Electrical Machines-II

Experiment No. 3

Experiment No. 3
1.0 2.0 Title:To write a visit report on cooling system of Alternator used in power station.

Prior Concepts:• • Working principle and construction of alternator. Losses taking place in alternator.


New Concepts:Proposition 1 : Cooling:The factors which determines the size of a machine for a given duty is the temperature rise which occurs as a result of various losses in the machine. Maximum allowable values of temperature rise in various parts of machine has been standardized by International Electro-technical Commission. When the alternator is loaded, the temperature rise takes place due to losses. Coolants are used to keep the temperature rise within the acceptable limits, by extracting the heat. This process is known as cooling. Small electrical machines in the range of fractional horse power range, may be cooled by natural means. But all modern electrical machines are characterized by large losses per unit area of surfaces of the machine, which dissipate heat into the ambient medium and therefore, artificial cooling methods are necessary. Concept Structure 1 :-

Proposition 2 : Ventilation :In most of the electrical machines cooling is done by air streams and this cooling is called ventilation. Both, self ventilation and separate ventilation may be subdivided into two categories: (i) Induced Ventilation , (ii) Forced Ventilation. The ventilation of the machine is induced, if the fan produces a decreased pressure of air inside the machine causing the air to be sucked into the machine under the external atmospheric pressure. The air is then pushed out by the fan into the atmosphere. The ventilation of machine is said to be forced if the fan sucks the air from the atmosphere and forces it into the machine, from where it is then pushed out to the atmosphere


♦ 17

25 MW. The machine is thus cooled (without use of fan) by the movement of air and radiation.As the rating of turbo-alternators increase. Water Cooled Turbo alternator :.Cooling system:As per the origin of cooling it is categorized as: Natural Cooling :. Hydrogen as an alternative cooling medium is used. The gas turbine generating units rated 17. the cooling of turbo-alternator is complex process.It is used for small units.The machine is cooled either by a fan not driven by its shaft . are air cooled.The machine is cooled by cooling air driven by a fan mounted on the rotor or one driven by it. as emergency auxiliaries in large power stations. more space has to be provided for the conductors for the flow of requisite quantity of cooling gas. or it is cooled by cooling medium other than air put into motion by means. 3 Electrical Machines-II Proposition 3:. Self Cooling :. Hydrogen cooled and Water cooled. Concept Structure 3 : Proposition 4 :. Separate Cooling :.Experiment No. Hydrogen Cooled Turbo alternator :.When the problem of increasing generator rating was tackled it became clear that the air cooled machines did not provided the necessary scope for progress.Turbo alternator cooling:The turbo-alternators are characterized by long core lengths and small diameters.The machine is cooled by natural air currents setup either by rotating parts or due to temperature differences. Evidently to pushup generator rating.5 MW. mechanical limitations of rotor diameter makes it necessary to increase the physical size of the machine by increasing its length. Therefore. & 35 MW. not belonging to the machine. To circulate hydrogen through very long conductor lengths requires high pressure 18 ♦ MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION . Secondly. Air cooled Turbo alternator :. There are various methods of cooling turbo-alternator such as Air cooled.

2 • • Motor Skills:To record the different meter readings.1 Intellectual Skills:• • • To state the concept of cooling.0 Observations Table:Table A:- Table B:- Dated signature of subject teacher MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION ♦ 19 . path of coolant and note down the important points. The students shall understand the objectives of the visit and prepare the proforma for collecting the necessary information.0 Stepwise Procedure:• • • • • • • The teacher shall make prior visit to the selected power station and obtain the permission. Collect the information and drawing about the alternator section. Water as coolant supercede hydrogen not only because of its superior heat transfer capacity but also because the viscosity of pure water is very small and it is possible to maintain flow in small tubes without building up dangerously high pressure heads. Concept Structure 4 :- 4. 6.0 Learning Objectives:4. To state the different types of cooling system. 5. 3 heads. Note down the following readings for the alternator under consideration. To appreciate the specifications and size of the turbo-alternator. instructions and safety precautions to be taken during the visit. Note down the specifications of alternator under consideration. Make aware the students with necessary information.Electrical Machines-II Experiment No. To draw the block/schematic diagram of alternator section and its cooling system. 4. Observe the alternator system and its cooling system.

Space for answers 20 ♦ MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION . State the merits and applications of water cooling.0 Conclusion:The cooling system used for turbo-alternator is observed and studied. State the normal range of pressure of hydrogen gas used in modern conventionally cooledturbo-alternator. 2. 12. 4.Teacher shall distribute the following questions in Three different groups) 1. State the merits and applications of Hydrogen cooling. Draw the block schematic for alternator cooling system. 8. State the necessity of cooling. 6. 7. Distinguish between induced and forced ventilation. 11. Comment on direct water cooled rotor winding. State why the frame of hydrogen cooled machine is to be strong enough? 10.0 Questions:(Note :. It is essential for keeping the temperature rise within the limits.Experiment No. Why the turbo-alternator are characterized by long core length and small diameters. 3 Electrical Machines-II 7. 8. 3. 5. State the difference between self cooling and separate cooling. State the method of cooling used for alternator installed in laboratory? 9. List the different methods of cooling as per origin of cooling.

Electrical Machines-II Experiment No. 3 Space for answers Remark / Grade Date :- Checked by MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION ♦ 21 .

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