5 0 April May June

2007 2008 2009

Source: AKDN, 2009. Depatt. of Agriculture AJ&K.

Fig 5: Climate data of NARC, Islamabad from 2007-11


30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Min.Tmp 2007 Min.Tmp 2008 Min.Tmp 2009 Min.Tmp 2010 Min.Tmp 2011 April May June

Source: Meteorological Field Station, WRRI, NARC, 2011

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