Demineralization

Types of membrane processes: 1
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. RO – Reverse Osmosis ED – Electrodialysis EDR – Electrodialysis Reversal UF – Ultrafiltration NF – Nanofiltration

Electrodialysis (ED) Should be not operated when feedwater contains any of the following: 3 1. Chlorine residual of any concentration 2. Hydrogen sulfide of any concentration 3. "Calgon" or any other hexametaphosphate in excess of 10 mg/L 4. Manganese in excess of 0.1 mg/L 5. Iron in excess of 0.3 mg/L Reverse Osmosis (RO) Cellulose Acetate 4 Psi: 400 pH: 4-6 Max. Cl2: <1.0 mg/L TOC: <6.0 mg/L Subject to biological attack. Subject to hydrolysis. Most suitable to treatment of municipal wastes. Turbidity: < 5 NTU Nanofiltration Nanofiltration offers an 80% rejection rate vs. the 95% most others do; also it has an operating pressure range of less than 150 psi vs. 200+ psi. 2 This type of membrane is also known as “softening” membranes. 2 Thin Film Composite 5 Psi: 200 pH: 3-10 Max. Cl2: 0 mg/L TOC: <6.0 mg/L Not subject to biological Not subject to hydrolysis. Sensitive to oxidants in feedwater. Turbidity: < 5 NTU

1

13 Demineralization – Treatment process that removes dissolved minerals (salts) from water. 13 Polarization – Concentration of ions in the thin boundary layer adjacent to a membrane or pipe wall.7 6 Brine valves are NEVER to be fully closed. use an acid flush of citric acid. 7 Scale inhibitor most frequently used is sodium hexametaphosphate. Desired product water quality 2.Rate of hydrolysis is at a minimum at pH of about 4. 11 Definitions: Concentration polarization – Buildup of retained particles on the membrane surface. due to dewatering of the feed closest to the membrane. The thickness is controlled by the flow velocity across the membrane. is the increasing tendency for the precipitation of sparingly soluble salts and the deposition of particulate matter on the membrane surface. 14 Flux – Flow 14 Hydrolysis – Chemical reaction in which a compound is converted into another compound by taking up water. 16 To remove inorganic precipitates. The most common and serious problem resulting from concentration polarization. 12 Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) – All of the dissolved solids in a water. 10 The recovery rate is determined or limited by two things: 9 1. 8 It also prevents the scaling of Ca(SO4)2 on RO membranes. 15 2 . Solubility limits of minerals in the brine.

II. 16. 16. 16. 375. 8.Footnotes: 1. II.42 7.44 3 . 155. 16.2 6.II. 150 16. 16.1 5.II. 149 15.45 8. 173. II.24 3. II. 16. 159. 187. II.47 11. 164. 173.43 9. table 16. II.II. 178.26 12. 174. 170 2.I. 353 13. 155. 159.I. Water Quality & Treatment – pg. II. 16. II. 16.80 4. 159 14.26 10. table 16.II.II.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful