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Training and Development in Modern Organizations

Training and Development in Modern Organizations


12061 12066 12071 12076 12081 12086 12091 12096 12101 Abhinav Pandey Amulya M Atiullah Ansari Dilip Jaiswal Jigar Shah Madhev Das Indu J Rajyaguru Omkar Rohit Samhitha Shetty A Shashanki Khanna Sriram Bhat S Veena U

Submitted to: Dr. Nilanjan Sen Gupta Submitted on: 31 August 2012 Group: 1(I year/Section B) Batch: 2012-2014
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Table of Contents
Table of Contents....i 1. Employee Training & Development Methods ......................................................................................... 1 1.1. On-the-Job Training Methods ................................................................................................. 1 Job instructions: .............................................................................................................. 1 Job rotation: .................................................................................................................... 1 Assistant-To Position ....................................................................................................... 1 Committee assignments ................................................................................................. 1 Apprenticeships and Coaching ........................................................................................ 1

1.1.1. 1.1.2. 1.1.3. 1.1.4. 1.1.5. 1.2.

Off-the-Job Training Methods................................................................................................. 2 Lecture Courses & Seminars ........................................................................................... 2 Vestibules ........................................................................................................................ 2 Role Playing and Behaviour modelling............................................................................ 2 Simulation ....................................................................................................................... 3 Case-study .......................................................................................................... 3 Decision Games/ role-playing ............................................................................ 3 Self-study & Programmed Learning .................................................................. 4 Outdoor Training ............................................................................................... 4

1.2.1. 1.2.2. 1.2.3. 1.2.4.

1.2.4.1. 1.2.4.2. 1.2.4.3. 1.2.4.4. 2. 3.

Evolution of Modern Corporate Training........................................................................................ 4 Recent training and Development programs in some sectors ....................................................... 5 3.1. Indian IT Industry - Wipro ....................................................................................................... 5

3.1.1. Recent training and Development programs in Wipro ......................................................... 6 3.1.2. 3.1.3. 3.1.4. 3.1.5. 3.2. Training and Development.............................................................................................. 6 Wipro Leaders Program .................................................................................................. 7 New Hire Training ........................................................................................................... 7 Measurement of Top Management Performance .......................................................... 7

Automobile Industry - Toyota ................................................................................................. 8 Philosophy of Toyotas Training and Development ........................................................ 8 Development and Training Programs ............................................................................. 9 ii

3.2.1. 3.2.2.

3.2.3. 3.3.

The Toyota Institute ...................................................................................................... 10

Banking Sector Axis Bank ................................................................................................... 11 Khoj ............................................................................................................................... 11 Mep - Tikshna ................................................................................................................ 12 A new induction cum grooming programme for young officers .................................. 12 Fast track career growth opportunities for executives and officers............................. 12 Axis leadership development centre ............................................................................ 12

3.3.1. 3.3.2. 3.3.3. 3.3.4. 3.3.5.

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................................... 13

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Training and Development in Modern Organizations


1. Employee Training & Development Methods

Every organization needs well-adjusted, trained and experienced people to perform its activities. As jobs in todays dynamic organizations have become more complex, the importance of employee education has increased. Employee training is a learning experience; it seeks a relatively permanent change in employees that improves their job performance. Training involves changing skills, knowledge, attitudes, or behaviour. This may means changing what employee know, how they work, or their a ttitudes toward their jobs, co-workers, managers, and the organization. Managers, with HRM assistance, decide when employees need training and what form that training should take. Different methods of training are as follows:

1.1. On-the-Job Training Methods


1.1.1. Job instructions:


1.1.2.

It is received directly on the job, and so it is often called on -the- job training (OJT). It is used primarily to teach an employee how to do their current jobs. A trainer, supervisor, or co-worker serves as the instructor.
Job rotation:


1.1.4.

Job rotation involves moving employees to various positions in the organization to expand their skills, knowledge and abilities. It can be either horizontal or vertical. Vertical job rotation is promoting a worker into a new position. Horizontal job rotation is short-term lateral transfer. Assistant-to positions allow employees with potential to work under and be coached by successful managers. Working as staff assistants, perform many duties under watchful eye of a supportive coach.
Committee assignments

1.1.3. Assistant-To Position


1.1.5.

Committee assignments provide opportunities to an employee for: Decision-making Learning by watching others Becoming more familiar with organizational member s and problems
Apprenticeships and Coaching

Apprenticeships involve learning from a more experiences employee or employees.


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It may be supplemented with off-the-job classroom training. Assistantships and internships are similar to apprenticeships because they use high levels of participation by the trainee and have high transferability to the job. Coach attempts to provide a model for the trainee to copy. It is less formal than an apprenticeship program because there are few formal classroom sessions. Coaching is handled by the supervisor or manager not by HR department. Manager or another professional plays the role of mentor; give both skills and career advice.

1.2.

Off-the-Job Training Methods


Traditional forms of instructions revolve around formal lecture courses and seminars. Helps the individuals acquire knowledge and develop their conceptual and analytical abilities. Many organizations offer these in-house, through outside vendors, or both. Lecture courses and s eminars benefit from todays technology and are often offered in a distance-learning format. Feedback and participation can be improved when discussion is permitted along with lecture process. Benefits: Relative economic method Learning tasks on the same equipment that one actually will use on the job but in simulated work environment. Separate areas or vestibules are setup with equipment similar to that used on the job. This arrangement allows transference, repetition, and participation. Benefits: Not disrupting normal operations Role-playing is a device that forces trainees to assume different identities. For example, a male worker may assume the role of a female supervisor and a female supervisor may assume the role of a male worker. Then both may be given a typical work situation and told to respond, as they would expect the other to do. It is used to diversity training, to change attitudes and also helps to develop the interpersonal skills.
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1.2.1. Lecture Courses & Seminars

1.2.2. Vestibules

1.2.3. Role Playing and Behaviour modelling

Behaviour can be learned, modified and altered through this method where individual is either matching or copying or imitating, through the observation of some other individual. It is an observational learning technique. Learning takes place not through experience but through observing the others behaviour. The re-creation of the behaviour may be videotaped so that trainer and the trainee can review and critique it. Trainer and trainee observe the positive and negative consequences; the employee receives vicarious reinforcement that encourages the correct behaviour. Simulation refers to any artificial environment that attempts to closely mirror an actual condition. Learning a job by actually performing the work May include case studies/case analysis, experimental exercises/ decision games and role-plays and group interactions and are intended to improve decision-making. It is similar to vestibules, except that the simulator more often provides instantaneous feedback on pe rformance.
Case-study

1.2.4. Simulation

1.2.4.1.

Take actual experiences of organizations, these cases represent attempts to describe, as accurately as possible, real problems. Trainees study these cases to determine problems, analyse causes, develop alternative solutions, select what they believe to be the best solution, and implement it. If cases are meaningful and similar to work -related situations, it means transference is there. Participation can also be increased by discussing these cases.
Decision Games/ role-playing


1.2.4.2.

Played on computer program, Player makes decision, and computer determines the outcome in the context of the conditions under which it was programmed. Provide opportunities for individuals to make decisions and to witness the implications of their decisions for other segments of the organization. Role-playing allows participants to act out problems and to deal with real people.

1.2.4.3.

Self-study & Programmed Learning

Carefully planned instructional materials can be us ed to train and develop employees. It is computer programs or printed booklets that contain a series of questions and answers. After reading and answering a question, the reader gets immediate feedback. If right, the learner proceeds; if wrong, the reader is directed to review the accompanying materials. Programmed materials provide relevance, and feedback. learner participation, repetition,


1.2.4.4.

It ranges from manuals to pre -recorded cassettes or videotapes. Benefits: It is useful when employees are dispersed g eographically or when requires little interaction.
Outdoor Training

Outdoor training typically involves challenges, which teach trainees the importance of teamwork/working together. It typically involves some major emotional and physical cha llenge. Purpose is to see how employees react to the difficulties that nature presents to them. Do they freak? Or are they controlled and successful in achieving their goal? Benefits: It reinforced the importance of working closely with one another, building trusting relationships, and succeeding as a member of a group.

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Evolution of Modern Corporate Training

As this chart shows, over the last 10 years the corporate training world has gone through four major phases. Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, traditional instructor-led training (which still makes up more than 60% of all training delivery today), was our primary form of training, and it was complimented by various forms of technology (CD ROMs, Videodisks, VHS tapes, Video Broadcasts) with a goal of increasing reach and reducing cost. In those days technology-supported training was called CBT or CAT. In 1998 the term e - learning caught on, and the training world fundamentally changed. We call this second phase the e - learning era, because it was characterized by a mad rush to put everything online. Originally, as many of us remember, organizations started repurposing all their programs and developed linear, formal training programs for the web. Things got a bit crazy: pundits talked about shutting down corporate universities. In 2001 we had a global recession, which even further accelerated the transition as organizations tried to drastically reduce instructor-led training to save money. During this second phase the modern LMS was born, as were many of the new rapid e-learning and other webbased development tools we have today.

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3.1.

Recent training and Development programs in some sectors


Indian IT Industry - Wipro

India's IT Services industry was born in Mumbai in 1967 with the establishment of Tata Group in partnership with Burroughs. The first software export zone SEEPZ was set up way back in 1973, the old avatar of the modern day IT Park. The Indian Information Technology sector can be classified into the following categories: IT Services Engineering Services ITES-BPO Services E-business

The Information technology can be classified into the following:

3.1.1. Recent training and Development programs in Wipro

The company selected for analysis is Wipro. Wipro believes that training is not an event, but a process, and has created training programme based on the life cycle pattern of development. Wipro Limited (formerly Western India Products Limited) is multinational provider of Information technology (IT) services, and outsourcing services. It is headquartered in Bangalore, India. As of 2012, the company has over 130,000 employees and a presence with global centres across 54 countries. an Indian consulting Karnataka, worldwide

The company operates in four segments: IT products and services, Consumer care and lighting, Healthcare and Infrastructure engineering.
3.1.2. Training and Development

A person, who joins Wipro with less than one year experience , works as a developer for a couple of projects to learn and develop the various software developing programs. Wipro believes in individual growth and overall development of the employees. Potential is recognized and opportunities for further learning are provided. Its training programs are on par with elit e universities and every year a large number of fresh graduates are galvanized into thorough professionals in their chosen fields. Wipro Academy of Software Excellence (WASE), the first of its kind in India, is aimed at preparing some of the best Bachelor of Science students for the applications programming environment. The course equips fresh graduates with necessary skills to work in applications in a growing software company, instilling the need for a quality process. Wipro InfoTech Master of Science (WIMS) , another unique model of employment offered by Wipro, aims at preparing fresh BCA and B.Sc. graduates for IT infrastructure Management services. It is an effort where training in
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Information Technology/System Engineering is offered to the students with practical exposure to the Infrastructure Management Service industry.
3.1.3. Wipro Leaders Program

Leadership Program gears up the employees to take the challenge of successfully heading large and strong teams. The program is designed to identify the spec ific actions and attitudes that constitute the Wipro leader's qualities. It examines how each manager rates against these qualities, provide an understanding of how the required skills and competencies can be developed and plan what each individual can do to strengthen his or her leadership qualities. At Wipro, trainings are conducted in phases and each phase aims at developing a particular competency. The various training phases comprise of: New Hire Training Induction Pre-Process Training Process Training On-Job Training Refresher Training Remedial Training Development Training

3.1.4. New Hire Training

New Hire Training is carried out in four different phases namely, Induction, Pre-Process Training, Process Training and On -Job Training. Training is typically instructor led (in most of the business processes) and focuses on classroom sessions, group activities, role plays, demonstrations and hands on practice. Wipro has bagged the American Society for Training and Development (ASTD) BEST award for the sixth consecutive time for its learning and development practices. Wipro has been the only company in the world to win this award six times. The awards recognize organizations that demonstrate enterprise-wide success through employee learning and development.
3.1.5. Measurement of Top Management Performance

Every year, all leaders above the middle management level have to go through a 360-degree feedback. Every leader receives feedback from his or her juniors, peers and managers. Initially, it is a very traumat ic process because to many it is a complete reversal of the Confidential Report process. Here, the juniors give an anonymous feedback, which many times is a humbling process if not a shattering one! The report that each leader receives compares his/ her score with the scores of the peers. But feedback is not enough. Most people prefer feedback as long as it is positive! Wipro have another programme called Winds of Change for converting feedback into action.

3.2.

Automobile Industry - Toyota

Because people make our automobiles, nothing gets started until we train and educate our people." As seen in these words, which were expressed by Honorary Advisor Eiji Toyoda, Toyota seeks to develop human resources through the activity of making things. Toyota believes th at the development of human resources requires the handing down of values and perspectives. In conjunction with the geographic expansion of business and the growth of business areas, undertaking global actions for the development of human resources has become a priority issue. Toyota is building both tangible (a new learning facility) and intangible (course content) structures relating to team member development that ensures a secure and steady flow of qualified human resources to conduct Toyota's global bu siness in the 21st century. A common expression heard around Toyota is We do not just build cars, we build people. Every new product development program, every prototype, every quality defect in the factory, and every kaizen activity is an opportunity to develop people. When former Toyota Motor Manufacturing North American President Atushi Niimi was asked about his greatest challenge when trying to teach the Toyota Way to his American managers he responded: They want to be managers not teachers. He expl ained that every manager at Toyota is a teacher. Developing exceptional people is their number one priority. This has become ingrained in the Toyota Way as a cultural value throughout the company. It is frequently talked about in other companies, but rarely practiced. It is never satisfactory within Toyota to just get by. Toyota got to where they are from a small rural -based company through the exceptional talent of its leaders and engineers, team associates and supplier partners. Toyota leaders truly belie ve that their only source of competitive differentiation is the exceptional people they develop and that are always their top priority. And this starts on the shop floor where the value is being added when building cars each and every day.
3.2.1. Philosophy of Toyotas Training and Development

They consider peoples native -born gifts to be only about 10% of the total talent picture (or less). In other words, natural talent gifts account for only 10% of the full capability of an individual. Fully 90% or more of what they consider talent in the life of company employees is actually learned through effort and repeated practice. This is the essence of Toyotas success. Begin with a good foundation a person who has the capacity and desire to learn and then develop specific talents through repeated effort and practice. What Toyota has been able to do is gather competent and trainable people around the world, and with considerable time and effort develop high levels of talent in the masses. It is not a few star performers who make up a strong team. It is a collection of many players, each with good capability working in unison that makes an exceptional team. Toyota does not hope for the lucky
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draw of finding the natural talent a rare find they work on the known entity the latent talent in each person who has the desire for personal growth. The philosophy of developing people is so pivotal to Toyota that six of the fourteen principles outlined in The Toyota Way are related to it: Principle1: Base management decisions on a long-term philosophy even at the expense of short-term financial goals perhaps the most important longterm investment Toyota makes is in its people and the passion to keep team associates employed for their careers reflects that value. Principle2: Standardized processes are the foundation for continuous improvement as we will see standardized work and job instruction training goes hand in hand and long-term team associates need to learn to see waste and make improvements. Principle3: Grow leaders, who thoroughly understand the work, live the philosophy and teach it to others teaching is the most highly valued skill of leaders and leaders have to deeply understand the work to teach and coach. Principle4: Develop exceptional people and teams who follow your c ompanys philosophy Teams depend on well-trained people and part of individual development is learning to work in teams. Principle5: Respect your suppliers by challenging them and helping them improve Suppliers need to have the same talent level as Toyota team associates and are developed in similar ways. Principle6: Become a learning organization through relentless reflection and continuous improvement this was intentionally at the top of the hierarchy of the Toyota Way pyramid as becoming a learning organ ization is the highest level of organizational effectiveness.
3.2.2. Development and Training Programs

Toyota conducts systematic company -wide and divisional training and assignments for training purposes with an emphasis on on -the-job training (OJT) to ensure that associates can fully utilize their abilities. Toyota has defined the required qualifications of "professional staff" for office and engineering positions, and "T shaped human resources" that are able to perform day-to-day activities and expand their skills in technical positions. Company-wide training is conducted based on employee qualifications, as well as specialized training for ind ividual divisions, language training, and special knowledge and skill training. In October 2002, Toyota created the booklet "Toyota Developing People" and distributed it to all associates to create a common understanding that "the source of Toyota's competitiveness is human resources development" and to promote the creation of workplaces where personnel development tak es place at all sites and at all levels.
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Key Principles of the Toyota way In order to carry out the Guiding Principles at Toyota Motor Corporation, in April 2001 Toyota adopted the Toyota Way 2001, an expression of the values and conduct guidelines that all employees should embrace. In order to promote the development of Global Toyota and the transfer of authority to local entities, Toyota's management philosophies, values and business methods, that previously had been implicit in Toyota's tradition, were codified. Based on the dual pillars of "Respect for People" and "Continuous Improvement," the following five key principles sum up the Toyota employee conduct guidelines: Challenge, Kaizen (improvement), Genchi Genbutsu (go and see), Respect, and Teamwork. In 2002, these policies were advanced further with the adoption of the Toy ota Way for individual functions, including overseas sales, domestic sales, human resources, accounting, procurement, etc.
3.2.3. The Toyota Institute

Outline of Training Programs


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In January 2002, the Toyota Institute was established as an internal human resource development organization that aims to reinforce the organic integration of global Toyota companies by way of sharing the Toyota Way as well as to promote self-sufficiency. The purpose behind the Toyota Institute's establishment is to promote the human resources development of global Toyota in order to promote true globalization and to realize the advancement of Toyota's core values. TMC President Fujio Cho is the Toyota Institute's first president, with 16 full -time associates managing the business. Within the Toyota Institute, the Global Leadership and the Management Development Schools constitute the specific content of the training programs. In 2002, the Toyota Institute conducted training programs targeting global leadership candidates from TMC and overseas companies and for middle management personnel to enhance understanding of the Toyota Way, enable best practice sharing and drafting of action plans, as well as contribute to the creation of a global human network.

3.3.

Banking Sector Axis Bank

One of the objectives of HR in Axis bank is to create learning organization for employees growth and creativity. Axis bank continues to be a young bank and a talent pool comprising a mix of new recruits and experienced officers. The bank also continues to support the policy of affirmative action by being an equal opportunity employer. The two vital Human Resource sub-systems i.e. HR Planning and Management Sub-System and Competency Based HRD Sub-System shape the very crucial Performance Environment with in the Bank which facilitates development of enabling capabilities of the people. Through proper developmental inputs, Positive Attitude & Right Mind -set is created among people. Through proper Communication Medium and an Organizational Culture of sharing, openness, collaboration & confrontation, autonomy etc., people in the organization are facilitated to give their best output (performance). The Model is adequately supported by a suita ble Learning Platform, which imparts proper Knowledge and enhances Learning among people (functional, behavioural etc.) so that the Competence increases and their potential could be properly leveraged for greater Individual and Organizational Effectiveness. These create proper Employee Motivation, which ultimately facilitates Goal Achievement.
3.3.1. Khoj

Organization wide Talent identification and Development Programme for Officers and Clerks, is organized. (Through Scientific process of identification and selection, employees with high potential to be deployed in

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key business areas. Such employees to be provided with suitable grooming and career growth opportunities)
3.3.2. Mep - Tikshna

Management Education Programme for Executives (GM, DGM, AGM, Chief Managers) in association with top B-Schools like IIM-Ahmadabad and Management Development of strategic business leaders for the future. So far, 213 executives have undergone the programme.
3.3.3. A new induction cum grooming programme for young officers

With the objective of developing future managers and leader, and for deployment in key areas, a revamped officers induction cum grooming programme is launched.
3.3.4. Fast track career growth opportunities for executives and officers

In order to provide fast track growth opportunities t o aspiring executives and officers, promotional opportunities have been provided.
3.3.5. Axis leadership development centre

Board has taken the decision to set up a world class leadership development centre in order to prepare future leaders for the bank.

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Conclusion

From all these training and development programs we can see that there is Increased job satisfaction and morale among employees Increased employee motivation Increased efficiencies in processes, resulting in financial gain Increased capacity to adopt new technologies and methods Increased innovation in strategies and products Reduced employee turnover Enhanced company image, e.g., conducting ethics training Risk management, e.g., training about sexual harassment, diversity

training Hence every successful company has a strong training and development program which has facilitated in the overall personal development of the employees, which in turn has helped the company grow.

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Bibliography
http://ucsfhr.ucsf.edu/index.php/pub s/hrguidearticle/chapter-11employee-development-training/ http://articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com/2010 -0105/news/28419009_1_tony-bingham-training-and-development-wiprotechnologies http://www.thehindubusinessline.in/praxis/pr0304/03040440.pdf

http://www.wipro.com/Documents/resource -center/library/On-JobTraining-in-the BackOffice-Business-Premium-Content.pdf http://careers.wipro.com/why_wipro/development_training.htm http://thetoyotaway.org/excerpts.html http://www.toyota.co.jp/en/environmental_rep/03/jyugyoin03.html

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