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Copyright 2007. Hellenic American University. Office for Language Assessment and Test Development.



This paper of the CETT tests knowledge of language teaching methodology. There are 5 sections in this paper which cover the following areas:

Section 1

Reflecting on classroom scenarios

20 points

Section 2

Error correction

10 points

Section 3

Lesson planning

15 points

Section 4

Responding to writing

10 points

Section 5

Methods and techniques in TESOL

25 points


Total 80 points


You will have one hour and 45 minutes to complete Paper 1.

Use pen throughout the test.

Write all your answers in the test booklet.

Please make sure to write your answers clearly.

You will not be assessed on your use of language in this paper.

PAPER 1 METHODOLOGY Overview This paper of the CETT tests knowledge of language teaching methodology. There


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In this section you will read and reflect on two classroom scenarios. In note form, you should re- spond to each scenario with the 5 most important pieces of advice for improving the lesson. Pay special attention to the class profile and the lesson focus.




Allow the students more time to look over the vocabulary before listening.



Scenario 1

Class profile: 12 upper-intermediate students Lesson focus: to prepare for a writing task

“I set a composition for homework and wrote the title on the board, ‘The environment’.

I handed out a list of vocabulary related to the topic. We went through the list and the students added the Greek equivalents to the words. I instructed them to use all these words in their assignment. I also told the students to pay special attention to grammar and spelling in the composition. I was later surprised that their compositions were very short and didn’t make sense. ”







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Scenario 2

Class profile: 10 ‘A’ Junior students (8 – 10-year-olds) Lesson focus: to present the Present Continuous (for present actions)

“While the students were arriving in class, I wrote the words ‘Present Continuous’ and two example sen- tences on the board:

“I’m writing now.” “She’s going to the cinema tonight.”

I then asked the class to repeat the sentences individually and chorally. Next I explained in Greek when we use this tense and how it is formed. The students did not seem to be paying much attention.”







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In this section you will read and reflect on two classroom scenarios that relate to correcting students’ spoken errors. In note form, suggest



one possible course of action open to the teacher, explaining why it is appropriate



one remedial activity

Suggest a different course of action for each scenario.


Scenario 1

In an intermediate class, the teacher has been revising quantifiers such as ‘very’, ‘a large number of’, ‘a great deal of ’. The prompts have remained on the board. The class is doing a controlled speaking activity when one student, Loukia, produces:

*’It is good to speak too many languages.’











Scenario 2

In an intermediate class, students have been persistently making mistakes relating to the word order of adverbs and adverbial phrases. In a semi-controlled activity, the same type of error occurs, such as when one student, Orestes, produces:

*’She all the time stays at home.’












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In this section you will read and reflect on 3 extracts from lessons. For each one:



Match the extract to the stage of the lesson in the box below.


In note form, give one reason for your choice of the stage.


In note form, give three reasons why you think the teacher chose this particular activity.


A] In the following lesson extract, the teacher’s main aim is to help a group of upper-intermediate stu- dents improve their listening skills in the target language.

Lead-in Pre-listening During-listening Post–listening

The teacher shows the students pictures of three well-known monuments and asks them to discuss in pairs what they already know about each. After about 2 minutes, she asks for feedback, putting up some of their ideas on the board.



















B] In the following extract, the teacher’s main aim is to present and practice the use of the Present Simple for talking about habits to a group of 8 – 10-year-olds (in an A Junior class).

Lead-in Introducing new language Controlled practice of new language Freer practice of new language

The teacher has attached 5 large pictures showing everyday activities to the board. She hands out a word prompt to each student – five of them match with the pictures. Each student reads out the prompt. If s/he thinks it matches a picture, s/he goes to the board and sticks it next to the right picture. The student then produces an appropriate sentence using the target language.



















  • C] In the following lesson extract, the teacher’s main aim is to help an elementary class of young teenagers

to improve their writing skills.

Lead-in Pre-writing During-writing Post–writing

The students have written a short composition about their families for homework. The teacher prepares a list of both correct and incorrect sentences from the students’ work. Working in groups, first the students have to decide which sentences are correct. When all groups have finished this stage, the teacher asks for their answers. Next, the groups work on editing the incorrect sentences.





















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teacher has read the following two texts written by students at upper intermediate level, and

has written comments for four criteria for the assessment of writing: content and development, organization and connection of ideas, linguistic range and control, and communicative effect.

Read the comments for each of the criteria in the box below and then look at the two texts. Decide for each of the criteria whether the teacher has chosen to write a comment from A., Strengths or B., Areas for improvement. Write A or B for each of the criteria.

SECTION 4: RESPONDING TO STUDENT’S WRITING _____ / 10 POINTS A teacher has read the following

A. Strengths

B. Areas for improvement


You have fully developed the topic.

You have not fully developed the topic and so the content is limited.

Content and Development

You have included details which support your argument.

Some of the content of your writing is irrelevant to the topic.


Your writing shows appropriate, clear organization.

The organization of your writing is very basic.

Organization and Connection of Ideas

You have used connectors appropriately.

Although you do use some standard connectors, your ideas are not always well connected.

Linguistic Range

You use a good range of grammar and vocabulary.

You have used a limited range of structures.

Linguistic Control

Your grammar and vocabulary is most accurate, although there are occasional errors.

You have made frequent grammar and vocabulary errors which make your writing difficult to follow.

Communicative Effect

Your writing shows that you are aware of who the reader is and the type of text you are writing, making your text easy to follow.

You seem to have misunderstood who you are writing for and the type of text you are writing, which makes your text difficult to follow.


Recently, a teacher at City Elementary School received a very expensive present from one of her students: two airplane tickets to Hawaii. In reaction, the school officials announced that they will no longer allow teachers to accept any gifts from students. Some parents and teachers oppose the new policy and are planning a public meeting to discuss it. The City Times wants to know how its readers feel about this issue.

Essay: In many places, it is common for students to give their teachers gifts. Should this be allowed? How might it affect students, teachers, and parents? Discuss this issue using specific examples to illustrate and to support your view.


In my country, it is common for students to give their teachers gifts. Giving gifts to somebody around us is very important and wonderful. These are very close person for us. For example, friends, relatives and our teachers. We must be very careful about choosing the gifts. The teachers are very important for students. It is good behaviour remembering them at their special days, like birthday, wedding day…

Firstly, all gifts are for remembering. Expensive present is not suitable for teachers. Flowers are very beautiful gifts for teachers. All parents can teach their children which kind of gifts are suitable for teachers.

Secondly, kinds of gifts are important. I believe that books and flowers are good presents. Giving and taking gifts gives everybody good feelings. If we remember our teachers in their special days with a gift, they feel themselves very good.

In conclusion, teachers, students and parents must be agree about this kind of gifts.

Put A or B for the following:

Content and Development


Organization and Connection of Ideas


Linguistic Range


Linguistic Control


Communicative Effect



Recently, a teacher at City Elementary School received a very expensive present from one of her students: two airplane tickets to Hawaii. In reaction, the school officials announced that they will no longer allow teachers to accept any gifts from students. Some parents and teachers oppose the new policy and are planning a public meeting to discuss it. The City Times wants to know how its readers feel about this issue.

Essay: In many places, it is common for students to give their teachers gifts. Should this be allowed? How might it affect students, teachers, and parents? Discuss this issue using specific examples to illustrate and to support your view.

Giving gifts to teachers is the easy way that the parents and the students found to pass the exams. This way is not good for both kids and teachers.

The way of giving gifts to the teachers is bad for the students because they know they will pass. and they are studying. That means that when the time comes they will have in their hand a license that will mean nothing. Since they wont know anything.

This way may not affect the teachers since the will get their standar payment plus the gifts that could be money, airplane tickets or some othe expensive stuffs. But the truth is that if the police learn what is going on the teacher is going to lose his job And probably will have to pay the parents and the school back. Since he was not doing his job well.

Giving gifts is the easy solution for the students to pass the exams. This is not good for both students and teachers since students are not going to learn anything and teachers may loose their jobs. The best way to solve this problem is that both students and teachers wont give or accept any gift.

Put A or B for the following:

Content and Development


Organization and Connection of Ideas


Linguistic Range


Linguistic Control


Communicative Effect



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In this section you will circle the best answer to each question, based on your knowledge of effective communicative language teaching techniques.

  • 34. How are learners more likely to use new lexical items they have encountered?

    • A. When the students experiment with using them in a variety of contexts.

    • B. When the teacher presents them at the beginning of the lesson.

    • C. When the students write them in their vocabulary notebooks.

  • 35. What should you do when a learner interrupts your explanation of a new grammar item to ask a question about something dealt with in a previous lesson?

    • A. Answer it and see it as a positive sign that s/he is paying attention.

    • B. Answer it briefly if it has been asked in English.

    • C. Explain that you will deal with the question at the end of the lesson.

  • 36. What would you do if your beginner adult students have difficulty in distinguishing between two different sounds

    • A. Do an activity in which they have to identify the sound.

    • B. Do an activity in which they have to produce the sound.

    • C. Play a song in which the sound occurs.

  • 37. What is one way of developing learner autonomy?

    • A. Advise the students that they should revise regularly for weekly tests.

    • B. Encourage students to guess words from context.

    • C. Play language-focused games more frequently with the students.

  • 38. You have been focusing on vocabulary skills with an upper-intermediate group of students. They know the verb ‘inform’ and now meet ‘informative’ in a text. What do you do?

    • A. Ask the students to learn the word for homework.

    • B. Give the students a list of words used for reporting speech.

    • C. Write the word on the board, focusing on its suffix.

  • 39. When might you use the students’ mother tongue in the classroom?

    • A. When explaining new grammar rules to intermediate students.

    • B. When setting up a new type of activity with young learners.

    • C. When teaching advanced level adults new vocabulary.

  • 40. Which of the following is most likely to improve students’ reading skills?

    • A. Asking students to read a text aloud to improve pronunciation.

    • B. Having students work with a partner to discuss their answers to the text questions.

    • C. Telling students to use dictionaries to look up new words while they read the text.

    • 41. You have asked an intermediate level class of students to skim a new text. Which of the following should they be doing?

      • A. Reading the text relatively fast to find specific information.

      • B. Reading the text relatively fast to understand the gist.

      • C. Reading the text slowly and carefully for the global meaning.

  • 42. A group of young learners is consistently doing poorly on recorded listening activities that involve taking notes. What should you do?

    • A. Play the cassette as many times as the students need.

    • B. Play the cassette twice and then show the students the tape script before they answer.

    • C. Use a written text first to teach students how to take notes.

  • 43. An advanced group of students has indicated that they do not like doing certain activities which the course book calls ‘communicative games’. What should you do?

    • A. Change the activities into more traditional style practice.

    • B. Explain the rationale of the activities and introduce them gradually.

    • C. Plan your time so that the activities are done at the end of lessons.

  • 44. What is one way of improving students’ listening skills?

    • A. Encouraging students to improve their own pronunciation.

    • B. Encouraging students to predict what they will hear.

    • C. Encouraging students to understand each word while listening.

  • 45. Which of the following is an example of strategic competence?

    • A. When a student is able to create longer stretches of discourse.

    • B. When a student realizes that s/he has been misunderstood.

    • C. When a student uses language appropriate to the situation.

  • 46. What is a primary reason for using an authentic text in an upper-intermediate class?

    • A. It can easily be found on the Internet.

    • B. It helps the students learn to deal with real language.

    • C. It teaches the students a large amount of new vocabulary items.

  • 47. What is a primary reason for using ‘Odd One Out’ (an activity where you have to identify an item which does not belong) with young learners?

    • A. They learn about grammatical terminology.

    • B. They practice the meaning of new vocabulary items.

    • C. They understand that words may have complex meanings.

  • 48. Which of the following activities focuses exclusively on collocation?

    • A. The students complete a gapped paragraph with list of given words.

    • B. The students decide whether a list of words have a positive, neutral or negative meaning.

    • C. The students match a list of adjectives to a specific noun.

    • 49. What is a primary reason for using a song which involves mime with young learners?

      • A. Children can write the words in their books and then learn them.

      • B. Children keep quiet when they are doing something they like.

      • C. Children learn holistically and find songs and movement motivating.

  • 50. What do you do in an advanced class when some students do not seem to have understood the instructions to an activity?

    • A. Ask another student to re-formulate the instructions in English.

    • B. Translate the instructions into the mother tongue.

    • C. Write the instructions on the board.

  • 51. Which of the following seems a likely explanation for this error: * ‘I flied to Italy’?

    • A. The student does not understand the simple past.

    • B. The student has not learnt the irregular verbs carefully.

    • C. The student is over-generalizing the grammar rule.

  • 52. Why would a teacher use example sentences and situations which relate to the students’ own lives?

    • A. It is an essential tool in classroom management.

    • B. It is most useful with lower level students.

    • C. It is one way to make the lessons more memorable.

  • 53. What is a primary reason for doing project-work with young learners?

    • A. It can potentially activate all the language skills.

    • B. It involves little preparation and can be fun.

    • C. It provides evidence of student progress to show to parents.

  • 54. Which of the following is an example of a lead-in activity for a lesson based on a reading text about mobile phones?

    • A. Students read the text and then work with a partner to come up with some of the pros and cons.

    • B. Students skim read the text and come up with some of the pros and cons.

    • C. Students work with a partner to brainstorm some of the pros and cons before reading.

  • 55. An intermediate class of teenagers contains a variety of nationalities and first languages. Which of the following would be a first step to encourage integration of all students?

    • A. Get students to teach each other a simple sentence in their mother tongues.

    • B. Introduce a variety of translated short stories from the different cultures.

    • C. Set up some ‘getting to know you’ activities which involve mingling.

  • 56. What is an essential step to be followed so that the results of your end-of-year test will be reliable?

    • A. Give the students a list of all grammar structures that will be tested.

    • B. Give the students revision exercises to be done at home.

    • C. Make sure that the students are familiar with all the exercise types on the test.

    • 57. An experienced teacher has told you that it is not a good idea to do group work with classes of teenagers because they will misbehave. What should you do?

      • A. Prepare the students gradually for group work through pair work and short group activities.

      • B. Show the students a video of another class doing a successful piece of group work.

      • C. Take her advice very seriously since this was your own experience as a learner.

  • 58. Which of the following is an example of positive washback from testing?

    • A. A language institute gets excellent exam results.

    • B. A test preparation course is done thoroughly and effectively.

    • C. A test promotes the use of authentic classroom materials.


    Please note: These are suggested answers; other answers are also possible.

    • 1. No indication of what type of writing students (Ss) are expected to do – is it to be an article, essay?

    • 2. No discussion – either in pairs or with whole class - about the topic that would help Ss generate ideas &


    • 3. By giving Ss a ready-made list of vocabulary the teacher (T) is not encouraging Ss to recall what they already

    know or independently search for other words.

    • 4. T should mention other features of good writing apart from spelling & grammar, for example, organization of

    ideas, use of linkers, appropriate choice of vocabulary, and so on.

    • 5. Remind Ss to review their writing, bearing in mind criteria mentioned in point 4.

    Additional suggestions:

    If a Greek equivalent is given for a word, other info about the words should also be provided, such as in which contexts the word is typically used (does it collocate with other words, for example).

    No indication of how long the writing should be.

    • 6. Before beginning her presentation, it is essential that T ensures that she has all Ss’ attention. This can be

    done by starting out with a warm-up activity that gets them to focus on English rather than the subject of their

    previous class.

    • 7. Writing the name of the target structure on the board is not helpful for Junior students. Using metalanguage,

    especially at the beginning of a presentation, can be confusing for this age group.

    • 8. To get across the concept, s/he could demonstrate the use of this tense by writing on the board, walking to the

    window, and so on.

    • 9. The second sentence is not an example of this use of the Present Continuous. A better example would be

    something that Ss themselves can do now, for example,

    “She’s opening her book.”

    • 10. S/he could get one S to pretend to write on the board as another S says what s/he is doing.

    Additional suggestion:

    Choral repetition is useful if Ss understand what they are repeating. The teacher could use it while everyone mimes the appropriate actions, for example, “I’m writing in my notebook.”


    Note: These are suggested answers; other answers are also possible.

    • 11. a. T points to an appropriate prompt on the board and indicates to Loukia that she should try to re-phrase her

    sentence. In this way, T avoids repeating the incorrect sentence, minimizes ‘Teacher Talking Time’ and encourages

    S to produce the target language.

    • b. For homework ask Ss to come up with around 10 nouns or noun phrases and write each one on a separate

    card. They should also write a set of cards for the quantifiers. Collect all the cards and check for any problems. Use

    them to play a game in the next lesson where, in pairs, they have to match the nouns with appropriate quantifiers and then create a whole sentence.

    • 12. a. A second course of action is for the teacher to reformulate what Loukia has said, something along the lines

    of “It is good to speak a lot of languages, isn’t it?” Through reformulation the teacher focuses on meaning rather

    than simply form. The drawback to reformulation, however, is that the student may not realize that there was something wrong with her initial utterance.

    • b. Give students an email in which someone describes his/work, mentioning both positive and negative aspects.

    The students read it and then list in two columns the positive and negative aspects. For example, the writer may have written, I have too many things to do, but I also meet very many interesting people. In this case, the first (with ‘too’) has a positive connotation and the second (with ‘very’), a negative one.


    • 13. a. T uses a gesture (understood by all the Ss) - such as a hand movement – that the word order in the sentence

    is incorrect. If Orestes cannot correct himself, T can tactfully ask another S to help him by producing the correct


    The student who makes the correction is likely to feel a sense of pride and, as a result, be more


    • b. Prepare a list of sentences which could include an adverb or adverbial phrase, for example, I spend my holidays

    in Halkidia.

    In the next lesson divide the class into two teams and explain that the purpose of the game is to

    produce a sentence (orally) by adding an adverb or adverbial phrase to the sentences that you are going to give them. No points for incorrect word order. The same list can then be used as a written homework exercise.

    • 14. a. A second course of action is for the teacher to write the S’s sentence (as it was spoken) on the board and

    ask him to decide if it is correct or not. Ideally, Orestes will be able to recognize what the error is and correct it

    himself. If not, the teacher can turn to another student and elicit the correct form.

    • b. Similar to the activity in 13b above, but students themselves write sentences that they exchange with each

    other, read, then insert an appropriate adverb or adverbial phrase.

    These are suggested answers; other answers are also possible.

    • 15. Lead-in

    • 16. This activity will arouse Ss interest in the task or activate Ss’ schemata or elicit some vocabulary that might be

    useful before the main listening task.

    • 17. a. T uses pictures of real places which makes the task more motivating by bringing the outside world into the


    • b. Because these are well-known places, Ss will be able to generate some ideas.

    • c. By putting Ss in pairs, T encourages more S responses than if it were done as a whole class activity.

      • 18. Controlled practice of new language

      • 19. The target language is being practiced, but the task is guided as there is only one correct answer. The

    students produce appropriate sentences, so they are already familiar with the language. It is controlled practice

    because each student is limited to one verb, the one that matches the activity shown in the picture.

    • 20. a. It offers oral practice in a game-like activity which will motivate this age group.

      • b. It allows Ss to get out of their seats and write on the board so there is a strong kinesthetic element.

      • c. It involves pictures which also appeal to this age group and make the activity more memorable. Pictures also

    serve to reinforce the meaning of the words in the students’ minds.

    Also possible: Reading the prompt aloud lets other students hear the word and try to find a corresponding picture before the student gets up and moves to the picture.

    • 21. Post-writing

    • 22. The main writing task has been completed & T is now working on an activity aimed at giving Ss tools for

    improving their future writing.

    • 23. a. To encourage Ss to realize that they can edit their own writing.

      • b. Ss work in groups thus encouraging cooperation.

      • c. Ss are encouraged to see that they can also learn from each other.

    Also possible: T’s list also includes examples of ‘good’ sentences so that the task is not demotivating.


    • 24. Content & Development: B. The topic is not fully developed because one of the questions of the task, How

    might it affect students, teachers, and parents? is not answered. Instead, the essay focuses on why students give

    gifts to teachers and which gifts are suitable.

    • 25. Organization & Connection of Ideas: B. Basic organization: Some connectors, but ideas are not always well-

    connected. For example is used, but not in a complete sentence. Firstly and secondly refer to the same thing, that

    is, types of gifts that are appropriate. The conclusion, that teachers, students and parents must agree about gifts

    is the first time in the letter where ‘agreeing’ becomes an issue. As such, it should not be part of the conclusion.

    • 26. Linguistic Range: B.

    Limited range of vocabulary and grammar: good is used 3 times; gift is used 3 times

    (present could have replaced it at least once); it is common for students to give their teachers gifts is taken word-for-

    word from the prompt. While the candidate uses gerunds (Giving and taking gifts gives…) and an if-clause (If we

    remember our teachers in their special days with a gift, they feel themselves good), most of the sentences are simple and most rely on a form of BE as the verb.

    • 27. Linguistic Control: A. Tense, modals, number used correctly, for the most part. There are errors in grammar

    (These are very close persons for us; expensive present is not suitable for teachers; they feel themselves very good; must

    be agree), but these do not interfere with the reader’s comprehension.

    • 28. Communicative Effect: B. The essay is supposed to be written for a newspaper, but the candidate’s writing

    does not indicate this in any way. It would have helped if the candidate had indicated the purpose for writing

    the essay in the first paragraph, connecting it to what happened at Elementary School 14. As a result, it lacks an awareness of audience and of the purpose for writing.

    • 29. Content and Development: A. Adequately develops the argument. The student argues that giving gifts to

    teachers should not be allowed, and mentions how it might affect students and teachers; however, the writer

    does not discuss how it might affect parents.

    • 30. Organization and Connection of Ideas: A. Ideas are clearly and adequately organized. It is easy to follow the

    student’s train of thought: Giving gifts is not good. It is bad for students. It is bad for teachers. Conclusion: It is

    bad for both. That said, though, there are not many connectors, other than but and and.

    • 31. Linguistic Range: B. A range of structures has been attempted (a time clause: when the time comes; causal

    clauses: because they know they will pass; since students are not going to learn anything; one gerund: Giving gifts

    to teachers is…). However, most of the vocabulary tends to be vague and imprecise (the easy way, not good, bad, nothing, anything, stuffs). Only license and payment show evidence of a broader knowledge of vocabulary.

    • 32. Linguistic Control: B. The range of grammatical structures comes at a cost: there are inaccuracies in tense

    (…is the easy way that the parents and the students found to pass the exams; they know they will pass and they are

    not studying) and sentence fragments (Since they won’t know anything; And probably will have to pay; Since he was

    not doing his job well). At times comprehension is adversely affected: Is Since they won’t know anything the start of a new sentence that is incomplete or does it qualify what nothing in the previous sentence means?

    • 33. Communicative Effect: B. This essay lacks purpose for writing because the student does not mention what

    prompted him/her to write in the first place. Some use of informal language (kids, stuff) when more formal

    language (children, gifts) would be more appropriate in terms of register.


    • 34. A. Learners acquire language better when they can experiment with it and use it in various contexts.

    • 35. C. Explain that you will deal with the question later. If the question is irrelevant to the topic, answering it

    is likely to lead to a loss of focus. That said, however, a teacher should always bear in mind that what seems

    irrelevant on the surface may not be irrelevant to the student, who may see a connection between what’s going

    on in class and the question. As for B, to answer the question only if it has been asked in English sends the wrong message: it suggests that speaking in the native language is bad.

    • 36. A. Because the learners are having difficulty distinguishing between two sounds, the teacher should help

    them to recognize and identify the difference first, then advance to an activity where they have to produce the

    two sounds themselves.

    • 37. B. When students are able to guess the meaning of words from context on their own, they have developed a

    degree of autonomy.

    • 38. C. One word differs from the other because of a suffix. If the students learn what the suffix means, they will

    have a valuable clue they can use to figure out the meaning of other words they come across that have that same suffix.

    • 39. B. Setting up a new activity involves giving instructions. The students should all be clear on what the

    instructions are before they begin the activity. If using the students’ mother tongue ensures that the instructions

    are made clear, then it is an effective means to an end. Intermediate and advanced level students should have enough language to deal with any instructions in English.

    • 40. B. Using dictionaries all the time tends to take attention away from the meaning of the overall text. The

    activity of reading aloud is primarily done as a pronunciation exercise. Students working together and discussing

    what they have understood from a reading gives them a chance to help boost each other’s reading skills.

    • 41. B. Skimming a text involves going through it quickly to get the gist. Scanning involves going through the text

    relatively quickly to find specific information.

    • 42. C. Listening is one skill; taking notes is another (writing). Most learners have to be taught how to take notes

    effectively without allowing it to interfere with their listening comprehension.

    • 43. B. Learners may reject something new, either because they don’t feel comfortable doing it or because they

    don’t see the value of doing it. Explaining to them why you are asking them to do a certain activity will help

    them understand how they can learn from it and perhaps make them more motivated to play the communicative game.

    • 44. B. Making predictions is a useful sub-skill for both listening and reading.

    • 45. B. Learners who realize that they have not been understood will come up with a different way of

    communicating their message.

    • 46. B. Authentic texts haven’t been adapted. As a result, students have to be able to use strategies for the times

    when they come across words or expressions they do not know the meaning of.

    • 47. B. “Odd One Out’ is an activity typically used to practice new vocabulary.

    • 48. C. The other two answer choices involve the use of individual words. Collocations are words that typically

    occur together, thus serving as a unit, such as ‘bank teller’ or ‘’desperate plight’.

    • 49. C. Children tend to be interested in songs and can learn structures and vocabulary in the target language

    through them, particularly when sound is connected to movement.

    • 50. A. The students are at an advanced level. Giving students the chance to reformulate the instructions allows

    them to use English to communicate and also boosts their confidence that they can do something in English.

    • 51. C. Overgeneralization of rules means extending a rule to include language items to which the rules don’t

    apply. In this case, the student has learned the regular past tense ending ‘-ed’ and thinks it applies to irregular

    verbs like ‘fly’ as well.

    • 52. C. Allowing students to use the target language to talk about themselves helps Ss consolidate language

    structures and vocabulary in a meaningful way.

    • 53. A. Project work involves students collaborating with each other in groups. This gives them a greater

    opportunity to use all language skills. In addition, it helps them further develop social and critical thinking skills.

    • 54. C. Brainstorming is a principal activity to help learners to activate their background knowledge. As such, it is

    a good lead-in activity.

    • 55. C. Mingling activities allow students to interact with students other than those sitting around them. It is thus

    a good way for students of a variety of nationalities and languages to get to know each other.

    • 56. C. Reliability in testing means that a specific exam, administered to a different group of students under

    similar conditions, should produce similar results. If the students are familiar with the types of exercises on the

    test, that increases the chance that the exam will be reliable.

    • 57. A. Group work often fails because students have not been properly prepared to deal with the responsibilities

    that it entails. Gradually training Ss how to be responsible for group management increases the chance that

    group work will be successful.

    • 58. C. Positive washback from testing means that students and teachers learn something from the exam and that

    knowledge can then be applied to lesson plans and what happens in the classroom.