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-:curriculum

)

APPLICATION OF AN INTERACTIVE

ODE SIMULATION PROGRAM

IN PROCESS CONTROL EDUCATION

Mordechai Shacham is Professor and Head of

the Chemical Engineering Department at the Ben

Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Is-

rael. He received his BSc and DSc from the

Technion, Israel Institute of Technology. His re-

search interests include applied numerical meth-

ods, computer-aided instruction, chemical pro-

cess simulation, design, and optimization, and

expert systems.

Neima Brauner received her BSc and MSc

from the Technion, Israel Institute of Technol-

ogy, and her PhD from the University of Tel

Aviv. She is currently Associate Professor in the

FluidMechanics and Heat Transfer Department.

She teaches courses in Mass and Heat Trans-

fer and Process Control. Her main research

interests include two-phase flows and transport

phenomena in thin films.

vent of user-friendl y, interacti ve simulation packages, and

as a result many of them put too much emphasis on linear

systems and linear izati on methods. Most current mathemat i-

cal and control packages employ numerical solution meth-

ods which can solve si multaneous nonl inear ordinary differ-

ential equation (ODE) systems as easily as they solve linear

ones. That means that the traditional depe ndence on linear-

izat ion could and should be reevaluated and substantially

reduced.

Another curriculum revision would be in the required use

of block diagrams within the control package. Such dia-

grams were absolut el y necessary when analog computers

were used, and they can be very helpful in demonstrating

the behavior of linear systems; but thei r importance should

be carefully reevaluated in light of the new si mulation pack-

ages. The differential equations (which are the basis for the

block diagrams) can now be inserted direc tly into the simu-

Michael B. Cutlip received his BChE and MS

from The Ohio State University and his PhD from

the University of Colorado. He has taught at the

University of Connecticut for the last twenty-five

years, servingas Department Head for nine years.

His research interests include catalytic and elec-

trochemical reaction engineering, and he is co-

author of the POLYMATH numerical analysis

software.

Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 1994

N. BRAUNER, M. SHACHAM, l M.B. CUTLlp2

Tel-Aviv Uni versity

Tel-Aviv, 69978, Israel

1 Ben-Gurion Universi ty of the Negev, Beer-Sheua, 84105 Israel

2 Uni versity of Connecticut , St orrs, CT 06269

I

n a paper titled "Process Control Education in the Year

2000,"[1) strong emp hasis was put on the importance of

mathematical modeling and computer simulation with

interacti ve graphics as key pedagogical tools in both the

present and the future of process control education. Since

computer simulation has been used in control educ ation for

at least twent y years now, it is valid to ask what has changed

and what additional roles an interacti ve simulation package

can play in process control education.

In the past the most commonly used packages have been

control-oriented packages such as ACS[2) or industrial con-

trol systems.!" These packages are appropria te for demon-

strating the behavior of practi cal control systems and are

quit e suited for use as "add ons" for a traditional control

course. A maj or deficiency, however, is that these programs

beha ve as a black box, giving results when input is provided

but hiding the mathematical mode l from the user.

There are now available some new interactive simulation

packages which acce pt the mathematical model of the con-

trol system as input in addition to the numerical data of the

process. The user must provide the model, thus creating the

desirable connection between control theory and practical

application. Using this type of package can beco me an inte-

gral part of the control course and not just an add-on as it

has been in the past with the older packages.

In order to take full adva ntage of the many desirabl e

capabilities of the new simulation tools, however, the con-

tent of the traditi onal undergraduate control course should

be substantially revised. One of the needed revisions, for

exa mple, is a reduced emphasis on linear systems theor y.

Most process control textbooks were written before the ad-

130 Chemical Engineeri ng Education

I

q( t)=qs+ Kc(TR-Tm)+ KRf(TR- Tm) dt (3a)

Online!" or the user is required to convert the equations

into block diagrams prior to solution (such as TutsimI6.p.SJ21

or UCA 11

(7

) .

Problem set- up, solut ion, and modification times are very

short. Thi s is especially impor tant in educational use where

a long wai t for the result often discourages exploration

and curiosi ty.

o

EXAMPLE 1

Control of a Stirred Tank Heater

dT

pVC - =WC(Tj -T) + q; To(O) =T

R

( I)

dt

The thermocouple dynamics as described by fi rst-order lag

+ dead time:

where q, is the heat supply in design condition

q s=WC(TR- Tjs) (3b)

The dynamics and control of a stirred tank heater are

disc ussed in several popular textbooks.P'" This simple sys-

tem incl udes the st irred tank and a PI controller and is

depi cted in Figur e I.

The feed stream at constant rate (units: W kg/min) flows

into a stirred tank equipped with a heatin g devic e; we want

to heat this stream to a higher temperature TR(C) . The

out let temperature is measured by a thermocouple, and the

required heat supply, q, is adj usted by a PI temperature

controller. The control objective is to maintain To = TR in

the presence of a load due to an inlet temperature, Tj, which

differs from the design value, Tis.

The model equations are:

Energy balance on the stirred rank:

To(t)= T(t-t

d

) (2a)

t

m

dT

m

+T

m

= T

o;

Tm(O) =To(O) =T

R

(2 b)

dt

The heat supply as manipul ated by the PI controller and

actuator can be defined as

The numerical values of the parameters are

pVC = 4000.0 KJ 1C

WC = 500 KJ I( mi n e)

Tis =60C

T

R

= 80C

This simple process can be used to demon strat e various

concepts in different sections of the control course. Three

possi ble applications are:

PI

controller

--- --- --0---- ~ I P O i n l

I

I

I

I

I

I T

I m

I

I

I

lation program, and the required conversion to block dia-

grams becomes unnecessary.

Modi fying and reorgani zing an exis ting control course to

embrace the new tools is an evolutionary process and can

present an interesting challenge for the instructor. In this

paper we will offer several practi cal examples for using an

interacti ve simulation package in different sec tions of an

undergraduate control course.

There are seve ral interactive simulation packages which

can be used as a learning tool in the control course, but it is

not our intent to review all of them. We will demonstrate

some applications using the POLYMATH software (which

was developed by two of the authors, Shacham and Cutl ip),

but we want to emphasize that other software (such as the

widely used MATLAB package) can also be used for the

same purposes.

The POLYMATH softwa re package was orig inally devel-

oped for the mainframe Plato education computer system. !"

The current version of POLYMATH (2. I. l .PC) is distrib-

uted by the CACHE (Computer Aids for Chemi cal Engi-

neerin g Education) Corporat ion, a non-profit orga nization

that disseminates educational computer programs to chemi-

cal engineering department s. Thi s version runs on the IBM

Personal Computer, PS/2, and most compatibles.

Var ious forms of POLYMATH have been in use for al-

most a decade in support of chemical engineering educa-

tion. Some important features are:

It is a general purpose program now in use in ove r one

hundred chemical engi neering departments. In several de-

part ment s the students are introduced to POLYMATH in

their first chemical engi neering course, so that when they

reach the control course it is a familiar calc ulational tool

for them. Stud ent s can also put this softwa re on their own

personal computers for easy access and use.

The user works dir ectl y with the model equations which

provide a direct link betwee n the physical phenomena and

the control sys tem. Thi s is in co ntrast to many control -

systems si mulato r progr ams where the user only provides

parameter s to "black box" model s (such as ACS

I

1

1

or UC

Thermocouple

Figure 1. Stirred tank heater

1. Closed loop dynamics

Demonstrate stable and unstable regions for PI co ntrol using

Spring 1994 131

Solutions

2. Controller Tuning

Tune the PI controller using Astrorn's "ATV" method!" and

the Ziegler-Nichol's!" p.m) settings.

K, = 1000 - 10,000, K, = a- 5,000 without ('t

m

, 'td= 0) and

with ('t

m

= 0 min, 'td= I ) measurement deadtime.

The equa l ions:

dCI enp) .t d{ ') =(UCJl: ( 1i- 1enp)+q>rrhove

dC er r sull)/ d( t)=tr - l l'l

dCI ll ) I'dC t )=( I enp- th-( 1/ 2).d tellpdt)12/1

uc'500

rhovc=4000

, c'IOOOO

or'BO

,r 'O

q=1OOOO..kel Ctr - t il) +I::r . er rsun

s'ep" (. - 1l +abs( ,-I)It<2.( ,-1)+0.000001)

li =60-s tepI20

dl ell pdt =( UCJ:( 1i - ten p) +q) sr hovc

tni ual values: o' 0. 0, ,e.Po' BO.OOo, 0.0, ' . 0' BO.OOO

Final val ue: ' I ' 10.000

1. Closed loop dyna mics of the stirred tank heater

Fig ure 2 shows the mathemati cal model , numer ical con-

stants, and initial values as the y were entered into the

POLYMATH OD E solver program for the case where Ld =

I , K: =10,000, K

R

=0 (P-on ly controller) and a step change

of -20C in the feed is introduced at t = I sec . The options

available to the user at this point are also shown: they in-

clude solution or modi ficat ion of the probl em, storage in a

librar y, request for addi tional information regardin g solu-

tion methods used, etc. If the "solve the prob lem" option is

selected, the equations are numericall y integrated, and the

program selects eit her the explicit Euler or the 4th-ord er

Runge-Kutta method, accordi ng to the required acc uracy.

For stiff systems, the user may ask to use the impl icit Eul er

method. All of these methods include algorithms for esti-

mating the integrati on er ror and changi ng step size if neces-

sary. Solut ion times may vary from seve ral seconds (for a

PC with out a math co- processor) to less than one second

(4)

(t- I)+ abs( t -I)

step = --'----'--- ----'---"-

2(t - I) +0.00000 I

This equation generates: step = 0 for t I ; step - I for t > I .

The value 0.00000 I is added to the denominator in order to

prevent division by zero when t =I .

The integral of the error, required in Eq. (3a), is obtai ned

by solving the differential equati on

3. Reset Windup

Investigate the controller behavior if the output from the

heating tank is limited to twice the design value (q 20,000

kJ/s) and the inlet temperature reduced to half of its design

value and then is restored to the steady state value after

thirty minutes.

Most of the equations needed to solve thi s probl em can be

typed directl y into POLYMATH wit hout any modi ficati on.

But since POLYMATH is a ge neral-purpose soft ware pro-

gram, it does not have functions which are specific to the

control area, such as step, ramp, time delay, etc. Most of

these functions can be generated, howeve r. The generation

of a step change at t = I , for example, is accomplished by

the equat ion

d(e

5Um

) _

- - - - T

R

- T

M

, t = 0, e

5Um

= 0

dt

(5)

PR08L[M OPTIONS

r7 '0 solve 'his proble

"lr ...-J to al ter the prcbl ee. r6 for helpful infornation

r9 lor {il e and li bra r y cpnc os. lor 'h e MAIN M[NU.

(6)

r9 to di spl ay results. (9, I, d active )

"'Ir +-J 10 "ale e chanqes. 'irrs lor neu probl E' ll. r6 lor hel p

ti nal val ue

10. 000

72. -150

5. 5925

8-1.069

500.00

1000. 0

0. 100010

5

80.000

0.0

- 0. 307010

5

1.00 0

-1 0. 000

-11.728

Mi n. val ue

-0.- 0--

72. -150

- 0. 2722

73. 696

500.00

-1000.0

0. 100. 10

5

80.000

0.0

- 0. -1 891010

5

0.0

-10. 000

- 16.7-16

nn" n n"on Inn n" 00'"10 " nnn I

1. 000 6.0 00 8. 000 10. 000

Max. val ue

85.51-1

9.8 250

85.892

500.00

1000. 0

0. 100'10

5

80.000

0.0

0. 730.10

5

1.000

60.000

13.29B

Part ia l re sults

"non

2. 000

Ini ti al val ue

0. 0

80. 000

0.0

80. 000

500. 00

-1000. 0

0. 100010

5

80.000

0.0

0.100 .10

5

0.0

60.000

0.0

er rsun

,.

uc

rhove

kc

tr

" q

SIl"P

11

dt enpdt

Variabl e

,

te ep

U. U

l OQ(er r or)

- -1.0 1----;---OplII........c.n.al"-'lt\O-D.-I"""''+-o.n.Di''-''-' ..e,a. o..c...

0. 000

Figure 2. Mathematical model inp ut to POLYMATH ODE

solver for Example 1.

Figure 3. Partial results for Example 1.

Chemical Engineering Education

e- t

d

5 == (I - 'tds / 2) /(I+ 'tds12)

yields in the time domain a first-order differential equation

for the measured temperature

dT

o

= [T - T dTl] 2 .

dt 0 2 l dt ) 't

ct

'

Pade approxi mation'" p.103) ca n be employed for represen-

tation of time del ay. For instance, the first-order Pade ap-

proximation

Nonlinear and nonideal aspects can be demonstrated us-

ing the limi ts on the operation of the controller. The basic PI

controller may require negative or inacc essibl y high posi-

tive values of heat input, q, for some combinations of con-

troll er setti ng and magnitude of the step change in the input

temperat ure. Limits can be put on the variables using equa-

tions similar to Eq. (4) . For example, the operation

q + abs(q) (7)

ql = 2

gives ql =q if q 0; q I =0 otherwi se.

/ 32

83.20

87.00

Figure 3 give s the history of the integration error. The infor-

mat ion in this chart can be used to asse ss the acc uracy of the

results and reduce the final time if more accura te results are

needed. User options shown at the bottom include display as

well as change, storage, and retrieval options . The display

options include graphical ("g") or tabular ("t") presentat ion

and output of the result s to a DOS file (li d"). If graphical

display of the temperature is selected, the grap h shown in

Figure 4a appears, indicating that for the speci fied param-

eter values the response is indeed unstabl e.

The mat hematical model can be made more realistic by

introducing Eq. (7) into it to prevent the heat input from

beco mi ng negative. The growth rate of the osc illations is

more moderate in thi s case, as shown in Figure 4b, but the

system is still unstable.

This first part of the example problem can be used as an

introductory exa mple in an undergraduate process control

course. Studen ts can introduce changes to the system and

observe for the first time the difference between sys tems

with and without control, P vs. PI controller, effect of sys-

tem parameters (time constants, dead time ) and can fami l-

iari ze themselves with the concep ts of offset, sta bility, etc.

Most of these concepts are shown in the textbooks, but the

fact that the student can introduce the desired change and

immediately observe the results can contribute considerably

to an understanding of the mater ial.

2. Controller tuning using Astriim's "ATV,,/8/ method

When usi ng thi s method, a relay of height , h, is inserted

as a feedback controller. This nonl inear controller will cause

the system to prod uce limit cycle of the controlled variable.

The relay type change of the manipulated variable is achieved

by two equations similar to Eq. (7) which generate ( 1,0) and

(- 1,0) values according to the sign of the error. The equa-

tions typed into POLYMATH for this assig nment are shown

in Table I for parameter values (td = I; t

m

= 0). A small

change in the controller set-point is introduced (TR is in-

creased to 81C) . The behavior of the manipulat ed and con-

trolled variable during the II ATV" procedure is shown in

Figure 5. The period of the limit cycle is the ultimate per iod

cPu). Thus, the ultimate freq uency is

21t

(() = - (8)

u P

u

and the ult imate gain is

x, = ~ (9)

a1t

where a is the amplitude of the primary harmoni c of the

output.

The ultimate per iod and gain, as found above , can be used

with the standard tuning formulas. The process response to

a 33% step change in the inlet temp erature obta ined with a

PI controller tuned using the Ziegler-Nichols controller

settings I6.p223] is shown in Figure 6.

t (min)

2.000 4. 000 6.000 8. 000 10. 000

81.&0

80. 00

76.80

78. 10

4b. Heat supply limited

to positive values

T(OC)

TABLE 1

Controller Tuning Using Astrorn's "ATV" Method

72.00

4a. No limit on

heat supply 81.00

75.00

78.00

T(C)

8tOO

and s e t e r rsum(O) =O.

- To c he ck t he res p onse with different kc a nd kr

set t i ngs change e qua t i ons ( 6 ) a nd (8 ) .

(1) d(temp) /d (t )=dtempdt

(2) d(tm) /d(t)=(temp-tm- (tau/ 2 ) *d t empdt ) *2 /tau

(3) wc=5 00

(4 ) rhovc=4 000

(5) err=81-tm

(6) h=40 00

( 7) m1=(err+abs (err ) ) /( 2 *err+0. 000001)

(8) m2=(err-abs(err)) /( -2*err+0 . 00 0001)

(9) q= 10000+h *m1+h *m2

(10) dtempdt =(wc*(60-temp)+q) /rhov c

(11) tau=l

t(O)= 0, temp( O)= 80 , tm(O)= 80

t(f)= 10

- This set o f equati ons will genera te the limit

cycle in the measured temperature us ing the

above method .

- To observe the response wi th proport ional

control when kc is set to the ultimate gain

cha nge equation s 5-12 as fo l lows:

(5) d(errsum) /d( t) =tr-tm

(6) kc= 8450

(7) t r=80

(8) kr =O

(9) q=1 0000+k c * ( tr- t m) +kr *errs um

(10) ti =60- 20

(11) d tempdt =( wc* (t i-temp)+q) /rhovc

(12) t au=l

Figure 4. Response of the temperature in the stirred tank

to -20Cstep change in f eed temperature.

(for a computer with a co- processor).

Fig ure 3 shows a display of part ial results which includes

a table of initial, mi nima l, max imal , and final val ues of all

the var iables. Obser ving this table shows immediately that

the model is unrealist ic since the heat input , q, becomes

negative at a particular point.

The bar chart near the bottom of the screen shown in

Spri ng / 994 / 33

Figure 5. Change of the manipulat ed variable and the

controlled variable in "ATV" tuning.

(I I)

t (min)

. " ~

81. 10

81.00

80.60

8 0.20 ~

79. 8 0

0.000 2.000 1. 000 6.000 8.000 10.000

""[UJJJ

I I I

1. 3 00

1.1 00

0.900

0.700

0.500

5a. Manipulated

variable

(q" 1O4)

5b. Controlled

variable (Tn)

79. 20

T (DC)

78. 40

77.60

76.80

0.000 3.000 6.000 9.000 12.000 15.000

l (min )

Figure 6. Response of the heating tank with PI controller

and Zi egler-Nichols settins.

Chemical Engineering Education

80. 80

80.00

where R

1

= 2 h ~ / 2 / c .

Equa tions ( 10) and ( I I) ca n be introduced int o the

POLYMATH ODE solver wit h onl y slight modificati on.

The response to reduction of the inlet flow to 10 cfm is

shown in Figure 9.

We know that lineari zat ion is likel y to yield close ap-

proximat ion of the dynami cs of the system near the state

around which the linearization is done. Indeed, when there

is a 10% change in the inlet flow , responses of the nonl inear

and linearized systems are very si mi lar. The initi al slope is

the same, and the difference bet ween the process gains that

are calculated using the two model s is only 5%. But using

the linearized model far from the steady state may give very

unreasonable results. If, for exa mple, the tank's wall is much

higher than the steady-state level and one tries to predict the

maximal inlet flowrate that can be used wi thout tank over-

flow, the difference between the predi ctions by the two

model s can be considerable. An even more interesting result

occurs when the inlet flowrate is drasticall y reduced-the

lineari zed model may predi ct a negati ve level at the new

steady state, which is of course impossible. Such is the

3. Reset Windup

The model equat ions for the case where the output from

the heater is limit ed and there is a substantial drop in the

inlet temperature are very similar to the system shown in

Figure I, except that an equation similar to Eq. (7) has to be

added to limit the hea ter 's output.

The simulation results show that the PI contro ller on the

heatin g coil wi ll ca use the heat output to reach its maximal

value shor tly after the inlet temperature is reduced. Since

the heat output is not enough for reaching the set-point

temperature, the error term in the integral part of the con-

troll er continues to increase unt il the inlet temperature is

restored to its steady-state value. Becau se of this acc umu-

lated error term, the controller keeps the heat supply at its

maximum long after the restorati on of the inlet temperature.

Thi s cause s the out let temperature to reach a much higher

value than the set point , as shown in Fi gure 7a.

Many industria l controllers have anti-wi ndup provisions.

Th is feature can be demonstrated in thi s example by switch-

ing off the error accumulation when the required heat sup-

ply exceeds the bounds. The outl et temperature response is

shown in Figure 7b. In thi s cas e the outlet temperat ure will

rapidl y reach the set-point value, after the inlet temperature

is restored to the steady-sta te value.

EXAMPLE 2

Dynamics of a Nonlinear Liquid-Level System

The liquid-level control system is frequ ently used in pro-

cess control textbooks to demonstrate the differenc e be-

tween linear and nonlinear sys tems'!"..6.P.72) where emphas is

is put on linearizat ion of the nonlinear sys tem around the

steady state.

For this example, consider the sys tem, shown in Figure

8, which consis ts of a tank of constant cross sectional area ,

A, into which a valve wi th flow resistance characteristic s,

qo(t) = ch 1/2, is attac hed, where h is the liquid level in the

tank and c is a constant. The flow rate into the tank , q, varies

with time.

The foll owing numerical and steady-state values are ap-

propriate:

A =I ft 2; C =20 ft

2.5

/ min; qs =60 cfm; h, = 9 ft

Using these numerical values, the response of the sys tem to

small and large (up to 90%) step changes in the inlet f1ow-

rate should be observed and the response using the non-

linear and lineari zed model should be compared.

Solution

The equation representing the liquid-level sys tem is

q- ch "

2

=A dh (10)

dt

The equation can be linearized around the steady state

134

81.00

99.00

REFERENCES

1. Edgar, T.F., "Process Cont rol Education in the Year 2000 ,"

Chem. Eng. Ed. , 24 , 72 (1990)

2. Koppel , L.B. , and G.R. Sullivan, "Use of IBM's Advanced

Control System in Undergraduate Process Control Educa-

tion," Chem. Eng. sa; 20 , 70 (1986)

3. Buxton, B., "Impact of Packaged Software for Process Con-

trol and Che mical Engineering Education and Research,"

Chem. Eng. Ed. , 19, 144 (1985)

4. Shacham, M., and M.B. Cutl ip, "A Simulation Package for

the PLATO Syst em," Computers and Chem. Eng., 6, 209

(1982)

5. Foss, AS., "UC ONLINE: Berkeley's Multi loop Computer

Cont rol Program," Chem. Eng. Ed. , 21, 122 (1987)

6. Coughanowr, D.R. , Process Systems Analysis and Control ,

McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York (1991)

7. Hittner, P.M. , and D.B. Greenberg, "We Can Do Process

Simulation: UCAN-II ," Chem. Eng. Ed., 14, 138 (1980)

8. Astrorn and Hagglund, Proc eedings of th e 1983 IFAC Con-

fer ence, San Francisco, CA (1983)

9. Smit h, C.A, and AB. Cor ripio, Principl es and Practice of

Automatic Process Cont rol, J ohn Wiley & Sons, New York

(1985) 0

CONCLUSIONS

tern which ca n be represented by a linear model and linear-

ization of a nonl inear model. Lineariz ati on can represent

the sys tem well only near the point of linearization.

It is always advisabl e to compare results from the nonlin ear

and lineari zed model s in order to be able to appreci ate the

magnitude of error int rodu ced by lineari zati on.

Result s obtained from computer solution must always be

carefully checked. Equations used outside the bounds of

their validi ty, or numerical integ ration errors, may lead to

incorre ct or even absurd result s.

We have demonstr ated several interesti ng applications of

an interactive ODE simulation program in this paper. Expe-

rience has shown the foll owing important benefits of using

such programs in process control :

J. There are many aspects of dynamic process behavior

that can be studied only by using nonlinear models

that include, fo r example, limits on variables.

2. Interactive simulation complements analytical meth-

ods very nicely by ensuring better understanding and

allowing more reali stic problems to be considered.

3. The strengths and weaknesses of analytical solutions

and numerical simulation can be clearly demonstra ted.

This is important ill parti cular when lineari zing non-

linear equations where the restrictions of the linear-

ized model must be well understood.

The examples and exe rcises given in Figure I and Table I

can be put into immediate use in the cla ssroom. Additional

examples of app lying an ODE solver for comparing analy ti-

cal and numerical solutions and for more complex phenom-

enon could not be included in thi s paper because of space

limitations. Information on these exa mples can be obtained

from anyone of the authors.

Key

1- Nonl inear model

2- Linearized model

nonli near

resistance

I

I

" qo(t)

2."00 3.000

t (min)

h (t)

l

0 .000 10 . 0 00

12

69.00

T ("C) 7 ' . 0 0

72. 00

-6.00

0.000 0.600 1.200 1.800

t (min)

- 3. 00

9.00

6.00

q (t)

3.00

h (ft)

0.00

7b. Limiton e... . oo

integralerror 80.00

Figure 7. Outl et temperature in the heated tank with and

without limit on the in tegral error.

Figure 8. Liquid-level sys tem with nonlinear resist ence.

75. 00

7a. No limit on

integral error 93.00

87. 00

T ("C)

situation in Figure 9. The nonlinear model predi cts the new

steady-state level as 0.25 ft and the lineari zed model pre-

dicts -6 ft as the new level.

It should be noted that reducing the flowrate even further

may cause difficulties with even the nonlinear model. Be-

cause of integration errors, h may become a small negati ve

number, which makes it impo ssibl e to calculate the h

"2

term.

Thi s can be prevented by putting a limit on h by applying an

equation simil ar to Eq. (7) . The same method can be used

when the linearized model is solved by numerical simula-

tion, but not when it is solved anal yticall y.

A comparison of the nonlinear and linearized solutions by

students should reinforce the following concl usions:

It is important to remember the difference between a sys-

Figure 9. Response of liquid level to reduction of the inl et

flow rate to 10 cfm.

Spring 1994 135

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