Disinfection

Disinfection is the selective destruction of pathogenic (disease-causing) organisms. 1 Properties of Chlorine: 1. 2-1/2 times heavier than air. 2 2. 1 liter of liquid Cl2 expands to 450 liters of Cl2 gas. 2 Cl2 Dose = Cl2 Demand + Cl2 Residual Cl2 Residual = Combined Cl2 + Free Cl2 Cl2 + H2O → HOCl + HCL 3 Chlorine + Water yields Hypochlorous acid + Hydrochloric acid H + OCl → HOCl 3 Hydrogen + Hypochlorite yields Hypochlorous acid HOCl has much greater disinfection potential than OCl. When chlorine is added to water containing ammonia (NH3), it reacts rapidly with the ammonia and forms chloramines. 4 Chlorine (Cl2) gas lowers pH. 5 Hypochlorite (OCl) raises pH. 5 Max. Cl2 to NH3 ratio that can be achieved is 5:1 6 Factors influencing disinfection: 1. pH – Cl2 disinfects much faster at a pH around 7.0 than at a pH over 8.0 7 2. Temp. – The higher the temperature of the water, the more efficiently it can be treated. The warmer the water temperature, the greater the dissipation rate of Cl2 into the atmosphere. 8

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3. 3. 10 5. 9 4. Reduce formation of THM’s. Once Cl2 demand has been satisfied. Maintain a detectable residual throughout the distribution system. Kill bacteria.2 mg/L Chloramines in system – at least 0. 12 GAC and Ascorbic Acid are used to reduce chloramine residuals. the greater the demand for a disinfecting chemical. 4. Chloramines (though non-toxic to healthy humans) must be removed from water before use with kidney dialysis. 16 2 . 14 Cl2 in the form of “free available Chlorine”.2 mg/L. Public water supplies are normally past the “breakpoint”. Turbidity – Excessive turbidity will reduce the efficiency of the disinfectant. 13 If Cl2 residual is less than 0. but it is not recommended because of taste and odor problems. has the highest disinfecting availability.6 mg/L THM’s are not formed when disinfecting with Chlorine Dioxide (ClO2). Organic matter – THM’s are an example of undesirable compounds formed by reactions between chlorine and certain organics. you have “breakpoint chlorination”. the system is allowed up to 4 hours to correct the problem. 11 Chloramines: Chloramines are effective in the following: 18 1. 2. 15 Dichloramine is a more powerful disinfectant than monochloramine. Microorganisms – The higher the number of microorganisms. Reduce taste and odor problems. 12 Cl2 residual in system – at least 0. 12 Chloramines can be deadly to fish. 13 It is more effective than chlorine in killing bacteria in the pH range of 8-10.

Disinfection Physical means of disinfection: 20 1. Heat 3.a.k. 2. Ultraviolet rays 2. 3. Sedimentation 3. Filtration 4. 4. It can also be used to control phenolic tastes and odors. It reacts with sulfide compounds. Pump directly into the water.Chlorine Dioxide Chlorine dioxide (Cl02) may be used as a disinfectant (very effective at higher pH levels). eductor or injector) 3 . 2. Use of an ejector (a. Ultrasonic waves Chemical disinfectants (other than chlorine) 21 1. Iodine Bromine Bases Ozone Hypochlorinators Two methods of feeding hypochlorite solution into the water: 22 1. helping to remove them and eliminate their characteristic odors. Coagulation 2. 17 Removal processes Pathogenic organisms can be removed from water or killed by various physical and chemical processes: 19 1.

Chlorine in this form has the highest disinfecting ability. 2. 23 Chlorine cylinders Fusible plugs melt @ 1580 to 1650 F. removal rate (100-150 lb.Chlorinator room exhaust systems The better system draws air from the roof and pushes the air and any chlorine out through the floor vents. 24 Max./day 25 One complete turn of valve permits max. 6. 4. cylinder) – 40 lbs. 4 . 5. Public water utilities are normally chlorinated “past the breakpoint”. 15 Prechlorination Prechlorination is the application of chlorine ahead of any other treatment processes. While it may increase the formation of THM’s in raw water containing organic precursor (THM) compounds and tastes and odors when phenolic compounds are present. 26 Chlorination Breakpoint chlorination The process of adding chlorine to water until the chlorine demand has been satisfied. Further additions of chlorine will produce free available residual chlorine. it provides the following benefits: 27 1. discharge. Control of algae and slime growths Control of mudball formation Improved coagulation Reduction of tastes and odors Increased chlorine contact time Increased safety factor in disinfection of heavily contaminated waters. 3.

but before it enters into the distribution system.Postchlorination The application of chlorine after the water has been treated. 29 5 . 28 Prechlorination The practice of adding chlorine in the distribution system. The application point could be any place where adequate mixing is available. This is the primary point of disinfection and is the last application of any disinfectant. This practice is common when the system is long or complex.

263. 7. 265. 7. 269.260 19. 263. 7. 7. 270. 7.43 26.I. 269.Footnotes 1. 262.25 17. 7.222 4. 271.I. 263. 7. 7. 282.I.00 2. 295. 7. 7. 265-66.141 20.I. 7. I.240 18. I. 267. 264. 271. 7.30 28.231 6. 319.12 10. 276.I. I.220 3.32 6 . 7. 316. 7.I.211 22.I.I.I.263 13. I.I. 263. 276.I. 7.I.I.I. 7. 270-71. I. 7.25 16. 7.I.I. 278.40 23. 289.431 27. 264-65. 276. 7.70 15. 292.140 12. 7. I. 7. 7. 267. 7.262 7. 266.120 11. I.I.6 14. 7. I.421 25.I.31 29.41 24. 7.11 9.I.I. 7.223 5. I. 269.210 21.10 8. 7. 7. 7.

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