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III.

THE FRENCH REVOLUTION

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" "THE REVOLUTIONARY AND NAPOLEONIC ERA.THE FRENCH REVOLUTION A HISTORY BY THOMAS CARLYLE WITH INTRODUCTION. AUTHOR OF "THE LIFE OF NAPOLEON I. IN THREE VOLUMES WITH ILLUSTRATIONS AND PLANS VOL. M. NOTES AND APPENDICES BY JOHN HOLLAND ROSE." ETC. Ill ^ Q b'^'^ THE GUILLOTINE -^'T LONDON GEORGE BELL AND SONS 1902 .A.

Wie getahrlich das sey. . CHISWICK PRESS CHARLES WHITTINGHAM AND TOOKS COURT. Willst du Viele befrein. so wag' es Vielen zu dienen. LONDON. willst du es wissen ? Versuch's ! Goethe.Alle Freiheits-Apostel. : CO. sie waren mir Willkiir suchte immer zuwider . doch nur Jeder am Ende fiir sich. CHANCERY LANE.

. III.\therland in Danger Sansculottism accoutred The Traitor In Fight In Death-Grip. VII. VII.. Extinct . I.. V. 184 V . II.... Cause and Effect Culottic and Sansculottic Growing Shrill F. . September. The Girondins.. 92 96 100 107 117 Place de la Revolution 124 Book I. The Improvised Commune Danton DUMOURIEZ September in Paris A Trilogy The Circular September in Argonne i6 21 III. VIII. IV. 'III.. VI. The Loser V. . VII. .. 76 87 II. The Deliberative The Executive Discrowned III.. III. Exeunt 43 54 67 Book I. /III.. . 25 35 V.CONTENTS Book CHAPTER I.. II.s 132 140 147 152 162 167 173 177 IX. IV. VI. pays Stretching of Formulas At the Bar The Three Votings . Regicide. PAGE i II. IV.. VI.

VII. no Weakness The Tumbrils MUMBO-JUMBO IV. IV. VIII. The Twenty-two V. Marie-Antoinette 210 216 220 226 VIII. Carmagnole complete Like a Thunder-Cloud Do THY Duty Flame-Picture 249 262 270 275 284 Book I. VI. PAGE CHAPTER I. Rushing Down 235 Death Destruction 241 II. Terror the Order of the Day. O Nature Sword of Sharpness Risen against Tyrants V. Vend£miaire. VI. VI. III. VII. VI. 339 344 349 354 359 367 372 380 II. VII. Charlotte Corday In Civil 191 II. III. Decadent La Cabarus QUIBERON Lion not dead Lion sprawling its last Grilled Herrings V. V. VII. 230 Book I. War 200 205 III. The Prisons To finish the Terror Go down to Book I. Terror. VI. The Whiff of Grapeshot Finis . Retreat of the Eleven IV. III.vi ' CONTENTS Book IV. Thermidor. The Gods are athirst Danton. VII. 290 298 306 313 319 323 330 II. IV. V.

vii I'AOE 385 . 399 402 405 III. .CONTENTS Chronological Summary Appendix I The Causes of the War between Great Britain and France Appendix II: The Revolutionary Calendar Index : .

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. June 8th. 59 257 .. Marat . Traitors Closing of the Jacobins' Club Republican Troops crossing the Waal on the Ice The Head of Feraud brought into the National . Danton P. and St.LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS M.. 342 350 362 Convention Suppression of the Malcontents at St.TE of the Supreme Being. Just declared .-Roch 378 Map of the Invaded District. Frontispiece . . Couthon. 198 Charlotte Corday 211 Herault de Sechelles' Address on Nature Execution of Marie-Antoinette 229 Removal of the Condemned Deputies 234 The Luxembourg Palace 248 Fusillade at Lyon 254 Chaumette 266 GOBEL taken to EXECUTION 306 A " SOUPER fraternel " 310 Fi!.. 1793 page Plan of the Siege of Toulon. Robespierre Capture of Verdun J.. 26 128 178 Execution of Louis XVI J.. 1794 314 Robespierre. .

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bk. there as she sat helpless in her dead cerements of a Constitution. The dead cerements are rent into cobwebs. vi. was mainly the composition of the French ^mij^ris. as was shown in a note in vol.. ii. and she fronts you in that terrible strength of . ye have pricked her to the quick. ! YE : . ' — [Whetlier the Declaration of Pilnitz can be called "truculent bullying" may be judged from Appendix II. and she is up.] ' — ill. you gathering in on her from all lands. Ii . vol. ii. of this edition. your invadings and truculent bullyings and lo now. and her blood is up.. chap. with your armaments and plots. iii. like cruel uncalled-for pedagogues. ye Emigrants and Despots France is roused of the world Long have ye been lecturing and tutoring this poor Nation. Eu.THE FRENCH REVOLUTION THE GUILLOTINE BOOK FIRST SEPTEMBER CHAPTER I THE IMPROVISED COMMUNE have roused her. Brunswick's manifesto of July 28th. then... shaking over her your ferulas of fire and steel it is long that ye have pricked and filliped and affrighted her. 1792.

-* . we are to contemplate a cry in Very . how much more when a Nation of men. for a little and from its endless significance : . . for some three years to come. is hurled suddenly beyond the limits. Chaotic. once more preached irrefragably abroad along with this. to whose music the Nymphs dance. but Crime and Virtue welter unseparated. Man's niigJits or strengths. as green as she looks. which goes see down with now how ye will deal This month of September. As indeed is usual when a man. has measured. in that domain of what is called the Passions of what we call the Miracles and the Portents It is thus that. streaked with rays as of heaven on one History tells side girt on the other as with hell-fire us many things but for the last thousand years and more. where Force is not yet distinguished into Bidden and Forbidden. ch. . . were we farther down and Pan. and under cloudy " death-birth of a world " huge such aspect smoke-cloud. presents itself under two most diverse aspects all of black on the one Whatsoever is cruel in side. and still louder for the time. For Nature. . what thing has she told us of a sort like this Which therefore let us two. i Nature. frightful it is when a Nation. whatsoever is great in the simultaneous death-defiance of Twentyfive million men. near by one another. . the fearfulest Devil's-Message of Man's weaknesses and sins and all on such a scale. all of bright on the other. i. in this final Third Part of our History.fcendental and must now seek its wild way through the New. Sansculottism reigning in all its grandeur and in all its hideousness the Gospel (God's-message) of Man's Rights. O Reader. him that can drive all men distracted. rests everywhere on dread foundations. which no to Machiess her. the panic frenzy of Twenty-five million men. becomes /rcw^. stand here in abrupt contrast. 1792. which has become one of the memorable months of History. has . dwell on willingly. — : : : ! . rending asunder its Constitutions and Regulations which were grown dead cerements for it. ! France.— 2 SEPTEMBER man and Tophet : [bk.

an indisputable fact that the Sun did shine and there was weather and work. nay as to that. these multiform innumerable French Records. have become discernible enough . . To all men now. who. that the history of this Period has so generally been written in hysterics. ." as the French now do. Exaggeration abounds.-SEPT. in the September whirl. of fell Tartarean nature. came in. ! . But thus too. too frequently covers. in like manner. it is — . to defend itself from domestic . towards the Frontiers. search as we w^ill in this day.AUG. be adapted for us. to defend itself from crowds towards Townhalls and VAccforeign Desjjots stormful effluence towards the . Roman History intercalated an alphabetic letter and so they continue Tatars. darkness . "swallowing formulas. wailing and. very An unlucky Editor may bad weather for harvest-work do his utmost and after all require allowances. in present circumstances. when foul old Rome had to be swept from the Earth. had been able to discern where the cardinal movement lay which tendency it was that had the rule and primary direction of it then But at forty-four years' distance. untried. Attila's Huns had arms of such length that they could lift a stone without Into the body of the poor Tatars execrative stooping. One finds it difficult to imagine that the Sun shone in Nevertheas he does in others. looking close at hand on this waste aspect of France all stirring and whirling. . and those Northmen. and other horrid sons of Nature. tion Committee-rooms. It is unfortunate. to Here. foul old Rome so that the true screamed execratively her loudest shape of many things is lost for us. execration. or sheer distraction bewilders. in desperate deathdefiance. it is different. on the whole. ! : that that Frontiers frantic crowding towards Town-houses and Council-halls in the interior. 1792] THE IMPROVISED COMMUNE 3 endeavour to extract what may. though very natural. twcj cardinal movements or grand tendencies. this less September month. Wild France dashes. in ways new. darkness. He had been a wise Frenchman.

and lift and winnow the immensity of sand The air itself (Travellers say) is a dim sand-air and dim looming through it. The Insurrectionary Commune. or red nightcap (of bonnet rouge). just on the wing towards Brunswick with the brandishing of arms always with some touch of Leonidas-eloquence. halffrantic in themselves. Let the Reader conceive well these two cardinal movements and what side-currents and end. were they but a day old. like so many mad Spinning-Dervishes of a hundred feet in stature and dance their huge Desert-waltz there Nevertheless. sovereign of France. in such sudden wreckage of all old Authorities. " especially the Ladies. whether. often with a fire of daring that threatens to outherod Herod. improvising itself on the eve of the Tenth of August. vortexes might depend on these. i. the Galleries. defile before it daily. riflemen or pikemen in green uniform. for the The Legislative. never done with applauding. persons and interests may still cleave to it volunteer defenders. This Commune. must needs rule over it. could be of soft nature ? As in dry Sahara. ! . in all human movements. ch. . when the winds waken. there is order. how can it now have authority when the Old is exploded by insurrection ? As a floating piece of wreck." i. which. worked this ever-memorable Deliverance by till the Convention explosion. Consider two things in this Sahara-waltz of the French Twenty-five millions or rather one thing. i Aristocrats. is." ^ Addresses of this or the like sort can be received and less ! . which they may well call a spontaneous or " improvised " Commune. He shall judge too. deriving present. and one hope of a thing the Coniimine (Municipality) of Paris. which shall in a few weeks be here. — ' Moore's "journal. such a pair of cardinal movements. . the wonderfulest uncertain colonnades of Sand-Pillars rush whirling from this side and from that. or the beginning of order. certain things. which is already here the National Convention. . . its authority from the Old. 85. meet. — : . .— 4 SEPTEMBER [bk.

. 467.AUG. For which use. and could only wail there to the Earth and Heavens miraculously a winged Perseus (or Improvised Commune) has dawned out of the void Blue. [The niel.iphor is here misleading. 52 1 ) as over the whole of France. neither was it freed in any way by the Paris Commune. and will have even an Explosion explode itself as far as possible according to rule. perissc notre nicmoirc. . Out of a total of 630 deputies only 285 were present at the session of August loth.. do find this state of matters most unofficial-unsatisfactory." xvii. poiu-vii que la Frmicc soit litre ! " Disfrocked Chabot adjures Heaven that at least we may " have : ' done with Kings " .. is very convenient..] : . or is it he.. 5 answered. and with waved hats shout and swear " Yes." cries Vergniaud France be free " whereupon they all start to ! " — . all : we authority. - I/nd. rigorous Rolands. They constitute [by tlicir clubb] the sole organized body in the nation. : . blaze-up once more.Sorcl says (" La Kev. A poor Legislative. for fear of even recoil worse the sceptre has departed from this Legislative once and always. let " Let our memory perish. and now have less and law. so hard was fate. nous le jurons . The attempts and must be desisted from. xvii. shouting responsive yes. as a method of proclamation. attempts are made but without effect. indeed.-SEPT. it now chiefly serves.Eu. that our busy Brissots. * " The Jacobins now lord it over the Asseml)ly Fran. nailed to the rock like an Andromeda. but rather terrorized by it. plus de rois !" " All which. " Yes. Pari. with her softness and musical speech." pt. and cut her loose ^ but whether now is it she. had let itself be hand-gyved. For the rest. ii.. 1792] THE IMPROVISED COMMUNE . that shall have casting-vote ? Melo: . Complaints are made less . 437. is not to be denied. The majority of llic Assembly had not wished for the overthrow of the Monarchy. : ^ " Hist. tion. Vergniaud delivers spirit-stirring orations but always with a prophetic sense only. with his hardness and sharp falchion and aegis. and fast as powder under spark. As . men who once had men who love — . p. but their feet. the Salle de the hearing of all France useful as a place of proclamation.. looking towards the coming Convenin Manege is still . .

out of which. .] ing it for all France (August 3rd). begin electing of Electors on Sunday the second of September (may the day prove lucky !) the Electors shall begin and so an all-healing National Conelecting Deputies No itiarc d'argent. and the Mountain Roland is getting ready the in mass. tears of gratitude alone. and votes diverge. our Primary Assemblies shall meet.— 6 — SEPTEMBER . the rebellious Needleman . Salle des Cent Snisses.] . i this were the rule But if dious agreement of vote otherwise. Administration. the flower of all the Universe {de fUjiivers) is eligible for in these very days we. . In a word. may be re-elected. all to choose. admired of the universe. Present-Legislators. — . not of a great City. unlimited liberty Old-Constituents. decreeEd. Be content. but a Caravansera.^ France is eligible. such as it is It has the implements. or disvention will come together. O France. then surely Andromeda's if possible. i. shall replace this hapless impotency of a Legislative. . one may say that there never was on Earth a stranger Town-Council. the best Members. it is likely. burnt out for us in Birmingham Klopstock. . now void and National. and has the hands the time is not long. [The section of the " Theatre Francjais " had recently decreed and the Assembly now followed suit. Seven-hundred and Forty-five' unshackled sovereigns. As is most fit for a Convention of this kind. as preliminary rendezvous for them in that void Palace of the Tuileries. Nay it may be said. : . ch. •^ Avignon. a genius of all countries distinguished Jeremy Bentham. As for the Spontaneous Commune. by act of Assembly. " naturalise " the chief Foreign Friends of Humanity Priestley. now insults the French Patriot but there is universal suffrage. tinction of Active and Passive. including the deputies from ^ this for its elections. [bk. but of a great Kingdom in a state of revolt and frenzy. and not a Palace. this is the task that ! — ! : .— some of whom may be chosen. : . part is to weep. useful Jurisconsult Paine. [The actual number was 749. Ed. On Sunday the twenty-sixth of August. with this Improvised Commune.

They ninety-eighth of the day. agitating. highways and byways Great is the fire of all hearts tingling to hear. provisioning. de- endeavouring to do one wonders the human brain did not give way under all this. too lavishly. . or what other Committees and Sub-committees are managing infinite Correspondence passing needful one hears of a Decree being " the infinite Decrees Ready is the word. They have their Agents out all over France speaking in townhouses. and a surgery of the over-swoln dropwhereat indeed the bold Booksical strongbox itself. : ! also some imcarry loaded pistols in their pocket Or indeed. seller runs risk of being hanged. Thus they girt in their tricolor sashes Municipal notepaper in the one hand.-SEPT. urging markct-jilaccs. and ignoring all the rest leaving all the rest. . p. . to be eaten on the spot. and reel. traitairs contract for the supi)ly of repasts. — . 7 has fallen to it. one improvised triThey are the color Municipal has but one life to lose. without fear or flurry. by. moted hall. nopromptly making front. as it was afterwards grumbled." . which will even become dc Saint Public. — : . at what moment soever. as if it were not there vising. by and provised luncheon by way of meal. 88. General . this is their meed. . elixir . seem to hint afiir off at something which smells . . of Public Salvation). : of Agrarian Law. is verily shifted for . in the Towngallows. these astonishing tricolor Municipals in Council in Committee of Watchfulness {de Sui'veillance.ol" (Paris. But happily human brains have such a talent of taking up simply what they can carry. and Ex-Constituent Buzot has to smuggle him off — ' " .AUG. thing doubting . judging : . to arm nay some. as Bibliopolic Anti-aristocrat eloquence Momoro.Mcmoircs dc IJu/. and chosen-men of Sansculottic Patriotism prounspeakable victory or a high to the forlorn-hope They sit there. doing. . fire-arms in the other. to the wants of the moment. 1792] THE IMPROVISED COMMUNE Enrolling. 1823). . Were the world on fire. deciding. ! Whereby somewhat for itself. and much shifts This Improvised Commune walks along.

has Marat been raised. of the Governing sort. i Governing Persons. as a main element of the Governnot be taken ing Power. . from which. high-chancellor. — : . intrinsically. And yet what most original now in the Townhall fellow-man. incurable Philoctetes Marat ^ without whom Troy canHither.] : .— 8 .!! SEPTEMBER [bk. ch. How changed for Marat lifted from his dark cellar into this luminous "peculiar tribune" All dogs have their day even rabid dogs. but has a seat of honour assigned him. Royous. Ed. since called Agate Sergent thou Huguenin. however that incorruptible Robespierre is not wanting. of its kind. as men always love to know their fellow-men in singular situations. can learn minutely their goings out and comings in which. a tribune particulih'e. with the tocsin in thy heart But. in after-times. a single fact worth many only there. is a comNot so with these Governing Persons. : . now when the brunt of battle is past in a stealthy way the seagreen man sits there. secretary of the — . Understand this. fort. . and even clapt them in prison. . were they never so insignificant have for most part plenty of Memoir-writers and the curious. fuliginous. Royalist types replace kaiser. future Procureur Chaumette. writer {sacro vate) bragged of August and its doings. . for we have " suppressed " innumerable Durosoys. . his feline eyes excellent in the twilight. as Horace says. Royalist types. man of Santerre Engraver Sergent. i. here in this Sandwaltz of the Twenty-five millions now do ? O brother thou Advocate Panis. . kinsmortals. ever showed such a phasis as Clerk Tallien. Also understand that Marat is not this other. Sorrowful. king. very strange shapes will evolve themselves. Procureur Manuel. The September world remains dark. publishing them in high places but of this September none now or afterwards would brag. friend of Danton. they wanted the sacred memoirMen and we know them not. : ! home or the foreign department. ! — ^ [Philoctetes was the Greek hero M'hose incurable wound emitted so noisome a stench that he was left alone at Lemnos yet Troy could not be taken without him. as Lapland witch-midnight indeed.

is " the same man you have known at the Corde- — . 172). apart from vengeance. and the e(|uality. in this Paris (in round numbers) " Thirty-thousand Aristocrats. this Tribunal of the Seventeenth [Uanlon was nominallyonly Minister of Justice. " Tribunal of the Seventeenth. a rushing against foreign Despots. I'." Tiie phrase previously quoted conies from Danton's circular of Auj^usl i8th to the Tribunals of France. but of rij^lUs and ot wclMjcing. ! Two great movements. ." of the most malignant humour driven now to their last trump-card } Be patient." With such a Minister of ? ' be done — Let . . Mad movements both. . agitate this distracted National mind a rushing against domestic Traitors. braggart Nationality also vengeful. ! then. 1792] — 9 THE IMPROVISED COMMUNE the worn types often snatched from a People's-Friend in old ill days." Keeper. shall not Justice it be swift. but as Mr. It continued "The only object of my thou^dits has been political and individual the maintenance of the laws liberty the splendour of the State.-SEPT. ye Patriots our new High Court. extinguishing improper judges. as we said. ." says one. " is the conscience of the H6tel-de-Ville.elloc well says ("Life of Danton. of the Sovereign's Conscience which surely in such hands will not lie hid in a napkin : . and pale Panic over all Twelve-hundred slain Patriots. In our "peculiar tribune" we write and " Amis-duredact Placards. . . and with an eye to Public Salvation only." Kli. not of fortune (for that is impossible). restrainable by no known rule strongest passions of human nature driving them on love. hatred. liers." p. of due monitory terror Peuple " (now under the name of " Journal de la Republique ") and sit obeyed of men. as some call it. : . : ! do they not.j : . . vengeful sorrow. Justice. . in Death's dumb-show. . Nay. : . answers universal is Patriotism swift and sure One would ' hope. are there not still. he was "practically the Executive itself. " Marat." sits each Section has sent Four Jurymen and Danton. from their dark catacombs there.— AUG. plead (O ye Legislators) for vengeance? Such was the destructive rage of these Aristocrats on the ever-memorable Tenth. improper practices wheresoever found.

i Already on the 21st. — . SEPTEMBER is ch. For. the Galleries shouting approval and handed over to the Realised Idea.— lo — [bk. Nor does the other movement slacken the rushing Strong forces shall meet in against foreign Despots. Moore's "Journal." i. in this Paris Commune. on this day. Louis's Day. GitalcJies. death-grip drilled Europe against mad undrilled France and singular conclusions will be tried. Besides those whom we have acquitted. : . while our than most. . Intendant of the Civil List. Marseillese sing their wild To arms. . within a week. of all days. i. There is universal there is tearful-boastful leaveenlisting. wondrous to behold. : ^ - [Voltaire's question to the French. cast. the great Guillotine.' Languid this Tribunal is not. . in Theatres. which now all men. from France. stands there the Doctor's Idea has become Oak and Iron the huge cyclopean axe " falls in its grooves like the ram of the Pile-engine. Boulevards. and sing chorally. . embaucheur^^ dies by torchswifter Court light. Ed. lo. and have dismissed or even have personally guarded back to Prison. Collenot d'Angremont. the 25th or St. all women and children have learnt. . urging to enlist taking irregular marching on the Great Northeastern Road. in chorus now . the tumult that whirls in this Placards from Section.] . Conceive therefore. " the Royalist enlister " (crimp. but four days old. . All these have been tried. Royalist Placarder." swiftly snuf(ing-out the " Mais vous. from the individual Patriot. the mild old man. — ! . and even to menacing and elbowing. Streets and the heart burns in every bosom Aux amies ! Marchons! . Then Durosoy. in some faint degree. follows next quietly. Flags of Danger to Fatherland wave at the Hotel-de-Ville on the Pont-Neuf over the prostrate Statues of Kings. . " cashier of all the Anti-revolutionists of the interior " he went rejoicing said that a Royalist like him ought to die. . what have you inlight of men " vented ? Tliis ? Poor old Laporte. 159-168. as the Galleries took to howling. ! ^ — . the Galleries murmuring. flame monitory on all walls. from Legislative.

! ! Durosoy was not yet . flitting watchful on all points of your horizon! In two words Tribunal of the Seventeenth.Sybci. one hears that Longwi. and also of epaulettes for is Necessity. . Infinitely better. For the present. ." with his war-tumbrils. de France. is fallen " in fifteen hours. with the eyes and claws of falcons. which shall be well.000 Hessians and 6.J ' . our Citoycns actually See Toulongeon. with a poor surgeon who had known me. . and ever quicker The improvised Municipals make front to this also. chap." Quick therefore. ye improvised Municipals quick. . could we suggest.)." ii. and arming. meantime. and sleeping thunders. not knowing what in the world to make of him. 179^1 THE IMPROVISED COMMUNE — Or think how your Aristocrats are skulking into covert. oftenest shut to be had Townhall Emissaries. in some four days more. thought 110. En. : how Bertrand-Moleville . The no passports Barriers are sometimes open.000 men the smallest force that could hope to succeed in reaching Paris and he despaired of success from the outset. and Our very officers have now " wool clothing. 5. ii. vol. : . guillotined when news had come that the Prussians were harrying and ravaging about Met/. and Briarean " sixty-six thousand " right hands. 25. Delays lessened his chance of catching the French unprepared (see .' — ii AUG. Hes hidden in some garret " in Aubry-le-boucher Street.000 strong). including 6. " Hist.. he is come ." Dame de Stael has secreted her Narbonne.000 men. coming. On his right and left there were two corps of Auslrians and emii^rcs (each about 15. " it the reign of Equality. our first strong-place on the borders. where arms are to be found. . " over a space of forty miles. Neither do men now mojisieur and sir one we even say another citoyen (citizen) were suitabler so have tliou^ as " the free peoples of Antiquity did " Journals and the Improvised Commune suggested ! — O . [Drimswick had only 52. coming O Heavens. busy under howling Galleries Prussian Brunswick. in these latter days of August. i. c. So strong was their dislike of the cmii^rh that these were divided between the lirunswick invading columns so as to lessen their influence. Enrolment urges itself.000 French t'mii^irs.

! 12 SEPTEMBER . give a " silver thimble.. : Meanwhile railings are torn up hammered into pikes chains themselves shall be welded together into pikes. : . but uncertain as Thus they hammering. ch. from those that have aught left nor stingily given the fair Villaumes. were it but of invention. Men who have not even a thimble." not to encourage only. . . give a thimbleful. Paris on the slopes of Montmartre men dig and shovel though even the simple suspect this to be desperate. to mount guard. i chant chorally To arms and have no arms Arms are searched for passionately there is joy over any musMoreover. has commissioned sixtythousand stand of good arms out of Holland would to Heaven. for Fatherland's sake and his. founding. thinking to serve the Fatherland. All Church-bells must down into the furnace to make cannon all Church-plate into the mint to make money. : . . and a coin of fifteen sous (sevenpence halfpenny). with all their heart and with all their soul. and delve Arms shall either be provided or else the ingenuity of man crack itself. ." with other similar effects and offer.j . i. stitchto strength ing. Lean Beaumarchais. The very coffins of the dead are raised for melting into balls. : . — ! . scheming. at least the mother does. mother and daughter. a hand. and sit there with swanneck. . It is to be made of staves^ by the coopers of almost boundless calibre. they were come ! . — . — ! : ^ down [Comparatively till the graver little plate and few church-bells were melted crisis of 1793. — i^D.-Martin. and do a stroke of trade in the old way. but to bear it was decreed with acclamation. and become fatuity. entrenchments shall be made round ket. They dig Tricolor sashes speak encouragement and well-speed-ye. in the first instance. Nay finally " twelve Members of the Legislative go daily. behold the fair swan-bevies of Citoyennes that have alighted in Churches. sewing tents and regimentals Nor are Patriotic Gifts wanting. . One Citoyen has wrought out the scheme of a wooden cannon which France shall exclusively profit by. Milliners in the Rue St. [bk.^ Also.

000 near Sedan. Vendue. . " Invasion Prussienne. sexes. [At this time. of all ages. : — by way of exception. was reputed the best in Europe but the cavalry and infantry were ' : raw and unsteady.000 near Metz.000 men. we might have to " burn. and explodes moment for us And so we have " eight-thousand Peasants at Chatillon-sur-Sevre " who will not be will not have their Curates moballoted for soldiers lested. whitened with human bones " eighty-thousand. flying at once across the Loire.000 on the Rhine in Alsace." — : ! . not since our Albigenses and Crusadings were over. battle there is to be added henceforth a deadlier internal . ! . . and our dastardly Lavergne saw nothing for it but southwestward. precisely while the Prussian batteries were playing their briskest at Longwi in the Northeast. 1792] — 13 THE IMPROVISED COMMUNE Two bells only are to remain in each Parish. ranks. will join themselves with Stofflets and Charettes with Heroes and Chouan Smugglers and the loyal warmth of a simple people. and Seigneurs enough of a Royalist turn.— AUG. . Ed.000 officers.. 25.] . 19. 24.^ But mark also. 22. To whom Bonchamps. The eight-thou. Larochejaquelins. such a suite of scenes as glorious war has not offered in these late ages. " " gangrene." with wail borne far on the winds and in brief. that sour ferment about Nonjuring Priests. — for tocsin and other purposes. in remote.000 had " emigrated " (Chuquet. patriarchal La surrender. or so. save indeed some chance Palatinate. 17. blown into flame and fury by theological and So that there shall be fighting from seignorial bellows behind ditches. . feet of the pitiful women hurrying to refuge with their children on their back seed-fields fallow. after at the wrong long working. Cyr in his "Memoirs" says the artillery chap.sand at Chatillon the fire scattered. viz.). death-volleys bursting out of thickets and ravines of rivers huts burning. ii. . is ripe. Of 9." Gouvion St.000 in French Flanders. for years coming. the French armies in tlie field (exclusive of garrisons) numbered in all 82. as many as 6. before the flood of vokmteers swelled the ranks. will be got dispelled for the moment To the dints and bruises of outward not extinguished.

almost as far as Sainte-Menehould. Of Sardinia rising to invade the Southeast. Pari. what could we do ? " Mourir." the scene with the military fugitives from Longwi. volcanically spouting fire for fifteen hours we. scattered sparse on the ramparts. ! . — : [France had declared war on die Kingdom of Sardinia on 15th. dusty. — . : : . Moiirir. — . . . we do not speak. . ye Patriots if ye lose This rising Wednesday . like Job's messengers are met by gloomy answers. Die answer prompt voices ^ and the dusty fugitives must Yes.] " Hist. heart. that is shrink elsewhither for comfort. Heart. But indeed otherwise this Wednesday is to be regarded as one of the notablest Paris had yet seen gloomy tidings come successively. disheartened. about sunset or after give the most pathetic detail of the frightful pass they were in Prussians billowing round by the myriad. now the word. 14 ch. Wayworn. Not Metzland now. hardly a cannoneer to two guns our dastard Commandant Lavergne nowhere showing face . were hoping still to have a National Convention. Be Longwi a proverb and a hissing among French strong-places let it (says the Legislative) be obliterated rather.. i in La Vendue reports itself at Paris on the 29th of August ^just as we had got our Electors elected and. but the Clermontais is getting harried flying hulans and hussars have been seen on the Chalons road. . in spite of Brunswick and Longwi. ye lose all It is not without a dramatic emotion that one reads in the Parliamentary Debates of this Wednesday evening " past seven o'clock. i. and Spain threatening the South. 148. these poor men enter the Legislative. [The Prussians invaded France on August 19th Longwy surrendered on August 23rd. one would say) and preparing to besiege Verdun ? Clairfait and his Austrians are encompassing Thionville darkening the North. Ed.! — SEPTEMBER [bk. : .— Ed." xvii.^ But are not the Prussians masters of Longwi (treacherously yielded.] ^ May ^ : . from the shamed face of the . the priming would not catch there was no powder " in the bombs. if it pleased Heaven.

" and exist only as ploughed ground." makes answer " Citoyenne. President. 29. . Nor are the Jacobins milder as how could they. . wife of the poor Commandant. the Commandant of Longwi.AUG. He would have ended his course there {teruiine sa carriere). took her parasol one evening." . . the Nation will judge Lavergne the Jacobins are bound to tell him the truth.. — and Longvvi shall.'^ xix. ' ' "Hist. . if he had loved the honour of his country. Earth . that were the Prussians once out of it. the flower of Patriotism ? Poor Dame Lavergne. 300. Parl. 1792] THE IMPROVISED COMMUNE so 15 there has gone forth Decree. and escorted by her Leather came over to the Plall of the mighty Mother and " reads a memoir tending to justify Lafarge. " be rased.

and not without use. Aristocratism rolls in its carriage. or the accused of Plotting. Messieurs if Brunswick blast Paris to ashes." and even. : . ii CHAPTER DANTON II better than rasing of Longwi. This Decree the energetic Minister of Justice demanded last night. in this way and some four-hundred head of new Prisoners and. Yes. and even Patriotism were it out of this agony. . One can judge what stir there was now among the " thirty-thousand Royalists " how the Plotters. be made to this end. in these wild waters. To search generally for munitions of war. such a terror and damp is struck through the Aristocrat heart. To search for arms for horses. if it seem proper. and the same leaky the depth of horrors that lie in it bottom. i. he probably will blast the Prisons of Paris too pale Terror. Two-thousand stand of arms. . Let " Domiciliary visits. while Patriotism cannot trail its cannon. since they were not yielded voluntarily." with rigour of authority. as all but Patriotism. shrank each closer into his lurking. to seize and imprison the suspect persons themselves In the Prisons their Plots will be harmless in the Prisons they will be as hostages for us. if we have got it. and got and this same night it is to be executed it is being executed at the moment when these dusty soldiers get saluted with Mourir. BUT dusty — — ! . we will also give it. Danton had come over. " in the houses of persons suspect. on the whole. ch. as they count. and demanded a Decree to search for arms. ! : .i6 SEPTEMBER [bk. bears us all. might pity. are foraged . or rebuking poor soldiers or soldiers' wives. . last night.

are gone out. as if Paris is holding its breath. pleading even with Royalist Clerk Tallien a prey to nameless chagrins Peltier. 29. : — . and it is become bitter earnest instead polished satire changed now into coarse pike-points (hammered out of railing) all logic reduced to this one primitive thesis. . like Narbonne. ' . in smokeless mackerel-sky Paris is as if sleeping. dolefully aware of an eye. the I'irsl Consul. a great city is struck suddenly silent except for the beating of drums. . C ' Uc Slaiil. : : ! . and all jocundity of Leading-Articles. to see what stroke dead place." were seized . the Pamphleteer. a Tricolor Commissioner with his blue Guards (/'/c?r/i'-guards !) arriving. in due season. and was prosecuted by our (Joveriunent early in 1803 but was successfully deiended by the Whig writer and barrister. on it. All Streets are vacant. and an designated as " persons suspect. looking eager towards Longvvi." ii. Poor Peltier! Acis of Apostles. says Peltier beset by Guards at each end all Citizens are ordered to be within doors. pleading with Manuel as a Sister in Literature. " L'Anibigu. gives a touching Narrative (not deficient in height of colouring) of the terrors of that night. hoping the weather would keep fair. ." (K " thirt)'-thousand " naturally great multitudes were left unmolested but. From five in the afternoon. a tooth for a tooth it. 1792] DANTON 17 like Bertrand-Moleville. Frightful The Sun shines serenely westering. ducks low escapes unscathed to England to urge will fall . On the River float sentinel barges. as we said. — : ! . for the tramp of marching feet and ever and anon the dread thunder of the knocker at some door. and " got to England as Dr. Mackintosh. and deliverance by young Whig eloquence. Ejj. 67-Si. lest we escape by water the Barriers hermetically closed. some four-hundred. . he slandered Napoleon. ." published in London. An eye for Peltier. French royalist paper. Bollman's famulus " how Dame de Stael bestirred herself. "Considerations sur la Revolution.— AUG. . world-celebrated for a da)'. there the ink)' war anew Trial by Jury. Or how they dressed themselves in valet's clothes. liis [In .] ill. : — — to have ! .

my sisters The famed and named go the nameless. ii unspeakable terror fell on all. . with wild gestures he their miraculous healer and speech-bringer is rapt away. ! . ! : — . he says. : : . launches an arrest against him the Arsenal quarter. hurry. Necklace ^Lamotte's Husband is in these Prisons {sJie long since squelched on the London Pavements) but gets delivered. but who could teach the Deaf and Dumb in his Section one man. In hour. is snatched Tricolor Rossignol (journeyoff from mother and kin . Wo O . — . one may fancy what the Prisons now were. very weak in health. . if they have an accuser. he of the Invalides. ever since the Tenth. a risen man now) remembers an old Pleading of Maton's Jourgniac de Saint-M^ard goes the brisk frank soldier he was in the mutiny of Nanci. With young tears hardly suppressed. who had followed her to the Temple. Saddest of all Abbe Sicard goes a Priest who could not take the Oath. Crowding and confusion jostle. is seized a man seen askance by Patriotism ever since the Bastille days whom also a fond Daughter will not quit. Feuillantism who. de Cazotte is seized his young loved Daughter with him. to him who is guilty ofplotting. in that " effervescent Regiment du Roi. had a grudge at him one man. wouldst thou quit romancing and " Diable Amoureux. ! . with signs. —O O ! . what with those that have gone on more or less. refusing to quit him. ch. has an enemy in his Section to call him guilty Poor old M." for such reality as this ? Poor old M. . . What with the arrestments on this night of the Twentyninth. my brothers. Maton de la Varenne. i. Gross de Morande. and been man goldsmith and . at the fit which hits. Cazotte. of the " Courrier de I'Europe. Royalism. guilty or not guilty. Why. ." on the wrong side." hobbles distractedly to and fro there but they let him hobble out on right nimble Advocate crutches his hour not being yet come. of Anti-civism. day and night. there are dumb hearts making wail. . de Sombreuil. and old [wavering weakness rousing itself once more. vehemence and terror Of the poor Queen's JFriends. : .i8 SEPTEMBER [bk. scoundrel lately.

we must mention one other Caron de Beaumarchais. vol. see the ' " Memoirs" of the former. And through the shutters and crevices. : . enters your room Monsieur. panic interjections. alas. as Governess de ToLirzelle. finding none and have to take refuge in the crockery-press. down stairs and stand there. along with the I'rincesse de Lamballe. rise. nothing on my feet but slippers and say to him " And he. to preliminary Houses of Detention. the dull street-lamps disclose only streetfuls of haggard countenances clamorous. in his shirt. the poor Princess de Lamballe. " At midnight " a glimpse of him (it was but the 12th of August yet). are to be let go one. in front or rearfact . Tallien and others. "the servant. : [This is inexact. so many hundreds whom the launched arrest are rolled off to Townhall or Sectionhall. palpitating in that imperfect costume." with wide-staring eyes. tramp of feet overhead. The Duchesse de Toiirzel and lier daughter were examined. forgetting even the waistcoat. Among who : . Author of " Figaro " vanquisher of hits. ! knocking in a terrible manner {d'line facon terrible). lights dancing past your key-hole. and hurled in thither as into cattle-pens. bered in Maupeou Parlements and Goezman helldogs once numamong the demigods.— AUG. what dreadful decline is this.' . of the quarter. started up rang for their bonnes and (as we hear next morning) and old gentlecordial-drops. . . — ward. ii. by Manuel. answers mere negatory incoherences. . is not let go but waits in the strong-rooms of La Force there. some.. For the escape of mother and daughter from the fate which there overtook the Princess. " for four hours and more"! And old ladies. and were then sent to La Force— a prison filled with the vilest wretches. \. 1792] DANTON : 19 committed elsewhither to Prison. I fling on my coat. bristling with pikes and you rush distracted for an outlet. and now ? We left him — . what will betide farther. with shrill interjections . 29. chap. and the tumult of Satan. all the people are come to seek you they are *' knocking like to break-in the door And they were in his culminant state . when we again catch ! : — .

" longing for one word of any Minister. toothless (moneyless). Figaro know that Procureur Manuel. French stage nay is. not without sadness. 179-90. We — . must creep into the corner. how the swift sharp hound. at this day. . out so ill ! Beaumarchais escaped for this time but not for the next time. and the bold stroke of trade. once fit to be Diana's. . ch. in their shirts. in saddest . — i. i. have turned . with heart fuming in spleen. and no soil yet coming to view. . to roam over harrowed fields. Figaro fancy. . how the lean demigod. and sit in darkness " on the Boulevarde amid paving-stones and boulders. and weep for. and all this let the lover of lie quiet. " Memoires sur les Prisons " (Paris. And indeed. can ground itself only on artificiality and aridity each new Revolt and Change of Dynasty turning up only a new stratum of dry-rubbish. in many ways. and delivered him once more.— 20 SEPTEMBER . or Minister's Clerk. now shorn of his splendour. and making off. sometimes named the best piece there. a Brother in LiteraBut ture. On the evening of the Twentyninth he is still in that chaos of the Prisons. found him. even to get audience " Panis scratching his head " when you speak Nevertheless let the lover of to him. 1823. and getting none. li men. about those accursed Dutch muskets. — . ' Beaumarchais' Narrative. and even in the Figaro way ? . ten days after. without weeping. here. so long as Man's Life . panting for life and to wait under eavesdrops. had to lurk in barns. breaks his old teeth now. may it not be good to protest against such a Life. . wave the withered tough fellowHis Figaro has returned to the mortal our farewell.. wrestling condition unable to get justice. " leapt garden-walls " flying while none pursued one of whom unfortunately broke his leg/ Those sixty-thousand stand of Dutch Arms (which never arrive). gnawing and. and terror. mere whinstones and must " fly to England " returning from England. [bk. and suppressed canine-madness alas.

that made War be declared. What disastrous and of last . eastward to Sedan. Jkunswick is here. finally. " This is one of them. . from beyond the winding Meuse River. . With his King and sixty-thousand. will beleaguer Verdun and Austrians press deeper in. And Longwi has fallen basely and Brunswick. glittering over the heights. . Royalist foot " in red facing and nankeen chivalry trousers " breathing death and the gallows. on our " high citadel" and all our confectionery ovens (for wc are celebrated for confectionery) has sentcourteoussummons.. 2. days gloomy." ii. . and the Prussian King. 1792] DUMOURIEZ 21 CHAPTER III DUMOURIEZ days of August 1792 arc the SUCH omen. at Verdun on Sunday the 2d of September 1792. And lo. ^ ! . .: SEPT. ! — ' Dumouriei. 3S3. on Tuesday last. he looks down on us. do hem us in Cimmerian There is Castries-and-Broglie Europe behind them." ce b Army Recruits flow in. Unpromising e Id. " eightythousand " as the returns show. : — . over the Northern marches this . the 28th of reviewed that so-called Army left forlorn the month the forlorn soldiers gloomed on there by Lafayette him were heard growling on him. . evil will become of poor I-^rance ? Uumouriez rode from the Camp of Maulde. filtering through Depot after Depot but recruits merely in want of all happy if they have so much as arms. " Mcmoires. : . Resist him to in order to spare the effusion of blood the death? Every day of retardation precious? ll<jw. " a hundred and fifty thousaiid " as fear counts. with his and Clairfait sixty-thousand. .

as pacific Pastry-cooks. Williams. . the power of ordering it with an Army officered by Royalism or Crypto-Royalism. Le Blanc. the Verdun Municipals. without end ? Retardation. see no Has he not sixty-thousand. ture rheumatism. it is said. Clermont. the report of a pistol Beaurepaire is lying dead his eager writing had been a brief suicidal farewell. her bower thatched with rushes catching premaClermont may ring the tocsin now. The Prussians. descending from the heights. . ye Towns of the Night of Procureur Sausse and the MagisSpurs. — . " Letters from France'" (London. such a Law seemed needful and they order it. 1791- 93). artillery We. like a beautiful Bessy Bell of Song. of Heaven and of Earth to no purpose. honour. : . . by way of revenge. and sleepHapless Beaurepaire stretches out ing in whole skin. by law. Sainte-Menehould. has to live in greenwood. In this manner died Beaurepaire. his hands. in few minutes. a of the Bras d'Or is to the woods young woman fair to look upon.in the name of country. will take silverplate.' — : . : — ! : : . Patriotism is good but so likewise is peaceable baking of pastry. — : ! . entering the room. covering forty miles of country ? the villages of the Northeast are Foragers fly far your Hessian forager has only " three sous harried a-day " the very Emigrants. and . and for Epitaph these words. ill O General Beaurepaire (asks the amazed Municipality). wept of France buried in the Pantheon. are peaceable masters of Verdun. CH. and pleads passionately. To surrender ]^eaurepaire strides home. His valet hears then. 96. tremble ye tracy of Varennes have fled brave Boniface Le Blanc Mrs. with honourable Pension to his Widow.— 22 : SEPTEMBER we resist [bk. I. with long steps his valet. And so Brunswick advances. shall him ? resistance possible. sees him " writing eagerly. Varennes especially. He chose Death rather than yield to Despots. The Municipals have. from stage to stage who shall now stay him. and illuminate ' itself! Clermont lies at the foot of its Helen Maria iii. with her young infant." and withdraws. not as heroic Patriots would.

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' [Cleifait was observing the KreiK h army near . it is as we saw willing. 2. with directions to keep it quiet. indeed. but minding his Election and will sit in the Convention. notable Kingtaker. our Nationals but was not yet seen. where poor P'rance seems grinding itself down to dust and bottomless ruin. yet of all that are robbed for Necessity. may have ordered it all otherwise? case. on three halfis cheaper and portable pence a-day. like the winMore denowed Sahara waltzing in sand colonnades A country. amid this nor. and Clairfait with Austria and sieged Thionville is in the North —and all France leaps distracted. sperate posture no country ever stood in. not of h'fe. ." the Powers And at Paris. fairer than most. the unpromising Review-day in Sedan. so they name that Mountain). though as yet human eye discern it not On the night of that same twenty-eighth of August.! SEPT. or what is dearer. . for him ! the Upper Powers. like a Poland flinging the remainder to poor Brother Louis. who knows what miraculous salient-point of Deliverance and New-life may have and be already already come into existence there working there. it is as we saw and Sardinia is in the Southeast. and in La Vendee Southwest. .^ Tliionville. a prey to the Hessian spoiler its fair women. . Postall turning out in arms master Drouet. ' ! — it . in the centre. Dumouriez assembles Or perhaps in Chapter ! — . minded that a new Universal History shall begin here and not In that farther on. and Spain in the South. one knows not when wreckage. which the Majesty of Prussia (if it so pleased him) might partition and clip in pieces. has no law. Brunswick " has engaged to dine in Paris. .] . . Ikunswick will not dine in Paris on the set day Verily. he is not in the woods. 1792] DUMOURIEZ : 23 Cow (or Vache. At Sainte-Menehould the enemy has been expected more than once. — . the date of which is irrecoverable by History. one would say.Sedan besiejiinj. and bold Old-Dragoon as he is. — . Thus on the Northeast all roams and runs and on a set day. or else we will keep . : I'linre Ilohenlohe was Kd.

for they have forgotten it. with broad highway. . and willing France on ours and the Equinox rains not far this Argonne " might be the Thermopylae of France " O brisk Dumouriez Polymetis with thy teeming head. to Dumouriez to occupy the Argonne. The Manycounselled. the fire of whose looks had pleased Thouvenot waits Voila. folds his may the gods grant it map together. ing till our recruits accumulate till perhaps the chapter of chances turn up some leaf for us or Paris. to wait a moment. . Eng. and ness. .— 24 SEPTEMBER . 391. and retreatwell what to advise. : . be sacked at the latest day possible. was very slippery after the heavy rains. who discovered the 07-der of Servan. with swifttry. . and flings himself on bed resolved to With astucity.j ' dispelled . ii. i. who " has not closed an eye for three nights. helpless.. dated August 31st." vol. says him. ch. at all events. He spreads out the map of this forlorn war-district Prussians here. which hills rising about 300 feet above the plain. hi a Council of War at his lodgings there. It is a line of wooded 1792. 123. look blank enough know not if it be not retreating. : : — . : . might one not still seize. That is the forest of Polymetis. — . Campagne Pouillense) on their side of it the fat Three Bishopricks. at any rate.). [bk. on the morrow morning. p." listens with little speech to these long cheerless speeches merely watching the speaker. here and here strangers to Dumouriez. Minister of War. with audacity have luck on one's side. ! Dumouriez. Austrians there triumphant both. pointing to the map Argonne. — ^ ! ! — . edit. that long strip of rocky Mountain and wild Wood forty miles long with but five. . Ed. and little hinderance. ii. One had need to be a lion-fox. Polymetis. . — ! . what to advise ? The Generals. [The romance of this episode has been by Sybel (" Fr. Rev. though Clairfait Once seized the Champagne called the sits so nigh ? Hungry (or worse.. : . The soil is clay. that he may know him but beckons a certain then wishes them all good-night young Thouvenot. all the way to Paris we scattered. or say even three practicable Passes through it this.

Pari. 17^.? Make front t(j this. force the Temple. the Prussians in full march. AT and veridical. at the top of his lungs when snatched off to the Townhall. when they guillotined him. he persisted in it. strong! ' strong Danton. and all men's minds may go mad. still bawling yesterniglit. the fall of . he died with the froth of it on his lips. may go mad " . Sieur Jean Julien. This the unfortunate wagoner of Vaugirard did bawl. whatsoever man Readers can judge whether the l<'lag (if i. iMoore." as the frenetic will do.SEPT. took all at once to crying. 409.' being set in the Pillory last PViday. ride roughshod over us all. . with fire and faggot Thirty-thousand Aristocrats within our own walls and but the merest quarter-tithe of them yet put in Prison Nay there goes a word that even these will revolt.' For a man's mind. - "lli^i. ! . 1792] IN PARIS 35 CHAPTER SEPTEMBER IV IN PARIS by lying Rumour which proved prophetic Verdun was known some hours before it happened. Verdun gone (though some still deny it) Paris. thou Improvised is Commune. : .. wagoner of Vaugirard. 2. joined by the unimprisoned. That he would be well revenged ere long that the King's Friends in Prison would bur.' xvii. ! . "-because it is impossible.st out. and. padlocked to the Pillory. with gallows-ropes. set the King on horseback. It is Sunday the second of September handiwork hinders not the speculations of the mind. and believe him." So that apparently the knot of the crisis and last agony of France is come. .

according to Poet Milton. and fly to Saumur Paris and take such attitude as would put their enemies a word of his which has been often in fear. . . offer to mount guard and shoulder the brown musket weak clucking-hens.^ repeated. and reprinted At two of the clock. will fly at the muzzle of the mastiff. Haste. But better than digging personally with acclaim. mortals are going But at Paris. ch. -faire peur in italics. all steeples are in for afternoon sermon. Committee of General Defence. . and even conquer Terror itself. becomes a kind of courage as frost sufficiently intense. 96. — tramping heavy grim energy looking from all Strong is that grim Son features of the rugged man figure . . . Danton. as we saw. rolled. : — ! — .— 26 . the alarm-cannon fired shall rush to the Champ-de-Mars. . getting plastered to the walls at two o'clock the stormall Paris bell shall be sounded. It would not do to that they must abide by quit Paris. and have itself enUnarmed. — . over Europe. and undrilled but desperate. i. iv Country in Danger flapped soothingly or distractively on the souls of men that day. ! ' "Biographic des Ministres" (Bruxelles. the other night. 1826). the colossus Danton enter . truly. when him. but strong Danton is Huge Placards are not wanting. . see the black brows clouded. has shot himself at Verdun and. in the strength of frenzy. by vehemence of character once grown transcendental. p. the alarm-gun booming clangouring not for sermon from minute to minute Champ-de-Mars and Father. SEPTEMBER [bk. . But the Improvised Commune. in a state of desperation. in the Legislative will burti. when the other Ministers and Legislators had all opined. land's Altar boiling with desperate terror-courage what a miserere going up to Heaven from this once Capital The Legislative sits in of the Most Christian King : ! Vergniaud proposing alternate awe and effervescence that Twelve shall go and dig personally on Montmartre which is decreed by acclaim. each after his kind. ye men ye very women. . Beaurepaire. . said.

f <-— Kruiii " Talilcaiix liUloriijiies F jfi .

.

will still tell you how the reverberating voice made all hearts swell. as the Newspapers yet preserve it for us." xvii. : ! The Commune . But the world laughed." With so many score of Naples Bravoes. Pari. a muff on his left. 27 and Son of Earth a Reality and not a Formula he too and surely now if ever. . the man forbid. enrolling enrolls many provides tents for them in that Mars-Field. 2. et toujours de I'audace^ To dare. and again to dare. as a word spoken rests. but only a fixed-idea. ! : ! * — . 347). Ed-I ' Marat.. in season. each a dirk in his right-hand.— SEPT. back. enrolling in the Champ-de-Mars? Committee of Watchfulness. . that they may march with dawn on the morrow praise to this part of the Commune To Marat and the Committee of Watchfulness not praise not even blame. being hurled low enough. it is on the Earth and on Realities that he of France : " Legislators " so speaks the stentor-voice. and without end to dare " Right so. he has come down from his Stylites Pillar here now. what do we require ? // nous faut de Vaudace. become now Committee of Public Salvation whose conscience is Marat ?'lUit the . and do it. [This Cotniti' de Stimeillance had ilk'tjally ro-opH-d who urged on the September massacres. . in that moment and braced them to the sticking-place and thrilled abroad over France. 1792] IN PARIS . "Moniteur" (in "Hist. ! : . . — . on his Stylites Pillar. " it is not the alarm-cannon that you hear it is the pas-de-charge To conquer them. to a Tribune particuliere ' now. Old men. who heard it. he would traverse France. mocking the severe-benevolence of a People's-Friend and his idea L(j could not become an action. But the Commune. however. meditating long in his Cellars of refuge. . such as could be meted out in these insufficient dialects of ours expressive silence rather Lone Marat. thou brawny Titan there is nothing left for thee but that. like electric virtue. could see salvation in one thing only in the fall of " two-hundred and sixty thousand Aristocrat heads. to hurl them against our enemies. with<jut the dirks. et encore de Vaiidace.

seek not to guess. like a copper Portent. in this dizzy pealing of tocsin-miserere and universal frenzy. and murky bewilderment of Frenzy. O Reader Nor of Avignon was noised of sufficiently. illuminate this murk How it was and went. what part might be premeditated. (2) On August 1 8th it orders the arrest of the wives and children of all emigres to be kept as hostages. are not Murder. borne on — ! what the . may dance through the brain of a Marat. man will never know. sending " Carriage-horses are seized by forth their sons to die. now in the knot of the crisis. till the great Day of Judgment make it known." that they may draw cannon cut. (4) On August 27th it orders all suspects to be disarmed. shaking their dirk and muff". . The Ice-Tower and all punished men's shoulders. " was thinking nor Sergent. i." What phantasms. They show clearly that the Commune meant to purge Paris of aristocrats. with streaming eyes and wild hearts. " the traces the bridle. memories but the authors were not nay we saw Jourdan Coupe-tete. (3) On August 24th it gains power over the prisons of Paris. Thus (i) On August 1 6th it requires the Assembly to appoint a special Tribunal. that the massacres of September 2nd-6th Tvere premeditated. Ate and all Furies near at hand ? On slight hint who knows on how slight ? may not Murder come and. 28 SEPTEMBER ch. (5) On August 29th it forms. squalid-horrid. . were it not grown possible.* . iv without the muffs at least. tears and frenzy tocsin-miserere pealing through the air fierce desperation rushing to battle mothers. with her snaky-sparkling head. cruel Billaud " in his short brown coat . the carriages left standing. when salvation or destruction hangs lives : in the in hour . " traversing the cities of the South." In such tocsin-miserere. and fashion her monsters and prodigies of Events. in a word.! — [bk. — ! . which thou seest her visibly bear Terror is on these streets of Paris terror and rage. had he perused the " Records of the (edited by Barriere in 1823). — — ! . : . how gloomy Orcus does breed in her gloomy womb. on Danton's ' Commune " : . what was improvised and accidental. not yet Agate-SQVgQnt nor Panis the confidant of Danton nor. [Carlyle might have seen.

one last instant of possibility for him ? Not yet a murderer it is at the mercy of light trifles whether the most fixed idea may not yet become unfixed. as there are heights that reach highest Heaven for are not both Heaven and Hell made out of him. — — . wo on him Of such stuff are we all made on such powder-mines of bottomless guilt and criminality. . . farewell shoutings. The finger lies on the pistol but the man is not yet a murderer nay his whole nature staggering at such consummation. " if God restrained not. with its crammed Prisons (supposed about to burst). One slight twitch of a muscle. of their own accord. a l)ody of all the needy citi/ens fit for military service. (8) Finally. is there not a confused pause rather. the death-flash bursts and he is it. is not surety of performance that it is perhaps.vanune the suspects arrested. 1792] IN PARIS for 29 keeper of the Sovereign's Conthe ultima ratio of Sovereigns. when they are driven to it.000 V. as exist in all the Earth to be hired. - . surety of letting whosoever wills perform. with its tocsin-miserere. Wo. and set on to set on. etc. 3. at most. . but with red flames of remorse voices from the depths of Nature sounding. with its tent-buildings and frantic enrolments on this murky-simmering Paris." as is well said does the purest of us walk. — — .\ francs to the men who killed the prisoners (rom Orleans. ! . (7) On August 3olh the sections of Paris are charged to e. . everlasting Miracle and Mystery as he is? But looking on this Champ-de-Mars.463 francs to the gang^ of murderers and 0. And yet we will remark that premeditation itself is not performance. . There are depths in man that go the length of lowest Hell. after the massacres are over. its mothers' tears. unhired. it orders the payment of 1. say a hundred or more. : — . and soldiers' science But with a Marat — And : we know what ! — . is In this Paris there are as wicked men. . — the [jious soul might have praj'cd. (6) It also ortlei's a house-to-house search for suspects. proposal. From the purpose of crime to the act of crime there is an abyss wonderful to think of. .SEPT.\i. made by him. and will for Eternity be it and Earth has become a penal Tartarus for him his horizon girdled now not with golden hope.

which ye — . clapping its horny paw on the carriage-blind. Alas. . Accursed Aristocrat Tartuffes. who mount even on the carriagesteps the very Guards hardly refraining. knowing him. Pari. Mammon and the Prussian Gallows. whom one Moton a watchmaker. 1 56-181). and greatly restrain lest on slight hest or hint. ch. heroically tried to save and secrete in the prison. and worse spoken-in on them by frantic Patriots. next moment the carriages are locked and blocked in endless raging tumults in yells deaf to the cry for mercy. " La Verite tout entiere 2 Septembre 1792 " (reprinted .' The thirty Priests are torn out. fare along the streets. — . twice over. from their preliminary House of Detention at the Townhall. and set Capet Veto on horseback to ride over us ? Out upon you. that God's grace would restrain. the clocks inaudibly striking Three. 167. through angry multitudes. it has lasted long a poor Nonjurant. Fils).30 SEPTEMBER . escapes to tell and it is Night and Orcus ! — — . Horror and Murder rose. this is the pass ye have brought us too And now ye will break the Prisons. and massacred about the Prison-Gate. smites the unkempt head. which answer the cry for mercy with sabre-thrusts through the heart. only the poor Abbe Sicard. ^ Felemhesi (anagram for Mehee sur les vrais auteurs de la journee du in " Hist. Madness. westward towards the Prison of the Abbaye. of quicker temper. p. It is the last that we see clearly. one after one. iv that day. and this Sabbathday of September became a Day black in the Annals of men. Patience in oppression has limits we are close on the Abbaye. seen clearly of us and of the world. — . Pull up your carriage-blinds ? No answers Patriotism. — ! : : .. ! name Mother-Church and God Such reproaches have the poor Nonjurants to endure. Carriages enough stand deserted on the streets these six move on. [bk. i." xviii. in six carriages. finding solacement in it. — . sharply and again more sharply. smites the horny paw with his cane nay. cursing as they move. when poor Abbe Sicard. with some thirty other Nonjurant Priests. Priests of Beelzebub and Moloch of Tartuffery. and crushing it down again. . The tocsin is pealing its loudest.

This work also thou hadst to with an inkling of Law — O . who looks earnestly through this dim Phantasmagory of the Pit. Bastille hero. : — ! . presiding. is but work to be done.Usher. — with their Forgers of Assignats and there are seventy times seven hundred Patriot hearts in a state of fren/. are to be reckoned with the hours of the Bartholomew murk From Sunday afternoon ! pauses not final) till Butchery. or whatsoever is savagest in the annals of this world. with the like accompaniments the thing There are some that one man does. At La Force. and indeed which should not. will discern few fixed certain objects and yet still a few. once over. in this Abbaye Prison. spurns asunder the barriers and rules and shows what For Night and Orcus. Horrible the hour when man's soul. if such arc needed. Court of and take seat round a table. as dens and depths are in it we say. say. in its paroxysm. here . 1792] : IN PARIS risen in 31 and Murder's snaky-sparkling head has the (exclusive of intervals and Thursday evening. or call it Revenge and Wild-Justice. . meet thee elsewhere than here thou shifty Riding. a strange Court of Justice.\-. have burst forth. from their subterranean . . 2-6. imprisonment . other men can do.so there arc as perfect. famed Leader fore it Stanislas. He will observe. Seven Prisons in Paris. : — . of the Armagnac Massacres. the sudden massacre of the Priests being . be forgotten. as the To whom. in this P2arth holds. Sicilian Vespers. at the Clidtelct. the Conciergerie. . full of Aristocrats with conspiracies nay not even Bicctre and Salpctyicrc shall escape. do and then to depart forever from our eyes. there follow conWhich hundred hours secutively a Hundred Hours. dim-confused which it is painful to look on and yet which cannot. Scoundrel hearts al. with the Prison-Registers spread beStanislas Maillard. one hoped to of the Menads. by what name soever called.— SEPT. mood. swiftly fashion itself. The Reader. as was long prophesied. hideous. ! in this Paris. the like Court forms itself. . law is as no-law and killing.

a Prisoner few questions are put swiftly this sudden is there. At La Force again their formula is. A . ' : ' Felemhesi. and dies of a thousand wounds. or else it may run.' They open the folding Show Brigands He stands a gate he is announced to the multitude. iv So sit these sudden Courts of Wild-Justice. . Tenth of August. and another and there forms itself a piled heap of Fancy the corpses. .' said I go common. Swift: a name is called bolts jingle. . Messieurs hung back gray veterans crying But there was no mercy." or " conducted. larged. has seen an effervescent Regiment du Roi in mutiny but the bravest heart may The Swiss Prisoners. his stature was above first. with the Prison-Registers before them unwonted wild tumult howling all round the Prisoners in dread expectancy within. Jury decides: Royalist Plotter or not? Clearly not in that case. Let the Prisoner be conducted to the Abbaye " To La Force. . . . adieu Then dashing his hat he. i. howah. [bk. since it must be so Which way ? cried he to the sharply behind him it me. ch. axes a howling sea and pikes and sinks. . remnants of the quail at this. p. * . moment motionless then plunges forth among the pikes. then " Volunteer he is at the outer gate bailiffs seize the doomed man " enlarged. . — ! . . the yells of these men. . frockcoat he seemed about thirty.// sjipra). under an arch of wild sabres. and Mercy. " La Verite tout entiere" (. 173. let the Prisoner be enlarged with Vive la NaProbably yea then still. ' ' ! : ' ' : ' ' : ." Man after man is cut down the sabres need sharpen. hewn asunder. ! . mercy He had on a blue ever." not into La Force. and the kennels begin to run red. one of these men steps forward. their faces of sweat and blood crueller shrieks of these women. ' : . Suddenly. . then.32 SEPTEMBER . ! . And another sinks. his look noble and martial. but without Vive la Nation Let the Prisoner be conducted to La Force. " clasped each other spasmodically. . Let the Prisoner be ention. but into forth. for there are women too Jourgniac and a fellow-mortal hurled naked into it all de Saint-Meard has seen battle.

wine-jugs.'' I) i. . Moore grew sick on approaching. which human nature would fain find incredible." " I do not wish to remove I am well enough here. or dull disapproval in dull recognition that it is Necessity. . she had known no happiness. . She was beautiful. . " You have not far to go. Onward and onward goes the butchery the loud yells wearying down into bass growls. . will think with themselves O worthy of worship. generation after generation. and obscene horrors o^ mustdich'xo graiids-lcv res. and turned into another street. thou king-descended. elbowed by howling galleries but is not acquitted here Princess de Lamballe has laid down on bed " Madame you are to be removed to the Abbaye. . : ! . — ! — . The^brave are not spared. " An Anglais in drab greatcoat" was seen. ' . the Minister's Brother. was acquitted by the Tribunal of the Seventeenth and conducted back. .: SEPT. . That fair body is cut in fragments with indignities. Old M. the killers themselves from . — ! . Young hearts. 2-6. which shall be read in the original language only. nor the weak. de Montmorin.' Quick enough goes this Jury-Court and rigorous. and poor sister-woman why was not I there and some Sword Balmung or Thor's Plammcr in my hand ? Her head is fixed on a pike paraded under the windows of the Temple that a still more hated. ." Satan and himself know best Witty Dr. god-descended. She shivers back.Moore's "Joiiniul. . " if not set on by Pitt. A sombre-faced shifting multitude looks on in dull approval. . may . III." There is a needbe for removing.see. : . said. she was good." She too is led to the hell-gate a manifest Queen'sFriend. then rude voices answer. She will arrange her dress a little. . nor the beautiful. a Marie Antoinette. in the Temple with the Royal Prisoners at the moment. 185-195. 1792] IN PARIS refresh 33 ing. One Municipal. at the sight of bloody'^sabres but there is no return Onwards That fair hind head is cleft with the axe the neck is severed. or seemed to be seen. serving liquor from his own dram-bottle for what purpose.

" The circuit of the Temple is guarded.^ the poor maiden does drink. what fragments of wild virtues turn up in this shaking asunder of man's existence for of these too there is a proportion." ii. . " Esquisses historiques cles principaux evenemens de la Revolution. : . . : — : . in these hours. iii. do rattle : . particuliers. ." ii. by a long stretched tricolor riband terror enters. 205). if plotting for his King is guilt in ten days more. breuil is innocent." Another eagerly whispered. i. etc. [This incident has been proved to be legendary. and he had to die elsewhere bequeathing his Daughter a lock of his old gray hair. who also had a Daughter My Father is not an Aristocrat O good gentlemen. and testify it. : . Yet he was guilty. But it is more edifying to note what thrillings of affection. in ! . though that too may come. with an inspiration of eloquence. well proved by Royalist testimony in other instances " and very significant. then " Yes. Note old Marquis Cazotte he is doomed to die but his young Daughter clasps him in her arms. . with hot tears . and in all ways prove it we are not we hate Aristocrats " Wilt thou drink Aristocrats' blood ?" The man lifts blood (if universal Rumour can be " This Somcredited). triumph of Vive la Natioti. 213). Ed. 206 (cited in Montgaillard. with a love which is stronger than very death the heart of the killers themselves is touched by it the old man is spared. etc. at this news. I will swear it. indeed. and now note. and borne home ^ Dulaure. a Court of Law condemned him.] ^ Bertrand-Moleville ("Mem. most of all. " Do not look. Or note old M. the killers refusing even money Does it seem strange. this temper of theirs ? It seems very certain. ! ! — to the ground and the tiger-yells become bursts of jubilee over a brother saved and the old man and his daughter are clasped to bloody bosoms. : . de Sombreuil. . iv Look out. how the bloody pikes.— 34 " SEPTEMBER [bk. and the clangour of infinite tumult hitherto not regicide. ch.

Jourgniac's "Agony of Thirty-eight Hours" went through " above a hundred editions. " We all looked at one another in silence." though intrinsically a poor work. Reding. innocent Abbe Sicard. we clasped " Towards seven o'clock" . except as floating cobweb. . each an instant. Some portion of it may here go through above the hundred-and-first. 1792] A TRILOGY 35 CHAPTER V A TRILOGY Delineation. gazed on the pavement of our prison on which lay the moonlight. Brave Jourgniac. wc each other's hands. better." " Three in the Morning They were breaking in one of the prison-doors. in these ages. lighted them he pointed to the bed of the Reding spoke with a dying unfortunate Swiss. 2. or have no all AS Epic. for himself. the Reader will perhaps prefer to take a glance with the very eyes of eye-witnesses and see. with fixed e)-es." must either found on Belief and provable Fact. how it was. judicious Advocate Maton. We at first thought they were . their hands bloody and armed with sabres with a torch. these. voice. . in that way. for Jourgniac goes by dates) . lifted the unfortunate man carried him out on his back to the street. foundation at all {nor. a turnke\'. Motionless. shall speak. I le was massacred there. any existence at all). were it never so " speaking itself and not singing itself.SEPT. : . chequered with the triple stancheons of our windows. (Sunday night at the Abbaye " We saw two men enter. for want of a — . A lions done . : . greatly compressing themselves. One of them paused but the other cried.

Half an hour after. by voices on the staircase. which we heard them break up. " Mon Agonie 103-135)." Thus Jourgniac in his "Agony" in the Abbaye: how it ended with Jourgniac. and they did not reappear. This "Resurrection" by him is greatly the best." " At one in the morning. over in La Force. and we heard their cries. preceded by a turnkey and entered an apartment close to ours." 36 SEPTEMBER . in the same hours. .. they stept into the gallery." " Ten o'clock: The Abbe Lenfant and the Abb^ de Chapt-Rastignac appeared in the pulpit of the Chapel. Lamotte. . the least theatrical of these Pamphlets and stands testing by . Each of us reasoned." on Sunday night. They said to us that our end was at hand that we must compose ourselves. [bk. what he. ' Jourgniac Saint-Meard. which was our prison they had entered by a door from the stairs. ^ — . de trente-huit heures" (reprinted in "Hist. in his own way. on all hands environing us the moment is never to be forgotten. to know where Lamotte (Necklace's Widower) " was. they were both massacred. documents " Towards seven o'clock. Pari. They were all butchered there. and questioned the man Cuissa. . had some months ago. they said. An electric movement. and receive their last blessing. as we persuaded ourselves that the Memorial I had drawn up for the National Assembly was producing effect. as we shortly gathered. is suffering and witnessing. blessing us from their place above death hovering over our heads. the grate which led to our quarter opened anew. under pretext of a treasure he knew : : . that it was a room where some Prisoners had barricaded themselves. ch. on this singularity but our ideas became calm. and we received it. . i. v coming to kill us in our room but heard. each with a drawn sabre and blazing torch. Four men in uniform. These two white-haired old men. we shall see anon. " prisoners were called frequently. to investigate a box there. threw us all on our knees. This done. came up to our corridor. But now let the good Maton speak. not to be defined." xviii.

Auditor of the but had by his CJuinibre des Coviptcs of Montpelier . ' : ." " 1 (lung off my nightgown and cap 1 put on a coarse unwashed shirt. along with his concubine. his dexterity. whose arm and other men in uniform sleeve up to the very shoulder. passed the fatal outer-gate gave a cry of terror. Determined to find Lamotte and confront him with Cuissa. now in their hands. and died of innumerable wounds. . .years of They said. said. some days ago. when there came two one of them. . subtlety. at sight of the heaped corpses covered his eyes with his hands. outwitted the ' judges. " One may fancy what terror these words.' " At this same time. they rummaged. I concluding it by a petition and wrote my last-will adjuration. I heard Louis Bardy. that the paper should be sent to its address. nay his eloquence. At every new opening of the grate. and escaped. a worn frock without waistcoat. an old round hat these things 1 had sent for.' had thrown me into. 2. . then for. of having murdered and cut in pieces his own Brother." " Baudin de la Chenaye was called sixt}. The wretched Cuissa. . inviting him to dinner for that purpose. but could not tell what was become of Lamotte. five or six years before. Scarcely had I quitted the pen. were covered with blood. That he remembered the fact well. He had been accused. 7wm de Dieti! we must find where he is. . I thought I should hear my own name called. : . I saw nothing for it now but resigning myself to die. A fAbbaye: he virtues could not save him. as well as his sabre. Come search among the corpses. . and see Rossignol enter. 1792] A TRILOGY 37 swindled a sum of three-hundred Hvres from one of them. then. He was as weary as a hodman that had been beating plaster. through various other apartments but without Come search among the effect. for we heard them say corpses. along with this latter. who indeed lost his life this night. in the fear of what might happen. . the Abbe Bardy's name called he was brought out and directly massacred. as I learnt. answered trembling. . of.SEPT.

v all emptied but they seemed to have forgotten we addressed our prayers in common to the Eternal to be delivered from this peril. called le Sauvage. " It was the noise of some dozen or fifteen men. to see us. that I might lay off the Advocate pumps (^pantoufies de Palais) I had on. and they led me down. i. of tall lank stature. ch. The trial. though tremulous. lying flat to escape being seen. and a third whose name escapes me." " Baptiste the turnkey came up by himself. He was a lame man. .38 " SEPTEMBER The rooms of this corridor had been . la Varenne. I have been assured that he was son of a retired attorney. armed as we. A noise coming from the grates made him hastily withdraw. however. During their colloquy I searched everywhere for shoes. " I tapped this little violon gently.. . ' Maton de 135-156). ' ! ' : ' — . [bk." but reflected " that the blade was too short. between seven and eight o'clock in the morning. We were four together : whom . if he would conduct me home. I was brought to their bar to the Personage with the scarf. Up stairs said they Let not one remain. shall say but a few words true-looking. " Constant. . from the violon of the Abbaye. to the teeth could see from our windows. I saw Manuel haranguing in tricolor scarf" as we see. Pari. trembling lest the murderers might hear. earnestly. on the ours.^ Poor Sicard. four sabres were crossed over my breast. Towards three in the morning. the killers bethink them of and knock from the court. seven months after. Gerard. — ! — . they let clear off: as for me." but could find none." Finally." and also " on religion. ends in acquittal and resurrection. apart. "Ma Resurrection" (in "Hist. He recognised me on the streets and spoke to me." xviii. . Crossing the Court called Dcs Nourrices. enter four men with bludgeons and sabres " To one of whom Gerard my comrade whispered.' I took out my penknife I considered where I should strike myself. I took him by the hands I conjured him to save us promised him a hundred louis. who sat as judge there. and named Chepy. .

that they had no key. . But it was very high only one of us could reach it by mounting on the shoulders of both the others. ^ . In front of the President three men held a Prisoner. " Relation aclrcsscc a iin dc ses amis" (in " Hist. 4. they insisted no denial I fling myself on the neck of these two deliverers never was scene more touching. " 13y the glare of two torches. The night had become day and the day has again become night. The President. and spoken in native Provencal with him. then on those of the second. Some ten persons were around. that my life was usefuller than theirs I resisted. : : ! . 98-103). There were three of us in this violon my companions thought they perceived a kind of loft overhead. One of them said to me. Two men. : . with a sabre at his side. where the Section Committee was sitting they answered gruffly. in gray coat. who might be about sixty " (or seventy he was old Marshal Maillc. I now descried the terrible tribunal. : . we rejoice to find. guarded the door of the place an old turnkey had his hand (jn the lock. I mount on the shoulders of the first. where lay my life or my death. seated or standing two of whom had jackets and aprons others were sleeping stretched on benches. But it is time that Jourgniac de SaintMeard should speak his last words. ' Abbe . tobacco-pipes and bottles. was fallen asleep. . Pari. stood leaning with his hands against a table. Jourgniac. On Tuesday. his Agony is reaching its crisis. worn down with uttermost agitation. finally on the loft and address to my two comrades the expression of a soul overwhelmed with natural emotions." The two generous companions. . " They stationed me in a corner my guards crossed their sabres on my breast.Sicard. in bloody shirts. did not perish.. about one in the morning.SEPT. and end this singular trilogy. and had a cheering dream he has also contrived to make acquaintance with one of the volunteer bailiffs. of the Tuileries and August Tenth). on which were papers. : . I looked on all sides . 1792] A TRILOGY 39 : opposite door. an inkstand." xviii.

' Do you know why you are arrested ?' Yes. — — . v two National Guards. though of excellent result as a defence. in proving and disproving and skip largely. which does not amount to unveracity. your profession ? said the President." But no Jourgniac's proof of the falsity. : — . My name is Jourgniac Saint-M^ard I have served. yet which tends that way. It is longwinded there is a loose theatricality in the reporting of it.' They drove him into the street where. Maille away. . " Nay. " The President sat down to write registering. the third by the collar of my Your name. beyond hope. and all resources of ingenuity became null if Two of my guards they were not founded on truth. where the best protection was to have no protection. I suppose.' — : 40 : SEPTEMBER [bk. A un autre then I heard him say " Behold me then haled before this swift and bloody judgment-bar. CH. who therefore We shall see that. . "'But after all. . to the catastrophe.' said one of the Judges. I saw him massacred. is not interesting to read. ' . Monsieur le President I am accused of editing the Journal " De But I hope to prove the falsity " la Cour et de la Ville. the name of this one whom they had finished Another. I.' I was about to do so with more and more success.' The President answered hands are washed of it take M. ' ! : ' ' ' * . almost at two steps. one of them for my Provencal drunk. as an officer. 'they accuse me even of recruit. these appeals for traitors. and defence generally. 'there is no smoke without kindling tell us why they accuse you of " Jourgniac does so that. ' : . coat. The smallest lie ruins you.' said the President will not lie. ' ' — ' ' — . presented some appeal from the Section of Croix Rouge in favour of the Prisoner the Man in Gray anThey are useless.' added one of the Judges. shall suppose him successful.' continued I. ' ' — . We . through the opening of the door. twenty years and I appear at your tribunal with the assurance of an innocent man. .' swered It is frightful your Then the Prisoner exclaimed My judgment is a murder. ' : ' : . held me each by a hand.

said ' : and I . who had are not here to seemed to take an interest in me judge opinions. they chose me for commander. a new Prisoner was brought in. Is that your vote?' To which all the Judges answered: "Qui. and placed beIt was one Priest more. " 'You tell us always. I reappeared before the tribunal.' culously appeased by another of the men. that you are I was an open Royalnot that what are you. Messieurs.' SEPT. ing for me. " always a man of honour.' Could Rousseau and Voltaire both in one. ' : We — ' ' their officers was at its height. an individual present who by a certain token can confirm. have said better? always till the Tenth of August I was an open Royalist. to lead them to Luncville. it is just !' " . it is my turn to speak President to have the kindness to maintain it for me I True enough.' After A /a Force !' He flung his breviary very few questions on the table was hurled forth.' cried one of the Judges. two days before that business of Nanci. ' . true to my country. most luckily.' the\' said. plead'Yes. — .' Silence said almost all the Judges with a laugh " While they were examining the testimonials I had produced. " The : i'rcsidcnt. then?' There arose a general murmur which was miraist.' never needed it more. this cross-questioning being over. 'but to judge the results of them.' " My soldiers never distrusted me.' cried I. I beg M. true enough. whom they had ferreted out of the Chapel le. Oin off his hat . took see nothing to suspect in this man I am for granting him his liberty. Nay. to get back the prisoners of the Regiment Mestre-de-Camp. and seize General Malseigne. le raising my voice. ' ' ! : ' ' ^ : .' said he. ' — — . fore the President. general murmur. and massacred. Ever since the Tenth of August that cause has been I was I am a Frenchman. Messieurs. that you are not this. when their suspicion of ' ' ' . 1792] A TRILOGY ! 41 At these words there arose a ing for the Emigrants O Messieurs.' " Which fact there is. 4. finished.' I exclaimed. with a tone of impatience.

their Night-thoughts. . v there arose vivats within doors and without of three. i. lank President Chepy finding " absolutely nothing " or else by evasion. remain Heard only inaudible choked forever in black Death. or triple soliloquy uttering simultaneously. Thus they three. ch. 128). either by trial and no bill found. Pari. likewise escape and were embraced and wept over weeping in return." xviii." who also had Night-thoughts. ." amid shouting and embracings thus Jourgniac escaped from jury-trial and the jaws of death/ Maton and Sicard did. ! ' " Mon Agonie " [tit supra. " escort : . SEPTEMBER And [bk. of President Chepy and the Man in Gray : — ! : . through the dread night-watches.— 42 . . grown audible to us They Three are become audible but the other " Thousand and Eighty-nine. as they well might. of whom Two-hundred and two were Priests. in wondrous trilogy. and new favour of Moton the brave watchmaker. " Hist.

The Legislative did send Deputation to the and poor M. . 2-6. while Ministers ? . on such and on all occasions. as the Ti-atislator of . all this the Santerre with the National Guard? Tovvnhall It is very curious to think what a City is. The — . M. as if nothing were amiss. self. BUT the Six Legislative Assembly . you see before you a man who loves his country. The Legislative had much ado to save one of its own Members. Theatres. : three-men high. conviction was not to be expected. to these Street-Courts did harangue there but produced no conviction whatsoever nay at last. to the number of some twenty-three. or ex: Who . not without threats This is the same poor worthy old cease. and withdraw. " Good Citizens. or indeed almost sang (though with cracked voice). were open ever\' night while right-arms here grew during these prodigies weary with slaying. right-arms there were twiddledeeing at the very instant when Abbe on melodious catgut Sicard was clambering up his second pair of shoulders . who is the Translator of Juvenal. five hundred thousand human individuals were lying horizontal. 1792] THE CIRCULAR 43 CHAPTER VI THE CIRCULAR the Constituted Authorities. as he continued haranguing." "Juvenal?" interru[jts Sansculottism said he once. " the devil is Juvenal ? One of your sncri-s Aristocrates? To the Lanternc !" P'rom an orator of this kind.— SEPT. the Streetand he had to Court interposed. the sceptre had departed from it. the " Taking of the Bastille. Dusaulx Prisons." to our He was wont to announce himsatisfaction. Juvenal. long since. Dusaulx who told. As for the poor Legislati\-e. : .

On the other hand. " that Paris stood looking on in stupor for four days. would wish to recompense you adequately but cannot. Deputy Jounneau. rise though he made requisitions. transiently saw haranguing. 191. Meh^e Fils {ut supra. Pari. worked {travaille) in a Prison shall receive a draft of one Continue your work. ' Montgaillard. likewise in scarf. and did not interfere " Very desirable indeed that Paris had : . they returned to the Salle de Manege. without king over them. see " men in uniform " too. saying. with their " sleeves bloody to the shoulder " ? Petion goes in tricolor scarf. " with that small puce coat and black wig we are used to on him. " standing among corpses. reported in various " Brave Citiphraseology. but every man is his own King kinglets. cruel Billaud." Debate of 2d September 1792. iii. in the Court called of Nurses. p. vi Members. in the name of Order."^ audibly delivers.. ! ' '^ " Moniteur. ^ ." Roland writes indignant messages. 189). in these Prisons. "It was dark and they could not see well what was going on. but always to this purpose zens. " O everlasting infamy." xviii. belligerent. . with Advocate Maton's eyes. Santerre's National Force seems lazy to . recommence. Whoever shall have for you know its want of funds. : : . in "Hist." exclaims Montgaillard. The Constituted Authorities are of yesterday all pulling different ways there is properly no Constituted Auand all are thority. Maton's eyes. speaks "the austere language of the law": the killers give up. allied. Nay did not we. or armed-neutral." louis. he says. i. which always dispersed again." at the Abbaye. a short but ever-memorable harangue. who chanced to be lying in arrest for mere Parliamentary delinquencies. while he is there when his back is Manuel too in scarf we. with turned. payable by our cashier. As for poor old Dusaulx and Company. Humanity and the Law but there is no Force at his disposal. — ^ : : . Cour des Noiirrices. ch. you are extirpating the Enemies of Liberty you A grateful Commune and Country are at your duty.44 SEPTEMBER [bk.

" places.'ent a Re}. by Killers sansindispensables. . iii." risen from their lurkinghave scope to do their work. 1792] THE CIRCULAR 45 yet not unnatural that it stood even so.- — [Serf. Paris is in death-panic.^ But the temper. as we say. Indignant abhorrence. begin wrenching watches and purses. Santcrre to call out the National (iuard he replied that he could not gather them proljabiy a mere evasion.. is the general temper. on the 17th of the month. finds it more pressing to do it fighting the Prussians. and striking heartily (like " a cattle-driver in earnest) beat the " course of things back into its old regulated drove-roads. looking on in stupor. and acquiescence in Necessity and Destiny. " to equip volunteers. premeditation or not. rings. " the veto of scoundrels. may be here gloomy sanction. bent clearly on lucre alone. gold watches. SEPT. are punctually brought to the Townhall. who higgle afterwards (or their twenty shillings of wages and Sergent sticking an uncommonly fine agate on his finger (fully "meaning to account for it") becomes A^^'-afeSergent. than fighting the killers of Aristocrats. money of the Massacred." for the . . .. not lucre ness. 2-6. 27. — .\L\). tried to stop the : . as Minister of the Helen Maria Williams. " Koniinisccnccs of Koland. Urged on by feverfrenzy of Patriotism. dull approval.\ ( Interior. massacres by ordcrinj. — . brooches from ladies' necks." - — Kn. and is. two-hundred or so. : . does the temper from dull grow vehement does the Constable raise his truncheon. to Roland's new horror who anew bestirs himself. the enemy and gibbets at its door whosoever in Paris has the heart to front death.Mcide. on the streets. as in Roland. Roland ' veto des coquins'." in daylight. Not till the Patriotic or Frenetic part of the work is finished for want of material and Sons of Darkness. The Sons of Darkinterfered . as in Marat and Committee of Salvation. . as Sieyes says. is dull acquiescence.] Marceau explains llic atTair in liis. and the gold louis of wages ? Nay. may be there dull disapproval. The GardcMeuble itself was surreptitiously plundered. and the madness of Terror urged on by lucre.

[Mortimer-Ternaux (" Hist. . and persons who prein sided over these dangerous operations. — among will " nearly weep . 421. 422. " two-hundred and sixty heaped carcasses on the Pont au Change which. reckons the number of victims at 1. — ." at so much a journey.^ One not two. otherwise called Severe Justice of the People. which are preserved to this day. as in Heavenly light-radiance to such phasis of the business have we advanced since then The numbers massacred are in the Historical fantasy. : — . — drawn up by accurate Advocate Maton. who shone.— 46 " SEPTEMBER [bk. the number." A Thousand and eighty-nine lie dead. Montrouge and Vaugirard.368. disputable by no Friend of Freedom. three " persons unknown. putation. " between two and three thousand " or indeed they are " upwards of six thousand." These are the Septemberers {Septevibriseurs) a name of some note and very but lucency of the Nether-fire sort lucency. not less — than that. Themis Sansculotte must be lucky for she was brief! In the dim Registers of the Townhall. including two-hundred and two priests. different from that of our Bastille Heroes.] November . : ! . ^ ^ See "Hist. per cart this also is an entry. ^ " Moniteur " of 6th November (Debate of 5th Ed." so much. O thou seagreen Incorruptible ? If so.. de la Terreur")> after careful com1793)." is. Pari. as above hinted. various items." for Peltier (in vision) saw them massacring the very patients of the Bicetre Madhouse " with grape-shot " nay finally they are " twelve thousand " and odd hundreds." and " one thief killed at the Bernardins. men read. ch. i. items and entries not usual in Town Books " To workers employed in preserving the salubrity of the air in the Prisons. with a certain sickness of heart. not more than that/ In Arithmetical ciphers. . nearly seven hundred pounds sterling. and Lists " — . Robespierre pleading afterwards " to reflect that there was said to be one slain innocent. To carters employed to " the Burying-grounds of Clamart. a Thousand and Eighty-nine. Then so many francs and itself. vi This is the September Massacre." xvii.

throned on his thunders. : — I brother corpses. but from all Europe. poor creature. every way "in the confluence of In. Or was it as the Foot of one spurning Heaven ? Rushing. as was remarked. — ! . . as if in dumb prayer. which lie very black in our Earth's Annals. — — ! " Elat des sommes payees par \ i. one understands not well why." are a known thing. in disgust and despair. a mystery to him. 47 odd sous "for the necessary quantity of quick-lime"!' Carts go along the streets full of stript human corpses. especially by vehement tempers reduced to a state of desperation. 1792] THE CIRCULAR ." .self and others: in the centre of two Eternities. in the intersection of primeval Light with the everlasting Dark Thus have there been. Pari. of three Immensities. and " eight thousand slaughtered in two hours. very miserable things done. and has prolonged itself to the present day. in its yellow paleness. in its cold rigour the palm opened towards Heaven. shall judge both Kings and Septemberers. as he walked down " the Rue Saint-Jacques from Montrouge. on the morrow of the Massacres " but not a Hand it was a Foot. . Take pity on the Sons of Men Mercier saw it." xviii. when the l^^tcrnal. in expostulation de profundis." says Mercier great Day of Judgment.— ' SEPT. 231).Mercier.. ! — : . " Nouveau Paris. and His right-hand hold thee. which he reckons still more significant. like a wild diver. not only from French Aristocrats and Moderates. has transcendentalisms in him standing.'' 21. The thing lay done. as he does. That a shriek of inarticulate horror rose over this thing. 2-6. Sicilian Vespers. I finitudes". For man. la Comimine de Paris" (" Hist. through the heaped embrace of . thrown pell-mell limbs sticking up seest thou that cold Hand sticking up. yet which will not erase therefrom. irrevocable a thing to be counted beside some other things. Kings themselves. * . towards the depths of Annihilation ? Even there shall His hand find thee. for good not evil " I saw " I shall know it again at the that Foot. surely for right not for wrong. was most natural and right.

and sold it to the English. Well may mankind shriek. . "Hist. and fling aside the slain.' your right reason. . daled 3d of September 1792. at the right moment.48 SEPTEMBER [bk."^ And so they slay. de Paris. also on an Autumn Sunday. their Bartholomew Business and then. in this Paris Legis- Townhall. there were piled heaps of carcasses. 289). vi not in desperation. among whom are found four Bishops of false and damnable counsel. this very Bell (they say it is the identical metal) of Saint-Germain I'Auxerrois was set a-pealing with effect/ Nay the same black boulder-stones of these Paris Prisons have seen Prison-massacres before now men massacring . there are Ten Men who do not shriek. ch.' Cursed be of God whoso shall have pity on these false traitorous Armagnacs. " have been put to death by the lative or Paris : ' September 9th Dulauie. A Circular goes out from the Committee of Salut Public. God's malison on your 'justice. till. and the streets ran red the Mayor Petion of the time speaking the austere language of the law. Shriek who might in this France. — . for year and day (nay De Thou says for seven years). in old French (it is some four hundred years old) Maugre bieu. they. wasted this realm of France. and answered by the Killers." For though it is not Satan's world this that we live in. There are actions of such emphasis that no shrieking can be too emphatic for them. Satan always has his place in it (underground properly) and from time to time bursts up. to 13th. Sir. - 494. Shriek ye acted have . i. iii. inarticulately anathematising as they can. directed to all Townhalls a State-paper too remarkable to be over" A part of the ferocious conspirators detained looked. — '' — ' : : . have sat hatching. and two Presidents of Parlement. ." iv. English dogs they are they have destroyed us." it says. 1572 (Dulaure. Burgundies massacring Armagnacs. whom they had suddenly imprisoned. countrymen. but only in difficulty. to the extent of " fifteen hundred and eighteen. Sire.' your 'pity. as now. in the Prisons.

they are State Criminals Royalist Ministers. E . Pari. 433. amid effervescing at Gisors multitudes. ^ * Hist. ever since that Tribunal was set up. in a strange way. was arrested conducted along the streets. will make haste to adopt tJiis means of public salvation and all Frenchmen will cry as the men of Paris go to fight the enemy but we will not leave robbers behind us. . At Rheims " about eight persons were killed and two afterwards were hanged for doing it. . Montmorins who have been accumulating on the High Court of Orleans. As for the Orleans Prisoners." To which are legibly appended these signatures Panis Sergent Marat. He dies lamented of Europe his blood spattering the cheeks of his old Mother. Friend of the People ^ with Seven others carried down thereby. . howlate remembrance of Antiquarians. Fournier : . — . He journeying. . to butcher our wives and children. 1792] THE CIRCULAR 49 People and we cannot doubt but the whole Nation. . Suspender of virtuous Petions.. Whom now it seems good that we should get transferred to our new Paris Court of the Seventeenth which proceeds far quicker. or some quieter country. Delessarts. and a few other places. driven to the edge of ruin by such endless series of treasons. by quick stages. with his Mother and Wife." once Liberal now Aristocrat Protector of Priests. but did not bite. detestable to Patriotism. being quickly put . Accordingly hot Fournier from Martinique. that their Circular rather recoiled on themselves. . 3. ninety-three years old. We ." SEPT. ." xvii. The Townhalls made no use of it even the distracted Sansculottes made little they only howled and bellowed. III. . At Lyons. and most unfortunate Hotgrown-cold. : : We . . towards the Waters of Forges. and killed dead " by the stroke of a pavingKilled as a stone hurled through the coach-window. down. to the remark. ever. : . Less fortunate were the Prisoners of Orleans was the good Duke de la Rochefoucault. some attempt was made but with hardly any effect. .

His Prisoners fare in tumbrils. to turn thither by another Authority. These. Pari. which seems about his persuasivest . at Paris. or open carts. and of September. swarming in the September sun. through difficulties. which growls ever the deeper even by hearing itself growl.! — SEPTEMBER [bk. has instituted itself: enter not Paris. amid the : igniting here * " Hist. for Authorities cross each other in this time. ordered to turn hither by one Authority. . perils. vi is off. had he been a perfect character. the ninth day of the month. towards Paris where a swifter Court of the Seventeenth will do justice on them/ But lo. VAmcncain. till some Constituted Court had disposed But he was an imperfect character and Conof them. . not without sharp yelpings here and there Would to God we were out of this strait place. Hot Fournier. with Lazouski the Pole sparingly provided with road-money. is in a perplexing multiplicity of orders but finally he strikes off for Versailles. with stanch National Guards. on entering the Avenue of Versailles. in the interim.. under the dull-green September foliage the Four-rowed Avenue all humming and swarming. what . through bad quarters. anxious that the arrival and locking-up were well over. a still swifter and swiftest Court of the Second. at the expense of his own valuable life never so Sansculottic. and wind and separation had cooled the heat. It is Sunday. to guard those men's lives never so Aristocratic. i. himself and Guards riding and marching around and at the last village. Lo. 434." xvii. missioned by Constituted Authority. or that will judge you! What shall hot Fournier do? It was his duty. — . as volunteer Constable. . the worthy Mayor of Versailles comes to meet him. so ch. do triumphantly bring off the Fifty or Fifty-three Orleans Prisoners. stable perhaps one of the more imperfect. inarticulate growling hum. — . stirring. . as if the Town had emptied itself! Our tumbrils roll heavily through the the Guards and Fournier making way with living sea ever more difficulty the Mayor speaking and gesturing . : multitudes.

9. . 1792] THE CIRCULAR 51 And yet if the wide Avenue is too strait. . except it be the Ten Men of the Circular and their people. is his quality. Mirabeau In the September days. . this Minister was not heard of : . So. half-desperate is tide pushed. on the whole. burnt in bonfire the corpses lie heaped in the ditch on the morrow morning. who escaped into houses.. and again Titan of an Enfant Perdu dare. moans and rages. Pari. : . Mirabeau of the Sansculottes. and found mercy. : — . inarticulately shrieking But neither did Danton shriek though. 236-249). and not perish. and the man acts according to that. Amid horrid noise. and what other Prisoners they The stript clothes are held. . here too is of still wider gulp than a Swallower of Formulas this Danton. amid is in the breach. Let my name be but that blighted " what am I ? The Cause alone is great and shall live. the smiting of September sabres destruction all round him. but some eleven. . . and the rushing-down of worlds Minister of Justice is his name but Titan of the Forlorn Hope. Prisonniers k ." xviii. has mastery. falling on our enemies? The Titan of the Forlorn Hope. as Minister of Brawny Danton Justice. as of stormed Cities and Nations the sweep of Tenth-of-August cannon. The Prisons. thou must dare. thou lost swiftest of all prevent its so falling. " must put our enemies in fear " Deep fear. — We ! . and without end dare there is nothing left for thee " Que mon noni soit fietri. the Prisoners sink massacred. as of its own accord.' All France. : ^ " Pieces officielles relatives au massacre des Versailles" (in "Hist. were with difficulty saved. ! : — . is it not. and tumult all as of fierce wolves. carried off in men's arms the savage tide has entrance. and Enfant Perdu of the Revolution. the rustle of Prussian gallows-ropes. it was more his part to do so.SEPT. ! . pushes. all Europe rings. at leaving of the same ? At the corner of Surintendance Street. what will the Street de Surintendance be. the compressed yelpings become a continuous yell savage figures spring on the tumbril-shafts first spray of an endless coming The Mayor pleads. he is not the man that would Forward.

with Brunswick and the H6tel-de-Ville. that this Minister of MolochJustice. that of being a " swallower of formulas.^ p. Mores) are and how fitly the Virtue. Ibid." p. Manhood or Worth. we say. is the faculty of man when speech is not yet possible. not without an air of it . once give it Customs. at least silence. twice over. ." one must remember that he was Mi?tister of Justice^ and did nothing to hinder these massacres. that is in a man. . he answered gloomily. even if (as Ed. with the shortest delay.] his apologists maintain) he did nothing to abet them. ^ ^ . — . to slay or to save. in this forty-fourth year of the business. accordingly. Nay. is called his Morality or Custoviari7iess. let there be. becomes War. practise." ! Some men have strange. he "answered in a terrible voice. " Are not these men guilty ? " When pressed. but is — . When applied to by an official person. about the Orleans Prisoners. frightfuller than ours It seems not strange. Fell Slaughter. and eighteen hundred and thirty-sixth of an " Era called Christian as iucus a 71071" is the thing : — we recommend and more. was found to have human compassion and yielded and granted " always " " neither did one personal enemy of Danton perish in these days. tasks. with Laws of War and is Customary and Moral enough and red individuals carry the tools of it girt round their haunches." and turned his back/ thousand slain in the Prisons horrible if you will but Brunswick is within a day's journey of us and there are Plve-and-twenty Millions yet. [To understand the extent to which Danton satisfied one of Carlyle's chief postulates of greatness. instead of shrieking were perhaps edifying to remark. one of the most authentic products of the Pit you would say. Nevertheless. vi as cooperating with strict Roland his business might He elsewhere. Vir-tus. .— " 52 SEPTEMBER [bk. and the risks they ran. i. 97. not shrieking. Silence. is proper and unavoidable. "Biographic des Ministres. . on the other side. — A . when any suppliant for a friend's life got access to him. ch. what a singular thing Customs (in Latin. 103. articulate speech. To shriek. when certain things are acted. .

— — . 9." : —Ed.] . 1792] THE CIRCULAR ! 53 which do thou nowise blame. Sorel's " L'Europe et la Rev. and condemns himself to submit to the law of the strongest. has not yet got its Laws of Revolution. ii. see so and long as it is but dressed in hodden or russet Revolution. but the hodden or russet individuals O shrieking beloved brother blockare Uncustomary heads of Mankind. let us close those wide mouths of ours let us cease shrieking. and begin considering pride.. p. the motive determines the justice of the act. While. .' : SEPT. less frequent than War. 524) " Let us not equivocate never let us say that. Fr. ! ' [The best commentary on this paragraph is supplied by a sentence in M. He who admits that might can be the arbiter of right. confounds right with might. in the brutalities of policy." (pt. This sophistry has screened all usurpations and masked every vileness.

— . and Universal History winding-up of that : ! . has been brought about. through its hideous nostrils. 54 ch. as Sahara question does when the winds waken in whirl-blasts twenty-five millions in number. and seems minded to assert itself as such ? This huge mooncalf of Sansculottism. ! . whatever of fear those Aristocrat enemies might need. then Sansculottism too has become a Fact. In Election Committee-rooms there is now no dubiety.] — . with pale panic in their hearts. . . * [M. blows fire and a light rises to them over several fly towards covert things or rather a confused transition towards light. The Convention is getting chosen. ! — . is not mockable only. as young calves do. really in a decisive spirit in the TownSome hall we already date First year of the Republic} — . even in the Jacobins' Club it was scarcely named in the " primary assemblies " only one of these pronounced for it. .! — SEPTEMBER [bk. . . 6) that the word " RepubHc " was generally scouted. i. waltzing towards Townhalls. Ed. The matter is getting serious. if you prick it Aristocrats. at VII SEPTEMBER IN ARGONNE any rate. But what will become of this France ? Here is a France is dancing its desert-waltz. Aristotowards crat Prisons and Election Committee-rooms Brunswick and the frontiers towards a New Chapter of if indeed it be not the Finis. Aulard has shown •" Etudes et Lemons sur la Rev. and soft like another calf. but the work goes bravely along. Fran^aise" (No. but terrible and. vii CHAPTER PLAIN. too. whereby for the moment darkness is only darker than ever. is one thing that the/ear. staggering about.

] ^ [Rebecqui (17601794). for Avignon now sends Four) are gathering so many are to meet not so many are to part Attorney Carrier from Aurillac." August 14th. Marat. joined the Girondins and was sent as Commissioner of the Convention to the south in 1793 perished in 1794. 1792] — IN ! —— — . Louvet oi Fmiblas Clootz Speaker of Mankind Collot d'Herbois. Paris is fervent ^ nor is the Country wanting to itself.] ® [Carrier. His successor was the Girondin Garat.] . speculative Pamphleteer Legendre. and : . but only by a majority of one (see the review. . ARGONNE 55 Two-hundred of our best Legislators may be reelected. a second-rate poet and unsteady democrat helped to found the Cordeliers' Club a friend of Danton guillotined with him. unconscious. Curate Gregoire. Lebon was scarcely less brutal in his conduct as Commissioner at Arras in 1794. Fr.] .' Sevenhundred and forty-five men (or indeed forty-nine. with Mayor Petion. Tallien and Company Journalists Gorsas. Ed. . noted for his disgusting atrocities at Nantes in 17931794 guillotined at close of 1794. Rabaut. Barbaroux.] ^ [Paris elected on September 5th-7th men like Robespierre. though rural France can hardly believe it.[During his stay in Paris in the year 1825. we need not speak. Ed. Rebecqui. Mercier. " La Rev. . . : : . : : . . Of Minister Danton.— SEPT. perhaps because he was known to have passively abetted the September massacres. friends long known to Revolutionary fame Camille Desmoulins. the solid Butcher " nay Marat. .— Ed. Ed. ^ [Fabre d'Eglantine (1755-1794). the Mountain bodily Robespierre. or even believe that there is a Marat. Carlyle introduced himself to Legendre and talked with him about the Revolution. tearing a passion to rags Fabre d'Eglantine.] ^ [Danton resigned the Ministry of Justice on October loth. these shall both gain a nmncf' Mountainous Auvergne re-elects her Romme hardy tiller of the soil. Ex-Priest Lebon from Arras. . .^ who will lay down his Ministry for a Membership. a leader of the Marseilles democrats. 1893). Danton. Ed. . though he stutters in speech Manuel. some three-score OldConstituents though we once had only " thirty voices. carries fervid : . Manuel. Patriots are coming from Marseilles. except in print. Carra. Ed. Panis and Sergent also Philippe Egalite.. . Buzot." All these and along with them. ^ . once Mathematical Professor who.

not four-and-twenty yet who has written Books a youth of slight stature. : . Paul-Francois Barras. his head. with mild. who accepts. whom he had as that of Lycurgus. elected by the Orne Department. . vii in petto a New . Teachers. . is coming. Few Nobles come. with genius in a man bodily and state of convulsion.] consistently supported. deputed by Aisne in the North more like a Student than a Senator. — Calendar. and find silence safest. mentally swoln-cheeked. as : . Priests and Ex-Priests. instead of great weak withal as in a state of convulsion. : Levasseur of the Sarthe. enthusiast olive-complexion and long black hair. and such-like and having given it well forth. mellow voice. has long painted. peering out of his clear cautious as wanted eyes.— 56 — SEPTEMBER remarkable [bk. choking his words in the birth. Man-midPluvioses. . Young Saint-Just is coming.1 794) was educated for the law: despite his mild and almost effeminate appearance he showed the fiercest fanaticism on behalf of the Contrat Social and a morahty as strict Perished with Robespierre. at least in death. ch. Nor Artists gross David. not strong in a state of composure so let him play his part. by the Pas de Calais. : : . Just (1769. A .] ' . and yet not none. or the Attorney species. Ed. will be there. .^ " noble as the Barrases. Sieyes Oldshall depart by the death they call Roman. totally disqualifies him as an orator but his pencil. from the far valley D'Aure in the folds of the Pyrenees. are not wanting. Nor are naturalised Benefactors of the Species forgotten Priestley. with genius in a state of convulsion and will now legislate. Talkers. old as the rocks of Pro[St. with Messidors. Traders. Doctors. above all. .^ Feraud. with the swoln cheek. i. The swoln cheek. Ed. . an ardent Republican doomed to fame. disproportionate flabby-large. he will cower low in many an emergency. * [Barras became a Director in 1795 and helped Bonaparte to power. wifes. his gross hot heart. All manner of Patriot men are coming Husbandmen. but declining Paine the rebellious Needleman. Constituent comes to make new Constitutions as many for the rest.

perceives the Passes . he demands of his worthy friends the Electors of Paris. 1792] IN ARGONNE 57 : " he is one. on occasions of solemnity. see Philippe d'Orleans. as Bertrand is always praying. Brunswick. with temporary enchant- vence . seen of the Earth and Heaven. shipwrecked man flung ashore on the coast of the Maldives long ago. Mere angry poultry in moulting season whom Brunswick's grenadiers and cannoneers will give short account of Would the weather. Old-Constituent. Some three mornings after that. Philippe Egalite therefore will sit. " Memoires. recommends Equality^ Egalite." Bertrand-Moleville. audacity. handsome to the eye.0 Bertrand! The weather will not mend a whit: nay even if it did? Dumouriez Poly metis. . is a kind of noble. only mend a little In vain. . — ! U : . Manuel. 225. : —the remote Var Department has now sent A man . a certain swift transient courage who in these times. like an antithetic literary man.' Lepelletier SaintFargeau. temporary conversion into beasthood and hoghood him hither. : . to have a new name of their choosing whereupon Procureur . while sailing and soldiering as Indian Fighter flung ashore since then. ment. with a scarlet cloak and a plume of tricolor. ! A . . though Bertrand knows it not. Such a Convention is gathering itself together. . i^ Barras. started from brief slumber at Sedan. on many a Circe Island. opening wide eyes. SEPT." ! . as hungry Parisian pleasure-hunter and halfpay. and of enormous wealth he too has come hither to have the Pain of Death abolished} Hapless Ex-Parlementeer Nay among our Sixty Old-Constituents. a Prince of the Blood Not now Orleans for. Fortune favouring. on that morning of the 29th of August with stealthiness. of heat and haste defective in utterance defective indeed in anything to utter yet not without a certain rapidity of glance. with promptitude. may go far." ii." the man will look well. ^ " Dictionnaire des Hommes Marquans. Feudalism being swept from the world. The reckless. He is tall. " only the complexion a little yellow " but " with a robe of purple.

How . Argonne all seized with camps and that it is a most shifty swift Dumouriez this. a land flowing to cross this Mountain-wall only with ditch-water. 79-81. at 1792 the south of the hills (they are clay hills. when the King of Prussia and other military advisers urged the need of utmost speed in striking at Paris. and that. the Clermont Cow : : ^ [See note on p. See Helen Maria Williams. cii. The Argonne Passes will not force you must skirt the Argonne go round by the end of it. volleying War reverberates. Brunswick's original plan was not to go beyond the Meuse in Dillon occupied the passes of Islettes and la Chalade. or Moloch's kettledrum. rises intact in the Mounyour forced tain-pass. floating pale carcasses of men. which unhappily will not force. vii of the fortified blocked with felled trees. Brunswick halted nine days at Verdun to bake bread and replenish his stores. ! . — : .] Pre. 24. wall of forty miles lying between him and Paris which which how now to get he should have pre-occupied possession of? Also the rain it raineth every day and we are in a hungry Champagne Pouilleuse. with sackerments and guttural interjections forcings of The manoeuvre may A . Argonne Passes. borne by the echoes — . swoln torrents boil angrily round the foot of In vain Islettes rocks. SEPTEMBER .— 58 — [bk. who has outwitted him . i. ^ ! cost Brunswick " a loss of three Mountainweeks. Through the woods. and herself' at intervals soon taking it on again. of the Argonne or what in the world to do with it ? There are marchings and wet splashings by steep paths. some miles to the west of the central pass." very fatal in these circumstances. " Letters. drowned in the pouring Heaven. not rocky mountains). From the hill-tops thou seest .'' iii. endless wet moaning woods that she is) disclosing flinging-off her cloud-blanket. between the embosoming heights marchings and climbings have become forced slidings and tumblings back. and Vache (huge . with its church-steeple. ! . It was due to Brunswick's systematic slowness that the French had the chance of seizing these passes. . like huge gong-music. while Dumouriez with the main body was at the camp of GrandEd. But fancy whether the Emigrant Seigneurs have not nothing but dumb crags. Village.

— it ran . the latter being French. The dotted line shows the modern frontier.Note. In 1792 between Luxemburg and Lorraine.

and produce colic. fallen on your backs who had no call to die there. oh'sKovro ^l Tsaoi. ye poor sackermenfmg ghastly -visaged Hessians and Hulans. ' [Incorrect. Grand-Pre is the central one of the five passes. Four days days of a rain of Noah. the Northmost of the Passes Brunswick is skirting and rounding. — . ride in carts with their hands tied these are the woes of war. and produce smoke for food you eat green grapes. —Ed. by the extremity of the South. ! . far and wide. as the positions shift. Thus they sprawling and wriggling. ten times more. round him as you will. sticks like a rooted fixture on the ground fixture with many hinges wheeling now this way. ! . * : . a sort of desperation. without fire. [bk. and hydrophobic splashed Nankeens but O.] . in the most unexpected manner nowise consenting to take himself away. — . son of that brave literary De Ligne the Thundergod of Dandies. backing and right-about facing. : : . fell backwards shot dead in Grand-Pr^. . pestilential dysentery. Assassinating Peasants are hanged Old-Constituent Honourable Members. — ! . . partly forced but still Dumouriez. for rather difficult to deal with. without food For fire you cut down green trees. Young Prince de Ligne. Le Blanc of the Golden Arm a good time of it. is threatening to supervene. threaten to draw their very scissors on us! O ye hapless dulled-bright Seigneurs. laboriously. ch. and hydrophobia from excess of water. — . And the Peasants assassinate us. . Recruits stream up on him full of heart yet Behind Grand-Pre. i. in her bower of dripping rushes. . : : . vii got their brilliancy dulled a little whether that " Foot Regiment in red-facings with nankeen trousers " could be in field-day order In place of gasconading.6o SEPTEMBER . on the slopes and passes of the Argonne a loss to Brunswick of five-and-twenty disastrous days. now that showing always new front. . though of venerable age. force him. they do not join us shrill women cry shame on us. and the Argonne gets partly rounded. except compulsion and three-halfpence a day Nor has Mrs. There is wriggling and struggling facing.

You have dishonoured yourselves by crimes.' " ^ Patience. swiftly like the wind or the whirl! .] ^ Dumouriez. with thunder-words. See the account of the panic in Captain Johnson's " . Thus too (for really the rations are short. Menehould." and pack them forth into the world as a sign.Marceau " (G.000 men by September 19th. you see before you this artillery. If you amend. He had placed some squadrons behind them. and bring back the sense of shame ^ nay to seize the " shave their heads and first shriekers and ringleaders eyebrows. and an escort of a hundred hussars. for I will neither call you citizens. stroke of drawn sword even. Dumouriez then left Grand-Pre. will become a phalanxed mass of Fighters and wheel and whirl. responsible for them. " Memoires. Whereupon again Dumouriez "arrives at the head of their line. . and there rose a shriek of sative qui pent. Clerfait surprised a French detachment northern pass of Croix-aux-Bois.^ iii. but only to fall back on Ste. with gesture. O Dumouriez This uncertain heap of shriekers. as full hearts are liable to do. . nor my men {ni mes enfans). p. you will find in me a good father. : ' . where the arrival of Beurnonville and Kellermann brought his total up to 55. and a deathpanic which had nigh ruined all So that the General had to come galloping and. 1792] IN ARGONNE 61 example. and dismiss them yourselves I hold you — ! . Ibid. 51. and grow to behave like this brave Army which you have the honour of belonging to.— Ed. check and rally. were they once drilled and inured. But plunderers and assassins I do not suffer here. and wet camping with hungry stomach brings bad humour) there is like to be mutiny. did as it were overset itself. Chene-le-Populeux. mutineers. Grand-Pr^ which is on the wrong-side of the Argonne. At the smallest mutiny I will have you shivered in pieces {hacher en pieces). and shortly after gained the most northerly pass.SEPT. ^ [On September 12th at the ' ." iii. nor soldiers. for we are now forced and rounded/ the full heart. behind you this cavalry. 55. 29. to order. . Bell and Sons). Seek out the Scoundrels that are among you. the artillery in front he said to them As for you. in one of those wheelings and showings of new front. with his staff.

lies the first germ of returning Order for France " Round which. 32. and other the like media and phases. iii. * is becoming visible more and more in Helen Maria Williams. down now to such a state in this shrieking Confusion. Louis-Philippes. where brave Bouille stood with drawn sword and which has collided and ground itself to pieces worse and worse ever since. Reader. checked here by Roman ^tius and Fortune and his dust-cloud made to vanish in the East again Strangely enough. let us nevertheless. Our minute private thing is the presence. ! — . i. . in suicidal collision." Ed. certain Man. in the Prussian host. through centuries.— 62 — SEPTEMBER — [bk. — . in this shrieking Confusion of a Soldiery. at Nanci. will be glad to rally growing. we say. was. : ! . into a new. — O : . poor France nearly all ground down suicidally likewise to begin into rubbish and Chaos. [As Fievee. infinitely preferable France. : . . we can hope wind : . . in that war-game of the Argonne. which are all faithfully described by Dumouriez himself. remarked " Civilization perishes Courts and renews itself in Camps. entirely omit and hasten to remark two things the first a minute private. the second a large public thing. They may conquer and overrun amazingly. of a who. after sweeping bare the world. vii tanned mustachio-figures often bare-foot. in ^ days since then. and not elsewhere. and new-shaping her inorganic dust very slowly. on this very ground ^ who. . — ! These wheelings and movements in the region of the Argonne. the publicist. hastiest.] : in .or on the streets of Metz. which we saw long since fallen all suicidally out of square. belonging to the sort called Immortal . with difficulty. and more interesting to us than Hoyle's or Philidor's best Game of Chess. : CH. hottest ever seen perhaps since Attila's time. through Napoleons. much as that whose Attila's-Camp and Battlefield same Attila did thou now seest. the adroitest. even with sinews of iron who require only bare-backed bread and gunpowder very Sons of Fire. and days of tough fighting.

nor flourish of rhetoric. ^ — . as a World-Poet feels it. O Reader. into the dance and firing of the cannon-balls. translation. as the memorablest of all the memorable in this Argonne Campaign. . "Miscellaneous Travels. in the irrecognisable head. with drawn bridle. which makes the situation and the objects still more impressive on you. man entirely irrecognisable! In whose irrecognisable head. . . . as the Transitor)' more and more vanishes: for from of old it was remarked that when the Gods appear among men. it is seldom in recognisable shape thus Admetus's neatherds give Apollo a draught of their goatskin whey-bottle (well if they do not give him strokes with their oxrungs). come with the small contingent of Weimar to do insignificant unmilitary duty here very irrecognisable to nearly all He stands at present. meanwhile. outwardly in the Argonne." p. quite otherwise than by thunder Mark that man. 117. He is Herzog Weimar's Minister. . What we say of him is not dream. [Bohn . and at the same time were completely penetrated by the heat of it so that you feel as if you and this element you are in were perfectly on a par." xxx. in such cannon-thunder inwardly." says he. making an experiment on the "cannonfever". " is curious enough be as if it were compounded of the humming of tops. ! ^ Goethe. the gurgling of water and the whistle of birds.] ^i). By degrees you get a very uncommon sensation which can only be described by similitude. 1792] IN ARGONNE 63 that character. 20. having ridden thither against persuasion. "Campagne in Frankreich" ("Werke. but scientific ! . not dreaming that he is the Sungod This man's name is Johan?i Wo/fga?tg vo7i Goethe. with a scientific desire to understand what that same cannon-fever may " The sound of them. ." This is the cannon-fever. on the height near SainteMenehould. The eyesight loses nothing of its strength or distinctness and yet it is as if all things had got a kind of brown-red colour. there verily is the spiritual counterpart (and call it complement) of this same huge Death-Birth of the World which now effectuates itself.A SEPT. It seems as if you were in some place extremely hot. ! : .

." " Live the Father: . At seven in the morning the mist clears off: see Kellermann. SEPTEMBER [bk.. . will have rest today. ! : ! ! — . on the Heights of La Lune and other Heights shifting and shoving. i. 64 historic fact . with " eighteen pieces of cannon. and those Villages and homesteads we know of old. ch. far into the depths of Argonne Wood (deserted now) and limbs and lives of men fly dissipated. Patriot and Prussian. were it never so windy. seemingly in some dread chess-game which may the Heavens turn to good The Miller of Valmy has fled dusty under ground his Mill. — . in silence. — : ! . vii as many men." cries Kellermann. the eighteen pieces do bluster and bark. taking up positions. on his knoll of strength Brunswick. But the large public thing we had to remark is this That the Twentieth of September 1792 was a raw morning covered with mist that from three in the morning. we shall have sharp shot and Dumouriez. Can Brunswick make an impression on them ? The dulled-bright Seigneurs stand biting their thumbs these Sansculottes seem 7iot to fly like poultry! Towards noontide a cannon-shot blows Kellermann's horse from under him there bursts a powder-cart high some swagging into the air. . drawn up round that same silent Windmill. Dumouriez' second in command. see or begin to see. responsive to the bluster of La Lune and thunder-clouds mount into the air and echoes roar through all dells. . . Come let us conquer for her. this way and that. with knell heard over all Brunswick will try " Caniaand swaying observable rades. also with serried ranks and caimon. " Vive la Patrie ! Allans vaincre pour die. . with force and firm front. . : . were stirred by the rumble of artillerywagons. now at this distance." and deep-serried ranks. Lo. glooming over to him from the Height of La Lune only the little brook and its little dell now parting them. by the clatter of hoofs and many-footed tramp of men all manner of military. So that the much-longed-for has come at last Instead of hunger and dysentery. looks on then from a neighbouring height can help only with his wishes. Sainte-Menehould.

altogether be rid of it that seems now their humour. ye duUed-bright Seigneurs. It should be remembered that the Prussians who attacked ' were only about 30. nor the siege of Thionville. though several of their officers had served in the Seven Years' War. ineffectual regain his not unbattered by the way. 1792] ! — IN ARGON NE . Ah. and France does not rise round us in mass and the Peasants do not join us.." xix. on "Valmy.^ With not a whit better fortune rock-ranks. Few of the Prussian troops had seen fire before.) that Kellermann's troops were almost all old soldiers^ having only two battalions of volunteers among them. like rolling-fire from side to side our ranks are as firm as rocks and Brunswick may r^cross the dell. : .— SEPT. The Thionvillers. you will take Thionville. make of it what ye may. . ix. ! ." ^ To such height has the frenzy of mankind risen. have put a Wooden Horse on their walls. The affair was in a military sense a mere skirmish. : ! — . ! . with a bundle of Hay hung from him. not unbattered. — . I fear. by shout of Vive la Patrie and driven back. 20. Ed. Till an hour lasts till sunset after sunset.] ^ [The second effort was due to the intervention of the King of Prussia." (vol. for the length of a September day. ! . : : [Chuquet has proved in " Les Guerres de la Rev. Nor does Austria prosper. with bluster The cannonade with bellow far-echoing and bark and no impression made. III. .' old position on La Lune And so. Whereupon he ceases retires " to the Tavern of La Lune " and sets to raising a redoute lest lie be attacked Verily so. the few remaining Clocks of the District striking Seven at this late time of day Brunswick tries He is met by again. carrying their insolence to the epigrammatic pitch. F . . 65 land " rings responsive to the welkin.] ' "Hist. Not more than 200 were killed or wounded on either side. Pari.000 against a larger force of (mostly) trained French. 177. The honours of the day rested with the French artillery. but assassinate us neither hanging nor any persuasion will induce them They have lost their old distinguishing love of King and and will even fight to King's-cloak. . Its importance lay in its influence on the pessimistic Duke of Brunswick. Ed." chap. and this Inscription " When I finish my hay. which was very well served.

dis- Fils. : . vii The trenches of Thionville may shut. ! Kellermann (how preferable to old Luckner the and Egalite missed !) began to become greater . . and what though those of Lille open ? The Earth smiles not on us. CH. under sad circumstances. distinguished himself by intrepidity it is the same intrepid individual who now. amid the " tattered cornshocks and deformed stubble. what answer could be made ? Cold and Hunger and Affront. the hope of their country. . mean Tavern de La Lune ! This is the Cannonade of Valmy wherein the Worldwherein the Poet experimented on the cannon-fever French Sansculottes did not fly like poultry. Precious to France Every soldier did his duty. to be called King of the French for a season." on the splashy Height of La Lune. cowering redouted. . without the Equality. and worse. as Louis-Philippe. Our very friends insult us we are wounded " His Majesty of Prussia in the house of our friends had a greatcoat. xxx. a light gallant Field-Officer. 49.— 66 SEPTEMBER [bk. when the rain came and (contrary to all known laws) he put it on. : — ' Goethe. Colic and Dysentery and Death and we here. and Alsatian . though our two French Princes. most unredoubtable. in sour rain. struggles. round the . nor the Heaven but weeps and blears itself. I. as Goethe admits. ! ' — . had none " To which indeed. Equality Junior.

— SEPT. are hovering and gathering about the Hall of the Hundred Swiss with intent to constitute themselves * On the morrow. Ed. 20. . 1792] — EXEUNT — 67 CHAPTER EXEUNT VIII September is otherwise a great For. . BUT day. . : . they propose motions not a few That the corner-stone of our new Constitution is. For epigrammatic Manuel rises. observe. Seven-hundred and Forty-nine complete. there sits a this twentieth of : ! . to merge its old ashes phcenix-like in the body of the new and so forthwith. or complete enough presided by Petion which proceeds directly to do business. returning all solemnly back to the Salle de Manege. when the Convention constituted only 371 itself. members were present. that shall be a National Convention. and Curate Gr^goire. Whereupon the Old Legislative comes solemnly over. speaks strange things how the President shall have a guard of honour. about noontide. Camus the Archivist is busy "verifying their powers". : . several hundreds of them already here. and lodge in the Tuileries rejected. and lame Couthon of the Mountain rises and in rapid Meliboean stanzas. ^ [On the 20th September.] . And Danton rises and speaks and Collot d'Herbois rises. — National Convention. only a few lines each. while Kellermann's horse was flying blown from under him at the Mill of Valmy. : . Sovereignty of the People that our Constitution shall . O Reader there are few debates like it dull reporting " Moniteur " itself becomes more dramatic than a very Shakspeare. our new National Deputies. Read that reported afternoon's debate.

at all events. . with acclamation of the world The tree was all so ripe only shake it. iv. . and. Rev. ' — —Ed. lights any fires he has and marches without tap of drum. and there fall such yellow cartloads. 71. 50-64 Chuquet. Aulard has shown—" Etudes et Legons sur la Rev."— Ed. " Hist. 1792 : Dumouriez. In the evening the Parisians called out for the Republic. Frangaise" (pp. 19. chap. the actor. on the whole. iii. 127-129) that up to the 21st it was uncertain whether the Convention would abolish royalty. iii. all retire with con- — may .— 68 : SEPTEMBER . The ten days after Valmy were filled by secret negotiations whereby Dumouriez thought to detach Prussia from Austria. so to speak. . The motion to this effect was made by CoUot d'Herbois. is here in person.. ^i. It was passed unanimously.000 men by disease. happy that he has one. put on his greatcoat without ceremony.' Brunswick slings his knapsacks before day. Franqaise. [bk. Dumouriez finds ghastly — trines full of for he. blood " ! ^ symptoms in that camp " laThe chivalrous King of Prussia." xix. before four o'clock strike. as soon as the news come. and Sorel. . and have right Judges that the Imposts must continue till new order that Landed and other Property be sacred forever finally that " Royalty from this day is abolished in France " Decreed all.] ^ October ist. : ^ ! . audible. . bk. as . For the negotiations see Von Sybel.. . '"La Retraite de Brunswick" in " Les Guerres de la ^ •'' . And so over in the Valmy Region. pp. It was on the night of September 3oth-October ist that the Prussians began to retire.. ch. They retire.] Williams. v. may long rue the look colder than ever on these dulled-bright Seigneurs. : ! — : . Pari. visible from our muddy Heights of La Lune ? ' Universal shouting of the French on their opposite hill-side caps raised on bayonets and a sound as of Republique Vive la Rcpubliqtie borne dubious on the winds On the morrow morning. and the Convention voted it on the morrow. The Prussians in those days lost 6. day we saw. " L'Europe et la Rev. to gain time. viii be accepted by the People or be null further that the People ought to be avenged. [This qualifying phrase is necessary. [M. what stir is this. and French Princes their Country's hope and." pt. iii. i.

' xx. not much now pricklittle in the hinder parts. 248) that in the first five days of the bombardment (September 29th-October 3rd) the Austrians poured in 30.] inforcements. now negotiating: for Brunswick has his eyes opened. probably to this day. proceeding with his business and the ball remains permanent too. They retired on October 6th. sticking in the wall. quet states . Not a Sans-indispensables in Lille that would surrender for a King's ransom. . persons. . say all eye-witnesses but it is ineffectual. 63-71). . : ! ! . . . The Lille trenches opened on the 29th of the month with balls and shells. and redhot balls as if not trenches but Vesuvius and the Pit had opened. . day and night " six-thousand.000 bombs . and bombs " filled internally with oil of turpentine mainly on the dwellings which splashes up in flame " the streets of the Rich of the Sansculottes and Poor But the Sansculottes get water-pails being spared. Redhot balls rain. — . . " The ball is in Peter's form quenching-regulations " " is in John's " They divide their house The ball lodging and substance with each other shout Vive la and faint not in heart. thirty It is in Lille. . ing. .. which received provisions and reEd. 6g venient despatch.— SEPT. Lille " (in " Hist. . the wild weather pouring on them Dumouriez. It was frightful. A : We ." says one coldly.000 red-hot balls and 6. ball thunders Rtpubliqiie through the main chamber of the H6tel-de-Ville while are in permanthe Commune is there assembled " ence. 1792] EXEUNT . but they had not enough men fully to invest the place. The especially after these Lillers have risen to such temper news from Argonne and the East. 29. pricking them a A little." ' " two mortars explode and vain ." or so. Nor has Austria prospered nor the Wooden Horse of Thionville bitten his hay nor Lille City surrendered itself. always [Chu- " Bombardement de {op..^ The Austrian Archduchess (Queen's Sister) self see red artillery fired : will her- in their over-haste to satisf)kill is an Archduchess. through a Champagne trodden into a quagmire. often burning. through his Kellermanns and Dillons. and the Majesty of Prussia is a repentant Majesty. cit. p. Pari. .

The very boys deftly wrench the matches out of fallen bombs " a man clutches a rolling ball with his hat. some five weeks ago. at." ^ On the eleventh morning of October. black with ashes and smoulder. " ]^oila mo7i plat a harbe. they crown it with a bonnet rouged Memorable also be that nimble Barber. introduced soap and lather into it. we were about mounting our carriage. with no : . Bravo. CH. 248) in accepts this episode as authentic p. My new shaving-dish!" and shaved "fourteen people" on the spot. flings its gates open. Austria. The Plat a " no Patriot of an elegant barbe became fashionable turn. and riders and foot seemed sinking around." says Mercier several years afterwards. p.. struggling Northwards out of Verdun. between the pavementstones which were crushed up into a ridge on each side. which he had entered Southwards. . snatched up a sherd of it. and find treasures On the eighth day of this desperate siege. the World-Poet. the third part of it gone to death. draws off. I. in quite other order." . ! — pleasurable consciousness rapidly. discerned the following Phenomenon and formed part of it " Towards three in the morning.: ' ^o . thou nimble Shaver worthy to shave old spectral Redcloak. " but shaves himself out of the splinter of a Lille bomb. but jubilant skyhigh. the sixth day of October. SEPTEMBER [bk." says Goethe " for here also lay broken chariots. . Dumouriez tending thitherward and Lille too. Why many words ? The Invaders are in Brunswick's Host. staggers disastrous along the deep highways of Champagne spreading out also into " the fields of a tough spongy red-coloured clay": "like Pharaoh through a Red Sea of mud. drawn up at the door when an insuperable obstacle disclosed itself: for there rolled on already. Quid .] "Campagne "^ Frankreich. —Ed. . . finding it fruitless." . crying. flight inulta. 103. without having had any sleep. . — . which takes fire when cool. who when the bomb burst beside him. ' [Chuquet {op. viii quenched again Lille will not yield.

II." " The activity of our alert Lisieux shone eminent. " Horse and foot endeavoured to escape from the narrow laborious highway into the meadows but these too were rained to ruin overflowed by full ditches. that their foot-gear testified no higher than the ankle to the . they cut them also loose. And now as the three others could not bring their load along. under the wheels. . 1792] EXEUNT 71 an uninterrupted column of sick-wagons through the Town. jubilant. handsome. with the Prussians but must now forth again into the wide world. we had to drive on right over the horse. We . followed by a servant carrying a little bundle on his stick. . I could breathe freer. All sorts of vehicles. Four gentleman-like. with our Column. and let it lie. went crashing and quivering. with our six and our four horses. . well-dressed French soldiers waded for a time beside our carriage wonderfully clean and neat and had such art of picking their steps. without salutation. innumerable foot-people. : . in a tumult and turmoil without measure. towards Estain. few horsemen. which was just about to rise and I saw too clearly how its legs. Self-preservation. . were now under way at a funeral pace. in so monstrous a press. on a limited highway. tumbled the heavypacked vehicle into the ditch and with the smallest retardation. : . but still under way. got . The day broke we found ourselves at the outlet of the Town. : . While we stood waiting what could be made of it. were crossing each other on the great esplanade before the Gate. turned to the right. the connexion of the footpaths everywhere interrupted. . Not far before us there fell down a horse of an ammunition-wagon they cut the traces. and on this occasion too brought us on for he struck into a small gap of the wagon-row and held the advancing team back till we. knew now no pity. no respect of aught." He had been a Calonne's Notable in 1787. intercalated after which. our Landlord the Knight of Saint-Louis pressed past us. We .OCT. an Emigrant since had returned to his home. in my light little coachlet. with ditches at each side. and all was trodden as into a morass.

palpable. . dead horses enough. stout but sorrowing citizens and peasants. double and multiplex. viii muddy pilgrimage these good people found themselves engaged in. arose farther on a " " Hermann unci Dorothea (also by Goethe). was natural to the case by and by. The same talent showed itself at Estain where we arrived towards noon and descried. at the them . however. " But now. in meadows. though we knew it not. probably herds that had cattle too were struggling on been put in requisition. from the ground-floor windows. crushed and jostled each ammunition-wagons. making way. marauders. each hindered the other. had said we were the King of Prussia's Brother . : . " Thus we fared on every moment in danger. in fields and crofts. . " That under such circumstances one saw. over the . around and beside us. amid vehicles of all forms baggage-wagons carriages. women and children. of being ourselves under which circumstances. all struggling forward. soldiers lying. ently praised. many-coloured. . however. such hundredfold miscellany of teams. single. other. lackered. Riders you saw few but the elegant carriages of the Emigrants. the fleshy parts even cut away sad token of the universal distress. requisitioned or lawfully owned. . evidently by the best builders." Dexterous Lisieux. through streets and on squares. .' The See crisis of the strait. caught your " eye. we had the endless tumult All sorts of walkers. you found : also flayed. truly. as it were.! : 72 SEPTEMBER [bk. Unexpectedly our carriage drew up before a stately house in the marketplace master and mistress of the mansion saluted us in reverent distance. hindering Hornedeach other. gilt and silvered. in ditches. Buch " Kalliope. the careful dexterity of our Lisieux could not be sufficismallest stoppage on our . looking over the whole marketplace. hitting together. in uniform. rolled here to right and to left. ch. i. tumbled overboard own part. one sense-confusing tumult the mass rolled this way and that and." . beautiful well-built little Town.

I5-- . It was not they. as put our scientific World-Poet "in fear for the wits of several. at the head of the table. Count (1752-1832). you with your own eyes observe not a Seigneur. . these poor Emigrants. and whose Gallophil policy largely conduced to the collapse of Prussia in "Campagne 1829). at tables-d'hote. by step. step .Ji - Ibid. there swelled continually the strangest tide: a high double-seated travelling coach towered visible over the flood of things. Down the long street. itself into a street. XXX. all visible from our windows. and flow on in its bounded channel." Goethe's "Werke" (Stuttgart. and making all persons angry in the hapless course they struck into. 1792] EXEUNT 73 . the same forwardness and want of discretion. 133-137. however it was Count Haugwitz him you could look at. I have. seen perhaps be comhas been raging again obliged to press itself through a narrow bridge. 1S06. a Prussian diplomatist. there. In miscellaneous seats is a miscellany of soldiers. nothing like it the aspect of it might pared to that of a swoln river which over meadows and fields. who later on became Foreign Minister. where the crowded marketplace had to introduce straight indeed and good. " in Negotiation with these miscreants.^ P. adventurers ^ . with a kind of sardonic malice. [Haugwitz." In such untriumphant Procession has the Brunswick Manifesto issued Nay in worse. High in honour. and is now : in my life. how insupportable these Frenchmen are how. commissaries. We thought of the fair Frenchwomen we had seen in the morning."' There is no help they must fare on. but pro- — portionably far too narrow. angry with all persons and things. of poverty and probable beggary. there is ever the same struggle for precedence. in Frankreich. but the automaton of a Seigneur fallen into dotage still worshipped. consuming silently their barbarian victuals. rocking onwards. in spite of such humiliation. Landlord and landlady testify to you. ! — : : . reverently waited on and fed." the first news of which produced such a revulsion in the Emigrant nature.' OCT. little II.— ED.

. 149. c'estvotis qiion appelle Marat. which was to overthrow the Jacobins and restore the For his advances to Danton. tain things for instance ? " Also. with whom constitutional monarchy.. and looks forth into misery without bounds. You are he they call Marat " answers the General. iii. inquires the Figure. better then than later. and turns coldly on his heel. pp. " He is.— Ed. 210- 212. 317321). the landlord lets off almost scot-free. in the splendour of one such scene." pt. One night. iii. but strives to interpret it [Dumouriez was even then thinking of a covp d\Hat differently. back into its native Night."xix. coming in. by his army. and almost the very chandelier-lights. The nay despite of all lackeys an unjoyful Figure Figure is come " in express mission from the Jacobins. CH. Fr." One hasty wanderer. " the first of these cursed people I have seen condescend to taste our German black bread. Marat's account. [bk. I." ^ On for lauded and feasted pablondedresses and broadcloth-coats flowing past him. . is And Dumouriez in Paris . raded in glittering saloons. in admiring joy. who has come in z/winvited. Actor Talma. . 115. " L'Europe et la Rdv. viii all brows is to be read a hard destiny all are silent." xxx. : ^ "Campagne in Frankreich." Goethe's "Werke. Parl. touching cer" Shaven eyebrows of Volunteer Patriots. vanish. Dumouriez. swart unearthly Visual-Appearance. p. agrees to the turning on the heel. " your threats of shivering in pieces ? " Also. each has his own sufferings to bear. floods of beautifulest . see Sorel. are blue till this obscene Spectrum. Ah.. and eating without ungraciousness what is set before him." " Marat " The blonde-gowns quiver like aspens the dress-coats gather round Actor Talma (for it is his house).] — . ! : ^^ — ! ! . with sharp croak. endless." whispered the landlord to me." to inquire sharply. in the " Debats des Jacobins" and "Journal de la Rdpublique" (" Hist. he sees himself suddenly apostrophised by a squalid unjoyful Figure. nevertheless. " why you have not chased Brunswick hotly enough?" Thus. he advised the Girondins to come to terms.— 74 " SEPTEMBER .

The " National Assembly of the Allobroges." who embraced French philosophic and democratic . has taken Savoy from him. avowed Liberal opinions. in few brief days. : and was taken on Cook's voyage round the world in 1772-1775 he then became Professor of Natural History in Hesse and librarian to the Elector of Mainz was one of the chiefs of the German " llluminati. but advocated severity against mutineers in 1 79 1 famed for his dash at Mainz and Frankfurt was later on thrown back by the Prussians. is gone again.. — 75 1792] General Dumouriez. : ! : [By October 14th the Piedmontese held only three communes Savoy: of the other 658 communes. opinions . Frau Forster. voted in this sense and abolished Feudalism.") Ed. towards the Netherlands will attack the Netherlands. — EXEUNT . 583 pronounced for union with France. 88. with " Live the Republic " A black-bearded National Guard answers " Elle vivra bien sans vous. but left a garrison in Mainz. 1793 (Chuquet's vol. has dashed forth on Spires and its Arsenal and then on Electoral Mentz. winter though it be. which longs to become a piece of the Republic' And General Custine. i." in " Les Guerres de la Rev." .] ^ in 1 . Ed. Suspected of complicity with the Gironde. wherein are German Democrats and no shadow of an Elector now so that in the last days of October. Comte de( 7401 793).— OCT." on the Northeast. Forster trips cheerfully over one iron bomb. some time with his father in England. he was accused by the Mountain and was guillotined August 28th. and was elected a deputy for the nobles of Lorraine in 1789. de la R^v. . " L'Expedition de Custine." sitting at Chambery. ^ Johann Georg [Forster (1754. not uninvited. served under Saxe and Soubise. " Les Guerres died at Paris in 1794 (see Chuquet's vol. a daughter of Heyne's. has driven in the Sardinian Majesty nay. And General Montesquiou. . on the Southeast. somewhat democratic. walking out of the Gate of Mentz with her Husband. 1829). II. almost without a shot fired.1794) lived Forster's " Briefwechsel" (Leipzig. It ' will probably live independently of you." Ed.] "Mayence" in . finds French Soldiers playing at bowls with cannon-balls there.] ^ [Custine.

all Authorities. Judges. making way for a new improved Parish Constable who can say De par la Rjpublique.. the soul-politic being all changed such a change as few bodies. BOOK SECOND REGICIDE CHAPTER I THE DELIBERATIVE therefore has done two things very comshe has hurled back her Cimmerian Invaders far over the marches and likewise she has shattered her own internal Social Constitution. perhaps. . into wreck and dissolution. persons that bore rule. have taken care of that. in the farthest hamlet. on the sudden. have had. z^. Say." with a Patriot Danton in it. can experience in this world.zdescribed. Utterly it is all altered from King down to Parish Constable. and then a whole Nation and National Convention. : . Magistrates. who has said De par le Roi. when she would pletely : FRANCE . and not without violence. so far as needful or else. even to the minutest fibre of it. . to be altered a Patriot " Executive Council of Ministers. politic or other. It is a change such as History must beg her readers to imagine. on the sudden. Not a Parish Constable. but must retire. such as poor Nymph Semele's body did experience. to alter themselves. An instantaneous change of the whole body-politic. and shown loyalty.

existing Unknown. The Cimmerian Invaders will rally. ! — : . where are they the new modes and rules ? Liberty. Equality. since all France roared simultaneously to the welkin. and nothing but Freedom. if it do. whether the reconciled King Louis shall be guillotined or not Old garnitures and social vestures drop off (we say) so fast. girt with dragon-eyed Municipals. "Live the Restorer of French Liberty " ? Three short years ago there was still Versailles and an CEil-de-Boeuf now there is that watched Circuit of the Temple. : . . Constituent Deputy Barrere extinct. get all finished " in a few months. next moment not Semele.! SEPT. bursting forth into sound and smoke at its Feast of Pikes. Convention Deputy Barrere. Is it two centuries. with such hope in its heart. in humbler temper. In truth. : ! . or is it only two years. Fraternity not vestures. which is to settle everything. where. and are trodden under the National dance." we shall call it a most deft Convention. — . ways of thinking. figuratively . with woman's humour. being indeed quite decayed. see her Olympian Jove as very Jove and so stood. with better or worse luck the wreck and dissolution must . poor Nymph. as in its final limbo. this moment Semele. 21. Equality and Brotherhood in its mouth. shaking off daily (so to speak). perfectly tearless." in his " Break-of-Day " Newspaper. its old social garnitures. But as for this National Convention. and trampling into the dust. but Flame and a France has looked upon Statue of red-hot ashes Democracy seen it face to face. 1792] THE DELIBERATIVE 77 needs. as Deputy Paine and France generally expects. it is very singular to see how this mercurial French People plunges suddenly from Vive le Rot to Vive la Rcpublique and goes simmering and dancing. Royalty lies In the year 1789. but the wish for vestures The Nation is for the present. at sight of a reconciled King Louis. rules of and cheerfully dances towards the Ruleless. And the new vestures. may be considering.rshape itself into a social Arrangement as it can and may. and now in 1792. " wept.

It is the deepest law of man's nature whereby man is a craftsman and " tool-using animal " not the slave of Impulse. have our Patriot Guadets triumphed. and in such manner. . naked it has no rule or vesture . have swept Royalism with its old modes and formulas to the winds and shall now govern a France free of formulas. if man. [bk. have suddenly come to fulfilment in the Autumn. did to any extent look before and after. but is naked. . Vergniaud's Ezekielvisions of the fall of thrones and crowns. suddenly stript bare of their modi. moderantins" of Brissotins. finally of Girondins. ways of doing and living no text truer than this which will hold true from the Tea-table and Tailor's shopboard up to the High Senate -houses. Patriots of the Legislative. they shall become world-famous in solving it. as the Philosophers brag. ii.. in this case. Twenty-five millions of men. and dancing them down in that manner. have precisely this problem to solve. seeing clearly before . ! — . Rolandins. . homines dU'tat. speaking. Brissots. problem like few. meanwhile.'^ of "moderate men. ch. like strong Conjurors. So far therefore. Udi Jwmines sunt modi sunt. Solemn Temples nay through all provinces of Mind and Imagination. . 78 REGICIDE . ! : Our eloquent . by the word of their mouth. i — a Sansculottic Nation. would become of these Seven-hundred and Forty-nine men ? The Convention. what. — . There are modes wherever there are men. Truly. of universal Fraternity and Golden Age and with terror of the unIt is a utterable. Chance and brute Nature. onwards to the outmost confines of articulate Being. Cimmerian Europe all rallying on us. which he spake hypothetically and prophetically in the Spring of the year. but in some measure their lord. Under the name and nickname of "statesmen. in many cases would become of him ? What. are a terrible thing to govern Eloquent Patriots of the Legislative. one may ask. Free of formulas And yet man lives not except with formulas with customs. For the Twenty-five millions are Gallic effervescent too filled both with hope of the unutterable.

build. Speedily enough. unless the Gospel of Jean Jacques came into the world in vain ? True. . The Convention was elected on this basis (see Aulard. . are girt cheerfully to the work will once more " make the Constitution " let us hope. To the Convention itself neither the work nor the method of doing it is doubtful To make the Constitution to defend the Republic till that be made. Ed. 1792. Sieyes. we say. foreign Benefactor of the Species. one of the handsomest men in France these.^ with that " red carbuncled face and the black beaming eyes " Herault de Sechelles. who doubts. Seeing clearly not paralysed. Ed.] ^ [Universal Suffrage had been decreed by the Legislative Assembly on August loth. there has been a " Committee of the Constitution " got together. . But what then except sort the rubbish and boulders. exclude rotten materials. — . unwearied Frequent perilous downrushing of scaffolding and rubblework. Old-Constituent. And in brief. O unspeakable Sieyes and Company. and build them up again better ? " Widen your basis. more effectually than last time. yet with whole hearts and build. is it ! to the length of own . so lamentably." p. were a paralysed Convention. no discouragement. for another thing. Start ye always again.] rot at the . the Pas de Calais elected him deputy to the French Convention. ' — Ed. with inferior guild-brethren. accordingly. Fran^aise. — . [While Paine was being prosecuted in England for his seditious works. . be that an irritation. clearing aside the wreck if with broken limbs. He had little success there. . and sat on the Committee of Public Safety guillotined with Danton. . in the name of Heaven. For that the Constitution can be made." Ex-Parlementeer. . to Universal Suffrage. our last Constitution did tumble within the year. 21." for one thing. 221). .] ^ [Herault de Sechelles (1760. Royalism and suchlike. ! . "La Rev. as he needed an interpreter. fit for better things Deputy Paine.1794) began his career as avocat du Court of the Chatelet was elected for Paris in 1789 and afterwards to the Convention then sided with Danton. . if need be nose. 1793] — ' THE DELIBERATIVE its 79 and after. Constitution-builder by trade Condorcet. .— SEPT. after the suspension of Louis was voted.

] — . — : : . [For the very important work of developing the new democratic on June 23rd. . And so the Committee of Constitution shall toil with hope and faith with no disturbance from any reader of these pages.' To make the Constitution. 1793. with all its calculuses. unarr'anged they are the Heart : . But from the best scientific program. of French vehemence urged on at such velocity without routine. without rut. Congresses. is ! . ED. will work the appointment of Heaven. differential. it was appointed that this of Social Contract too should try itself out. then. Of National Assemblages. either the work do stand or else mankind abandon and the Constitution-builders be paid ofif. integral and of variations." something may be computed or conjectured yet even these are a kind of Mystery in progress. finally adopted " La Rev. — — . ought to hold her peace here. every unit of it a microcosm of Influences of which how shall Science calculate or prophesy ? Science. and return home joyfully in a few months this is the prophecy our National Convention gives of itself. ! it not. ^ constitution. that gravitate and do much else who. whereby accordingly we see the Journalist Reporter find livelihood even these jolt madly out of the ruts. from time to time. probably in an amazing manner. which cannot. CH. So REGICIDE till . what a difference Every reunion of men. in such a case. Themselves are new. with laughter and tears One good time. Frangaise. calculate the Problem of Three gravitating Bodies. as we often say." chap. Parliaments. and say only In this National Convention there are Seven-hundred and Forty-nine very singular Bodies. which are not "dreadfully in earnest.. see M. which have long sat which are of saturnine temperament above all. to the actual fulfilment. track or landmark and dreadfully in earnest every man of them It is a Parliament literally such as there was never elsewhere in the world. Aulard's iv. I — it. — . in the course of Eternity. a reunion of incalculable Influences . . ! . . How much more a poor National Convention. II. by this scientific program shall its operations and events go on. [bk. .

general superficial circumstance we remark with G .SEPT. from the utmost ends of this France with its Twenty-five million vehement souls. not to enter exploratively its dim embroiled deeps yet to stand with unwavering eyes. throw up. . It is. with death. thick-streaming influences stormin on that same Heart. Common individuals most of them. 21. a Parliament in the most original circumstances. suicidally and become dead ashes with its World Behoves us. and all height and all depth pealing and piping. concerning which History seldom speaks except in the way of interjection how it covered France with wo. . is the function of that Seven-hundred and Forty-nine human individuals. To us. and in such alternate glare and blackness of darkness poor bedazzled mortals know not which is Upper. From all cities. in the Salle de Manage. delusion and from its bosom there went forth and delirium Death on the pale Horse. or black Dream become real. or not far from common yet in virtue of the position they occupied. never sat together on our Earth under more original circumstances. Convention which has to consume itself. A . — ! . be it as a fuliginous fiery mystery. in these pages. hamlets. which is Nether but rage and plunge distractedly. terror. what notable phases and occurrences it will successively : : . left to their own guidance. these men. will speak and act ? Readers know well that this French National Convention (quite contrary to its own Program) became the astonishment and horror of mankind a kind of Apocalyptic Convention. so notable. To hate this poor National Convention is easy to praise and love it has not been found impossible. and such fiery venous-arterial circulation storm-out again Heart. as mortals in that case will do. where Upper has met Nether. How. One III. victory. we say. valour. looking how it welters. as we say. : . in this wild piping of the whirlwind of human passions. 1792] THE DELIBERATIVE 8i and presiding centre of a France fallen wholly into maddest disarrangement.

fiercely effervescent OldGallic Assemblage Ah. i To such depth has the praise the force of Politeness. how the loud sick sounds of Debate. always headlong The " voice of the orator is covered with rumours " a hundred *' honourable Members rush with menaces towards the Left side of the Hall " President has " broken three bells in succession. sink silent one so loud now. say of felt or rough-leather) . all in a foam with furious earnestness. oaths by Marat. ." claps on his hat. though they menace with clenched right-hands. repealed by vociferation tomorrow temper fitful. . . ! . which is a debate. . most rotatory-changeful. They scolded in Celtic Welsh. reported in all. doubt it not though no " Moniteur " has reported them. Did not the Grand Monarque himself once chase his Louvois with a pair of brandished tongs ? But reading long volumes of these Convention Debates. no Drouet. earnest many times to the extent of life and death. For the rest. and of Life. sense of civiHsation penetrated man's Hfe no Legendre in the maddest tug of war. that there is " effervescence " who doubts ? Effervescence enough Decrees passed by acclamation today. had Debates as effervescent. . . and those antique Gael Captains.82 : REGICIDE [bk. one is struck rather with the degree of continence they manifest in speech and how in such wild ebullition. to Galatia and such places. . ii. as signal that the country is near ruined. except for oratorical purposes. A : ! . do not clutch one another by the collar they draw no daggers. and the forms of social life never altogether disappear. : . Debates of Senates dreadfully in earnest else perhaps are seldom given frankly to the world they would surprise it. those Brennuses neither were they Sansculotte nay rather breeches {braccae. there is still a kind of polite rule struggling for mastery. in their way to Rome. . can altogether shake it off. These men. though the Reports are frank enough we find only one or tv^^o oaths. whither they were in the habit of marching in the most fiery manner. and in a little while so low after another Brennus. — — ! . and this not often profane swearing is almost unknown. ch.

unhappily. or noon which will be dusk and then there is night. Pity thy brother. missioned from all the Eighty-three or Eighty-five Departments. this time. see. and ancient august Senates in felt breeches ? Time surely and also Eternity. and the melodious Meliboean stanzas that shook down Royalty are still fresh in our ear. and speak nasally a kind of broken Latin But. of Discord. 21. as Livy testifies. So have the Friends of Order answered. naked down to the haunches and. — . on the whole. And now if a young omnipotent Convention will not so quail and sit. Nay certain Departments. does not Time envelope this present National Convention as it did those Brennuses. in the inwards of it and so must squall and whimper continually. 1792] THE DELIBERATIVE : 83 were the only thing they had being. sitting in Committee. For speech has been made of a thing difficult to speak of well the September Massacres. till its Mother take it. have their contingent of Volunteers — . as the Var or Marseilles. tumultuous Communes in a due state of submissiveness. ! A . and it — . answer the Girondins and Friends of Order Guard of National Volunteers. . get — to sleep ! This Convention is not four days old. . and silence and Time with all its sick noises is swallowed in the still sea. ! . O son of Adam The angriest frothy jargon that he utters. ! . and reporting and even a Decree has been passed of the required tenour. but is in distress clearly. : A . . what steps shall it take ? Have a Departmental Guard in its pay. and sit quiet. is it not properly the whimpering of an infant which cannot speak what ails it. Dim dusk of Time. for that express end these will keep Septemberers. in mere expectation and assurance of a Decree. when there bursts out a new diapason. it is the same sort of work and of men still.: SEPT. How deal with these September Massacres with the Paris Commune that presided over them ? Paris Commune hateful-terrible before which the poor effete Legislative had to quail. now when they have got coats. the Convention in a due state of sovereignty.

foremost on the Tenth of August. as we said. shall. Reader. of rage and separation. But on this fourth day of the Convention's existence.— 84 . shouting once. for some seven months an angry noisy Hypothesis only a fair Possibility struggling to become a Reality. which is the 25th of September 1792. But the new War Minister. decreed by overwhelming majorities. sink into sad rest. being overtaken with liquor " A bas Marat. — Members. in February next. . and not to insult Paris.] ' "Hist. from this side and that till it become a wide river of bitterness. it is repealed just as often and continues. dragging much along with it. Departmental Guard. REGICIDE [bk. — ." says Barbaroux. ought it not to be guarded by a National force ? Alas. or rather at bottom they are but one and the same small well-spring which will swell and widen into waters of bitterness all manner of subsidiary streams and brooks of bitterness flowing in. and then repealed for peace's sake. — : . and the very men that are to be of it are seen visibly parading the Paris streets." Can anything be properer? Republic that will found itself on justice must needs investigate September Massacres a Convention calling itself National. — : ^ ! ." xx. Down with Marat " Nevertheless. is again decreed more than once nay it is partially executed. which can subside only into the Catacombs. . there comes Committee Report on that Decree of the Deby the Departments [These Guards were volunteers sent up Convention. after endless struggling. decreed never so often. to protect the . Ed. will not be hindmost here: "fathers gave their sons a musket and twenty-five louis. Pari. So singular are the ways of men and honourable A . September. i already on march brave Marseillese. but which shall never be one which. ch. which mere logic will not settle. managed to corrupt most of them and win them over for the Mountain. " and bade them march. : . it seems so to the eye and yet there is much to be said and argued. Thou beholdest here the small beginning of a Controversy. This Departmental Guard. Pache. ii. 184.. Two small well-springs.

that repentant pity smothers anger. he. air of sincerity. the seat of such thought and prophecy. as the Debate goes on. . and the Decree of Accusation sinks.— SEPT. which let the incorruptible Robespierre consider there come denunciations of a certain "Journal de la Repuband so thereupon lique. in his dingy squalor. Forty-nine it is verily Marat. would have blown his brains out." says Marat to the shrieking Assembly. Whereupon he draws forth a Pistol and setting it to his Head. — : ! ! : will not drown he speaks and croaks explanacroaks with such reasonableness. . . vicwestward torious in this turn of fence. 85 there it Dictatorship." once called "Ami du Peuple" there comes. fraction of Chaos and Old Night desirous to speak. the whole machine. says " If they had passed their Accusation Decree. For the rest. and Decree of Accusation is on the point of passing till the dingy People's-Friend bobs aloft once more croaks once more persuasive stillness. as to this of Marat . absolved and applauded. " that a great many persons here all " shriek hundreds of are enemies of mine. : A . is pointing Thus Marat. ye Seven-hundred and People's-Friend Marat not another. the Bodily Spectrum of Shriek. ready to speak. visibly standing aloft on the Tribune. of a : . in his blackness. clattering and jerking seven-hundredfold. will whirl with huge crash. ! . is. 25. he and Marat is no phantasm of the brain. visibly stepping up. and the shrieks subFor this Convention side. and. . prickt at again by some dexterous Girondin and then the shrieks rise anew. " It appears. of impress of Printer's Types ye behold joint and sinew. and speech of repealing come denunciations of Anarchy. tion : . the People's-Friend." " All But enough to drown any People's-Friend." People's-Friend has that faculty in him. . — . is unfortunately the crankest of machines it shall be pointing eastward with stiff violence this moment and then do but touch some spring dexterously. or mere lying but a thing material. next moment. a living visibly incarnate. or even become applauses. voices partmental Guard. — ! . 1792] THE DELIBERATIVE . and a certain small stature him there.

that this first onslaught by the Friends of Order. it is a well-spring. ii. ! ! : O — . as in similar cases. ch. and sign it on paper. be only a copy of the Newspaper). . . . be thrown into Prison. 271. striking his breast with both hands. Nos. in a prosperous manner: "But what witnesses has the Citoyen Barbaroux to support his testimony ? " " Moi " cries hot Rebecqui. why will you occupy our august sessions with mere paltry Personalities. and yet not trodden it down. For neither can Robespierre. has failed. i the two-hundred and sixty-thousand Aristocrat Heads." by my superior originality of mind ? ^ An honourable member like this Friend of the People few terrestrial Parliaments have had. With such sanctified meekness does the Incorruptible lift his seagreen cheek to the smiter lift his thin voice." while so much public matter lies fallow. . 294. . as sharp and prompt as it was. 157. " personal merely. however. Friends of the Gironde. ii. while the grand Nationality lies in such a state ? The Gironde has touched. ^ " Moniteur. and unmasking them. Such is my opinion. and makes it good the long hurly-burly. may perhaps. 1 Annee premiere however. summoned out by talk of Dictatorship." 21. has ended in the order of the day. " Cest la inon avis." Also is it not indisputable " No power on Earth can prevent me from seeing into traitors. 280. (which. observe. and prosper asking at last. Marat candidly says. and greeted with the like rumour on showing himself. this black-spot and will not tread down . standing up. and with Jesuitic dexterity plead. Alas. and answering " Me " ^ Nevertheless the Seagreen pleads again. as we said. etc.86 REGICIDE [bk." tet suprci Stance du 25 Septembre. this day. on the foul black-spot of its fair Convention Domain has trodden on it. into Accusa: — We tion not though Barbaroux openly bear testimony against him. Moore's "Journal. ' " Moniteur" Newspaper. .

As to the Armies. Public Defence must evidently be put on a proper footing for Europe seems coalising itone is apprehensive even England will join self again nay. Happily Dumouriez prospers in the North it. apart from this question without end of September and Anarchy. the Convention Alas. and become Dumouriez prospers. ! . . . thirdly. very strange embroihnents gather. recommended him to her husband as Clerk the sleek Clerk had no need of salary. has whither thinks the Reader ? To be Minister Madame Roland. there will. . a whole tide of will not have settled everything? growing ever wider. Murderer of Freedom! through this winter season yet not without lamentable complaints. frugal. MAY we — — . in the sleek Tartuffe that he was. do save dinner and time three men's work in a day punctual. what if he should prove too prosperous. 1792] THE EXECUTIVE 87 CHAPTER II THE EXECUTIVE not conjecture therefore that round this grand enterprise of Making the Constitution. the wonder of neighbours. got lately of War ! that sat frugal in his Alley. struck with his sleek ways. let us notice three. to and munching incidentally. . of the Dethroned King. of the Subsistences. he . which emerge oftener than the others. silent.SEPT. the Wherefore Roland. Sleek Pache. Liberticide. boiling Among which. questions comes rolling. and questions and interests complicate themselves so that after a few or even several months. as heretofore. being of true Patriotic temper he would come with a bit of bread in his pocket. — . the Swiss Schoolmaster. . and promise to become Leading Questions: Of the Armies. — . .

— 88 late Overturn.] 1 Madame Roland. REGICIDE now. . to a National Convention. respectable. to France. . and wear thyself away though ineffectual. ! [The defection of 237. as Head-Clerk. chap. : . bk. and repress wheresoever possible strict at lowest. though it is winter no clothes some have not even arms " in the Army of the South. narrow-faithful. there should be such Unlawfulness? Intrepid Veto-of-Scoundrels. ii recommended him to be War-Minister. And lastly that the Army gets next to no furniture no shoes. . to Posterity. and drive bargains. not profitless in it then nor now The brave Dame Roland." ii. That Pache munches his pocket-loaf. in violence. bravest of all French women. That the Citizen Hassenfratz. there are thirty-thousand pairs of breeches wanting. may he not grow wearisome ? For is not this continual text of his. : . at bottom. He can complain in Letter after Letter. one well this however one does know that his War-office has become a den of thieves and confusion.' complains an honourable Member. see Von Sybel. " Memoires.. v. like strict Roland. Dumouriez' plans and army administration. the Universe grow ever more querulous-indignant till at last. . — Roland's strict soul is sick to see the course things take but what can he do ? Keep his own Department rebuke. — [bk. That Furnishers scour in gigs. and some Mathematical calculation How knows not . since happily it is thy manner. etc. — : — . Ed. be the Veto des Coqums ^ ! the sleek Pache might mine and undermine. complain. such as all men shudder to behold. red-nightcapped man." a most scandalous want. a most insolent. amid head-clerks and sub-clerks. would seem. ch. ii. Pache to the side of the For his interference with Commune . and has spent all the War-Estimates. work thou in that manner. And it . : . in rapine. gave immense power to that body. sits there in bonnet rouge. over all districts of France. . iii. methodic man. a rather barren one How astonishing that in a time of Revolt and abrogation of all Law but Cannon Law. he is secretly undermining Roland playing into the hands of your hotter Jacobins and September Commune and cannot. .

Speaker of Manlican Rolandin Dinner-table kind. there is in these times an Improvised Insurrectionary Commune passing into an Elected legal one getting not without irritancy Potion their accounts settled. how it is to be tied. balloting. The Mayor of Paris and other poor Mayors are like to have their Potion was reelected Mayor of Paris but difficulties. ! : — : . one Doctor Chambon gets the post of honour who will not long keep it but be. How the Poor Man continues living. second. one : . that every man should hang his dog. has declined being now a Convention Legislator. It is also an indisputable. But Comfactory manner mandant Santerre. ! . through the Newspapers. .: SEPT. abound far and near. a day's wages some fifteen " and grim winter here. and state of Equality and Liberty. has declined nevertheless many do covet and canvass. proses sad stuff about a Universal Republic. 1792] THE EXECUTIVE : 89 begins to have misgivings The figure of Danton has too much of the " Sardanapalus character. and by miracle have himself shot by the Austrians. proposes. tumultuous assemblages demanding to have the price of grain fixed. according to the culties. ' " Dictionnaire des Hommes Marquans.' Think also if the private Sansculotte has not his diffiBread." § Chambon. . . unaccountable or accountable Riots fact. besides this of Grains and all the rest." at a RepubClootz.-OCT. may be some " six sous per pound. that Grains are becoming scarcer and scarcer. ! : . in a time of dearth People's-Friend. as we shall see. or at least First. or union of all Peoples and Kindreds in one and the same Fraternal Bond of which Bond. in these days. Hereby. : — . arguing and jargoning. literally crushed out of it. he can enlist. two remedies. Wise surely to decline for. unhappily sees not. in this so straitened condition of the flour-market. that all classes of men should live two palliatives days of the week on potatoes then. for grain. After months of scrutinising. and so seldom starves Happily. in an unusually satisfor the Rights of Man. as the Commandant .

ter me worthless." ^ figure what correspondences a poor Roland. Pari. reporting this business. they did fix. imbedded in in no human soul. be it also noted. health. v. at the service of My my : they find turn. iii. on the edge of horrid death. on this of Grains alone! . inventive-stupidity than Commandant Santerre's dwells Inventive-stupidity. [This refusal to interfere with the natural Law of Supply and Demand made the Girondins very unpopular in Paris and Central France. they will dismiss me . if fellow-citizens day and night.). the like to be eaten himself." xx. clamour and necessity to fix them: Political Economy lecturing from the Home Office.90 REGICIDE [bk. cries to the Convention .' But as to the origin of these Grain-Riots. The fixing of maximum prices was decreed (more and more stringently) in March-May. ii thinks. 1793 (see bk. The multitude.. 431-440. courage and good-nature: much to be commended." xx. ii. The Mountain (though a small minority in the Convention) saw herein a charice of overthrowing the power of the Girondin and Moderate majority. . where the distress was keen. the saving. Convention sends honourable Members in Deputation who endeavour to feed the multitude by miraculous but cannot. would be very considerable. ineffectual for with demonstration clear as Scripture the empty National Stomach. to the . impossibility to fix the Prices of Grain on the other hand. ^ . will have the Grain-Prices fixed.] ^ "Hist. : — 1 " Moniteur" (in " Hist. — .— Ed. sees good to reprimand them. ch. " whole strength. and at a moderate elevation or else the honourable Deputies hanged on the spot! The honourable Deputies. — . in spite spiritual methods of all Eloquence. a Convention that will not be trifled with. Minisof the Interior. come bellowing round. or affect to fix the Price of Grain for which. " is. I will re- Or and brew beer.' The Mayor of Chartres. 412). the Convention. Free-trade in Grain. admit that. Pari. is it not most probably your secret Royalists again? Glimpses of Priests were discernible in this of Chartres. which indeed he computes to so many Cheerfuller form of sacks. must have.. chap." he tells the Convention once..

" Nouveau Paris. and our Queue becomes a ravelment wherefore the coil must be made of iron chain." xx.-OCT. and coil of rope whereon. : . . few ounces per mouth daily after long swaying. we form our Queue but mischievous deceitful persons cut the rope. on the chain of the Queue.— SEPT. whetted to the Preternatural pitch. with firm grip. Troy Town ' fell ! " Hist. all lie in ' — : ." .. 409." Also there shall be Prices of Grain well fixed but then no grain purchasable by them bread not to be had except by Ticket from the Mayor. - Mercier. Pari. : . with firm grip. on this side and that." when eye of Patriotism. " in glare and gloom of that fire-ocean. . in the heart of a perjured King. more sharp-tempered than ever on every Baker's door-rabbet an iron ring. And Hunger shall stalk direful and Wrath and Suspicion. . shall stalk as those other preternatural " shapes of Gods in their wrathfulness " were discerned stalking." well as we guard him ? Unhappy perjured King! And so there shall be Bakers' Queues by and by. 1792] THE EXECUTIVE 91 Or indeed may not " the root of it the Temple Prison.

. not without pity. Shut in his Circuit of the yells of Temple. been mere Louis Capet and the Traitor Veto with the rest of France. in their own Prison Apartment alone. in the Temple Garden. . : morrow will provide for itself The morrow indeed and yet How ? Louis asks. . The wearied His Irresolute has. he is an open centre for them his . at least. i.^ Quietly he walks and waits for he is not of lively feelings. Banish him. Brunswick war-thunders dying off in disaster and discomfiture he passive. the curious. How } France. daily game at ombre or draughts. a waiting whither it would please to spectator merely whirl with him. no need of resolving now. and is of a devout heart. as yet. II. fill up the day the . with perhaps still more solicitude asks. daily walk in the Garden. now King and Majesty to his own family alone. for months past. 224. From the neighbouring windows. How? A King dethroned by insurrection is verily not easy to dispose of Keep him prisoner. CH. Sister and two Children. with his Queen. ii. all that now belongs to him in this Earth. ' Moore. at a certain hour. is this third : all shall on the Legisbe done with King Louis ? King Louis. the Disaffected. . 123. Ill CHAPTER III DISCROWNED than BUT the question more pressing What lator. might see him walk daily. lessons to his Son. etc.$2 REGICIDE [bk. he is a secret centre for . he has heard and seen the loud whirl of things September Massacres. for endless plots. daily meals. has. attempts and hopes of theirs.

when they conquered Giants. we will remark here that this business of Louis looks altogether different now. tracking us running like an accursed ground-discord through all the musictones of our Existence making the Tense a mere smite Present one Just so is it with this of Louis. from what it looked then. of insurrectionary men. But. out of danger now. and seews only. For observe.-OCT. unrolls cruel summoning the world. : : . thou hast never lived. no criminal nor is fallen so low this once-high man traitor. huge with the : : ! . nor Anxiety but it dwells Aere haunting us. has pulled down the most dread Goliath. sad. for months. usually slew the Giants quarter was only for other Knights Errant. prospective ? Reader. and as if by miracle of madness. with what of divinity it has.! . — ! Why . He the fallen ? asks Magnanimity. in simultaneous. A : whose own said. The French Nation. . and pronounce only sobs and dismissal So argues retrospective Magnanimity but Pusillanimity. itself. who knew courtesy and the laws of battle. nor Uncertainty. SEPT. life and death lies from the last step of the staked accordingly it is throne to the first of the : scaffold there is short distance. Twenty-five millions running distracted to fight Brunswick Knights Errant themselves. as seen over Seas and at the distance of forty-four years. ! : . " in the moonlight of Memory. present. how far from it but the unhappiest of Human Solecisms whom if abstract Justice had to pronounce upon." it seems. on the whole. always one most important element is surreptitiously (we not noticing it) withdrawn Not from the Past Time the haggard element of Fear t//ere does Fear dwell. she might well become concrete Pity. almost Elysian-sacred. desperate dead-pull. . and struggling confused all round one. in France. 1792] DISCROWNED 93 royal war-standard. under the rustle of Prussian gallowsropes never wert thou portion of a National Saharawaltz. Put him to death ? questionable extremity that too and yet the likeliest in these extreme circumstances. . For indeed it is a most lying thing that same Past Tense always so beautiful.

. both by its frequent reemergence and by its rapid enlargement of bulk. lies prostrate. ii. We perceive. in this mighty welter of Parliamentary Debate. man-devouring that the victory is not partly a dream. . so small at first is put off. Hassenfratz dilapidations and what is to be done with Louis. Such leading questions. that Kingship by the very nature of it is a crime capital that Kings' Houses are as wildbeasts' dens. bound with peg and packthread. submerged but always reemerges bigger than before. that he will not rise again. may not France now rival? Scepticism of terror. And truly." Seance du 21 . An i^'" (1792). covering acres." ii. It is a curious. an innocent Giant ? Curate Gregoire. and become the first of Free Peoples: which feat. who indeed is now Constitutional Bishop Gr6goire. iil growth of ten centuries and cannot believe. : ! '^ — : — way. Terror has its scepticism miraculous victory its rage of vengeance. as we often urge of such things. [bk. plaintive Interior Ministers of Armies. indeed an indescribable sort of growth which such things have. — . though his giant bulk. who will devour us if he rise. Then as to criminality. All which questions. and their endless incidental of September Anarchists and Departmental Guard of Grain-Riots. ones. is the prostrated Giant. too. it will take the lead in a much deeper : . are in growth they grow in every French head and .Septembre. beleaguer and embroil this Convention which would so gladly make the Constitution rather. can be seen growing also. in that case. . rage of miraculous victory. . in the heat of eloquence.' Lastly consider this that there is on record a Trial of Charles First This printed " Trial of Charles First " is sold and read everywhere at present Quel spectacle ! Thus did the English People judge their Tyrant. ch. asserts. very curiously. sublime spectacle to the universe.94 REGICIDE . of Public Business which the Convention has to do. . by the grace of Destiny. — . all things point one fatal . . ^ * " Moniteur. that this Question of King Louis will take the lead of all the rest. Moore's "Journal. A question emerges. however. 165.

should be this Question of King Louis. sense. the grand First-Parent of all the questions. . It was appointed of Fate that. . absorb all other questions and interests and from it and the decision of it will they all. in this wide-weltering. physiognomy and destiny corresponding. strangely growing. be born^ or new-born. 1792] DISCROWNED 95 For as Aaron's Rod swallowed all the other serpents so will the Foremost Question. . measures and enterprises which were to be evolved there to the world's astonishment. controversies.SEPT. and have shape. monstrous stupendous imbroglio of Convention Business.-OCT. so to speak. whichever may get foremost.

overrunning the Netherlands. . the great guns playing. [Dumouriez has been blamed 174. on that day.' And fire-hail is whistling far and wide there. ii. He has been censured for not marching with the two other generals on Mainz and then descending the Rhine. they wide-winged at and around the village of Jemappes. instead of turning or crushing the weak left wing of the Austrians. to double and to treble quick." the volume on Jemappes. Ed. near Mons. and the small so many green Heights getting fringed and maned with red Fire." iii. the Hymn of the [The Executive Council at Paris had on October 6th decided Dumouriez should invade the Low Countries. iv CHAPTER IV THE LOSER PAYS Sixth of November 1792 was a great day for the Republic outwardly. in the Salle de Manege. See Chuquet's " Les Guerres de^a R<. ch. thus compelling the Austrians to ' that evacuate Belgium. Ed. over the Frontiers inwardly..— 9^ — REGICIDE [bk. . And Dumouriez is swept back on this wing. " uplifts Marseillese. This accorded with Dumouriez' own plan. and swept : THE . . p. . . some Forty-thousand in all for every heart leaps at the sound and so with rhythmic march-melody. with clear tenor-pipe. while Kellermann and Custine should conquer the left (west) bank of the Rhine. : . .] ^ Dumouriez. " M^moires. the prompt Polymetis speaks a prompt word or two and then. waxing ever quicker. entonna la Marseilten-thousand tenor or bass pipes joining or say. for his frontal attack on a strong position.] . they rally. which was for a direct invasion of Belgium— then Austria's vulnerable point. laise" ' . . 105. and is like to be swept back utterly when he rushes up in person.v. back on that. Outwardly for Dumouriez. con^ie in contact with SaxeTeschen and the Austrians Dumouriez wide-winged. did.

train of the Armies melting church-plate. be said to have gained.' The Netherlands are conquered. ii. he flies low at this time appears in the Convention for some half-hour daily. Thus. sweep all manner of Austrians from the scene of action.— NOV. . Alps. But in the Hall of the Convention. and Ocean which Dumouriez and other daring schemers had ah'eady begun to formulate. Dumouriez grumbles and they dilapidate abroad within the walls there is sinning. a Victory of Jemappes and conquered the Low Countries. . like another Orpheus. The question of his reported peculations has been carefully examined by M. Jacobin missionaries. redoutes. in figurative speech. like the fire-whirlwind. Aulard " Etudes et Legons sur la Rev. with rubicund. it is thought. Doubtless a brave Egalite whom however does not Dumouriez rather talk of oftener than need were? The Mother Society has her own thoughts. left for Belgium on December ist. man-devouring carry batteries. — . and without the walls there is . there went another thing Report. your Prolys. Pyrenees. preoccupied or impassive quasi-contemptuous countenance and then takes himself away. miraculously. Ed. follow in the also Convention Commissioners.^ Hassenfratz dilapidates at home. in brief space. may Rouget de Lille. at least overrun. 1792] THE LOSER PAYS 97 they advance. [Danton. on the Crimes of Louis. does immensities not neglecting his own wages and tradeof business profits. revolutionising and remodeling. in disgust at the strifes between the Girondins and the Mountain. which he vainly sought to compose. . 6. Pereiras. whatsoever is to be carried and.— Ed. among whom Danton. VII.] ^ frontiers " of France — — Moore. of great length. 148. shone brave among the bravest on this occasion. H . through the hands of Dumouriez. at the same hour with this victory of Jemappes.) who clears him. by his Marseillese fiddle-strings {Jidibus canoris). it would seem.^ Young General Egalite. The : [This victory brought into prominence the idea of the " natural the Rhine. death-defying. . — . . As for the Elder Egalite. : sinning. they rush.] - ^ — — III. from the proper apforward pointed Committee. Franc^aise'' (No.

sub- The loser pays ! It . lime spectacle to the universe: all these things are strong. nothing doubting. For. at every new difficulty. and even should be tried. ch. triable that he can. This Question of Louis. and will have this Trial and no earthly thing instead of it. if the gods permit. : . with a Legal Argument. Mean this chief criminal. by the Law of the Country. now happily emerged in an articulate shape and will see it to maturity. . . Love of Equality then scepticism of terror. guilty of a . Patriotism. shall not even come to the bar ? Patriotism add we. if Equality be not a name. — . who day ! Deputy Valaz6. rage of victory. . if convenient. Deputy Mailhe. run up by whomsoever on him must all breakages and charges fall and the twelve-hundred on the Tenth of August are not rebel traitors. but victims and martyrs such is the law of quarrel. Patriotism growls indignant joy. . is . . With a keen solicitude Patriotism watches getting ever keener. has emerged now in an articulate shape. Reporter on this occasion. . O ! he who has to pay «// scores. but a thing Try Louis Capet ? scornfully ejaculates Patriotism. [bk. and submerging again. watches over this Question of the trial. The so-called reign of Equality is not to be a mere name. ye Galleries : — poor Girondin Valaz6. very prosy to read now. he should be tried . of Valmy and far Fields he^ such chief criminal. iv Galleries listen breathless take comfort. Nay here comes a second Committee-reporter. may be tried himself. alas. ! criminals go to the gallows for a purse cut and France cut of a France slashed asunder with Clotho-scissors and Civil war with his victims " twelve-hundred on the Tenth of August alone " lying low in the Catacombs. one Comfortable so far. as Girondins and false brothers interpose delays till it get a keenness as of fixed-idea. 98 REGICIDE . . it was from of old said. emerging so often as an angry confused possibility. then. thinks Louis very criminal and that. Louis Capet was only called Inviolable by a figure of rhetoric but at bottom was perfectly violable.— . very refreshing to hear then. That. fattening the passes of Argonne Wood. ii.

and make way nowhither. Decision is nowhere. : [Carlyle's sneers at Girondin "respectability" are misplaced. Roland. to save a king to lose one's footing with the decided Patriot the undecided Patriot. 99 But indeed this Question of the Trial. stopped short beside the river of ^ As Ste. by a sublime instinct and with a pitiful cry. in his Essay on Mme. These have decided. and become the horror of respectable nations and persons? But then also. though never so respectable. has finely remarked. NOV. save in the Mother Society and her Sons.. Beuve. — . being mere hypothetic froth and no footing? The dilemma presses sore and between the horns of it you wriggle round and round. — blood. ! . the difference between them and the Mountain came to be one of mercy "those noble and merciful figures who. the others wriggle round uneasily and go forward within their dilemma-horns. is it not to all persons a most grave one filling with dubiety many a Regicide ? asks the Gironde RespectLegislative head ability/ To kill a king.] ."— Ed. 6. 1792] THE LOSER PAYS .

exclusive popularity. taking papers from its pocket Baptiste Louvet accuse thee. Robespierre. will regret that this ! : : how BUT through — : . The Veto of Scoundrels writes plaintive Letters as to Anarchy. with a the tongue refused its office. : . "concealed Royalists. Louvet." aided by Hunger. CH. such a risk. September Massacres shrieked again. Robespierre. these Girondins made a new fierce onslaught on the September Massacres For. Alas. with broad " I towards the tribune. among the last of October. now that it has been articulated or conceived. — . being summoned to the tribune by some new hint of that old calumny of the Dictatorship. Jean The Seagreen became tallowgreen shrinking to a Danton cried. the weeks of gestation." I. Is there till rising high in heart. strode swiftly little Figure. to his dying day. V CHAPTER V STRETCHING OF FORMULAS Question of the Trial grew laboriously. : . Robescorner of the tribune there are many good citizens that listen " but pierre And so Louvet. bullying at elections. it is but a week ago. It emerged and submerged among the infinite of questions and embroilments. shrill tone. " Speak. read and recited crime after crime dictatorial temper. he cried out valiantly " any man here that dare specifically accuse me ? " Moi ! exclaimed one. . mobtill all the Convention retinue. produce Riots about Grain. Pause of deep silence a lean angry bald brow. and had almost indicted the IncorruptNever did the Incorruptible run ible there on the spot. with more and more comfort to himself. one day. 11. was speaking and pleading there. were superfluous to trace here.! REGICIDE [bk.

— : the Girondins. And now? now lazy Vergniaud does 7iot rise with : — . That week he is not idle nor is the Mother Society idle. September Massacre it is a thing that lies hideous in the general imagination very detestable to the undecided Patriot. while admiring . etc. . : ^ Louvet. however the Incorruptible. X. fierce-tremulous for her chosen son. and extinguish him there and then. . 178. Barbaroux cannot even get a hearing not though he rush down to the Bar. He is ready at the day with his written Speech smooth as a Jesuit Doctor's and convinces some." bk.) is of interest he was then in Paris. This is the second grand attempt by our Girondin Friends of Order to extinguish that black-spot in their domain and we see they have made it far blacker and wider than before Anarchy.^ The Convention. ! : . . and the straightforward path of those Who attack or in defence were strong Through their impiety. Not so. — loi 1792] STRETCHING OF FORMULAS the Gironde did not take a bolder attitude." Ed. . eager for public business (with that first articulate emergence of the Trial just coming on). not a party and the impressionable nature of the Convention. 1792) Moore. dear to Patriotism. 5. Why Demosthenic thunder little : poor Louvet. can do Barrere proposes that these comparaor nothing tively despicable " personalities " be dismissed by order of the day Order of the day it accordingly is.— OCT. [The whole incident shows the lack of organisation of the Girondins they were a group. about to be indicted in this sudden manner. lamented " The indecision on their part whose aim Seemed best. is dearer for the dangers he has run. 52 du 29 Octobre. dismisses these comparative miseres and despicabilities splenetic Louvet must digest his spleen. 5 Novembre. and. of Respectability a thing to be harped on as often as need is. unprepared. " Moniteur" (Seances 1823). ! . 29-NOV. p. Wordsworth's recital of this scene (" Prelude. could not be refused a week of delay. and demand to be heard there as a petitioner. : : . the majority of which was still hostile to Robespierre and the Mountain. " Memoires" (Paris.] in . ii. regretfully forever Robespierre.

as the region of Nether Darkness through your thin film of Gironde Regulation and Respectability trample it not. spitefully clamouring what foul rutS' there are. should the same great Nether Deep subside ? Nay. Newspapers by Gorsas and others . thick crowded in the Citoyennes who bring their seam with galleries here. — : . Society answers with angry roar for there are Citoyennes too. all three they check the spirit of Patriotism throw stumbling-blocks in its way and instead of pushing on. 428). if our Gironde Friends had an understanding of it. will . this black-spot. risen unfathomable on the Tenth of August? French Patriotism were an eloquent Reminiscence swinging on Prussian gibbets.^ So that the real grief. all shoulders at the wheel. . Fanaticism and Popular wrath and madness.I02 REGICIDE it. — . were not so much righteous horror. [bk. where.. v : ye Girondin Patriots not trample down it will only. as grief that ! own power was departing ? Unhappy Girondins In the Jacobin Society. had 7iot that same great Nether Deep. — — : ! . See " Hist. a salutary vengeance. the decided Patriot complains that here are men who with their private ambitions and animosities will ruin Liberty. ch. at the time it happened and — and yet behold. trample it. ii. at this moment. therefore. lest the film break. were it still. trample blacker and wider fools. and shriek or knit as them. looking up as water through thin ice say." xvii. the black-spot ! Harp on denounce it. as readers of Newspapers pretend to recollect. 401 (cited ibid. where were French Patriotism. of Bedlam. it is the Apex of the everlasting Abyss. will stand idle there. calling after it all. ! . and then The truth is. Equality and Brotherhood. but a well-spring of the deep Consider rightly. this hatefulness of the September Massacre is itself partly an after-thought readers of Newspapers can quote Gorsas and various Brissotins approving of the September Massacre. Nay. in few months. or their knitting-needles one's : . Pari. : . ^ . with all its eloquence. what rude jolts we give To which the Jacobin with angry shriek. as we say. it is no black-spot of the surface.

. High-rouged dames went once in jewels and spangles now. : : . authentic Duchesses have sat. nevertheless. you may take the knitting-needles and leave the rouge the rouge will gi'adually give place to natural brown. so far as natural reason can predict. for his lockmaking numbness. as one may say. in a fortnight more. Strange enough it is the same tribune raised in mid-air. the royal Apprentice had learned something of that craft. : — . . a high Barnave and Aristocrat Lameths once thundered whom gradually your Brissots. . this great Question of the fit Committee is assiduously but silently working on it. and Brissotins. . or be expelled Mother is burning not red but blue! Provincial Daughter loudly demand Societies loudly disapprove these things the swift reinstatement of such eloquent Girondins. By whom. Where Mother Duchess now sits. while the : . receives an unexpected stimulus. instead of jewels. Hapless Apprentice perfidious Master-Smith For now. giving the key-note. a certain Sieur Gamain of Versailles was wont to come over and instruct him in often scolding him. where a high Mirabeau. are becoming supernumerary the light of the Mighty the sittings. and will not ruin. dingy Smith Gamain comes over to the Paris Municipality. on this 20th of November 1792. Vergniauds. Guadets. Our readers remember poor Louis's turn for smith-work how. reems ruining herself. Patriot Knitters the case needs Mere Duchessc.. with hints Trial. or the Hke Deborah and Mother of the Faubourgs. . And now your Brissots in turn. But. . over to Minister Roland. clean washed or even unwashed and Demoiselle Th^roigne herself get scandalousl}' fustigated. the The swift " erasure of Marat. Rolandins. they say. NOV. 20. 103 famed Tricoteuses. 1792] STRETCHING OF FORMULAS . . must desert Girondins. did displace red heat. It is a changed Jacobin Society and a still changing. Nevertheless she has at all crises seemed so she has a /r^/^rnatural life in her. — ! . in old happier days. superseding light. a hotter style of Patriots in bonnet rouge. radiation de MaratT Mother Society.

a Patriot is not veiled. is hereby manifest how happy that we have him.^ Such is on the floor it and others their recompense and amount of wages. Ed. Ed.] of [The proof. for he had Talleyrand's treason. knows a thing that.^ Here. and through him. this Barnave. This charge was used to discredit him. at this date on . however. in Maytraitorous Correspondence was so brisk. it is instantly broken to sherds mounting swiftly with a ladder. and without notarial inventory . lying safe in the Prison of Grenoble. attended by the proper Authorities. ! . the Girondins. — . if not manifest hereby. — : : ^ [It was insinuated that he added documents of his own. of Coreven with Patriots so-called respondence with the Queen. . and friendly advice to her." xxii. are Letters enough : which disclose to a demonstration the Correspondence of a traitorous selfpreserving Court and this not with Traitors only. that is. ! ! : "* ! . ! .air. v that he. and receipt money. and abstracted others. of his secret dealings with Louis. since September last. and shivering it down amid shouts. but Barnave's treason." till we ascertain His Bust in the Hall of the Jacobins. —Ed. sight on the part of Roland. many a man's long been suspect treason.'' Mirabeau's treason wherefore his Bust in the Hall of the Convention Alas. Armoire de Fer" cunningly inserting the same in a wall invisible under of the royal chamber in the Tuileries Perfidious the wainscot where doubtless it still sticks Gamain. when Smith Gamian. is next to it. . an overtowels. ascertainable denounced by Robespierre from the tribune in mid. Pari. . we say.] * [Talleyrand's offence was his diplomatic mission to England. last. full of Letters and Papers Roland clutches them out conveys them over in towels In to the fit assiduous Committee. it is too "is veiled with gauze. finds the wrenches it wainscot panel which none else can find up discloses the Iron Press. he and the royal Apprentice fabricated an " Iron Press.— I04 — REGICIDE .. which sits hard by.] ^ "Journal des D^bats des Jacobins" (in "Hist. CH. : [bk. li. . ever since that Varennes Business. ^ 296).

our Right was Might. . spake young Saint-Just." and " honourable mention." So different is the ratio of demand and supply at different times. with a humble Petition forth that no sooner was that important Iron Press finished off by him. : : ! . 1792] STRETCHING OF FORMULAS 105 the principle of supply and demand. the black-haired. . inadequately recompensed for the present. in his oration. if never elsewhere. Danton is on mission. The recompense of which is " Pension of Twelve-hundred Francs. of the painfully devised Forms of Process for managing it. Of the Orations that were spoken on it.^ Lawyer ingenuity is good but what can it profit here ? If the truth must be spoken. Smith Gamain. and all the infinite floods of Juridical and other ingenuity and oratory. Ed. The rest. welter amid Law of Nations. some setting fifteen months after. entirely ruined the constitution of Sieur Gamain so that he cannot work for his family (as he now bethinks himself). in the Netherlands. Syl. or still more plainly. the only Law in this case is Vae victis. That it was needless to speak of Law that here. notwithstanding. comes. during this preliminary work. Which large glass of wine did produce in the stomach of Sieur Gamain the terriblest effects. and was then brought up by an emetic but has.— NOV.] ' . the Law Arguments to prove it lawful. far as one reads. than (as he now bethinks himself) Louis gave him a large glass of wine. mild-toned youth. Social Contract. [Of course the Convention was incompetent to try Louis. . 20. amid obstructions and stimulating furtherances. evidently tending towards death. O august Senators. Juristics. be no syllable reported in this History. The loser pays Seldom did Robespierre say a wiser word than the hint he gave to that effect. has the Question of the Trial to grow emerging and submerging fostered by solicitous Patriotism. : . Thus. An oration admired almost to ecstasy by the Jacobin Patriot who shall say that Robespierre is not a thorough-going man bold in Logic at least ? To the like effect. .

what to us barren as the East wind. ! . for a long course of To stretch out the old weeks. to be a freezingmixture ? This of stretching out Formulas till they crack. especially in times of swift change. v In fact. ii. so that it may cover the new. one of the sorrowfulest tasks poor Humanity has. [bk. to do at bottom this Formula and Law Phraseology.entirely ?^«coverable Thing? Whereby the poor Formula does but crack. is. and one's honesty logistics : The thing that is palpably ]wt. by syllogism. burning. what can be more unprofitable than the sight of Sevenhundred and Forty-nine ingenious men struggling with their whole force and industry.contradictory. ch.io6 REGICIDE . along with it wilt thou prove it.

On Tuesday eleventh of December. II. . within which sits the King himself. " in walnut-coloured greatcoat. he is fit to do. strong Patrols scouring all streets and about slowly through the dull drizzling weather two o'clock we behold him. that of placidly enduring. by Mayors Chambon. says Prudhomme. the King's Trial has emerged. cavalry and double row of infantry all Sections under so fares he. with cannon. towards that Salle de Manege to be indicted. in that green his way to the Convention Hall carriage. on Attended. in this Circuit has given up its secret walnut-coloured coat. 1792J AT THE BAR 107 CHAPTER VI AT THE BAR MEANWHILE. . fares there hapless King. men behold with eyes. . to see what kind of : . he is getting now towards port his deplorable farings and voyagings draw to a close. ! . with attendants. The mysterious Temple which now. What duty remains to him henceforth. Louis looks round him.. we have got to another emerging of the Trial. . DEC. The same bodily Louis who was once Louis the Desired. arms. Procureurs Chaumette and outside of it by Commandants Santerre. redingote noisette^' descending through the Place Vendome. Santerre holding Louis's arm with his hand. or amid growlings of the Marseillese Hymn in silence. The singular Procession fares on in silence. and judicially interrogated. : . . in a space of some five weeks. ushers itself into the Hall of the Convention. with composed air. and a more practical one than ever. : . very decidedly into the streets of Paris in the shape of that green Carriage of Mayor Chambon.

dry-eyed " Louis. : . listens." Louis sits down it is the very seat. spread fleur-de-lys velvet for us and we to say a kind word here. ii. in a five o'clock Chaumette morning of such drumming and alarm. they say. . of trying to continue King ? Neither in the Answers is Mere quiet negations. and made it a Feast of Pikes which has ended in this Barrere. and Documents to the number of a Hundred and Sixty-two. looks down now from his President's-Chair. says. in substance. with his " Louis. and he had breakfasted but slightly. he will take a bit of bread. into a neighhaving first. : ." Louis withdraws. in this Committee-room Chaumette busy with a small loaf which a grenadier had It is divided with him. seeing refreshment. ch. . Whereupon the Fifty-seven Questions. when our Constituent. ! . for most there much notable. Of the Fifty-seven Questions we shall not give so much as one. embracing all the or found lately in the Iron Press main incidents of the Revolution History and they ask. . who once " wept " looking up from his Editor's-Desk. from which he accepted the Constitution. Barrere finishes. then busy. same timber and stuffing. and they all started up swearing Fidelity and all France started up swearing. this Louis. who wert King. Convention and Parliament Much changed indeed came over . : . in leaving the bouring Committee-room He declines bar. with a composed look and mi«d. autumn gone a year. then. . under Municipal escort. . part an accused man standing on the simple basis of No I do not recognise that document I did not do that act or did it according to the law that then was. They are questions captiously embracing all the main Documents seized on the Tenth of August. amid dancing and illumination. I invite you to withdraw. . demanded to have Legal Counsel. . [bk. by act and written document. you may sit down. with a list of Fifty-seven Questions and says.io8 REGICIDE it is. vi : — since February gone two years. after some three hours. art thou not guilty to a certain extent. being exhausted in this manner. : : . So much woodwork remains Louis sits and identical so much else is not identical. .

" used to say to me. to have a geographical and being from of old fond of topographical view of it geography. : . himself " too old. . — . a : : he pleaded ineffectively. ." "Monsieur Chaumette.— DEC. closes on him gazing Paris may retire to its hearths and coffeehouses. Advocate Tronchet. be read The Convention. good old Malesherbes steps forward . Nettement has shown that Target declined because he was in bad health and feared he might compromise Louis's life if ^ mette. never waste a crumb of bread you cannot make one. pious sweetness." providing for the worst." being turned of fifty-four and declines. sufficing for it over France by and by. ." xxi. It is pity to flings it out into the street. Nay behold. fling out bread. defending Rohan the Necklace-Cardinal but will gain none here. ! — . eating asks now.] . to its clubs and theatres the damp Darkness has sunk. ' . Dull of his loved ones none lie these stone walls round him with him. has granted him Legal Advocate Target feels Counsel. The Temple Circuit again receives him. : . Prudhomme's Newspaper (in "Hist." answers Louis. . " My grandmother. and gained a prominent place in the Paris Commune professed socialistic and atheistic views guillotined in 1 794-— Ed. some ten years older. of his own choosing. .] [M. Pari. 1792] AT THE BAR . and with it the drumming and patrolling of this strange Day. "your grandPoor mother seems to have been a sensible woman. in a time of dearth. Little boy. after debate." innocent mortal so quietly he waits the drawing of the Passivity alone. does not decline." remarks Chaumette. 314). without lot fit to do this at least well He talks once of travelling Activity. 109 breaks his half-loaf: the King eats of the crust mounts the green Carriage. Louis is now separated from his Queen and Family given up to his simple reflections and resources. II.. [Chauman of low origin who became popular in the Revolution by street oratory. he writes his Will a Paper which can still full of placidity.' He had gained great honour once. simplicity. What he shall do with the crumb? Chaumette's clerk takes it from him Louis says. Ed. " In this state of uncertainty. . .

the good old hero gray with seventy years he says. Nevertheless the Convention deliberates the Tribune drones. The Patriots of the Mountain. Indeed they warm the cold hour. Malouet. when and I owe him the all the world coveted that honour same service now. It has droned and shrilled wellnigh a fortnight. . . Ed. the Tribune drones with oratory on this matter one must stretch the old Formula to cover the new Thing.] . discusses and deliberates. : . VI ! to the last of his fields. at the cold dark hour of eight in the morning. He : . All day from morning to night. — . whom they will select for pleading. whetted ever keener. By what Forms and Methods shall the Convention acquit itself. by a violent effervescence. with a younger Deseze. His Advocates complain that it is fatally soon which they well might as Advocates but without remedy to Patriotism it seems endlessly late. ^ [Malesherbes' conduct was the more praiseworthy because Louis had neglected his advice in 1787. clamour for despatch above all the only good Form will be a swift one. ir. are busy over that Fifty-and-sevenfold Indictment. . all Senators are at their post. as we find. That on Wednesday 26th of December. ^ . from time to time the whole Hall shrilling up round it into pretty frequent wrath and provocation. ! . Louis shall appear and plead. and even in treble. . in all lands. whereupon he retired." These two. " I was twice called to the Council of him who was my Master. Malesherbes was unable to speak in Louis's defence. over the Hundred and Sixty-two Documents Louis aiding them as he can. CH. men. really much at a loss.— no voluntarily . REGICIDE is [bk. On Wednesday therefore. when it has become one which many reckon dangerous. before we can decide. Necker. and Lally-Tollendal wrote to the Convention warmly defending Louis. drowned indeed in tenor. this shrillness getting even shriller. such as is too common now some Louvet A great Thing is now . in such manner that there rest not on it even the suspicion of blame ? Difficult that will be The Convention. day after day. therefore in open progress all watching it.

. pleads for the space of three hours. when they had withdrawn. above all things. had thither but this strange one is the last. and soft pathetic eloquence Louis fell on his neck. — . why will the Convention loiter? Here is here is the Pleading the Indictment and Evidence does not the rest follow of itself? The Mountain.' Chabot and so the whole Mountain effervescing against the whole Gironde. censured for this insolence. apprehensive Convention decides that that all Members. shall have leave to speak. clamours still louder for despatch Neverthefor Permanent-session. " composed almost overnight " courageous yet discreet not without ingenuity. enter the Hall. . . " perhaps the last he would utter to them " how it pained his heart. till the task be done. [Tallien. honourable Pleading. Deseze unfolds his papers honourably fulfilling his An perilous office. it. ''Mon paiivre Deseze!" Louis himself. told the Convention that they could not regulate the details of Louis's captivity for these were He was almost unanimously decided by the Paris Commune. : : . : AT THE BAR . . your ye eloquent Members echoes and hearsays of thoughts now is the time to show Members are oneself. had added a few words. So saying. with what eloquence it can President's List from swells ever higher with names claiming to speak day to day. Ed. when Louis and his three Advocates. less a doubting. on December 15th. therefore. at nine.— DEC. France and the Universe listens not wanting Oration. and said with tears. to be held guilty of that bloodshed on the Tenth of August or of ever shedding or wishing to shed French blood. who desire it will still deliberate first To your desks. the constant Tribune . having indeed finished he withdrew from that Hall Many are the strange errands he has his work there. spoken Pamphlet follows spoken Pamphlet. 26. Scarcely is this done. all days and all hours. Down with your thoughts. before withdrawing. escorted by the clang of arms and Santerre's National force. and Patriotism in general. And now. . — ! . in or Buzot attacking some Tallien.] ' . ! : : . 1792] . .

if we consider it. — \ . many poor Girondins are sure of but one thing That a man and Girondin ought to have footing somewhere. once a Protestant pastor. Ed. — Ham ! : . Ed. Pari. etc. supervised naval affairs in the Committee of Public Safety noted for cruelty. proved in his grand speech of December 31st.^ . — shrill tenor and treble. as the Diction^ aries too often do. peril ? Speak such conviction and lose utterly your footing with the decided Patriot Nay properly it is not even a conviction. i[Carlyle is again unfair to the Girondins." xxi. he who was Advocate Thuriot. solecism. Deputy Thuriot. Nor is cruel Jean-Bon silent a kind of Jesuit he too write him not. 1901. in Mountain and Galleries.. let no man conceive it possible that Louis is not guilty. Cruel Billaud is not silent. They must wriggle painfully between their dilemma-horns. false homines d'etat so bellows Patriotism. on the whole. . As Vergniaud 38. the It were a dull tone otherwise. which signifies mere But. in Mother Society. amid their shrill Tricoteuscs. II. if you incite him. VI drones Galleries supplying. The only question for a reasonable man is or was Can the Convention judge Louis ? Or must it be the whole People in Primary Assembly. what shall these poor Girondins do ? Speak their conviction that Louis is a Prisoner of War and cannot be put to death without injustice.— 112 — REGICIDE [bk. which the Girondins ardently wished. . ! ^ [Jean-Bon St. It would tend to keep England neutral. See his Life by M. Janibon. . who was Elector Thuriot. and from the top of the Bastille saw Saint-Antoine rising like the ocean this Thuriot can stretch a Formula as heartily as most men.] ^ See Extracts from their Newspapers. . The Patriots. ! How : . or taking counsel nightly in Section-house. But indeed. . and with delay ? Always delay. very variably. ye Girondins. Andre. Ldvy-Schneider. the appeal to the people was not only an act of justice.] . have to watch lynx-eyed to give voice when needful occasionally very loud. CH. its patience almost failing. but one of sound policy. in "Hist. . but a conjecture and dim puzzle. . and to stand firmly on it keeping well with the Respectable Classes This is what conviction and assurance of faith they have.

le President. ivas acted Carlyle omits to notice that on November i6th the Convenhad decreed that the navigation of the Scheldt should be free. chaps. It is a Heart this Convention. nor Person in Authority anywhere. call it Punishment. " L'Europe et la Rev. call it Martyrdom.-iii. due mainly to Girondin enthusiasm. in. That any Nation which might sec good to shake off the fetters of Despotism was thereby. .. that I for my part am an Atheist. ii. see Sybel. with horror and astonishment ' a most miserable influence ! — ." Moniteur. .] Rev." thinking the world might like to know that. and should have help and countenance. 167.. as we said. and receives them. Letter to Jacob Dupont" (London. A Decree much noised of by Diplomatists.. M. etc. " ^ Mrs. International Lawyers such a Decree as no living Fetter of Despotism. This broke the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1788 and became one of the causes of war between France and England (Sorel. which sends out influences. pp. it emitted a decree. nor Europe. Hannah More." Seance du 14 Decembre 1792. can approve of! It was Deputy Chambon the Girondin who propounded this Decree at bottom perhaps as a flourish of rhetoric' The second influence we speak of had a still poorer origin in the restless loud-rattling slightly-furnished head of one Jacob Dupont from the Loire country. and that a French fleet sailed up to Antwerp." bk. 1792] — 113 AT THE BAR Nor is France idle. A King's Execution. On the 19th of November. tion [This decree. and has since confirmed and unfolded the details of it. : : — . The Foreign world received it with confutation. . were an influence Two notable influences this convention has already sent forth over all Nations much to its own detriment. this ! And now if to these two were added a third in- on. . " The French Ed. French and their reckless propagandism. 1793) ^ . v.. Editors. The French world received it without commentary or with no audible commentary. iii." For other proofs of the warlike spirit of the vol. " I am free to tion " avow.— DEC. the Sister of France. etc. so loud was France otherwise.. Fr. 201). I . The Convention is speculating on a plan of National EducaDeputy Dupont in his speech says. so to speak.

that we may have . the Widows and Orphans of the Killed petition in a body and hop and defile. But at home too. eloquently mute. in a reign of so-called Equality. — . Bull-voiced St. or else kill us " Bread and Equality Justice on the Traitor. One of the poorest Dramas ever written ^ " Hist. thither. heard loud on the streets " Give us Bread. unable to hop. which has paused at such sight. and even : to fist-work. Bread ! The Limited or undecided Patriot is set against the Decided. from their narrow house there. flies hastily. with the olive-branch in one . Apostle of Liberty. what influences come thick-pulsing flow in pleading for equal justice. through the Hall one wounded Patriot. in Death's dumb-show. VI : fluence and sent pulsing abroad over all the Earth that of Regicide ? Foreign Courts interfere in this Trial of Louis Spain. between the Decided and the Undecided. Moore. But out of doors Paris is piping ever higher. and the sword without scabbard in the other. CH. carrying his oratorical folding-stool. do not they plead and petition. do not the dead Patriots plead ? The Twelvehundred that lie in cold obstruction. commences again.^ and passes shoulder-high. . : . at least Spain comes. England not to be listened to though they come. Oratory. . demanding justice. droning mere Juristic — . . more eloquently than speech? Crippled Patriots hop on crutches round the Salle de Manege. touching a new Drama called " Ami des Lois " (Friend of the Laws). II. is borne on his bed ! . ture. ! : ! . The Wounded of the Tenth of August. from out of this circumambient Paris and Petitions France." with pike and red cap. Pari. in the horizontal pos- The Convention Tribune. The living Patriot pleads O ye National Deputies.-Huruge is heard and the hysteric eloquence of Mother Duchess " Varlet. : 114 REGICIDE [bk. Consider also this other cry." xxii. hand. cries all the Justice on the Traitor Patriot world. Mayor Chambon heard of dreadful rioting at the Theatre de la Nation it had come to rioting. as it were.. etc. 131 .

" This miserable" Ami des Lois" is debated of in the Convention itself. quelling it. with few clear words.Aristocrats. 341): "The Girondins sacrificed Louis in order to cling to power the Mountain. ^ all. and Crypto. is victorious Dumouriez. busy? Spies running over from London with important Packets spies pretending to run One of these latter. in order to chase them from power. But the Wife of Roland came. does this wild Paris pipe. Far from . . takes to bed for three days almost dead. etc. quits the brief Mayoralty altogether. and even the Wife of Roland to the joy of Chabot and the Mountain. in these Newarrived in Paris one fears for no good. . Pari. with regret. iii. Roland grows ever more querulous. "his lungs being affected. si tu savais ngir. or else kill us". that he. preternatural Suspicion.— DEC. ! : . so violent.. the invaluable People's" O Friend. mutually-enraged. with Theatre-riots. Marat. in her high clearness and. to the Convention Hall came. Viard was the name of him. People of Babblers. and " Bread. [These terms used by Carlyle do not show us the seamy side of the regicide movement. being summoned..^ Between which two classes. are the Limited Patriots and the Unlimited. As Sorel well puts it (vol. : ! To crown year's days." Ed. in hopes to quell it. 1792] — AT THE BAR . . on the instant. 115 wherefore but which had didactic applications in it powdered wigs of Friends of Order and black hair of Jacobin heads are flying there and Mayor Chambon hastens with Santerre. . say we. and likewise so blamed and bullied. — "Hist." Seance du 7 Decembre 1792. . Hunger." xxiii. 31. whom no power on Earth can prevent seeing into traitors and Rolands. with fever and headache Peuple babillard. are not Aristocrats enough. with heart-break. p. . pretended to accuse Roland.] " " Moniteur. 48." So. our poor Mayor gets so " squeezed." says the Report. dissipated this Viard into despicability and air all Friends of Order applauding. if thou couldst but act " . with Rage. in his Messages and Letters rising almost to the hysterical pitch. .

. this new victorious General ? Let him withdraw again not undenounced/ And still in the Convention Tribune. Ed. and Hypothesis without Action and there are still fifties on the President's List. this great game play itself out . mere Juristic Eloquence. 4. it drones continually. So great was the terrorism See that 14. CH. " Le Federalisme en 1793. the Fifteenth of January 1793.] ^ ^ . Wallon. — . and Hassenfratz dilapidations to be concerting measures for the spring Campaign one finds him much in the company of the Girondins. : . Dumouriez. against Equality. and the Punishment of Louis ? We have Letters of his to the Convention itself. : . VI He pretends to be complaining of Minister Pache. all through December into January and a New year and there is no end Paris pipes round it multitudinous ever higher.— ii6 ! REGICIDE [bk. Will he act the old Lafayette part. .000 persons fled from Paris in the last days of 1792. and one way or other. there is Paris will " bring cannon from Saint-Denis " to Roland's horror. the Convention Tribune suddenly ceases droning we cut short. On Tuesday next. it shall go to the Vote. be on the List who likes and make end. . to the note of the whirlwind. Plotting with them against Jacobinism. i. And still it drones. " Memoires." chap. behold. : . The Girondins felt themselves overpowered. n. name by name. c." iii. ! . Nay these Gironde Presidents give their own party preference we suspect they play foul with the List men of the Mountain cannot be heard." Whereupon. [These weeks were used by the Jacobins to gain over (by Pache's bribes) the volunteer fedcres who had come up to defend the Convention and to arm the Sections of Paris with cannon.' talk of " shutting the Barriers.

on this Wednesday morning. may hush the night and retire to its bed not without hope. now at ten o'clock. The actual numbers were 424 and 283. whatever the Girondins might calculate. many-sounding. On the morrow comes. or need Liberty ratifying what Punishment? This is the form agreed to.] . Paris floods round their Hall multitudinous. Tuesday has gone well. there Consider therefore if. whereon the Convention shall now pronounce.— JAN. no doubt in the mind of Patriot men. is an affluence of Patriotism if Paris stands atiptoe. i6. . Neither does the Second Question prove doubtful. Would not Appeal to the People be another name for civil war? Majority of two to one answers that there shall be no Appeal this also is for Guilt. Deputy after Deputy shall answer to his name Guilty or Not guilty ? As to the Guilt. there is. ! ^ [Inexact. only some feeble twenty-eight voting not Innocence. : ' settled. and all Deputies are at their post Seven-hundred . : by Appeal . Ed. after uproar and " several hours of tumultuous indecision " these are the Three successive Questions. : . ? 1793] THE THREE VOTINGS 11 CHAPTER VII THE THREE VOTINGS Louis Capet guilty of conspiring against ISShall our Sentence be itself final. itself for Loud Patriotism. What Punishment? On the morrow is the tug of war. but refusing to vote at all. Overwhelming majority pronounces Guilt the unanimous Convention votes to the People? If guilty. Europe and all Nations listen for their answer. as above hinted.

Duchatel and some seven others absent by sickness. dusky in the lamp-light. by roll-call or . does What Punishment ? Girondins undecided. Ed. floods all corridors. finally. threw in his lot with the violent party. where speeches were given. shall be required Danton. most spectral Phantoms in the hour of midnight must rise to the — — . Ushers summon you by Name and Department . like to be endless. : . [The Tribune. till we have . from Wednesday till Sunday morning. might have been had and he. Meanwhile expectant Patriotism and Paris standing a-tiptoe have need of patience. riots decided. For this Wednesday again passes in debate and effervescence. which ates." who intimidated the ModerThese had neglected to secure the aid of Danton. galleries so. a scene protracted. must answer here and now. and the all faces dim lamps are lit but through day and night and the vicissitudes of hours. " Girondins proposing that a " majority of three-fourths Patriots fiercely resisting them. who has just got back from mission in the Netherlands. and of the votings that grew out of it. done. at eight And in stupendous Voting. soured by the fatal illness of his ^ he . morning's paleness is spread over and again the wintry shadows sink. men afraid of Royalty. crowds all Shrill-sounding sternly waiting to hear.^ Eye-witnesses have represented this scene of the Third Voting. Member after Member is mounting continually those Tribune-steps pausing aloft there.— ii8 REGICIDE . packed with " patriots. in Permanent-session. Patbegin. you Tribune. lasting. II. and say. . wife. VII and Forty-nine honourable Deputies only some twenty absent on mission. to speak his Fate-word Like diving down into the dusk and throng again. of the strangest seen in the Revolution. men afraid of Anarchy. . . was dominated by galleries. Infinite Patriotism. with few brief as one intervals.] . [bk. in then the clearer upper light. Long night wears itself into day. does obtain " order of the day " on this nay he obtains farther that we deGirondin proposal cide sans desemparer. CH. the evening this Third appel nominal.

many of them. Life. in his soul and the corridors. ii.] fear. " La Mort sans phrase^ Death . 16-19. de Robespierre." vol. Whereat anxious Patriotism bellows irrepressible by Ushers. this Convention. say Death justifying. . as he had strongly pleaded for mercy. this figure says. passing merely. Robespierre's vote cannot be doubtful his speech is long. and so much else that depends thereon. and then of the Patriot Left Side. a word which may nevertheless he now says. . Manuel did surely rank with the Decided but he has been sinking and backsliding in August last In ever since September and the scenes of September. " Hist.. . buzz hushes itself till he have spoken till : Death Banish- ment . with what cautious well-studied phrases and paragraphs they could devise. [Robespierre prided himself on his brevity (Hamel. Death justifyRich Lepelletier Saint-Fargeau had ing by Jesuitry. [Vergniaud's vote was especially discreditable. Imprisonment the Peace. above all. Banishment and in mute wrath quits the place forever. Vergniaud himself says. not a little. Death . . hangs trembling in the balance. of explanation. : . . Death at the sound of which and of whom. of enforcement. superintend the like. no word he could speak would find favour he says now. even Patriotism shakes its head and there runs a groan and shudder through this Hall of Doom.^ been of the Noblesse. 1793] — : THE THREE VOTINGS 119 terrestrial Never did President Vergniaud. there in the Constituent and elsewhere. p.— JAN. under such fierce bellowing of Patriotism.' Men see the figure of shrill Sieyes ascend hardly pausing. The poor Girondins. much hustled in Philippe Egalite votes. of Many too say. Death cost him dear. against Capital Punishment . The balance trembles. About twenty Girondins also gave ^ way through - Ed. 600). Ed. . or any King's President. Many say. . : . none can yet guess whitherward. conscience. Banishfaint recommendation to mercy. and had argued and reported. motivant^ that most miserable word of theirs by some brief casuistry and Jesuitry. — .] . ment something short of Death. Man after man mounts the pandemonial ! A .

" or other high-dizened women of condition. II. has to say " I declare. sick Duchatel. " pandemonial And yet if the Reader fancy it of a funereal. only one word Death. ^ ! : . more spectral than another. " The world is all an optical shadow. " had become as Box-keepers at the Opera " opening and shutting of Galleries for privileged persons. and repass thitherward. wrapped in blankets. en pleine tabagier houses of the neighbourhood." * Deep in the Thursday night. pale in the dusky lamp-light utter from this . " Nouveau Paris. treating them with ices. is refection." says Mercier. 348- memory etc. CH.] Mercier. as at a game of Rouge-et-Noir. iii. Members have fallen asleep Ushers come and awaken them to vote other Members calculate whether they Figures rise. drinking of wine and brandy " as in open Betting goes on in all coffeetavern. President Vergniaud.— I20 REGICIDE . in the name of the Convention. comes borne on a chair." - has been cleared of the heartless addition. sorrowful or even grave character. Tribune. Ah no In profoundest silence.^ says Mercier. Moore. pricking down the Ayes and Noes. " Tout est optiqiic'. uttermost weariness sits now on all visages lighted up only from time to time by turns of the game. . impatience. he is far mistaken " the Ushers in the Mountain quarter. and Secretaries are summing it up. with a voice full of sorrow. . In these Galleries there . Amazons she cannot be prevented making long Hahas. . when the Voting is done. VII and fares onward and downward. Farther aloft reigns Mere Duchesse with her unrouged ." vi. Ed. like shall not have time to run and dine. mistresses. Montgaillard. : . when the vote is not La Mort. for " D'Orleans Egalite's without phrases Most spectral. Gallant Deputies pass rustling with laces and tricolor. in "nightgown and nightcap." to vote for Mercy one vote it is thought may turn the scale. [bk. refreshthe high-dizened heads beck ments and small-talk responsive some have their card and pin. that the punishment it pro: : ! : ' [Sieyes' "sans phrases. fatigue. phantoms. 156-159. But within doors. 387 .

its broad sagacity and honesty. would so fain iind a loophole Patriotism must watch and rage.— JAN. even they who voted for Death. Of the 721 who voted. 1793] : THE THREE VOTINGS 121 nounces on Louis Capet is that of Death. in broken sentences. — . is mastered with emotion. de la Terreur. a certain Twenty-six. . " Hist. Pari. [The vote as given on the 17th was obviously inaccurate a scrutiny was therefore taken. another vote had to be taken (Mortimer-Ternaux. v. 462). with demand for Delay.] '. leaving it to the people to decide whether it should be deferred or not. But as to the Delay." They reject the Appeal to the People that having been already settled. Nay. See Boissy d'Anglas. the majority will be but One} Death is the sentence: but its execution? It is not executed yet Scarcely is the vote declared when Louis's Three Advocates enter with Protest in his name. melts into dumb tears. . what they call Sursis. it shall be considered shall be voted for tomorrow at present we adjourn. and adjournments of voting and the whole matter still this vote. Ed.' ii. . ' : . p. 28 were found not to have voted (15 were absent as Commissioners). 139.. . As these 26 did not vote for death unconditionally. ! . — this fourth Vote. . . Tyrannical adjournments there have been one. and add to the other. with its gray strength. for Appeal to the People. 361 voted for death. : : and adjourns. with delay 2 voted for imprisonment in irons 26 for death. growls indignant hovering hypothetical And at every new vote those Jesuit Girondins. who said Death but coupled some faintest ineffectual surmise of mercy with it. out of the total of 749 members. and now ! ! . 20. Whereupon Patriotism "hisses" from the Mountain but a " tyrannical majority " has so decided. if we deduct from the one side. with brief eloquence brave old Malesherbes pleads for it with eloquent want of eloquence. There is still Patriotism : and who knows what other votes. 286 for detention or banishment 46 for death. 210). in embarrassment and sobs that brave time-honoured face. " Moniteur" (in " Hist. then. For this do Descze and Tronchet plead." Death by a small majority of Fifty-three. with the result that." xxiii." vol. "Vie de Malesherbes..

action. Of the 690 Ed. has become red-eyed. : wrong. * " Biographie des Ministres. ^^ ^ ! . . I for my part say Yes. Till finally. What a frightful function " begs for a Confessor for yet three days of life. The Confessor is granted the three days and all respite are refused. vii another at midnight on plea of fatigue. now it shall end.] viously four votes had been omitted or suppressed. whereas it was 749. ^ [At this final vote 59 were absent or did not vote. though .] voters. in ^^-counting of the votes. No. moi je The balance still trembles. to prepare himself to die. The first counting made the total number of of the Convention only 745. almost " : rabid. ventures to say Yes. in hesitation — ^ ! all Friday wasted and higgling . : REGICIDE CH. has to go to the Temple with this stern message: he ejaculates repeatedly. all day and night. all SaturMen's nerves are worn out. None. Minister of Justice. we have No Delay. he had voted Death. at dis Oui. There is no deliverance. men's hearts are desperate . ^ [This is members — . of courage grown desperate. Quelle Louis commission affreuse. in his soul The next Member mounting and conscience. . Delay Vergniaud. in this his extreme need ? King Louis's friends are feeble and far." three o'clock on Sunday morning. then ? Thick stone walls Has King Louis no friends ? Men of answer." p. " Since Philippe says No. Not even a voice in the coffeehouses rises for him. ObEd. Delay yes or no ? " men do vote it finally. Moot's gallant Royalists on furlough are far across the marches they are wandering distracted over the world or their bones lie whiten. by a majority of Seventy Death within four-and-twenty hours ! ^ Garat. day. by long watching. : . 310 voted for delay. 157.— 122 — [bk. which are found correct as they stood Patriotism bays fiercer than ever Patriotism. . spite of the baying. Philippe Egalit^ says. 380 against. At M^ot the Restaurateur's no Captain Dampmartin now dines or sees death-doing whiskerandoes on furlough exhibit daggers of improved structure. II.

"Viede Michel Lepelletier son Frere. has done even less and worse slain a Deputy. but some double-ganger of his." - " Hist. at one in the morning two hours before that Vote oi No Delay was fully summed up. flashing out a sabre from under his frock. and set all the Patriotism of Paris on edge It was five on Saturday evening when Lepelletier SaintFargeau. of the ancient M6ot sort." xxiii. 318). as Fevrier and the bystanders bethought them. 275.. stept up to him itwas. ^ See Prudhomme's Newspaper. having given his vote." Robespierre sees reason to think that Prince d'Artois himself is privately in Town that the Convention will be butchered in the lump. : . He had dined." this night. Felix. — — — — — ! : ." " Scele'rat. who. Pity is lost in rage and fear the Convention has refused the three days of life and all respite. Patriotism sounds mere wail and vengeance Santerre doubles and trebles all his patrols. . Guardsman Paris is flying over France cannot be taken will be found some months after. : ! A . is gone. with due love of the miraculous. ing Argonne Wood." " You voted in the " King's Business ? " I voted Death. 61. . calling for a rescue calling for the pious women to rise or are taken distributing Pamphlets. Pari. xxiii. and was paying. 1793] THE THREE VOTINGS all 123 Only some weak Priests " leave the bourne-stones. The voter Lepelletier lies dead he has expired in great pain. thickset man " with black hair and blue beard. . " Are you Lepelletier ? " asks he.JAN. — . self-shot in a remote inn. with effort. and sent to prison/ Nay there is one death-doer. and plunging it deep in Lepelletier's side. etc. one Paris of the old King's-Guard. take that " cries Paris.." in a loose kind of frock. . Pari. : Pamphlets on . No Delay. . 20. will have it that the Suicide in the inn was not Paris. " Revolutions de Paris " (in "Hist. ran over to Fevrier's in the Palais Royal to snatch a morsel of dinner. 318 Felix Lepelletier. Fevrier clutches him but he breaks off." p. " Yes.

same form of Law. if needful. he too experiences that the sins of many generations man's tribunal is not in this Earth that if he had no Higher one. . this Machine dead. ! : . blind not what it should be which. Surely. has been fashioning together these thousand years and has become. man Kingship is a coat the grand loss is of the skin. it is also frightful. ch. form of Society. Miserablest mortals. . . and ought to And yet at bottom it is not the King dying. it were not well with him. O haughty tyrannous man injustice breeds injustice curses and falsehoods do verily return " always Innocent Louis bears hoinel' wide as they may wander. one way and . with swift stroke. . in that dumb pain. doomed for picking pockets. a most strange Machine. then. other. unregarded they consume the cup of trembling . or say rather Kinghood in his person. O hapless of Sixty Kings is to die on the Under Sixty Kings this Scaffold by form of Law. as they go to the gallows. have a whole five-act Tragedy in them. hast ! Louis The Son thou come. .124 REGICIDE [bk. . A King dying by such violence appeals impressively to the imagination as the like must do. viii CHAPTER VIII PLACE DE LA REVOLUTION TO itself this conclusion. has wasted the lives and souls of innumerable men. or by cold slow torture. but the do. ii. — : . And behold now a King himself. : . The man from whom you take his Life. and thou shouldst know it. is to expire here in cruel tortures like a Phalaris shut in the belly of his own red-heated Brazen Bull! It is ever so. to him can the whole combined world do more} Lally went on his hurdle his mouth filled with a gag.

the Queen on his left hand. -Ed.] . for Beggars. where M. how far short is it of the thing pitied : doomed and ! A Confessor has come . report. 312. cited in Weber. . thou hapless King it with its way. where also the Municipality watches : this solemn mission. and see the cruelest of scenes "At half-past eight.' said the King. continued for some minutes and that then the King began again to speak. Edgeworth was waiting unknown to them No. [The King made his son swear that he would not avenge his death. it is 125 down justly to the lees. whom the King knew by good . ' ! Clery's "Narrative" (London. 1793] PLACE DE LA REVOLUTION For Kings and the unjustly. and often held him embraced. iii. let us go into the dining-room it is there only that I can see you. Kind hearts. . environed in the same grim peril with us to be left hcrc\ Let the Reader look with the eyes of Valet Clery through these glass-doors. Madame Elizabeth on his right." And so our meetings and our partings do now end ^ . leading her Son by the hand then Madame Royale and Madame Elizabeth they all flung themselves into the arms of the King. They all leaned towards him. The Queen made a movement to lead his Majesty towards the inner room. which was of glass. — sobbings of the Princesses redoubled. its Leave the Earth malice will go . for the a hard thing to die. of Irish extraction. with all aids and appliances and throne-and-scaffold contrasts.' They entered there I shut the door of it. Abbe Edgeworth. has come promptly on A hard scene yet remains the parting with our loved ones. the : . : : ' ' : . The King sat down. Silence reigned for some minutes interrupted only by sobs. the door of the ante-room opened the Queen appeared first. 1798).: . . . then. Pity them all thy utmost pity. This scene of wo lasted an hour and three quarters during which we could hear nothing we could see only that always when the King spoke. thou also canst go thine. Madame Royale almost in front the young Prince remained standing between his Father's legs. 21. alone. JAN.

brutally refuse to take charge of: he gives them a roll of gold pieces. as he had been ordered. ch. awoke him. viii other the poor joys we faithour lovings and our sufferings. [bk. " Promise that you will see us on the morrow. and has not seen us ? Queen weeps bitterly a King's Sister and Children." He promises Ah yes. At eight. a hundred and twenty-five louis these are to be returned to Malesherbes. The sorrows we gave each and all ! ! . in passing through the ante-room. At nine. King Louis wedding-ring. " Stamping on the ground with his right-foot. at first. Over all these Four does Death also hover all shall perish miserably his Will. Louis took a ring from his watch. REGICIDE . are over. . and messages and . till five in the morning. on the heart of a queenly wife soon to be a widow He is gone. and confused toilings under the earthly Sun. then. he took the Sacrament and continued in devotion. glanced at the Cerberus Municipals and. He will not see them on the morrow. ii. knowest thou that hard word ? For nearly two hours this agony lasts then they tear themselves asunder. effects . said through her fully shared. tears. Clery dressed his hair while this went forward.' " the rolling of those drums comes in. : . At the end of three minutes." slept sound. He will not see his Family it were too hard to bear. At half-past six. The Queen. ! — . Louis answers Partons.— 126 :. never through all ages of Time. . the Municipals enter the King gives them : : which they. Let us go. which he is now to return to the Queen as a mute farewell. and conference with Abbe Edgeworth. through the Temple bastions and bulwarks. Santerre says the hour is come. " Vous etes tons des scelerats. but it is over. yes yet once and go now. ye loved ones cry to God for yourselves and me It was a hard scene. : — . with woman's vehemence. see thee any more Never O Reader. who had lent them. ! A . The King begs yet to retire for three minutes. when Clery. ' — How . Santerre again says the hour is come. I shall never. and kept trying it on his finger it was his : . Thou good soul.

mounted near the old Pedestal where once stood the Statue of that Louis Far round. all bristles with cannons and armed men spectators crowding in the rear D'Orleans Egalite there in cabriolet. What temper he is in ? Ten different witnesses will give ten different accounts of it. not happily At the Temple Gate were some faint cries. like armed statues of men cannons bristle. this morning. ! : . Eighty-thousand armed men stand ranked. " Take care of M." he straitly charges the Lieutenant who is sitting with them then they two descend. is the only sound. : : : . 21. dare not express it. but no word or movement it is as a city enchanted into silence and stone one carriage with its escort. As the clocks strike ten. All shops are shut. did any even pity. No man not armed is allowed to be there the armed. cannoneers with match burning. will live. speed to the Townhall." He mounts the scaffold. in resignation struggling to be resigned. . in indignation. Heedless of all. none seen looking through them. . the Prayers of the Dying clatter of this death-march falls sharp on the ear. He is in the collision of all tempers arrived now at the black Mahlstrom and descent of Death in sorrow. d'line voix terrible. Louis reads. No wheelcarriage rolls. each man overawed by all his neighbours. Swift messengers. — ^^ : . All windows are down. slowly rumbling. hoguetons. Silence " he cries " in a terrible voice. breeches . as Duchesse d'Angouleme. : : : ! . not without delay he is in puce coat. behold the Place de la Revolution. every three minutes near by is the Convention sitting. vengeful for Lepelletier. — : . perhaps from voices of pitiful women: Grace! Grace!'' Through the rest of the streets there is silence as of the grave. . The drums are beating " Taisez-vous. and forget the Earth. in these streets but one only. once Place de Louis Ouinze: the Guillotine. 1793] PLACE DE LA REVOLUTION 127 save one she. Edgeworth. in his Book of Devotion. Louis reads his Prayers of the Dying not till five minutes yet has he finished then the Carriage opens. in the great silence but the thought would fain struggle heavenward.JAN.

' I wish that my blood may cement all that has been imputed to me. seize the hapless Louis six of them desperate. struggling there and bind him to : . The Executioners approach to bind him: he spurns. scribed the event in a letter to the paper " Le Thermometre du Jour" of February 13th. We answered that we could not tell. assisted in taking off his coat. and from which he exclaimed in a loud voice. . . 3-8). (in " Hist. His hands are tied. and He ascended the scaffold. ch. but we again represented to him front as if he intended to speak He then allowed himself to be that the thing was impossible. submitted to be bound. " Nouveau 298-349) [The executioner Sanson (not Samson) thus deParis. ' . some difficulty. xxiii. : : A ! Executioners. 1793: "On alighting from the carriage He made for execution he was told that he must take off his coat. desperate lest themselves be murdered (for Santerre and his Armed Ranks will strike. his head bare the fatal moment is come. On representation that that was impossible he himself * . resists Abbe Edgeworth has to remind him how the Saviour. Santerre or another. and advanced to the it was the truth. etc. with uplifted hand: The drums drown the voice. ^People.^ their plank. saying that they might as well execute him as he was. when his . do your duty " The of gray. him singly desperate. . I pardon my enemies. He again made the same difficulty hands were to be tied. Pari. " Executioners. I die inThen turning round to us. Sir.. " Abb6 Edgeworth. him Son of Saint Louis. I die innocent of nocent. viii He strips off the coat stands disclosed in a sleeve-waistcoat of white flannel. etc. I desire that France General on horseback. He was aged Thirty-eight years four months and twenty-eight days. It is Monday the 2 1st of January 1793." " Deux Amis. if they do not). prances " Tainbo7irs ! " out. conducted to the spot. ascend to Heaven. in whom men trust. but he offered them himself when the person who accompanied him told him that it was his last Then he inquired whether the drums would go on beatsacrifice. bespeaks . He advances to the edge of the Scaffold." ix. 369-373 Mercier. stooping. when he was attached to the instrument. ii. I die innocent and says it is from the Scaffold and near appearing before God that I tell you " so.. Newspapers. Municipal Records. " his face very red. ing as they were doing.: 128 REGICIDE [bk." The Axe clanks down a King's Life is shorn away." ill. white stockings." " Frenchmen. . he said.

.

.

Denis. 473. . Ed. Pastry-cooks. 23. : . though he afterwards denied it." vol. Ed. It is done. His accounts lie all ready. Not till some days after. " Essays on the Fr. : the happiness of the French people " (quoted by Croker.^ D'Orleans drives off in his cabriolet the Townhall Councillors rub their hands.— JAN. See Alger's " GHmpses of the Fr. e. says Prudhomme. ^ Forster's " Briefwechsel.] His Letter in the Newspapers (" Hist. . 34 died on the scaftbld and 21 perished by a violent death before 1799 many more were deported to Cayenne by Napoleon in 1800 and of the remainder 127 held places under him (MortimerTernaux. in. as if this were a common day. on the far Quais fling it over Paris. : — : . Rev."" sells locks of the hair fractions of the puce coat are long after worn in rings. did public men see what a grave thing it was. . according to Mercier.] ^ [Other reports. . milkmen sing out their trivial quotidian cries the world wags on...' And so. 255).. de la Terreur. In the coffeehouses that evening." There is dipping of handkerchiefs. K . 21. coffee-sellers. saying. p. Patriot shook hands with Patriot in a more cordial manner than usual. correct in blackon-white to the uttermost farthing these he wants but to have audited. Pari. say that there was a groan of remorse or consternation. [The King's remains were buried in the cemetery of the Madeleine parish in the Rue d'AnjouSt. that he might retire to remote obscurity. They were disinterred in 1814 and buried among the Kings of France at St." tibi supra). It is noteworthy that of 361 regicide deputies. and swells bayonets. " Hist. of pike-points in the blood." p. Rev. 1793] — — 129 PLACE DE LA REVOLUTION : Executioner Samson shows the Head fierce shout of caps raised on Vive la Rcpublique rises. hats waving students of the College of Four Nations take it up. The Abbe did not use the words given above they occur first in a later version of the execution..-Honore." i. so long steeped to the lips in disgust and chagrin. in some halfhour it is done and the multitude has all departed. of Pasquier. v.] ' . sends in his demission. Headsman Samson. 515). On the morrow morning. Roland. : A grave thing it indisputably is and will have consequences. Ed." p.g. " It is done.

! . growls ominous discontent. as it were. At home ^ " Hist. all mourning brotherlike. Dumouriez. and dagger to dagger round which they all struck and battled." invokes the curses his day. on that was soft to such wreckage of high Hope as this one's New Golden Era going down in leaden dross. and sulphurous black of the Everlasting Darkness death-hail Bastille rattling : day but it . will those accounts he . Oak-crowns shower down from windows President Vergniaud walks there. Pari. being hurled down. On ThursIt was on Tuesday that Roland demitted. RegiPeoples. . of " Arras Vipers " or Robespierres. of horrid Butchers Legendre and Simulacra d'Herbois. with Convention. ch. face to face. . Notable also for another thing this Burial of Lepelletier: All it was the last act these men ever did with concert Parties and figures of Opinion. day comes Lepelletier St. Men say Dumouriez will have a King that young D'Orl^ans Egalite shall be his King.. : . to the country his books. and passage Notable as the wild to the Pantheon of Great Men. pageant of a winter day. Fraternity of Atheism. halfthe winding-sheet disclosing the death-wound bare sabre and bloody clothes parade themselves a "lugubrious music " wailing harsh naeniae. round one's Flag-of-truce. never get retired thither. vin They will never be audited. ' vbi suira. of Pluto Dantons. of the Sharp was the Bastille Victory. of the Cerclc Social.-Fargeau's Funeral. and abroad King has divided all friends. has united all enemies. ii. to send him swiftly to another world than theirs} This is Te-Deuin Fauchet. more bitterly than Job did poniards of Regicides. the King's Life. [bk. and all Patriots of every colour. . in the "Journal des Amis. at the head of Armies. The Body is borne aloft. now stand. that agitate this distracted France and its Convention. .! I30 REGICIDE and . Revolutionary Propagandism this Killing of a it . conquering Holland. Deputy Fauchet. with Jacobin Society.

and haters of Anarchy.-MARCH cide . but which has become of no interest whatever in these. . .] ^ March 23d ("Annual Register. that he must quit the country in eight days. Ambassador's-Cloak and Ambassador. — 1793] ' PLACE DE LA REVOLUTION ! 131 total destruction of social order in this world All Kings. the Head of a King. ' [Chauvelin had no 1793.). the scabbard thrown away. ing. depart accordingly. pp.] " [For a correction of these misleading sentences the reader is referred to the Appendix near the end of this volume. being shocked principally. March 7th ("Moniteur" of these dates). the Ambassador or rather Ambassador's-CIoak. which meant war with England (see Belloc's " Danton. vi. at the condition of the River Scheldt.-iii. . Ed. ^ February ist " [It is worth noting that up to this time Danton had sought to avoid war with England but on his return from Belgium he threw moderation to the winds. 114-128. and Talleyrand's third journey to London in September. i. implicated in that Iron Press of the Tuileries.' Talleyrand. thinks it safest . 202-207).. and lovers of Kings. or Spain first but that France herself declared war first on both of them a point of immense Parliamentary and Journalistic interest in those days." pp." Spain declares war being shocked principally at some other thing which doubtless the Manifesto indicates. They all declare war. " Fr. 1793. Ed. in one of his all-too gigantic figures Kings threaten us we hurl at their feet. Chauvelin and Talleyrand. to make for America. —Ed. One of the wider results of this war was that it hindered Pitt from preventing the Third Partition of Poland then being planned (see Von Sybel. England signifies to Citizen Chauvelin. chaps. rank in coalition as in a war for life. It is even as Danton " The coalised said. was due mainly to his desire to get out of France he had no official stand' "Annual Register" of official . The sword is drawn. position after the downfall of the French Monarchy. it would seem. 161).] .^ Nay we find it was not England that declared war first. — ." bk. cast out the Embassy: England declares war. Rev." p." England has — . .— JAN. : . voted for Louis's death and for the annexation of Belgium. as gage of battle.

Aristocracy. strong enough to bind it into subjection again ? Which . persuasions and enLiberty deavours of the educated. not as a Regularity but as a Chaos destructive and selfdestructive always till something that has order arise. will obtain the lead of it ? For the rest. that as no external force. . and give them voice and activity. . it must work and welter. What will it next do how will it henceforth shape itself? Settle down into a reign of Law and according as the habits. moneyed. will explode and flow according to Girondin Formula and preestablished rule of Philosophy ? If so. for our Girondin friends it will be . : well.BOOK THIRD THE GIRONDINS CHAPTER I CAUSE AND EFFECT huge Insurrectionary Movement. and a King's Hfe. the Movement will follow a course of its own probably a very original one? Farther. now remains which could control this Movement. Meanwhile were not the prophecy rather. . a thing proceeding from beyond and beneath the region of order. has swept away Royalty. respectable class prescribe ? That is to say the volcanic lava-flood. which we Hken THIS to a breaking-out of Tophet and the Abyss. that as a thing zvithout order. The question is. . bursting up in the manner described. that whatsoever man or men can best interpret the inward tendencies it has. Royal or other.

306).— FEB. not the wounded . any known kind of pride being a degree better than purse-pride. how can that be the fulfilment thereof? Hunger and nakedness. Equality. Freedom. and needed to be torn and trampled but Moneybag of Mammon (for that. pride of office. there seems little reason to expect that the business will stop there. " La Rev. and nightmare oppression lying heavy on Twenty-five million hearts this. indeed. vanities contradicted philosophies of philosophical Advocates. probably with a sword in its . will Sansculottism seek these things. but far elsewhere. of a respectable Republic Middle Classes. : We ^ [That the Girondins did not wish for a government of wealth and middle-class respectability will be seen by any student who looks at their scheme of a constitution presented to the Convention In some respects it was more (see Aulard. P>. Brotherhood not in the Moneybag. loose of control from without. 1793] CAUSE AND EFFECT 133 something." p. and Unbelief in anything save in brute Force and Sensualism pride of birth. while it lasts. As Classes. The difference between the two parties was mainly one of morality. worst and basest of all banners and symbols of dominion among men and indeed is possible only in a time of general Atheism. will not be a Formula. in all countries. : . we may farther conjecture. rich Shopkeepers. in these times. hand ! Girondin Formula. was the prime mover in the French Revolution as the like will be in all such Revolutions. all manner of Aristocracies being now sufficiently demolished.^ say therefore that an Insurrectionary France. none. Feudal Fleur-de-lyshad become an insupportably bad marchingbanner. Ed. destitute of supreme order from or . The Girondins had some scruples : the Jacobins. Liberty^ Equality^ Fraternity. for the for the . these are the words enunciative and proRepublic for the respectable washed Middle phetic.] . with philosophical propositions and forensic eloquence but a Reality. democratic than that of the Jacobins. it is the is a still worse. is what the respectable Republic for the Middle Classes will signify) Properly.. 25. and concerned the choice of means for establishing democracy. . rural Noblesse.

cannot exist towithin. gether. But. made up of forces manifold. self-destructive This is the way of cess continue. when the so-called Bonds of Society snap asunder. Accord- ing to which rule. History note this concrete reality which the streets of Paris exhibit. exasperation will arise and Parties on Parties find that they cannot work together. ch. and so the proin its turn. hi. as every unit has unit entertains his opinion. compatible and incompatible. however. with all the Two Parties. no Nation was ever yet seen to go. to say nothing of France generally. quitting these somewhat abstract considerations. which spring up as the French one has done. . and this wild alchemy arrange itself again ? To the length of Seven-hundred and Forty-nine Parties. for the number of be as many Parties. we say. strictly countParties as there are opinions. endless turbulence of till once the master-element attracting and repelling get evolved.134 THE GIRONDINS . Nor indeed much beyond the length of Two Parties two at a time so invincible is man's tendency to unite. i most tumultuous Activities such as no Girondin Formula can regulate. there will. then it. . heterogeneous. in this National Convention itself. the number of Parties ought to be Seven-hundred and Forty-nine for every But now. — . precipitations. may divide. ! : . will form one of the ever seen on this Earth . As ing. are invincible divisiveness he has the usual number at one time let these two fight it out. . contradiction. and all Laws that are not Laws of Nature become naught and P'ormulas merely. all minor shades of party rallying under the shade likest them when the one has fought down the other. • — . at once an individual nature or necessity to follow his own road. what can there be but dissolutions. this France must needs split into Parties each of which seeking to make itself good. as far as needful. In plainer words. on Monday the 25th of February 1793. An immeasurable force. [bk. and a gregarious nature or necessity to see himself travelling by the side of others. Revolutions. let . .

angrily agitating themselves. manage with difficulty the daily distribution of loaves. street of Pulleys. Bread and soap. with aquavitae and other forms of alcohol. have beards. and condiments of bread. till seven at night. (" Hist. even said. beheading its King. . : . sends military against it. Groceries enough sugar-barrels rolled forth into the street. riots. this Monday morning. Long . Not the Baker alone. in the early candle-light. the livelong day no Municipality. these streets are noisy and angry. which some do not pay the pale-faced Grocer silently wringing his hands What help? The distributive Citoyennes are of violent speech and gesture.. though he was War-Minister lately. stand silent. or aught against it but persuasive-eloquence. — . declaring that they will have groceries. we saw Paris. their long Eumenides-hair hanging out of curl nay in their girdles pistols are seen sticking some. one perceives the Bakers' Queues unusuallyexpanded. 332-348).FEB. . like a petrified City of Enchantment and now on it is . Patriot Citoyennes weighing it out at a just rate of elevenpence a pound likewise coffee-chests. no Mayor Pache. It was but yesterday there came a Deputation of Washerwomen with Petition complaining that not so much as soap could be had to say nothing of bread." from six o'clock. in the street of Five-Diamonds. but two Section Commissioners to help him. nay cinnamon and cloves-chests." xxiv. The cry of women. Indignant female Pat- plaintive : " Du pain ' And now : partly supplied with bread. ! . Pari. On Monday gone five weeks. 1793] CAUSE AND EFFECT 135 before daylight that morning. rush now to the shops. at a just rate. soap-chests. in the street of Lombards. 25. Petitioning enough there has been a Convention often solicited. male Patriots in petticoats and mob-cap. : — : I K Moniteur. was heard . round the Salle de Manage. or later. which was the twentyfirst of January. in most streets of Paris does it effervesce. Soft-spoken assiduous." etc. et du savon. are Baker and Commissioners and yet the pale chill February sunrise discloses an unpromising scene. Thus.

" xxiv. till he seemed to get wroth " If your Rights of Man were anything but a piece of written paper. . again. for example. the gold of Pitt so much. we say and . as a concrete Phenomenon to the eye. fell. especi- ally Cities in Revolution. To the the agent of Pitt That all : to : ' . [bk. [The sharp rise in price of nearly all goods was due to the war with England. which cut off colonial and other products. and meanings. the total amount of paper-money was now in excess of the value of the State lands which were security for it. and suchlike a set . in this manner. say the Girondins. when secret existence becoming public effloresces on the street. of this sale of sugar ? These things that have become visible in the street of Pulleys and over Paris.000. Of which Phenomenon. and embroil it with the Departments Jience this sale of sugar.' of men sold partly to Pitt . hi. and also - As to the issue of 800. —Ed. would put an end to Are not these. selling sugar! Cities." indications? Pitt has bribed the Anarchists Marat is hence this sale of sugar. may be the accurate philoto find. through what agents of Pitt ? Varlet. .— 136 this . Pari. THE GIRONDINS Monday . sophical meaning. Deputy Marat published in his Journal. sold wholly to their own ambitions and hard-hearted pedantries who will not fix the grain-prices. But then. was discerned again of late. whither ? Pitt has a hand in it.. are subject to these alterna- tions the secret courses of civic business and existence effervescing and efflorescing. and a forestaller or two hung up at the door-lintels. 353-356. with his pike and red nightcap. complaining of the bitter scarcity. the philosophical cause and effect is not so easy What. its value speedily That is. and sufferings of the people. reasonable Patriot men. each assit^nat bought less sugar or soap than before. the plunder of a few shops. this very day. : factitious Mother Society. pregnant such things.000 francs in assig/iats (February ist).] . ch. : ' " Hist. whence are they. but prate pedantically of free-trade wishing to starve Paris into violence. i it is so noisy. may seem clear. x'\postle of Liberty. it is clear that the scarcity is is the work of Girondins.

. for several years now. what enchantment is it. 25. Twenty-five millions burst forth into sound and cannon-smoke Bright was our Hope then. wherein man should be the brother of man. Seldom do we find that a whole People can be said to have any Faith at all except in things which it can eat and handle. here is the miracle. nor soap to wash with and the reign of Perfect Felicity ready to arrive. hollow Macchiavelism. believes that it is within reach of a Fraternal Heavenon-Earth. that Perfect Felicity. But since the time when steel Europe shook itself simultaneously at the word of Hermit Peter. That the French Nation has believed. there was no universal impulse of Faith that one could note. of such effect. ! . Since Protestantism went silent. if to these two notabilities. ye traitors dread a People which calls itself patient. Equality. of a Millennium! Yes. could never be laid hold of. long-suffering but which cannot always submit to have its pocket picked. fell How did our hearts burn within us. at that Feast of Pikes. due always since the . but only in her stead Controversy and Scarcity ? This set of traitors after that set Tremble. such a Faith has verily risen flaming in the heart of a People. no Zisca's drum any Bastille ! . But. O Heavens. With longing arms. . in the possibility. A whole People. of a universal Millennium.FEB. — . Fraternity. it struggles to embrace the Unspeakable cannot embrace it. no Luther's voice. Reader. always within arm's length. as consuming fire. Out of that putrescent rubbish of Scepticism. when brother flung himself on brother's bosom and in sunny jubilee. ! . Sentimentalism. and sorrow and sin flee away ? Not bread to eat. noteworthy. — . or reign of Freedom. nay certainty and near advent. alas. owing to certain causes. or devilish legerdemain. awakening as it were to consciousness in deep misery. its history becomes spirit-stirring. in this way. as sunlight red-angry is our Hope grown now. Whensoever it gets any Faith. . and rushed towards the Sepulchre where God had lain. of a Phenomenon and such Theories of a Phenomenon. we add this third notability. 1793] CAUSE AND EFFECT 137 And. Sensualism.

. . this French Nation believes Herein. ! . for the rest. which are too often little other than long-drawn Interjections. Girondins have left Memoirs. there so ran the vein of gunpowder. . Wild are their Life cries and their ragings there. [bk. . This battle of Mountain and Gironde. But. in that astonishing Faith of theirs. It is a Faith undoubtedly of the more prodigious sort. once more. . by its nature and the art of man. frightening the world. and what unfollows. lies the miracle. of Woe is me. and the flames lashed high over shrouds and topmast this let not History attempt. History might partly know. is as a hubbub of voices in distraction little of articulate is to be gathered by long listening and studyonly battle-tumult. behold. shot. Here lay the bitumen-stratum. on the Castle-hill of Edinburgh. Reader ? Their Fireship and they. now when all hands ran raging. The Fireship is old France. But how they acted and reacted below decks. shrieks of ing The Mountain has left no Memoirs the despair. mind. one fire-stratum playing into the other. is the battle of Fanaticisms and Miracles The sound of it. .138 THE GIRONDINS . terebinth and foul grease enough. . ch. are they not gone. i longer proclaiming that God's Truth was not the Devil's Lie and the Last of the Cameronians (Renwick was the name of him honour to the name of the brave !) sank. let no man ask History to explain by cause and effect how the business proceeded henceforth. shouts of triumph. and Cursed be ye. even among Faiths and will embody itself It is the soul of that world-prodigy named in prodigies. she may try this other task. like spirits tormented in But. we say. of the brimstone one this. were she inquisitive nitre. on the whole. its flames and its thunders quite have sailed away . the old French Form of her crew a Generation of men. hi. O that flame. French Revolution whereat the world still gazes and shudders. : . . . there was no Till now. partial impulse of Faith among Nations. to the suitable for cause and effect. So soon as History can philosophically delineate the conflagation of a kindled Fireship.

brotherly pity. . some human love. what is of interest to us. Not even the seagreen Incorruptible but shall have some pity. And now. of their own accord. though it takes an effort. into the Deep of Time. see. To the eye of equal the rest will become easier. 1793] CAUSE AND EFFECT : 139 away. and us. innumerable perv^ersions dissipate themselves exaggerations and execrations fall off. what is adapted to . we . Standing wistfully on the safe shore. One thing therefore History will do pity them all for it went hard with them all. will look. so much once thoroughly attained.FEP.

there is a shade of the truth in it. But indeed that similitude of the Fireship of our poor French brethren. ii CHAPTER II CULOTTIC AND SANSCULOTTIC and Mountain are now in full quarrel mutual rage. No man can explain himself. : ! GIRONDE . ch. but foreign though inseparable from him. simply because their confusions differ from one another still more because they seem to differ Men's words are a poor exponent of their thought nay their thought itself is a poor exponent of the inward unnamed Mystery. ! . . . says Toulongeon. but distorted phantasms which they call one another which they hate and go to battle with for all battle is well said to be misunderstanding. and fighting and fanaticising amid a Nation of his like. are men made. once committed headlong to republican or any other Transcendentalism. is growing a " pale " rage. wherefrom both thought and action have their birth.: . the man's cloak still seems to hold the same their : . . can readily fall into fusion that confusion of confusions which quarrel is. Creatures who live in conwho. however. working also in an element of fire. : . becomes as it were enveloped in an ambient atmosphere of Transcendentalism and Delirium his individual self is lost in something that is not himStrange self. was not insignificant. can get himself explained men see not one another. so fiery themselves. to think of. I40 THE GIRONDINS [bk. hi. . For a man. Consider it well. Curious. once thrown together. lamentable all these men have the word Republic on their lips in the heart of every one of them is a passionate wish for something which yet see their death-quarrel he calls Republic So.

the Girondins carry it. when they recover themselves. — . in some cases. and generally with the Authorities of the Departments. 1793] : CULOTTIC AND SANSCULOTTIC 141 man and yet the man is not there. . unused to deal with these things. The weapons of the Mountain are those of . and are of Respectability. ground to be fought for is Popularity farther you may either seek Popularity with the friends of Freedom and Order. . goes his road no man can help him. It is a wonderful. turns a period as sweetly as any man of that generation. the hapless incarnated Fanaticism. He. as of men complete in their determination.! FEB. who The as Septemberers must either prevail or perish. . ambient element of material fire is not wilder than this of Fanaticism nor. . . and of a peace-loving moneyed nature. Eloquence. blind as the winds Mountain and Gironde. his volition is not there nor the source of what he will do and devise instead of the man and his volition there is a piece of Fanaticism and Fatalism incarnated in the shape of him. Vergniaud. with the indigent Millions. and such as read Parliamentary Debates. mere Nature Audacity and Impetuosity which may become Ferocity. . struggles to shadow out in figures. . . are alike astounded to see where it has flung and dropt them. : . really of a superior order instance. To such height of miracle can men work on men the Conscious and the Unconscious blended inscrutably in this our inscrutable Life endless Necessity environing Freewill The weapons of the Girondins are Political Philosophy. is it more real. though visible to the eye. or with the friends of Freedom Simple to seek With it with both has unhappily become impossible. or call it Respectability and Eloquence. . in their conviction nay of men. for rhetoric. he himself least of all. being contrived for the uses The of common life. especially with the Population of Paris who do not read . : : the former sort. tragical predicament such as human language. With the extreme Patriot again. Volition bursts forth involuntary-voluntary rapt along the movement of free human minds becomes a and raging tornado of fatalism.

the Girondins altogether lose and the Mountain carries it. is he not a deserving Solecism ? Disowned by Nature and Art only to be erased. one would think. . Egoism. for blowing down Bastilles with! In very truth. ! * Dumounez. . — . it should bring them a proportion of bread to live on ? There is in the Mountain here and there in Marat People's-friend in the incorruptible Seagreen himself. a Revolutionist of this kind. 314. till they rose with pikes in their hands ? At least and lowest. too prominentlyunfolded by circumstances. hi. to the length even of shuffling and shamming. cuts almost a sorry figure where also a certain finesse. CH. and the choicest forensic eloquence is as sounding brass and a tinkling cymbal. . a heartfelt knowledge of this latter fact without which knowledge all other knowledge here is naught. the world. . and fought for. that a Formula might be substantiated that Society might become methodic^ demonstrable by logic and the old Noblesse with their pretensions vanish ? Or ought it not withal to bring some glimmering of light and alleviation to the Twentyfive Millions. It must be owned likewise that this rude blustering Mountain has a sense in it of what the Revolution means which these eloquent Girondins are totally void Was the Revolution made. and disappear Surely. 142 THE GIRONDINS [bk. . most patronising. to our poorer . though otherwise so lean and formulary. now and then shows itself They are fact men skilful in Advocate-fence. They have been called the Jesuits of the Revolution ^ but that is too hard a name. . ' I\iciuuireb. Surely not on the Girondin side where in so it. who sat in darkness. against of.. these four weary years. unsubstantial is the tone of the Girondins towards " our poorer brethren " those brethren whom one often hears of under the collective name of " the masses. heavy-laden. . but mounds of combustible explosive material. the instinct of self-preservation. — ." as if they were not persons at all. is not wanting on either side. . Most cold.' iii. nor meanness of mind. il much as hear and see. on the other hand.

If not we ourselves. etc. O Girondins.' p. to welcome us in their turn. it is by insisting on September and suchlike it is at the expense of this Paris where he dwells and perorates. to whom we could run ? Nay. ! . .electoral Assemblies. what profit were it for the Paris Sansculottery to insult us our Suppleans sitting quiet in Bourges. who will take his place if need be might not these assemble. then all the falser. thinks Guadet. they are repealed.^ Will you. which is a quiet episcopal Town. the Girondin has a hard game to play. in the main. reason. [These charges of '* federahsm " were. If he gain the ear of the Respectable at a distance. parcel us into separate Republics. Roland (" Memoires. like your Americans so that there be no Metropolis or indivisible French Nation any more ? Your Departmental Guard seemed to point that way Federal Republic?' Federalist? Men and Knitting. 140. by Barriere) has shown that the "federalism^' of the Girondins originated in their despair in the months of August. forty good leagues off? In that case.September. Hard to perorate in such an auditory Wherefore the question arises Could not we get ourselves out of this Paris ? Twice or oftener such an attempt is made." 1793. and a New Convention got. Fond schemes which all misgo If decreed. Marseilles. this if Girondin patronage sounds fine-spoken and incontrovertible in logic. were Bourdeaux. 281. . Rouen. in quiet Bern. 1793] CULOTTIC AND SANSCULOTTIC all : 143 brethren of Paris. edit. For every Deputy has his Siipplcant. as yet Provincial Towns. by clamour and passionate wider considerations. 1792. then at least our Siippleans might do it. No. here among our poorer brethren of Paris. might be reconvoked. : : . today. with new orders from the Sovereign People and right glad were Lyons. Nay doubtless. Mme. and become a sort of Capital Towns and teach these Parisians deadening and killing .! ! FEB. baseless. " Moniteur. thinks Guadet. on the morrow. say at Bourges. . all the hatefuler in fact. in heat of eloquent logic. when the invaders seemed ' - . pleading for Popularity. even the Primar\. then like the Swiss. or Substitute.

! . Fr. still feller in quality. and of the chance of preserving liberty there in the last resort.. who came to rely on the Parisian rabble to control the Government that is. it is decreed that a man cannot both be Legislator and Editor that he shall choose women ary-meaning . . The first man who pointed out publicly the advantages of federalism was BillaudVarenne. and in their vi^ritings. which demanded swift and vigorous action at headquarters (Paris). . fit to designate all mystery of Iniquity and Feda-aliste has grown a word of Exorcism and Apage-Satanas. they relied on the instinct in favour of centralisation produced by centuries of monarchy. ! .. " Le Federalisme en 1793. etc. as is usual in such cases. Gorsas." Ed. the Girondins would doubtless have made good their case for France was overwhelmingly on their side. ch.'' pp. on complaint given and effervescence rising. CaritatCondorcet Newspapers And then also what counterpoisoning. but only by establishing a central tyranny (that of the secret Committees) which degenerated into the Directory. and she often talked of the means of defence of the south behind the central mountains. Servan." vol. 58) that he thought a republic of the American pattern the best for France but he adds that he and his friends never tried to bring it into France. brutalest Newspaper yet published on Earth by a " Rougiff " of Guffroy by the " incendiary leaves of Marat " More than once." (p.. chaps. i.] : . and that again into the rule of one man Napoleon. Rhone. till the meaning of it becomes almost magical. — . the Girondins declared for the indivisible republic. ii repeat Federaliste. about to overrun the north of France. The Jacobins succeeded. Miss Williams also says she often heard Vergniaud and Lasource speak of the advantages of federal republics bounded by the Loire. But furthermore. " Le Demagogie en Paris en 1793. in a pamphlet. Barbaroux. i. .-iii. by a " Pere Duchesne " of Hebert. " La Rev. by these Brissot. consider what "poisoning of public opinion" in the Departments. This was the real ground of the quarrel between them and the Jacobins. What the Girondins objected to was the supremacy which Paris claimed over the Convention and therefore over France.— 144 THE GIRONDINS . See Aulard. Dauban. Lasource stated that Paris ought only to count as the one eighty-third part of France. But in public. Buzot states in his " Mems. [bk. with or without much Dictionbut go on repeating it. But for the military crisis. as against the theory of republican equality to which the Girondins appealed. " Le Gouvernement federatif demontre le meilleur de tons " (1791). 401-404 Wallon. hi.

between the friends of Law and the friends of Freedom everywhere. Nay. come Addresses of an almost inculpatory character for Paris has long suffered Newspaper calumny. L . the eyes starting from their sockets in his puissant right. meaning Girondism. behold. man against man. a table slope-browed. mere fevering the whole heats and jealousies have arisen Department. place to his Substitute. has given where also. from Marseilles there come two one Jacobin Sansculottic. with a drawn dagger recommending (they say) sheer September in his hand methods. .. how. to daggers-drawn one of your with Nievre-Chol the Moderatin Mayor Moderate. in Engravings mounted on . Culottic against SansFrom the Southern Cities culottic. ^ " Hist. . as the sad fruit of such strife. III. ! . Chalier the Jacobin worse state Town-Councillor has got. ." has verily kindled himself at their sacred urn for on the 6th of February last. patience being worn out and that the Jacobin Brethren should. Royalist or Federalist Chalier. sick of this Convention-work. 25. too literally. is revoked or eluded remains a pious wish mainly. . ! : foot advanced. etc. work the Guillotine themselves One sees him still.' But this too. With emphasis Marseilles demands the like. . with emphasis. Addresses one Girondin Hot Rebecqui. : . a place of Capitalists and Aristocrats. and gone home with such jarrings." xxv. 1793] CULOTTIC AND SANSCULOTTIC 145 between the one function and the other. Provincial Town is set against Republic Metropolis. there is work to be sick of Lyons. which indeed could help little. O ye National Representatives. . is in still almost in revolt. ! : . impromptu. . infuriated visage of the canine species. Rich against Poor. Pari. Meanwhile.FEB. Bourdeaux demands a reign of Law and Respectability. perhaps Aristocrat. who pilgrimed to Paris " to behold Mayors Marat and the Mountain. body contorted a bald. rude. History or Rumour has seen him haranguing his Lyons Jacobins in a quite transcendental manner.

Pari. "on the Pont Saint: — ! but indeed continued lying rusty Nievre-Chol with military went about. . in the most confused manner and the " nine-hundred prisoners " received no hurt. the Guillotine was not got together impromptu.. etc. : tine in its loft ? Consider finally if. with its cannons rumbling." or elsewhere its ." xxiv. at a just rate of twenty-two sous per pound Citizen Representatives. on all these mad jarrings of the Southern Cities. hi. 229. at the right season Neither is there neither is there soap bread see the Patriot women selling out sugar. [bk. ii hand the brandished dagger. 146 THE GIRONDINS . and the reign of Perfect Felicity began. Convention Commissioners must be sent thither forthwith if even they can appease it. CH.. it were verily well that your quarrels finished. : ! ' " Hist. xxvi. as some give it other dog-visages kindhng under him a man not likely to end well However. in loft ^ . and keep the GuilloClair. So distracted is Lyons grown. or horse-pistol. and of France generally. that day. rumbling cannon. 385-393 . ! . a traitorous Crypto-Royalist class is not looking and watching ready to strike in. .

and Orleans Egalite. having really a rough rasping tongue. : . ill at ease this " Maxiof Patriotism. the whole. when he goes to speak occasional applauses rather. is assaulted ever and anon held up to France.. remains invulnerable to such things nay the People's-friend is very evidently rising in importance. les immost unsenatorial ejaculations They Mountain ." how shall they either own him or disown him ? As for Marat personally. and also from Jesuitism. . descending the Tribune-steps. ! : mum . nay " explodes into laughter. one cannot say that the Girondins are wanting to themselves." Marat proposes to have them " decreed insane " and. . idiots ! " . : Oftentimes he croaks harsh sarcasm. he even laughs. rit bccilles. is heard to articulate these " Les cochons. he. so far as good-will might prick assiduously into the sore-places of the from principle. No shrieks now. for his own sake and for the Mountain's. inciting to the of whom let the Mountain have the pillage of shops credit The Mountain murmurs. . Besides September. with his fixed-idea. MARCH 1793] GROWING SHRILL 147 CHAPTER III GROWING SHRILL ON go. as his befriended People rises. Pigs. and a very deep fund of contempt for fine outsides and once or twice. as a squalid bloodthirsty Portent. we discern two sore-places where the Mountain often suffers Marat. of which there is now little to be made except effervescence. of " hanging up a Forestaller or two at the door-lintels. Squalid Marat. The day when the Girondins proposed to " decree him accused " {dccreter d accusation as they phrase it) for that February Paragraph. furtherance which breeds confidence. .

" you have been whining about attacks. — to do with. knows not what public : . one in Egalit6 will wait Dumouriez and Counter-Revolution. which the Mountain. who hovers about 'thec-Moyhtain. * " Moniteur. : .. poor Orleans Egalit6 himself. the Genlis's is grown gloomy •Husband. from principle and also from Jesuitism. sad to Sjee.(j6ill6ry also. poor one refuge in Jacobinism. . if shelter it be. not on it. from time to time a Maximum of Patriotism whom one can neither own nor disown But the second sore-place of the Mountain is this anomalous Monseigneur Equality Prince D'0rI6ans. is : — may still come." Seance du 20 Mai 1793. . ill at ease.! 148 THE GIRONDINS eclats" at the gentilities " [bk. : ." with their pedantries. ch. and plots." ^ — . from the Dumouriez quarter and how if not the timewasted Orleans Egalite. Buzot moved long his stead ago. then perhaps the young unworn Chartres Egalite might rise to be a kind of King ? Sheltered. the rejected owned of all drift hither and thither. bewildering. And pity even him. that the whole race of Bourbons should be marched forth from the soil of France this Prince Egalite to bring up the Motions which might produce some effect on the rear. there not cheering or illuminating. Behold these men. pusillanimities Girondin men : he. " these two years. . in the clefts of the Mountain. in aux and superfine airs of these of statesmanship. the look of him. to and foolishly bedrifted what corner of Nature can he now with advantage? Feasible hope remains not for him unfeasible hope. are there not two chances ? However. show for yourselves." says plausibiHties. . in pallid doubtful glimmers. says the Gironde with a whilom Bourthey are creatures of the bon Prince among them D'Orleans Faction they will have Philippe made King one King no sooner guillotined than another made in Girondins have moved. hi. for one begins to what does he do with them ? The disparties. and danger from Paris and you have not a scratch to Danton gruffly rebukes him. Dame Genlis says. ! .

is one of the usefulest men of this Convention. rere. : . . I was greatly troubled Mademoiselle burst into tears her Father was pale and trembling. — : . he gave Nor are Peace-makers wanting of whom likewise we mention two one fast on the crown of the Mountain. Ingenious. unsightliness. . nor eye look on give it to Barrere Bar- almost genial . out of England and Bury St. . . . postillions. Dame Genlis is come to Raincy. for a week or two " Next morning. my . '' Memoires" (London. with her young charge. " Monseigneur. graceful a man that will prosper. on either side. iv. in these days being summoned by Egalite. Genlis. Truth may lie on both sides. : . supple. a confusion. in his way.— MARCH in 1793] GROWING SHRILL . Mademoiselle EgaHt6. An indispensable man in the great Art of Varnish he may be said to seek his fellow. and advancing sharply towards the them a sign. But it proves a ravelled business Genlis and charge find that they must retire to the Netherlands must wait on the Frontill Monseigneur. the other not yet alighted anywhere Danton and BarIngenious Barrere. ye must give and take for the rest. or on neither side my friends.. . After I had got seated. : ! quick-sighted. The altered sound of his voice completely overcame me unable to utter a word." says Dame help. from the slopes of the Pyrenees. to lead me to the carriage. . . Has there an explosion arisen. gave me his arm. Edmunds. . Old-Constituent and Editor. Scarcely Belial in the assembled Pandemonium was plausibler to ear and eye. with his eyes fixed on me mournful and painful look seemed to implore pity 'Adieu Madame!' said he. as many do arise. get it wound up. 118. that so Mademoiselle might not be counted among Emigrants and hardly dealt with. he stood immovable his at the carriage-door. success to the winning side This is the motto of Barrere. which no tongue can speak of. . 149 a bad way." ^ . gloomier than ever. by Jacobin tiers. 1825. I held out . ^ Genlis. hand he grasped it close then turning. and we rolled away.

a fifth-floor Tallien." as Condorcet says. as exaggerative Mercier does. this first withering probability that the despicable unphilosophic anarchic Mountain. CH.— ISO ! THE GIRONDINS Committee-Reporter of . Ed. cannot stand against them behold the sceptre departs The other Peace-maker Peace. Anacreon of the Guillotine. anxious not to exasperate our only General in the shrill tumult Danton's strong voice reverberates. Representant du Peuple" (Paris. whom we name is Danton. peace with one another cries Danton often enough Are we not alone against the world a little band of brothers? Broad Danton is loved by all the Mountain but they think him too easy-tempered. Without one such man. in. how were this Convention bested ? Call him not. [bk. " a Robespierre without an idea in his head. with Burke. for union and pacification. " the greatest liar in France " nay it may be argued there is not truth enough in him to make a real lie of. : . 51. Call him. Meetings there are dinings with the Girondins it is so pressingly essential that there be union. " lis n'ont point de confiance!' The tumult will get ever shriller rage is growing pale. we say. me " this is the answer a conciliatory Meillan gets from him to all the arguments and pleadings this conciliatory Meillan can bring. ^ — . such as he desired. into the very beauty and improvement that was needed. after all. may triumph Brutal Septemberers. In fact. : : : . " or a feeling in his heart " and yet we. 1823). deficient in suspicion he has stood between Dumouriez and much censure. what a pang is it to the heart of a Girondin. Roland used her great influence over the Girondins to prevent any rapprochement with Danton ' " p. and there rests on him a shadow of " Your Girondins have no confidence in September. in it you shall see it a regularity. . and a man serviceable rere shall be transmute itself into : to this Convention.] . the flower of France. But the Girondins are haughty and respectable this Titan Danton is not a man of Formulas. Memoires de Meillan. : : . [It seems clear that Mme. the repeated answer is. O : ! .

it will not close at your voice It is a dangerous thing such magic. Silent. ! . Such is the fortune of war. somewhat struck. What is your will ? said the goblin. The great gulf of Tophet and Tenth of August opened itself at the magic of your eloquent voice and lo now. like a Queen with the aspic on her bosom. . I'ergebens I Louvet his thin existence all and preternatural insight of suspicion. Wroth is young Barbaroux wroth and scornful. sits the wife of Roland Roland's accounts never yet got audited. cuts him in two lo. The Magician's Famulus got hold of the forbidden Book. bade him fetch water the swift goblin fetched it. : " Eloquence. The Famulus. . Philoagainst Stupidity " " Mit der Diim))iheit kiirnpfen G otter selbst . the Famulus shrieks at him. especially of revolution. two goblin water-carriers ply. Respectability avail not the very gods fight to no purpose. and summoned a goblin Plait-il. smites at him. . : : .! MARCH 1793] GROWING SHRILL ! 151 from us from us and goes to them sophism. would not cease fetching it Desperate. and the house will be swum away in Deucalion Deluges. Shrill are the plaints of acidified into rage . his name become a byword. . pail in each hand but lo.

and cannot do without bread. ch. to retreat [Miranda sought to seize Maestricht by a coup de main. this Senatorial war might have lasted long and Party tugging and throttling with . stricken cohorts and stragglers pour off. iv CHAPTER FATHERLAND IN IV DANGER OR rather we will say. not waiting for order flow disastrous. Also we are at faculty.— 152 THE GIRONDINS [bk. Aix-la-Chapelle is Maestricht will not surrender to mere smoke and lost . : . on one in the ordinary bloodless Parliamentary way condition that France had been at least able to exist. on the advance of the Austrian Archduke Charles. Party might have suppressed and smothered one another. a rout. Dumouriez had his outposts stretched as far as Aixla-Chapelle.^ retreat with firmness. with Fate and Famine and behold. : . noise the flat-bottomed boats have to launch themselves Steady now. flat-bottomed boats and rapid wherein too he had prospered so far but intrepidity unhappily could prosper no farther. . there is nothing for it but well if it be not even flight for already terrorretreat. — : . . . by stratagem. ! . and return the way they came. had The want of discipline soon made the retreat (March 3rd). hi. . : all victory deserts us.] . but and. Ed. were it General Miranda's fault were it the like War-minister's fault or were it Dumouriez's own fault and that of Fortune enough. But this Sovereign People has a digestive all the while. and must have victory at war with Europe. ye again. as many as ten thousand of them. in the spring of the year. and the beautifulest plan for pouncing on Holland. war. Parthianrapidly intrepid men Alas. . ' failed.

Mentz is changing into an explosive crater vomiting fire.' : MARCH 1793] FATHERLAND IN DANGER 153 without halt till they see France again/ Nay worse Dumouriez himself is perhaps secretly turning traitor? Very sharp is the tone in which he writes to our Committees. — . .] ' ^ . Who knows what this hot little General is meditating? Dumouriez Duke of Belgium or Brabant and say. and have their eighteen francs a day: but see. Mentz may resist. iii. ! — : : . How sad a reverse for Mentz! Brave Forster. before once the Liberty-tree is got rightly in leaf. . vol. brave Lux planted Liberty-trees. iv. Danton and Lacroix. . there and made Jacobin Societies and got the Territory incorporated with France they canie hither to Paris. and shakes its head who except Danton. Commissioner Merlin. . In spite of all the coercion used by the three Commissioners of the Convention. amid ca-i'm-ing music. "making sallies. Dumouriez. in the snowslush of last winter. defective in suspicion. Hassenfratz sends neither cartridges nor clothing shoes we have. when it was they that were Commissioners. 290).— Ed. 16-73. bevomited with fire Neither of these men shall again see Mentz they have come hither only to die. — . only 345 citizens took the oatJti of allegiance to France these proceeded to elect six deputies to go to Paris (Sorel. . Egalit6 the Younger King of France there were an end for our Revolution Committee of Defence gazes. would needs join Belgium to France of which Dumouriez might have made the prettiest little Duchy for his own secret behoof! With all these things the General is wroth and writes to us in a sharp tone. ! . [Mentz soon got tired of the French. Forster has been round the . could still struggle to be of hope ? And General Custine is rolling back from the Rhine Country conquered Mentz will be reconquered. p. resist to the death but not longer than that. at the head of the besieged". . . the Prussians gathering round to bombard it with shot and shell." Nothing in short is right. Commissioners and Jacobin Pillagers have done such incalculable mischief. deceptively "soled with wood and pasteboard. the Thionviller.. as Deputies or Delegates.

" 514. " but the eyes uncommonly bright. obloquy the brave heart slowly breaking Such is Forster's lot. you make order that no Soldier of Liberty give quarter to an Englishman. jargons and jangles in an unmelodious manner. . . Changed that humour now and ever more changing till no hatefuler thing walk this Earth than a denizen of that tyrannous Island and Pitt be declared and decreed. like this Paris : ." Likewise there is war with Spain. jingling with artillery and menace. ii. 460. iv he saw Cook perish under Owyhee clubs but he has yet seen or suffered nothing. . and proposed the term " Enemy of mankind.' And England has donned the red coat and marches. ." Convention Deputies ask you to dinner very courteous and "we all play dX pluinpsack. Thomas Paine's face is red-pustuled. and that anyone should have the right to assassinate him Couthon (with rare moderation) said that this was going too far. . We will Globe . inaction. Which order. : . ' See note on assignats on Forster's " Briefwechsel. such small mean objects. : . the Soldier of Liberty does but partially obey. [bk. Prussian Trenck. Poverty escorts him from home there can nothing come.] 1 ." p. ch.] * [A deputy proposed (August 7th." are in paper assignatSy and sink fast in value/ Poverty. very singular to say. buzzing round one like a handful of flies.— 154 — THE GIRONDINS ! . The enemy of mankind " * and. with Royal Highness of York."'^ " It is the Explosion and New-creation of a World." says Forster " and the actors in it." Ed. 1 793-— Ed." of an exalted temper and contrives to keep her carriage. Spain will advance through the gorges of the Pyrenees. Demoiselle Theroigne smiles on you in the Soirees " a beautiful brownlocked face. which we here as Deputy or Delegate with difficulty " touch. 631. with effervescence. " L^ennemi du genre huniain. disappointment. . [The Convention declared war against Spain on March 8th. hi. whom some once spake of inviting to be our King. 1793) that Pitt should be declared outside human law. except Job's-news the eighteen daily francs. — . 136. however. For the rest. rustling with Bourbon banners. the poor subterranean Baron.

: : . [This decree was not carried out it was replaced by the humane decree of May Ed. the Nantes Postbags do not arrive there arrive only instead of them Conjecture. the plain issue is that you will get none and so the business become as broad as it was long. and its then. In the early days of March. but civil war. . was kindled to a flame by the ' . if need be. Charettes. dash at us like a dark whirlwind and blow the best-disciplined Nationals we can get into panic and sauve-qui-peut\ Field after field is theirs one sees not where it will end. — . worst of all there is an enemy within our own territory itself. Commandant Santerre may be sent there but with noneffect he might as well have returned and brewed beer.[The new War Minister was General Beurnonville. complete its quota by election from among National Guards of eighteen to forty years of age. is like to have work enough laid to its hand. . steering over the salt sea towards all points of our territory rattling chains at us. with their rude arms. The Convention sought by this recruiting to double its armed forces.^ shall all . : . Our " recruitment of Three-hundred Thousand men. 213-230. Apprehension. say the Soldiers of Liberty they be "Deserters" that we take. Nay.' It is a frantic order and attended with inconvenience. as a wide conflagration. rude array.' So many enemies come wending on penetrating through throats of mountains. This was the first beginning of national conscription. . . bodeful wind of Rumour. ." ii. See Dampmartin. with their fanatic Gaelic frenzy and wild-yelling battle-cry of God and the King. blazes out anew.—— MARCH 1793J FATHERLAND IN DANGER . . For surely. your Stofflets." which was the decreed force for this year. ordering the exchange of prisoners. Those fanatic Peoples of La Vendee will no longer keep under their fire of insurrection. not riot. .] [Vendean discontent. Your Cathelineaus. are other men than was thought behold how their Peasants. Ed.] 25 th. " Ev^nemens. Every commune was to allow three days for volunteers to come forward. if you give no quarter. long smouldering since the persecution of priests and royal family began. ' . in mere russet and hodden. 155 take no Prisoners then. after the King's Death. heretofore dissipated with difficulty. The bodefulest proves true.

two for each France Section of the Forty-eight. to call forth the might of men.000. . verberating from the domes shall we not. they must go forthwith. whether our Septemberers be punished or go unpunished if Pitt and Cobourg are coming in. reas always in the hour of need. Eighty also be on the road. Little will it avail tion. thickly preceded and escorted by so many other Job's-posts. and hosts in looseDanton the Titan rises in this hour flowing loud retreat Great is his voice. hi. and think what their errand is. well known for his energy and Stofflet was a gamekeeper Charette. . Yield one party of you to the other. Instantaneous recruitment in Paris Section of Paris furnish its thousands every Section of Ninety-six Commissioners of us. before this sitting rise. reached the National ConvenBlank enough are most faces.] officer of good family. ! — : — : ! . and rapidly grew. It was Friday the Eighth of March when this Job'spost from Dumouriez. . with her million right-hands. Cathelineau was a dealer in wool. more of us be sent. in swift vengeance. and do it swiftly. Let them go. over France to spread Let the the fire-cross. but the close certainty of ruin . an old pious enthusiasm Ed. Shoulder to for Paris will pour forth her volunteers . . and Let Eighty tell Paris what the Country needs of her. ! decree for a conscription.l]^»tRe end of March this "Catholic and Royal Army " of the West" numbered 20. the very day that passing over us must be provided for. Speedy Camp of Fifty-thousand between Paris and the North P'rontier. .— 156 It . ch iv has become peremptorily necessary that a National Convention cease arguing. No theoretic outlook is is here. . ! . and begin acting. Citizen-Representatives. que la France soit Libre: Let my name be blighted let France be free " It is necessary now again that France rise. lay aside discords? Reputation O what is the reputation of this man or of that ? " Que inon noiii soit fietri . with one punishment nothing now between Paris itself and the for us all Tyrants but a doubtful Dumouriez. with her heart as of one let every man. in such crisis of Fate. THE GIRONDINS [bk. post-haste.

: wing to the Frontiers -i-r-perorating in that heroical Cambyses' vein of theirs bfesfaieuted by the Galleries and Mountain bemurmured'." xxv. or in an immoderate? This Convention must h& purged. from Town to Town. Pari. in such circumstances. be free So sounds the Titan's voice into all Section-houses into all French hearts. 1793] . Black Flag from the top of NotreDame Cathedral there is Proclamation. hot eloquence Paris rushing out once again to strike its enemies down. and a Maximum fixed-price. Paris was in no mild humour can be conjectured.5'.. : . friends of Dumouriez. burst from the hearts and lips of men. carping and quarrelling.by: Ihe Right-side and Plain-. angrier Citizenesses Varlet perambulates with portable chair ejaculations of no measured kind. glacerd'effroi" but first to have domestic Traitors punished Who are they that. Agitated streets still more agitated round the Salle de Manege Feuillans-Terrace crowds itself with angry Citizens. just on the . That. in spite of the world. Convention Commissioners. . as they defile through the Convention Hall. for recruitment. FATHERLAND IN DANGER 157 shoulder one strong universal death-defiant rising and rushing. enrolment. : : ! .MARCH 8. — : . ! . ' " Moniteur. are carrying the fire-cross ! ' . . we shall hurl back these Sons of Night yet again and France. that very night.Hist. To fight the enemy ? Yes. from the Townhall. in their Jesuitic most moderate way. and even to " freeze him with terror.?':(aa. a Maximum for Grains " thus speak with energy the Patriot Volunteers. treat us with lectures on Free-trade in grains ? Can the human stomach satisfy itself with lectures on Free-trade and are we to fight the Austrians in a moderate manner. secret-friends of Pitt and Cobourg. seek to shackle the Patriotic movement ? That divide France against Paris. And so there is Flag of Fatherland in Danger waving . 6). " Set up a swift Tribunal for Traitors. as to perfidious fine-spoken Homnies d'etat. Sections sit in Permanence. on swift wheels. till all France blaze. and poison public opinion in the Departments ? That when we ask for bread.

" Us neferont rien" and " composedly resumed his violin. " Memoires. Journalist Deputy Gorsas. each inciting his fellow to do something resolute. finds these days of March. however. that the cravates or streamers of it have Royal fleurs-de-lys Section-Captain shrieks his troop and trample the Banner under foot " seemingly the work of some Crypto-Royalist Plotter? Most probable:' or perhaps at bottom. 72. and did not go to the evening sitting but held council with one another. while a Captain of the Section Poissonniere perorates with vehemence about Dumouriez.RoyaHst Traitors." says Louvet ' thereby. . . answered only. the eye of a Deputy discerns. plots a plot for of March. 72. waving their Banner overhead. murdering the Girondin Deputies Anarchists and SecretThe Royalists plotting. - " Hist. when such streamers were according ! The . shriek. and end these Anarchists to which. for that end What we do find far greater part of which is hysterics. . . play a great part. especially this Sunday the Tenth Plots. he and his Printer had their houses broken into (by a tumult of Patriots. that Louvet and certain Girondins were apprehensive they might be murdered on Saturday. anxious to disentangle the truth of them from the hysterics. iv Nor are prodigies wanting lo. poisoner of the Departments." ' xi. looking over the Girondin Memoirs. in this same Banner. : *' — to rule i ! History. with soft Lydian tweedledeeing. : Farther that." 158 THE GIRONDINS : [bk. ! . 277. hi. among whom redcapped Varlet. Pari. : . manufactured prior to the Tenth of August. p. but were not. in hellish concert. ^ " Choix des Rapports. ch. to wrap himself against eating cares. horror-struck. and finding the night very wet. opening the window. and his troop beat chorus with him. Louvet. American Fournier loom forth." .." xxv. Potion. indisputable is. in the darkness of the rain and riot) had their wives put in fear their liable to being killed . in very truth. Also that Louvet felt especially liable to being killed that several Girondins went abroad to seek beds . only the old Banner of the Section. Maximum and Crypto.

and admitted by the Cultivated Classes this inadequate Scheme of Nature's working is all that Nature." Republic founded on what they call the Virtues . "Moniteur" (Seance du Louvet. that no September came and also that hysterics. Guadet. . for that is the root of it. incredible as an impossibility. not unnaturally." Farther that Sunday. 1793] FATHERLAND IN DANGER . fine-spoken Girondins. had reached almost their acme. the " waste chaos of a Dream. 24 . So they perorate and speculate and call on the Friends of Law. types and circumjacent equipments beaten to ruin no Mayor interfering in time Gorsas himself es. 15 Mars. what has been written in Books. They are as strangers to the People they would govern to the thing they have come to work in. like a Section of Ill-counsel " but its word is spoken. — ! : : . if not Jesuits of it Their Formalism is great great also in their Egoism. 12 Mars). but Life or No-Life. let her work as she will. caping. pp. In fact. so named ever since the Tenth of August. 159 presses. on what we call . pistol in hand. Brissot. does a far notabler thing: demands that Vergniaud. . France rising to fight Austria has been raised only by plot of the Tenth of March. Philosophies. MARCH lo. that these Anarchists intend ? Finally. : ! . can reveal to these men. not Mauconseil or Ill-counsel as it once was. to the number of Twenty-two. 23. and will not fall to the ground. was not a workday and the streets were more agitated than ever Is it a new September. " along the coping of the back wall. pp. — . not by the laws of Formula. 71-80. has become unintelligible. one thing strikes us in these poor Girondins their fatal shortness of vision nay fatal poorness of character. to kill Twenty-two of them This Revolution Prodigy. ! A ^ ^ Meillan.' Vergniaud denounces and deplores in sweetly turned periods. unfolding itself into terrific stature and articulation. Good-counsel so-nditned. Section Bonconseil. Respectabilities. is sharply rebuked. Pedants of the Revolution. by its own laws and Nature's. when the question is not Law or No-Law. the morrow. be put under arrest Section Good-counsel. Formulas. and other denunciatory.. then. : .

to demonstration. . [The battle of Neerwinden was decided by the brilliant charge of the Archduke Charles of Austria against General Miranda's wing. or some other's fault. they will not look at it with eyes at all. there is no doubt whatever but the " Battle of Nerwinden. .000 men. and thing non-extant disowned by the Laws of Nature and of Formula. in Belgium it fares ever again General Miranda's fault. CH. in its dark wrath. 85. iir.000 men in and several thousands of volunteers killed. Were it Meillan. . which fled in utter rout. continually flow This Tenth of March we may mark as an epoch in the the rage so exasperated itself. and our rapid retreat has become a far too rapid one." on the i8th of March. step darkly. and nothing but this. whither all falsehoods.] old troops. . iv the Decencies and Respectabilities this they will have. they will do one thing prove. wounded. is lost. . and prisoners Dumouriez could only collect 15. Alas. " Mdmoires. . that vision be withdrawn from him that he see not the reality. Carping and complaining forever of Plots and Anarchy. Ed. that the Reality will not translate into their Formula that they and their Formula are incompatible with the Reality and. besides taking his Notes. . wounded Vanity which yield the most portentous fallacious spectrum. must now. : ! . which is the great Sea of Darkness. ! . the Girondin destinies misconception so darkened itself Many desert the sitmany come to them armed. Whatsoever other Republic Nature and Reality send. shall be considered as not sent as a kind of Nightmare Vision. * ^ : . the Reality will exWhat a man kens he cans.— i6o THE GIRONDINS : [bk. winding or direct.^ An honourable tings Deputy. . downwards to the utter Dark to Ruin. with more or less velocity. 24." pp. but only through " facetted spectacles " of Pedantry.^ Victori- Meanwhile with Dumouriez worse. but a false spectrum of the reality and following that. The French lost 5. see whether his Priming is in order. But tinguish it and them the beginning of a man's doom is. mostly straggled away. setting out after breakfast. . dim for the best eyes is this Reality and as for these men.

And his speeches for the General has no reticence The execution of the Tyrant this Dumouriez calls the Murder of the King. full of rage. according to this General. Pereyra. hangs Hke a dark cloud on the rear of us Dumouriez never off horseback night or day engagement every three hours our whole discomfited Host rolling rapidly inwards. Proly. Over the PVontiers such hope is there. Three Jacobin Missionaries. ! — ! . " whether the King's name be Ludovicus or Jacobus ? " " Or Philippus " rejoins Proly and hastens to report progress. a General of no reticence. • . . for the woes it has brought on France and him. with his Austrian prickers. . return very doubtful even Danton now doubts. : — ! III.. suspicion and sauve-qni-peut\ And then Dumouriez himself." " And what is it to me. The Convention." hastily cries Dumouriez. M . Danton and Lacroix. MARCH 1793] FATHERLAND : IN DANGER 161 ous Cobourg. have flown forth sped by a wakeful Mother Society they are struck dumb to hear the General speak. what his intents may be ? Wicked seemingly and not charitable His despatches to Committee openly denounce a factious Convention. " But we have executed our King. Dubuisson. flying thither as Commissioners once more. consists of threehundred scoundrels and four-hundred imbeciles France cannot do without a King.

the grand LET culottism and Revolution Prodigy. this March. boiling pitch for Brigands happier. till Treason be punished at home they do not fly to the frontiers but only fly hither and thither. accordant with the nature of the Thing. that the Republic suffer no detriment. as Decree after Decree issues from the Mountain.y fiat\ . as first example. ch. can ?>z. " at a height not exceeding five feet from the ground " every Citizen must produce his certificatory . each in its Section.i62 THE GIRONDINS [bk. into terrific stature and articulation. . in these days. Chosen by universal suffrage. seeking arms. ! . is shaping itself rapidly. Recruitment proceeds with fierce celerity: nevertheless our Volunteers hesitate to set out. whether US look. which : — . we saw all France flowing in blind terror shutting town-barriers. limb after limb. of Twelve chosen Patriots. Revolutionary Committee. making domiciliary visits and arrestments caring. Last March 1792. like creative fiats. at internal Sansit stirs and waxes there and not elsewhere may hope still be for France. — . sits in every Township of France examining the Suspect. those Coniites RevoLutionnaires for the arrestment of Persons Suspect. generally. every housealive over France door must have the names of the inmates legibly printed on it. demanding and denouncing. hi. And does it not speak such ? Take. . . that it is a seeing terror that a creative Mountain exists. : . v CHAPTER V SANSCULOTTISM ACCOUTRED however. The Mountain must speak nevj fiat and new fiats. they are a kind of elixir of Jacobinsome Forty-four Thousand of them awake and ism In Paris and all Towns. The Revolution Prodigy.

. Very notable also is the Tribunal Extraordinaire ^ decreed by the Mountain some Girondins dissenting. in the hearing of a Paris Public. 70 (du 11 Mars).! MARCH 1793] SANSCULOTTISM ACCOUTRED . that there be not delay in naming it they are subject to no Appeal to hardly any Law-forms. nay cooperating. and a Jury of such as Citizen Leroi. . in Autumn last. — — ." No. for do not we all hate Traitors. . was swift but this shall be swifter. But speaking of an amorphous Sansculottism taking man be : . etc. for surely such a Court contradicts every formula other Girondins assenting. : . . — ! A : . signed by Section-President ready to give account of the faith that is in him. Five Judges. getting into most lively action. 76. a standing Jury. . which is named from Paris and the Neighbourhood." and what heritages may mad fall to them in that time become National too vitality of Jacobinism. No. who has surnamed himself Dix-Aout. circulates through all fibres of France. with Forty-four Thousand centres of activity. ^ "Moniteur. in few months. : . shall be entitled Tribunal Rcvolutionnaire as indeed it from the very first has entitled itself: with a Herman or a Dumas for Judge-President. 163 every Carte de Civisnie. O ye people of Paris ? Tribunal of the Seventeenth. Herein has Sansculottism fashioned for itself a Sword of Sharpness a weapon magical tempered in the Stygian hell-waters. ." save. but must " get themselves convinced " in all readiest ways and for security are bound " to vote audibly " audibly. This is the Tribunal Extraordinaire which. with a Fouquier-Tinville for Attorney-General. . Persons Suspect had as well depart this soil of Liberty And yet departure too is bad all Emigrants are declared Traitors. . and defence of strength or of cunning shall be soft it shall mow down Lives and Brazen-gates and the waving of it shed terror through the souls of men. to the edge of it all armour. their property become National they are " dead in Law. indeed. that for otir behoof they shall " live yet fifty years in Law. " Leroi August-Tenth" it will become the wonder of the world.

Navy. • • 1 . 377-382 Aulard. Its members were Barrere. v form. They are to report weekl}/. 98. Kersaint. for a sort of universal supervision. 1792) by the "Committee of General Security or Surveillance" for dealing with malcontents. and was legahsed by the Convention on the 7th. Lacroix. Morvaux. War." vol. Their number is Nine.. for miscellaneous accidental purposes requiring despatch as it proves. [bk. and universal subjection. before the end of March we obtain our small Comite de Salut Public ^ as it were. Revolution Government continues hitherto in a very anarchic state. firm Patriots all. This it was which was changed (April 6th) into the Committee of Public Safety it was for some time Dantonist. — ^ "Moniteur. there is but they. . Convention Committees sit supreme over them but then each Committee as supreme as the others Committee of Twenty-one. Fr. . Constitution. which was succeeded (October 2nd. an old naval officer. and forgers of assignats. for specific purposes. 1789. a Committee of Research was appointed. have hardly known whether they were Ministers or not." No. . 1793. . [This new Committee was chosen on April 6th (just after the news of Dumouriez' defection came to hand)." chaps. the Girondin member. 83 (du 24 Mars 1793). . and consisted mainly of Girondins. ought above all things. asked for the creation of a " Committee of General Defence. It was formed on January 4th. Danton.. Sorel. It is — . iii. iii. — • ." to be divided into sections Diplomacy. Six in number.. See Gros. especially since Roland's retreat. noteworthy that early in the Revolution the National Assembly had elected committees to supervise the Royal Ministers.— i64 : THE GIRONDINS we not. Wherefore. 245-250. On January ist. — . " L'Europe et la Rev. 100.-ii. of General Surety simultaneous or successive. Finance. pp. " La Rdv. in this perilous quickwhirling condition of the Republic. . on July 28th. of Defence. 86. these new Committee-men but to deliberate in secret. to specify ? how the this Amorphous gets itself a Head Without metaphor." 327-342. i. but in July it fell under the sway of Robespierre. Danton yet why not reone of them renewable every month elect them if they turn out well ? The flower of the : . plotters. Nos. CH. Fr. Ed. Executive Council of Ministers. and Treilhard. . 99. " Le Comite de Salut public. especially if the Commune s:o with it but is too numerous for an administrative body. Thus. Lindet. Breard.] Cambon. The Convention alone is all-powerful. Dehnas.

which Sansculottism has provided for itself. or Haversack. and raise thrashed and sold. but with a principle of growth in it Forwarded by fortune. "while the Sansculottes fight. more than two-thirds of it must have been One can denounce him.. ' : ! : . the farmer will not sell ? The farmer An accurate Account of what shall be forced to sell. on or before a set day. " whereat the world If we call that Revolutionary Tribunal a Sword. that they are but nine insignificant-looking thing at first. is. we shall suppose in April.. this Committee. . : . etc. is. the Monsieurs must pay. MARCH matter 1793] SANSCULOTTISM ACCOUTRED . By such inextricable overturning of life in . grain he has shall be delivered in to the Constituted Authorities let him see that he say not too much for in that case. taxes and contributions will rise let him see that he say not too little proportionally for. and all law of supply and demand. . for example. as Camille "Moniteur" (du 20 Avril. On the whole. 165 that they sit in secret. wherein. 1793). An ! . It is true. Girondin freetrade. to 20 Mai. : penalties. some ration of bread may be found. all Commercial since not otherDesmoulins says once. Political Economy. his rents. better or worse. with infinite effort. less than one-third of this declared quantity must remain in his barns. the Six Ministers to Six assiduous Clerks and work its will on the Earth and under Heaven. then let us call the " Law of the Maximum " a Provender-scrip. are hereby but what help ? Patriotism must hurled topsyturvy the " cupidity of farmers " seems to have no bowels. A " Committee of Public Salvation still shrieks and shudders. it will reduce all Committees and the Convention itself to mute obedience. for a season. fixing the highest price of grains. live Wherefore this Law of the Maximum. got passed and shall gradually extend itself into a Maximum for all manner of comestibles and commodities with such scrambling and topsyturvying as may be fancied For now if. by internal Jacobin energy." ^ relations will Sansculottism keep wise.

with Maximum and Bakers' queues.] . remains the most interesting of all Chapters in Political Economy still to be written. for theii'. this but a country for the Poor And then if one Dead in Law nay kept alive fifty fly. Also there come Requisitions there comes " Forced-Loan of a Milliard. which of course they that have must lend. v i66 THE GIRONDINS So there come Impdts Progressifs. you bleed gushing. — . ch." and decreed that deputies might be arrested if suspected of complicity with the enemies of liberty. On April 1st it gave power to Commissioners to arrest and deport " suspects. are they not clean against Formula ? O Girondin Friends.! — [bk. The Trade and Finance of Sansculottism and how. Denunciation and Paper-money. ! . years yet. the " superfluous-revenue " of men beyond fifty-pounds a-year. : . it is not a Republic of the Virtues we are getting but only a Republic of the Strengths. . you are not exempt rising into the hundreds. All which things." On March 19th it outlawed all who took part in any rebellious or malcontent movement and decreed the death penalty against orthodox priests. it led its and began and ended. there is Cambon with endless cornucopia of Assignats. ca-ira-mg and withal there is endless sale of Emigrant National-Property. ! or section of a commune these were known as revolutionary committees. Hunger.accursed behoof!^ In this manner therefore it goes topsyturvying." some Fifty-Millions Sterling. — : . with fast-increasing voracity. you bleed freely into the thousands and tens of thousands. hi. On April 5th it decreed the creation of a Revolutionary Army of the Interior. what steads it ? . . . On March 28th it banished for ever from French soil the emigres and confiscated their property. with Cupidity. . Unexampled enough it has grown to be no country for the Rich. nobles. virtuous and other galvanic-life. . . [On March i8th the Convention decreed death as the punishment of " emigration. and their servants On March 21st it instituted committees of surveillance or agents ^ . in every commune : Ed. Ascending Taxes which consume.

"La Trahison de Dumouriez" (chap. with Dumouriez. mouriez's schemes were soon known at Paris. c." iv. 7-10. of marching to Paris. the manyterror. The young Louis Philippe was present at this interview. v. exjoining himself with Cobourg crisis . . and. [On March 23rd (five days after Neervvinden) Dumouriez made his first overtures to Colonel Mack— Coburg's adjutant for an informal truce on the 27th he asked for a truce of fourteen days."— Ed. faith political or other. . which proves that there was no talk of an Orleanist monarchy. full of rage. : .] — : . never off horseback.. had him not to quit. the nobles receiving back their estates and forming an Upper Chamber. " Memoires. put down the Jacobins. restoring the Constitution of 1791!' the herald of Fortune Is wisdom quitting Dumouriez quitting him ? Principle. with some new King Ludovicus or King Philippus. in which he (Dumouriez) was to march to Paris with his troops (he counted on the obedience of the regulars). flock hither and thither counselled. and proclaim the young Louis XVII. with a constitution like that of England. DuSee Chuquet's vol.) in " Les Guerres de la Rev.. and honour of an officer. — : . — ^ Dumouriez. tinguishing Jacobinism. a short way off. with BUT King Ludovicus ox King Pkilippus} There Hes the his fugitive his Revolution Prodigy. there hangs the question One wide shriek covers that or Counter. Dumouriez. At any rate his quarters in the Burgh of Saint-Amand his head-quarters in the Village have beof Saint-Amand des Boues. suspicion and North-east region.APRIL 1793] THE TRAII OR 167 CHAPTER VI THE TRAITOR Host. knows now no counsel that were not worse than none the counsel. namely. beyond a certain faith of mess-rooms.Revolution ? Soldiers.

in the name of Mercy and Genlis's arms the postillions Heaven A shrill scene. . Jacobin of the " three Missionaries are riding and running Towns. be assassinated Battalions nigh frantic with such suspicion and uncertainty. [bk. Dame Genlis and her fair Princess d'Orlcans find this Burgh of Saint-Amand no fit place for them Dumouriez's Tough Genlis. and Cobourg Austrians. on the street of Saint-Amand when behold postillions just cracking their whips to go. go. hi. and " his men wander about the ramparts. : . . to . with Vive-la-Rcpublique and Ruin and Sauve-gui-peut. ^ Genlis. into Switzerland The brave young Egalit6 safe though nigh moneyless. Valenciennes or even Cond6. 139." Lille.! i68 THE GIRONDINS .' . we find her accordingly established in her hired vehicle. . not one can be snatched your Captain is admitted. ch. and nightfall suspicious French Nationals finally." Couriers gallop breathless men wait. but a brief one by-roads and Through whither? Ah. into Genlis's chaise. but the Town-gate is closed on him. . — close by. which Dumouriez wanted to snatch for himself. in her very night-gown. iv. struggling hitherward. . vi come a Bedlam. : . and crack broken hill-passes seeking their way with lanterns after through perils. to assassinate. as it were. protection is grown worse than none. nothing saved of her goods except the watch from the pillow with brotherly despair he flings her in. among the bandboxes. rush this way and that Desperation in the shape of Cobourg lying entrenched . . and then alas the Prison-gate. : : : ! — . one of the toughest women a woman. with . or seem waiting. her bandboxes Her beloved Princess she will leave here. National Representatives. — — . nine lives in her whom nothing will beat she packs clear for flight in a private manner. the young Princely Brother. bearing the Princess in his arms hastily calling Hastily he has clutched the poor young lady up. into Leave her not. with the In the cold gray Prince Chartres Egalite her Brother. of the April morning.

the 2d of April 1793. two Couriers come galloping as if for life. . . : Whereupon Archivist Camus. : . very gloomy-looking in jeopardy and uncertainty. enter Archivist Camus and the other three following him. Hardly has Mo7i General had time to order out the Hussar Regiment that it take rank and wait near by. for the space of some two hours without effect. with what intents one may guess While the Couriers are yet speaking. iv." Then comes reasoning the voice of the old Archivist getting loud. Not at this parmoment. arrested : General ticular " " Pas dans ce monient-ci. Mo?i General! Four National Representatives. ^ Dumouriez. WarMinister at their head. glancing the other way. for he has the power to do it. And so. getting quite loud. WarMinister and National Representatives. 159.^ Hussars clutch the Four National Repre. arrive. these poor National messengers debate and consult. in the name of the National Convention. And so. enter War-Minister Beurnonville. with an embrace of friendship. not to say impossible. in de Berchigny case of accident. matters are still worse. 169 has a most wild Morrow to look for self to carry through it." answers the General also aloud then ! — . etc. are posting hitherward from Valenciennes are close at hand. 1793] THE TRAITOR . . old Camus the Archivist for chief speaker of them.APRIL 2. retire and reenter. but now only himthe For indeed over baths. That General Dumouriez is " Will you obey the National mandate. and that " the service will suffer. in a mandatory manner seemingly a German word-ofcommand. angry irreverences. invite the General to the bar of the Convention merely to give an explanation or two. The General finds it unsuitable. amid plumed staff-officers. They produce Papers. for he is an old . — ! . Vain he answers mere to reason loud with this Dumouriez friend . utters certain unknown vocables. About four o'clock on Tuesday afternoon. proclaims. at that Village named of Mud- Saint-Amand des Boues.

in two chaises that very night. a set of men always full of Jacobinism. who waits in the woods by appointment. by a way we had rather swiftly. and rage of semi-desperation as there is. The General dismounts. written by Camus (in Toulongeon. . and the Commissioners there. in such darkness visible. Dumouriez he merely rode on for the interview. at once failed sent trusty officers to Maulde to warn the troops. iii. what they themselves will do in it. Judge whether this Wednesday was of halcyon nature. The commander of one of these battalions was day to become a Marshal of France. and Beurnonville the War-Minister pack them out of the apartment out of the Village. which Dumouriez was seeking He had tried to secure Lille and Valenciennes. for any one !' But on the Thursday morning. Hark what strange growling is heard what barkings are heard.ouriez ^ ! . — . Ed. we discern Dumouriez with small escort. sweep past us marching seemingly in mistake. and trying to persuade the Garrison there at all events. over the lines to Cobourg. but to gain over.— I70 — [bk. ambling along the Conde Highway perhaps they are for Conde. ! . steps into a cottage. along with Carnot. but to take no French land. . they are for an interview with Cobourg. who thereafter persuaded Coburg. app. vi THE GIRONDINS . shall meditate what the General is doing. will give them right order in a little from the wayside writing.] ^ [Dumouriez was on his way to Bury for an interview with . This night Dumouriez prints his " Proclamation" this night and the morrow the Dumouriez Army. Dumouriez. 60-87). with Chartres Egalit6 and a few staff-officers. CH. as hostages. Davoust — one . are emitting shot! Mount. . and he then fled to the enemy.] Colonel Mack. not ordered. But when Dumouriez returned to Maulde with a few Austrian hussars he found the troops defiant. prisoners to lie long in Maestricht and sentatives. Nigh the Village of Doumet. three National Battalions. Austrian strongholds Jacta est alea. — . : ' Their Narrative. to issue a proclamation (April 5th) pledging the allies to help in the restoration of royalty. in that quarter. in did not give up hope which he succeeded in persuading Mack. in. [This was at the camp of Maulde. Ed. : . and spring for life!^ Dum. loud yells of" Traitors" of 'Mrr^j/" the National Battalions have wheeled round.

!

;;

APRIL

2,

1793]

THE TRAITOR
;
;

171

and Staff

vault over ditches, strike the spurs in, deep sprawl and into the fields, which prove to be morasses plunge for life bewhistled with curses and lead. Sunk to the middle, with or without horses, several servants killed, they escape out of shot-range, to General Mack Nay they return on the morrow, the Austrian's quarters. but to Saint-Amand and faithful foreign Berchigny what boots it ? The Artillery has all revolted, is jingling all have revolted, are revolting off to Valenciennes
;

;

;

except only foreign Berchigny, to the extent of some poor fifteen hundred, none will follow Dumouriez against Dumouriez's occupaFrance and Indivisible Republic
:

tion

's

gone.^

Such an instinct of Frenchhood and Sansculottism dwells in these men they will follow no Dumouriez nor Shriek may Lafayette, nor any mortal on such errand. be of Sauve-qiii-peut, but will also be of Vive-laNew National Representatives arrive new Rcpublique. General Dampierre, soon killed in battle new General Custine the agitated Hosts draw back to some Camp of Famars make head against Cobourg as they can. And so Dumouriez is in the Austrian quarters his most drama ended, in this rather sorry manner, one of Heaven's Swiss that wanted shifty, wiry man only work. Fifty years of unnoticed toil and valour one year of toil and valour, not unnoticed, but seen of all countries and centuries then thirty other years again unnoticed, of Memoir-writing, English Pension, scheming and projecting to no purpose Adieu, thou Swiss of
: ; ;
:

;

;

A

;

;

;

:

Heaven, worthy to have been something else His Staff go different ways. Brave young Egalite with a reaches Switzerland and the Genlis Cottage
;

strong crabstick in his hand, a strong heart in his body Egalite the his Princedom is now reduced to that.
:

Antwerp and

[For the conference of the allies at iv. 162-180. their disavowal of Coburg's promise to make no conquests, also for the effort to exchange Marie Antoinette for the French Commissioners, see Sorel, " L'Europe et la Rev. Fr.,"
^

" Memoires,"

vol.

iii.,

pp.

366-367.— Ed.]

172

THE GIRONDINS

[bk.

tii,

en. vi

Father sat playing whist, in his Palais Egalit6, at Paris, on the 6th day of this same month of April, when a catchpole entered Citoyen Egalite is wanted at the Examination, requiring ArrestConvention Committee ment finally requiring Imprisonment, transference to Orleansdom has sunk Marseilles and the Castle of If Palais Egalite, which was Palais in the black waters
:

^

!

;

!

;

Royal,

is

like to
'

become

Palais National.
iv.

See Montgaillard,

144.

;

APRIL

I,

1793]

IN

FIGHT

173

CHAPTER
IN FIGHT

VII

OUR
are
?

Republic, by paper Decree,
;

may

be

"

One and

Indivisible " but what profits it while these things Federalists in the Senate, renegadoes in the Army,

traitors

everywhere

!

France,

all

in

desperate recruit-

Tenth of March, does not fly to the frontier, but only flies hither and thither. This defection of contemptuous diplomatic Dumouriez falls heavy on the fine-spoken high-sniffing Honnnes d'etat whom
since the

ment

he consorted with
tinies.

;

forms a second epoch

in their des-

Or perhaps more strictly we might say, the second Girondin epoch, though little noticed then, began on the day when, in reference to this defection, the Girondins broke with Danton. It was the first day of April Dumouriez had not yet plunged across the morasses to Cobourg, but was evidently meaning to do it, and our Commissioners were off to arrest him when what does the Girondin Lasource see good to do, but rise, and
;

;

jesuitically

question
!

and

insinuate

at

great

length,

whether a main accomplice of Dumouriez had not probably been Danton Gironde grins sardonic assent Mountain holds its breath. The figure of Danton, Levasseur says, while this speech went on, was noteworthy. He sat erect with a kind of internal convulsion struggling to keep itself motionless his eye from time to time flashing wilder, his lip curling in Titanic scorn.'

;

^

"

Memoires de Rene Levasseur"

(Bruxelles,
:

1830),

i.

164.

[Danton's scorn was natural. He had begged deputies to forget their strifes. Thus on March 29th he said " Let us draw a veil

!

; ;

174

THE GIRONDINS

[bk.

iii,

CH. vii

Lasource, in a fine-spoken attorney manner, proceeds there is this probability to his mind, and there is that probabiHties which press painfully on him, which cast the Patriotism of Danton under a painful shade which painful shade, he, Lasource, will hope that Danton may find it not impossible to dispel. " Les Scelerats " cries Danton, starting up, with clenched right-hand, Lasource having done and descends from the Mountain, like a lava-flood his answer not unready. Lasource's probabilities fly like idle dust but leave a result behind them. " Ye were right, friends of the Mountain," begins Danton, " and I was wrong there is no peace possible with these men. Let it be war, then They will not save the Republic with us it shall be saved without them saved in spite of them." Really a burst of rude Parliamentary eloquence this which is still worth reading in the old " Moniteur." With fire-words the exasperated rude Titan rives and smites these Girondins at every hit the glad Mountain utters chorus Marat, like a musical bis, repeating the last phrase.^ Lasource's probabilities are gone but Danton's
:

;

;

:

:

!

:

;

;

;

;

;

pledge of battle remains lying.
third epoch, or scene in the Girondin Drama, or rather it is but the completion of this second epoch, we reckon from the day when the patience of virtuous Potion finally boiled over and the Girondins, so to speak, took up this battle-pledge of Danton's, and decreed Marat accused. It was the eleventh of the same month of April, on some effervescence rising, such as often rose and President had covered himself, mere Bedlam now ruling and Mountain and Gironde were rushing on one another with clenched right-hands, and even with pistols
;

A

;

;

I swear to defend my most cruel over the past. We must unite. enemy. Let our defeats turn to our advantage." But in his interviews with the Girondins they were implacable, especially Guadet, who said " Let it be war, and let one of the two parties perish."
:

—Ed.]
'

Seance du

i

Avril 1793 ('" "Hist. Pari," xxv. 24-35).


;

APRIL
in

II,

1793]

IN

FIGHT

175

them
!

;

sword

when, behold, the Girondin Duperret drew a Shriek of horror rose, instantly quenching all
;

other effervescence, at sight of the clear murderous steel whereupon Duperret returned it to the leather again confessing that he did indeed draw it, being instigated by a kind of sacred madness, sainte fureurl' and pistols held at him but that if he parricidally had chanced to scratch the outmost skin of National Representation with it, he too carried pistols, and would have blown his brains out on the spot.^ But now in such posture of affairs, virtuous Petion rose, next morning, to lament these effervescences, this endless Anarchy invading the Legislative Sanctuary itself; and here, being growled at and howled at by the Mountain, his patience, long tried, did, as we say, boil over and he spake vehemently, in high key, with foam on his lips " whence," says Marat, " I concluded he had got la rage" the rabidity, or dog-madness. Rabidity smites others rabid so there rises new foam-lipped demand to have Anarchists extinguished and specially to have Marat put under Accusation. Send a representative to the Revolutionary Tribunal ? Violate the inviolability of a Representative ? " Have a care, O Friends This poor Marat has faults enough but against Liberty or Equality, what fault ? That he has loved and fought for it, not wisely but too well. In dungeons and cellars, in pinching poverty, under anathema of men even so, in such fight, has he grown so dingy, bleared even so has his head become a Stylites one Him you will fling to your Sword of Sharpness while Cobourg and Pitt advance
'^
;

;

;

:

;

!

;

;

;

!

;

on

us, fire-spitting?

is loud, the Gironde is loud and deaf; With " Permanent-Session of twentyare foamy. four hours," with vote by roll-call, and a deadlift effort, the Gironde carries it Marat is ordered to the Revolutionary Tribunal, to answer for that February Paragraph

The Mountain

all lips

:

1

^

"Hist. Pari," xv. 397. [This had ceased with the decree of April isf

793.

See note,

p.

166.— Eu.]

176

THE GIRONDINS

[bk. hi, ch. vii

of Forestallers at the door-lintel, with other offences and, after a little hesitation, he obeys.' Thus is Danton's battle-pledge taken up there is, as he said there would be, " war without truce or treaty, ni treve ni composition^ Wherefore, close now with one another, Formula and Reality, in death-grips, and wrestle it out both of you cannot live, but only one
;
;

;

!

^

" Moniteur " (du i6 Avril 1793, et segq.).

;

APRIL-MAY

1793]

IN DEATH-GRIPS

177

CHAPTER

VIII

IN DEATH-GRIPS proves what strength, were it only of inertia, there established Formulas, what weakness in nascent Realities, and illustrates several things, that this deathwrestle should still have lasted some six weeks or more. National business, discussion of the Constitutional Act, for our Constitution should decidedly be got ready, proceeds along with it. We even change our Locality we shift, on the Tenth of May, from the old Salle de Manege into our new Hall, in the Palace, once a King's but now the Republic's, of the Tuileries. Hope and ruth, flickering against despair and rage, still struggle in the minds of men. It is a most dark confused death-wrestle, this of the six weeks. Formalist frenzy against Realist frenzy Patriotism, Egoism, Pride, Anger, Vanity, Hope and Despair, all raised to the frenetic pitch Frenzy meets Frenzy, like dark clashing whirlwinds neither understands the other the weaker, one day, will understand that it is verily swept down Girondism is strong as established Formula and Respectability do not as many as Seventy-two of the Departments, or say respectable Heads of Departments, declare for us ? Calvados, which loves its Buzot, will even rise in revolt, so hint the Addresses Marseilles, cradle of Patriotism, will rise

IT

is in

;

:

;

;

!

:

;

;

and the Gironde Department, as one man in a word, who will not rise, were our Representation Nationale to be insulted, or one hair of a Deputy's head harmed The Mountain, again, is strong as Reality and Audacity. To the Reality of the Mountain are not all III. N
will rise,
;
!

Bourdeaux


178

!

THE GIRONDINS
;

[bk. in, CH. viii

furthersome things possible ? A new Tenth of August, if needful nay a new Second of September
!

1

But, on Wednesday afternoon, Twenty-fourth April, year 1793, what tumult as of fierce jubilee
It is

day of
is

this?

A

Marat returning from the Revolutionary Tribunal week or more of death-peril and now there is
:

triumphant acquittal Revolutionary Tribunal can find no accusation against this man,^ And so the eye of History beholds Patriotism, which had gloomed unutterable things all week, break into loud jubilee, embrace its
;

|

Marat lift him into a chair of triumph, bear him shoulder-high through the streets. Shoulder-high is the injured People's-friend, crowned with an oak-garland amid the wavy sea of red nightcaps, carmagnole jackets, far-sounding grenadier bonnets and female mob-caps like a sea The injured People's-friend has here reached his culminating point he too strikes the stars with his sublime head. But the Reader can judge with what face President Lasource, he of the " painful probabilities," who presides in this Convention Hall, might welcome such jubilee-tide, when it got thither, and the Decreed of Accusation floatA National Sapper, spokesman on ing on the top of it the occasion, says, the People know their P'riend, and " whosoever wants Marat's love his life as their own head must get the Sapper's first." ^ Lasource answered with some vague painful mumblement, which, says Levasseur, one could not help tittering at."* Patriot Sections, Volunteers not yet gone to the Frontiers, come demanding the " purgation of traitors from your own bosom " the expulsion, or even the trial and sentence, of a factious Twenty-two. Nevertheless the Gironde has got its Commission of
; ;
; !

'

;

!

;

;

[That Marat was guilty of inciting to murder was clear to the It was the judges, most of whom sympathised with the Girondins. mob that really gave the verdict. El).] Seance du 26 Avril, An i*^'' (in " Moniteur," No. 1 16).
'

^

Levasseur, " Memoires,"

i.

c. 6.

From "Tableaux

historiques."

.

and denounce the demand tomorrow. but her eye kindling And Fournier 1' Americian is busy. disavowing the Commune. : . — . 215-227. On the i8th it declared a state of revolution. . viz. The latter had been steadily encroaching. Law shall Triumph/ Old-Constituent Rabaut Saint-Etienne presides over this Commission " it is the last plank whereon a wrecked Republic may perhaps still save herself" Rabaut and they therefore sit. or perhaps her grave Enter not that sea. Nay a " Central Committee " of all the Forty-eight Sections looms forth huge and dubious : : . Other Sections. This was about to pass. or the poorer. the Girondins decree that all Sections shall close " at ten in the evening " before the working people come which Decree remains without effect. O Reader There are dim desolation and confusion raging women and raging men. On Danton's balancing between the Girondins and the Commune. and the two banker Freys. of the wealthier kind. And nightly the Mother of Patriotism wails doleful doleful. though the names should even vary. see Belloc's " Danton. the Convention ones and downwards.. a Commission specially appointed for investigating these troubles of the Legislative Sanctuary let Sansculottism say what it will. and the Girondins gave a partial check to the forces of anarchy. indeed.] with all itself in . and proposing that a Commission of Twelve examine the whole question. and Varlet Apostle of Liberty the bull-voice of Marquis St." pp. ! . . whether the Convention or the Paris Commune was supreme. And shrill women vociferate from all Galleries. intent examining witnesses launching arrestments looking out into a waste dim sea of troubles. Sections come demanding Twenty-two for the mtinber first given by Section Bonconseil still holds.-Huruge is heard. come denouncing such demand nay the same Section will demand today. according as the wealthier sit. This was done. ! .! APRIL-MAY 1793] IN DEATH-GRIPS 179 Twelve. [There was something more definite at stake than a struggle between Formula and Reality. and named (illegally) a commander of the armed forces of Paris. . Wherefore.— Ed. . The Girondins then proposed to quash the Commune and assemble the " substitutes " of the national deputies at Bourges. the womb of Foniiula. On April 2nd it formed a committee of correspondence ' the municipalities of France. . when the Committee of Public Safety (still Dantonist) intervened.

Demoiselle Theroigne herself is become as a brownlocked Diana (were that possible) attacked by her own dogs." xii. They are of " the Society called Brotherly. as she has full well shown but then for Liberty with Respectability whereupon these serpent-haired Extreme She Patriots do now fasten on : .! — [bk. none of the soundest. Moore. is so tattered and fluttered that it will never recover but flutter worse and worse. tatter her. "Deux Amis. receiving them a Centre of the Sections in dread deliberation as to a New Tenth of August One thing we will specify. keeping her carriage. (in See "Commission 195. and count to the extent of eight thousand with serpenthair. Meillan.\\q Archevecke. all out of curl who have changed the distaff for the dagger. Help." vii. 514. little able to speak the obscure meaning it had. : her. to small purpose. is for Liberty indeed. alas. or she-dogs The Demoiselle. " Memoires. . and inarticulately jabber and gesticulate. . They rush to Versailles." pp. " Two thousand daggers. The poor Demoiselle's head and nervous-system. the Patriotism of the softer sex presents itself. in National Garden of Tuileries. to throw light on many the aspect under which. iii. till it crack and within year and day we hear of her in madhouse and strait-waistcoat. or even seen through one's own eyes. 8o sitting THE GIRONDINS : ." Fraternelle. — . There are Female Patriots. " Memoires. sending Resolutions. shamefully fustigate her." pp. 84 . seen through the eyes of these Girondin Twelve. which meets under the roof of the Jacobins. She . which proves permanent Such brownlocked Figure did flutter. through some segment of the Eighteenth Century of Time. . doubtless for them. have been ordered. CH. viii dim in \. 192. had not help intervened. Forster.* way . 196. 69. She disappears here from the Revolution and Public History forevermore. 70. 69-131). in their shameful almost fling her into the Garden-ponds. to raise more women but the Versailles women will not rise. '" des Uouze" i. " Choix des Rapi. ! — ^ Buzot." or so. ports. ! . whom the Girondins call Megseras. say Sisterly. 77-80.^ Nay behold.

had no democrat beheaded for sedition. With what impetus would a man strike traitors. beheaded. and yet not so much as groceries could be had. as to the temper there was in men and women. sitting mildly pensive on the housetop. Imagine. " Des Maladies Mentales " (Paris. i. Hardy. as we walk over. named Watt. Poor Pitt They little know what work he has with his own Friends of the People getting them bespied.] . lurks in the sound of Marseillaise and ^a-ira} Louvet. : — . is perhaps this of Camille Desmoulins. and his own Social Order and strong-boxes kept tight. in that case Ah." vi. — ! . 1838). . one of the clearest in P'rance. 1793] — IN DEATH-GRIPS 181 Another thing we will not again specify.— MAV 25-30. who can see as deep into a millstone as the most. by a Deputation and then the Anarchists will massacre Twenty-two of us. and Thelwall were tried for treason - [Pitt — but were acquitted. was executed for treason. Not a musical Patriot can blow himself a snatch of melody from the French Horn. 445-450. " ' Nouveau Paris. Distraction has possessed Harmony herself. Home Tooke. . discerns that we shall be invited back to our old Hall of the Manege. their habeascorpuses suspended. Camille's head. Four Radical leaders Joyce. 63. A former spy. we say. ! ! — . thou canst not imagine it thou hast thy groceries safe in the shops. that the Millennium were struggling on the threshold. Mercier. does not this one fact say enough: the height SUSPICION had risen to? Preternatural we often called it seemingly in the language of exaggeration but listen to the cold deposition of witnesses. owing to traitors. to fancy him raising mobs among his neighbours ^ But the strangest fact connected with French or indeed with human Suspicion. O Reader. and little or no hope of a Millennium ever coming But indeed. It is Pitt and Cobourg the gold of Pitt. but Mercier will recognise it to be a signal which one Plotting Committee is making to another. — ! did not die till 1817 in the Salpetriere. : . Ed. yet again beseech the Reader to imagine the reign of Fraternity and Perfection. in the most abject state of insanity: see Esquirol.

to obey the Law and solemnly acquiescent. but of a traitorous Twenty-two. Section-President even. remarkable for foulness. hi. History remarks that the Commission of Twelve. energetically demanding him back demanding not arrestment of Popular MagisSection comes trates. and took cockades." are launching Mandates of Arrest rapidly as they say. with their Camflying after Section byses-vein of oratory nay the Commune itself comes." par Camille Desmoulins (a Pamphlet of Camille's. — farther go. 1793). not for nothing. for nothing. when the thousands rose round him. defiling energetic. What chief Patriot. now clear enough as to the Plots and luckily having " got the threads of them all by the end. Ph'e Duchesne trate of the People. sitting in Townhall ." says Camille with insight. solemnity of martyrdom. Procureur-Substitute Hebert. They arrest . and " It was not set on by the Foreign and other Plotters. .] . and carrying matters with a high in these May days hand resolute that the sea of troubles shall be restrained. . around. it is one huge Preternatural Puppet-play of Plots Pitt pulling the wires. with high . — . Behind. disappears into prison. cruelty and rabid socialism. before. . is safe ? They can arrest him tear him from his warm bed. Ed. . . that looking back on that Twelfth of July 1789. . takes leave of his colleagues prompt he. because he has made irregular Section Arrestments They arrest Varlet Apostle of Liberty. — : ^ See " Histoire des Brissotins.— i82 ! THE GIRONDINS [bk. ^ a Magiswho. he finds it explicable only on this hypothesis. Be this as it will. and wooden with wires. That they were all hired to do it. " that this multitude burst up round me when I spoke " No. Paris. am a Plot. Camille myself. ch.^ Almost I conjecture that I. yelling responsive at his word in the Palais-Royal Garden. The force of insight could no ! . The swifter fly the Sections. [" Pere Duchesne " was the name of his newspaper. viii has got itself so saturated through every fibre with PreternaturaHsm of Suspicion.

in such death-peril. is reinstated. Paris were to lift a sacrilegious finger against the National Representation. for there is to be business. must be given back to be crowned with oakgarlands. If Roland ask leave to quit Paris. " Memoires. on which side of the Seine Paris had stood " Whereat the Mountain bellows only louder. is broken then on the morrow." p. The Commission of Twelve. 195 Buzot. and every ^ ! Gallery . with lamentable alleleu? And the Convention-doors are obstructed by roaring multitudes fine-spoken Hoiiwies d'etat are hustled. 183 Mayor Pache at its head and with question not of Hebert and the Twenty-two alone. in a Convention overwhelmed with roaring Sections. or must we do it ? " To whom President Max Isnard makes fiery answer: If by fatal chance. Apostle Varlet. some Creation. and well armed. : And . and say. as they pass Marat will apostrophise you. Girondin Valaze has nightly conclaves at his house sends billets. maltreated. ^ " " Moniteur. in never-imagined vengeance. and shortly " the traveller would ask. . What help? Substitute Hebert. but with this ominous old question made new. . in a Convention of rallied Girondins. 69. pp.MAY with 25-30. " Come punctually. in any of those tumults which since the Tenth of March are ever returning. is struggling through all its elements writhing and chafing towards . Thou too art of them. 84." Seance du 25 Mai 1793. Meillan. . France would rise as one man. 1793] IN DEATH-GRIPS . . Dim Chaos. " Can you save the Republic. Patriot Paris boiling round. or the sea of troubles. with flags." And Megiera women perambulate the streets. . there is order of the day.

sections or members of the Sovereign People. Permanent in Townhall. with extraneous Committee of Ninety-six sitting by us and a Citoyen Henriot.] ^ . is made Generalissimo of the National Guard and. Mayor Pache with MunicipaHty arrives at the Tuileries Hall of Convention sent for. ix CHAPTER EXTINCT IX on Friday the Thirty-first of May 1793) there comes forth into the summer sunHght one of the strangest scenes. in the name of said Sovereign in Insurrection. the tocsins ring. having taken new oath of office. we on a sudden find ourselves Insurrectionary Magistrates. and withdrew into the adjacent Saloon of Liberty. watchful . How . were dismissed from office. . How. ACCORDINGLY. there entered. and the drums Under which peculiar circumstances. since six o'clock. . : — spy [Formerly a servant. in the gray of this morning. some Ninety-six extraneous persons who .^ one whom some accuse of Septemberism. Paris being in visible ferment and gives the strangest news. all in a state of Insurrection and farther that we. we were called back reign pleasing to think us still worthy of confidence. then a venal customs officer and police named commander of the National Guards of Paris on May 28th. . iii. declared themselves to be in a state of Insurrection to be plenipotentiary Commissioners from the Forty-eight Sections. . CH. what would beat . precisely as on a for the commonweal.i84 THE GIRONDINS [bk. in a moment and reinstated the Soveor two. while we sat .— ElJ. we thereupon laid off our sashes. How. Tenth of August. Whereby. .

^ With busy quill and brain . That traitors. ! " Monila Convention" (Paris. 153. Vergniaud at least will have " the National Representatives this is sworn to. Barrere is for a middle this fiery Municipality is near! course granting something.— — MAY 31. carrying the laws of refinement to a great length. '' ." Whereupon. the livelong veloped us day demanding with Cambyses-oratory. while we yet debate. now that Danton felt war to the knife to be inevitable. Barrere shall report on it. . what sound is that? Sound of the Alarm-Cannon on the Pont Neuf which it is death by the Law to fire without order from us sending a stound It does boom off there nevertheless through all hearts. . Twenty-two or more. Too happy that the Twenty-two are still left unviolated Vergniaud. 187-223 [The coercion of the Convention Nos. moves. EXTINCT 185 an august National Convention please to direct us to do ^ ? ! " Break the InsurrectionYes. 152. iv. and is no more. with the rattle of muskets. there is the question ary Authorities. Ed. . 154." i*^''. 1793] — . that " the Sections of Paris have deserved well of their country." answer some with vehemence. " La Demagogic en Paris en 1793. ! . at a late hour of the evening. with ready loud all die at their post " acclaim. But as to breaking the Insurrectionary Authorities. An was further assured by the seizing of the " barriers " of Paris and of Thus the Girondins were caught in a trap all couriers and letters. The Commission of Twelve declares that. — ! ." p. The heart of the Gironde dies within it distant are the Seventy-two respectable Departments.] ^ "Debats de . Ed. the deserving Sections retire to their respective places of abode. be punished that the Commission of Twelve be irrecoverably broken. 1828).] [Barrere was the Reporter of the Committee of Public Safety which intervened to favour the Commune and crush the Girondins. speak his and its last words but he is bellowed off. to the amazement of some. And the tocsins discourse stern music and Henriot with his Armed Force has enAnd Section succeeds Section. teur. not waiting to be broken. alas. (Dauban. 218). . it hereby breaks Fain would Reporter Rabaut itself.

by the old style by the new style. at sound o{ generate." p. 8g. for the night supplied with provisions and liquor. at another favourabler moment rise. — . Tocsin is pealing . Fraternity. still Permanent so reasons the Figure of Marat. .i86 THE GIRONDINS sits. on the morrow morning. when Barrere had just got the thing all varnished by the labour of a night and day. To the conviction of men And so at eventide of Saturday. year 1793. and his Report was setting off in the evening mail-bags. . with Louvet and some others. Barriers shut . The Sections have deserved well but ought they not to deserve better? Faction and Girondism is struck down for the moment. We It seems doubtful whether any terrestrial Convention had ever met in such circumstances as this National one now is does. have got to the last scene of all. . . through streets all in ferment. " Memoires. he last of May : . Henriot and Townhall giving due signal. [bk. will they wait. The Girondins do not stir out thither. . visible in the dim Section-world. tocsin peals out again. what is to be seen and to be done. the Girondins are abroad seeking beds. ch. this night. and consents to be a nullity but will it not. under the summer stars. hi. There. or under arms. ix secluded for him no sleep tonight. that ends this history of the Girondin Senatorship. ^ Louvet. ejaculating. Poor Rabaut. Equality. "Ilia suprema dies !"^ It has become Sunday the 2d day of June. on the morrow. still feller and the Republic have to be saved in spite of it ? So reasons Patriotism. ! — . all Paris on the gaze. hastens back to its Hall but to the number only of a Hundred and does little business. The Convention. wrings his hands. As many as a Hundred Thousand under arms they count National Force and : . Generate is beating armed men taking station in the Place Vendome and elsewhere. returning to his post. puts off business till the morrow. year One of Liberty. . Friday the has ended in this manner. .

to make a generous demission and self-sacrifice for the sake of one's country? Isnard. certain zealous Mountain-men but cannot fling him down. sappers with beards the artillery one can see with their campfurnaces in this National Garden. heating bullets red. as far as the Wood of Boulogne the choicest Patriots nearest the scene. Staff: all posts and issues are safe. Does not this People understand Insurrection ? Ye. and your Commission of Twelve we stand here till it be done Deputation after Deputation. has not forgotten provision-carts. No member of the Sovereign need now go home to dinner but can keep rank plentiful victual circulating unsought. in ever stronger language. There are horse." take thought of it. Nay they do clutch hold of Lanjuinais. One other circum. And he accordingly goes on protesting amid rage and clangour Legendre cry" Lanjuinais. . stance we will note that a careful Municipality. 1793] EXTINCT 187 the Armed Volunteers. foot. Lanjuinais the Breton declares that there is one man who never will demit voluntarily but will protest to the uttermost. : . " vieux radoteur. Ready also is Te-Deiun Fauchet old Dusaulx of the Bastille. reserves lie out. " mandatories of the Sovereign. old dotard. comes with that message. lienriot in plumes rides. is still readier. — ! : ! : — . . . steady under arms. . come down from the Tribune. Expulsion of your Twenty-two. artillery. ing at last or I will fling thee down. treason being unpunished and only flew hither and thither So many. for he " cramps himself on the : . liberal of camp-furnaces. while a voice is left him.— JUNE 2. repentant of that search on which river-bank Paris stood. declares himself ready to demit. environ the National Tuileries and Garden. ou j'e te jette en bas!" For matters are come to extremity. ! : and their match amid a plumed is lighted. 7iot uninventive Gualches Therefore let a National Representation." as Marat calls him. who should have flown to the Frontiers and La Vendee but would not. . On the contrary. Barrere proposes a middle course Will not perhaps the inculpated Deputies consent to withdraw voluntarily. .

and the Convention ordered Henriot to its bar. the rest bareheaded. and " his clothes get torn. . hi. till the ." Lo. Churches fill. copiously refreshed from tray and basket nay he is " distributing five francs a-piece.— i88 — [bk." we Girondins saw it with our eyes five francs . . ix THE GIRONDINS ^ ." worthy of pity Neither will Barbaroux demit he " has sworn to die at his post. from the Eastern Gate of the Tuileries. " In the name of the National Convention. and the chimney-tops are flinging longer shadows the refreshed Hundred Thousand. humiliation and tearing of coat-skirts ilia suprenia dies ! Round stand Henriot and his Hundred Thousand. ." . ! .— Ed. some of them and rush out. jangles at our Bar we are prisoners in our own Hall Bishop Gregoire could not get out for a besoin actuel without four gendarmes to wait on him What is the character of a National to ! . Whereupon : the Galleries all rise with explosion brandishing weapons. superflous one would think. a distressed Convention issuing handsome Herault Sechelles at their head he with hat on. : . keep them in heart And distraction of armed riot encumbers our borders. in sign of public calamity. : ! Representative become ? And now the sunlight falls yellower on western windows. That the Convention go forth in a body ascertain with its own eyes whether it is free or not. therefore. then ing we must save our country " Such a Session is this of Sunday the second of June. ! . make way " Not an inch of way does Henriot make " I receive no orders. and will keep that oath.] ' . the while a day of shrieking contention. : . He did not come.] [Uanton and Barrcre protested against the brutal intimidation of the Convention by the soldiery. nor their shadows. stir not What to resolve on ? Motion rises. : ! : [Lanjuinais (who was to be a stout champion of freedom against Napoleon) had just proposed that the Convention should quash all the revolutionary authorities of Paris. Ed. over Christian Europe. towards the Gate of the Carrousel wondrous to see towards Henriot and his plumed Staff. ! railing " Brave Senator. and then empty themselves but this Convention empties not. of agony. ch. . . say" Allojis.

to return to our place. alas. with his Convention presses on . but Marat disposing). Commission of Twelve. Louvet. by the tale . Roland. in words. The Convention returns. The and victory of the Parisian rabble was also Robespierre's victory part altered to suit the new the Committee of Public Safety was ' : . Guadet. flock. Ministers and one was the ex-Minister. to the Gate on the opposite side. " Does not the Convention. the Mountain has a clear unanimity. proceeds to vote as bidden. with some slight extempore alterations (this or that orator proposing. : ! We . firing ! Cannoneers brandish the lit alas. are voted to be under " Arrestment in their own houses. Lasource. have been obeyed." none but friends round it ? The Convention. in the year One of Liberty. Many some one or two prowill not vote. to your his puissant sword. . but remain silent test. the westering sun never saw. and the denounced Twenty-two.' JUNE 2. wander disconsolate through armed ranks who indeed salute with Live the Republic. overflowing with friends and armed Sectioners." The Henriot prances back. match as if . [Twenty-nine were deputies. ! some guns " flashes out do. and the Hussars — fifteen paces. there is our old Salle de Manege but neither at this Gate of the Pont Tournant is there Try the other and the other no egress egress. and do as we are bidden and bound. . And now this : . Infantry present arms. Gironde. through their pinfold of a Tuileries again across Here is the Garden. Lanjuinais. Rabaut." says Couthon with a singular power of face. Gensonne. m . Barbaroux. " To arms ! Cannoneers. yours and mine. in the level way. Buzot. to whom we add Ex-Ministers Claviere and Lebrun these. as the Staff all all do. : — . Staff. 1793] EXTINCT 189 Sovereign. in the Sovereign's name. but also with Die the Other such sight. " see that it is free. Vergniaud. — . who moved the arrest of the thirty-two. Feuillans-Terrace. Robespierre's protege. for he lagged in behold Marat meets us he has got some Suppliant Procession of ours hundred elect Patriots at his heels he orders us. Thirty-two." Brissot. Two (Lebrun and Claviere) were It was Couthon. — for Hatted Herault leads his distressed .

—Ed. At ten o'clock. and more than we have known." of Buzot. under the safeguard of two Gendarmes each. of Philosophic culture. . . Roland's " Mems. See Mme. Roland has fled. " under the safeguard of the French People " by and by. 334-336. They. Commentaries.. no man knows whither. iii. wherein themselves should be head and they could only get a Republic of the Strengths. their work well finished. . For the rest." xxviii.] ^ See "Pieces Justificatives. decent behaviour not condemnable in that they were but Pedants. wherein others than they were head. by Insurrection and became extinct as a Party not without a sigh from most Historians. shall dwell peaceably in their own houses as Non-Senators Herewith ends farther order." in "Hist. Louvet. They wanted a Republic of the Virtues. and had not better parts not condemnable. for her arrest. Barrere shall make Report of it. under mild stars. The night concludes with a "civic promenade by torchlight" :^ surely the true reign of Fraternity is now not far ? . till Seance of Sunday the second of June 1793. Thus fell the Girondins. Pari. Central Insurrection Committee had arrested Madame Roland imprisoned her in the Abbaye." p. ix that we have known as Girondins.. 310. The men were men of parts. : . Meillan " Docu. turn homewards. but most unfortunate. CH. Already . the Hundred Thousand. situation. in Buzot. yesterday. 1-78. etc." pp. . . mens Complementaires.I90 all THE GIRONDINS [bk.. . Narratives. " Memoires.

. to concealment which. a Barbaroux. Potion." will await with stoical resignation what the issue may be. Some. . " of the Union for Resistance to Oppression. Valaze." In particular. sees its paper-leaf of " Bulletin de Caen " suddenly bud. who have escaped from Arrestment in their own homes a Salles. the Town of Caen. with Buzot. Rabaut. CHARLOTTE CORDAY the leafy months of June and July. as Vergniaud. to Lyons. Toulon. in Calvados. Of this latter temper we count some score or more. or Diurnals. Some. will take to flight. : . as the Paris Barriers are opened again in a day or two. of the Arrested. and of the Not-yet-arrested a Buzot. to Calvados or far over France. : . . But others there are who will rush. several French Departments germinate a set of rebellious paper- named Proclamations. as Brissot. " arrested in their own houses. suddenly establish itself as Newspaper there under the Editorship of Girondin National Representatives For among the proscribed Girondins are certain of a more desperate humour. Guadet. and then rendezvous at Caen to awaken as with war-trumpet the respectable Departments and strike down an anarchic Mountain Faction at least not yield without a stroke at it. . a Pythagorean leaves. Resolutions. ! .BOOK FOURTH TERROR CHAPTER N I . Nantes and elsewhither. Journals. Gensonne. Louvet. is not yet difficult.

with the most animating paragraphs How the Bourdeaux Department. These. that Montelimart Town has said. a Duchatel. or say sixty-nine. from the Eure. having no money of their own. if need be. friends of Liberty from our Calvados Townships. the mayor.— 192 " TERROR [bk." of the town of Caen in Calvados welcomed by Persons in Authority welcomed and defrayed. a perorating and consulting Staff and Army Council Club of Carabots. formerly under Dumouriez a secondary questionable General Puisaye. 72. and others and are doing their best to raise a force for war. That she will march. No thoroughfare.] : . National Volunteers. and after a severe fight in the streets on May 29th they were overpowered by the citizens. But on the other hand. these Girondins have got a General also in chief. i Valady. pp. one Wimpfen. in the early July days. Bordeaux now ordered the enroUing of a force to free the Girondins at Paris. of this be no mention in " Bulletin de Caen. this . the Duchatel that came in blanket and nightcap to vote for the Hfe of Louis. . ^ Meillan. Chaher. or ready to declare. who have escaped from danger and HkeHhood of Arrestment. or Departmental Mansion. And the " Bulletin de Caen " comes forth. p. whosoever is of right heart gather in. say friends. and means even to "bury herself" under her own stone and mortar first. ye National Volunteers. the Lyons Department. : . do accordingly lodge here. . or seventy-two respectable Departments either declaring. from Brittany. : . at the " Intendance. Anti-Jacobin friends ^ — . : ! : . iv." Such animating paragraphs we read in this new Newstirades paper and fervours and eloquent sarcasm against the Mountain. there is a drumming and parading. will march on Paris by itself. [The outrages of the Jacobins and their champion." What is more to the purpose. Nay Marseilles. from the pen of Deputy Salles which resemble. 129. . Ed. So has Marseilles Town said. and extinguish Anarchy Thus at Caen. it seems. : Department after the other is declaring itself. sixty. from far and near forward to Paris. Pascal's " Provincials. at Lyons aroused a strong reaction. . 73 Louvet. to the number at one time of Twenty-seven. CH.

" a National Representative has his hands full. to denounce atrocious Marat. yet the sword in the other. and the editing of "Bulletins. publish Decrees. That Siege of Mentz is become famed lovers of the Picturesque (as Goethe will testify). For. : : . : —Ed. yet not without severity they ray-forth Commissioners. : " Belagerung von Mainz " (Goethe's " Werke." And in a France begirt with Cimmerian invading Coalitions. La Vendue burns Santerre can do nothing there he may return home and brew beer. ' ." xxx. venturing thither. ." Against all which the Mountain and atrocious Marat must even make head as they can. fiercely batters Valenciennes. this is the conclusion we have arrived at To put down Anarchy by Civil War! Durum et durum. the olive-branch in one hand. washed country-people of both sexes. [Dumouriez was replaced by Dampierre the young Custine succeeded him.] in. and indeed is now come to Paris to give " explana.— . With all which. Cimmerian bombshells fly all along the North. more or less animated in the " Seventy-two Departments that adhere to us. these several weeks. to " you only duck see the artillery work and counterwork a little while the shot whizzes past. * ^ . Cimmeria. " for fifty days " and meditate his New Calendar. 278-334). . JULY 1793] CHARLOTTE CORDAY 193 of Freedom. alas. stroll thither on Sundays. — . . At Caen it is most animated and. and Prieur named of the Cote d'Or. Mathematical Romme." Conde is capitulating to the Austrians Royal Highness of York. tions. and torn with an internal La Vendue. . our fortified Camp of Famars was stormed General Dampierre was killed ' General Custine was blamed. singly or in pairs. with their olive and sword. but was soon arrested and replaced by Kilmaine. They. a young officer of Irish extraction he was succeeded by Houchard. Commissioners come even to Caen but without effect. expostulatory. . O . anarchic Convention as they are. as one hopes. the Proverb says. explanatory. non faciunt murum. are packed into prison there may Romme lie. under lock and key. if he please.

with halfangelic. None takes farewell of her. : * Meillan. had emerged from her secluded stillness. History will look fixedly at this one fair Apparition of a Charlotte Corday. half-daemonic splendour to gleam for a moment. . a decision is in this fair female Figure " by energy she means the spirit that will prompt one to sacrifice himself for his country. and and War ! Never was Republic One Indivisible at a lower ebb." completeness.^ She is of stately Norman figure in her twenty-fifth year of beauher name is Charlotte Corday. : ! : . a young Lady with an aged valet. suddenly like a Star cruel-lovely. that he must pardon her. while Nobility still was. this fair young Charlotte. i TERROR Civil La Vendee. The drowsy Diligence lumbers along amid drowsy talk of Politics. where busy Deputies are coming and going. iv. Louvet. tiful still countenance heretofore styled D'Armans. through long centuries Quitting Cimmerian Coalitions without. 114. Amid which dim ferment of Caen and the World. with a place for Paris. Apparently she will to Paris on some errand ? " She was a Republican before the Revolution. . and the dimsimmering Twenty-five millions within. and never wanted energy. how the little Life burns forth so radiant." What if she. Barbaroux has given her a Note to Deputy Duperret. then vanishes swallowed of the Night. and forget her. With Barbaroux's Note of Introduction. will note whither Charlotte moves.— 194 — [bk. signifying that she is gone to England. and in a moment be extinguished to be held in memory. : — A : . all day. and again all : . p. Hisin the lobby of the tory specially notices one thing Mansion de Vlntendance. 75 . wishes her Goodjourney her Father will find a line left. . taking grave graceful leave of Deputy Barbaroux. CH. p. him who once drew his sword in the effervescence. and slight stock of luggage. so bright complete was she. and praise of the Mountain in which she mingles not all night. we see Charlotte on Tuesday the 9th of July seated in the Caen Diligence. .

: .. On Thursday. the thirteenth of the . 195 night. . from Neuchatel in the utmost East. Her business is with Marat. About eight on the Saturday morning. It is yellow July evening. . 44. : ! — . On the morrow morning. according to its vague drives this one fair Figure has decision in it wont straight. . then? Hapless beautihapless squalid Marat From Caen in the ful Charlotte utmost West. . the seat of rebellion that she desires earnestly to see him. about seven in the evening. we are at the bridge of Neuilly here is Paris with her thousand black domes. ! — . they two are drawing nigh each other they two have. still more pressing Tired daycoach. she purchases a large sheath-knife in the Palais Royal then straightway. : — . and confined to home. labourers have again finished their Week huge Paris is circling and simmering. the goal and purpose of thy journey Arrived at the Inn de la Providence in the Rue des Vieux Augustins. she delivers her Note to Duperret. Charlotte writes sets out with it by another Note. 1793] CHARLOTTE CORDAY . herself." No answer. she has seen Mountain is like. returning to her strangely. till the morrow morning. very Charlotte. takes a hackney-coach " To the Rue de I'Ecole de Medecine. The living physiognomy of Marat she could not see he is sick at present. ! JULY 13. It relates to certain Family Papers which are which a Nun at in the Minister of the Interior's hands Caen. in bodily reality. No." It is the The Citoyen Marat is residence of the Citoyen Marat which seems to disappoint her ill. despatches a short Note to Marat she is from Caen. and cannot be seen much. . in the Place des Victoires. Charlotte demands a room hastens to bed sleeps all afternoon and night. an old Convent-friend of Charlotte's. The what the Convention. . . has seen and silently investigated several things. we say. business together. — . manifold. . . in the She course of Friday yet says nothing of returning. signifying that Inn. not long before noon. has need of which Duperret shall assist her in getting this then was Charlotte's errand to Paris? She has finished this. towards a purpose. . and " will put it in his power to do France a great service.

writes he with bare shrunk arm. and Charlotte has drawn her knife from the sheath plunges it. . " Their heads shall fall within a fortnight. IV. and Loiivet. within. ! A — — : — : ! . in paper with slipperbath strong three-footed stool for writing on.] ^ as he phrased . " Moniteur." Nos. of what other Malady this History had rather not name. Be seated. whom Marat. refusing to be rejected: it is the Citoyenne who would do France a service. with one " A vioi.xxviii. Citoyen Marat. — . : . cries. sure stroke. Marat." x.. . stewing in slipperbath sore afflicted ill of Revolution Fever. I am from Caen the seat of rebellion. and wished to speak with you. [She was Simonne Evrard. . CH. Four years what a road he has travelled . or Friend of the Washerwoman but his life with a groan gushes out. Not to the reign of Brotherhood and Perfect Felicity yet surely musical on the way towards that? Hark. [bk. when " M.^ month — .— 196 : TERROR . it. and give up their arms. which had such friendly dispositions." " Deux Amis. there is no Friend of the People. The helpful Washerwoman running in." croaks the eager People's-Friend. clutching his tablets to write Barbaroux. Admit her.^ one may call her that is his civic establishment in Medical-School Street thither and not elsewhither has his road led him. 368-374. about half-past seven of the clock. a rap again woman's voice. — : . Help. shrewdly required of that Besenval Hussar-party. "Hist. uion enfant. indignant.and sits now. - 301-305 . into the writer's heart. the while and a squalid Washerwoman." Ed. — . recognising from Charlotte Corday is admitted. had "married in sight of Heaven. Now what are the Traitors doing at Caen ? What Deputies are at Caen ? Charlotte names some Deputies." four years ago. 198. 199. Petion. then " and became notable among Patriot men. 197. cJiere a^nie. I eve of the Bastille day. turning aside in the bath Petion. " to dismount. Pari. poor man pence-halfpenny of ready-money.. Exceswith precisely elevensively sick and worn. in the crowd of the Pont Neuf. : — . Marat. dear " no more could the Death-choked say or shriek. to left the shades below.

flying at her. may sound by Patriot France . ." whom we name not here ^ also a Chapel may be made." entrenches herself till the gendarmes arrive then quietly surrenders goes quietly to the Abbaye Prison she alone quiet. etc. : . on account of her his Papers sealed. her work is accomplished the recompense of it is near and sure. Public Funeral. 125-131) Mercier. Ye children of men A sister of his.— — JULY 13. . . summing up his character. The cJiere amie. in rage or admiration. in like . which may lead to consequences. Mirabeau's dust making way for him and Jacobin Societies. : : '^ . all Paris sounding. . and slept safe in a cradle like the rest of us. Seance du 16 Septembre 1793. in the Place du Carrousel and new-born children and Lago-di-Como Hawkers bake be named Marat mountains of stucco into unbeautiful Busts and David paint his Picture. Patriot Paris and tenfold." prononce a Strasbourg (in Barbaroux. He that made him knows. or Death-Scene and such other Apotheosis take place as the human genius. in lamentable oratory. with terror. in these circumstances. and neighbours of the house. parallel him to One. the lone Sty- has got hurled triple tvhitherivard down suddenly from his Pillar." may decree him Pantheon Honours. . in the old " Moniteur" Newspaper how Marat's Brother comes from Neuchatel to ask of the Convention. " that the deceased Jean-Paul Marat's musket be given him. . they say." For Marat too had a brother and natural affections and was wrapped once in swaddlingclothes. lives still to . can devise but Marat returns no more to the light of this Sun. in wonder. ^ See " Eloge funebre de Jean-Paul Marat. . she " overturns some movables. ! — this day in Paris. — . 1793] CHARLOTTE CORDAY is 197 And lites so Marat People's-friend ended . " Chabot pale . for the urn that holds his Heart. One sole circumstance we have read with clear sympathy. in dole and wail reechoed and the Convention. As for Charlotte Corday. Duperret is put in arrest. pp. Fauchet. whom they think it honour to call " the good Sansculotte. . round her. declaring that they are to be all assassinated.

from the gate of the Conciergerie. .. — . . Adam Lux." xxviii. . Charlotte not disapproving the men of law proceed with their formalities. ("Hist." you could not say of what character. " I killed one man. serene." There is therefore nothing to be said. : A . CH. Many take off their hats. To her Advocate she gives thanks in gentle phrase. Revolution I never wanted energy. of Mentz. i though Fauchet had not so much as heard of Charlotte. any ghostly or other aid from him. ' x. saluting for what heart but must be touched ? reverently Others growl and howl. . the fatal Cart issues seated on it a fair young creature. : : . On Wednesday morning. ^ " Deux Amis.' 198 TERROR . 1 "Proces de Charlotte Corday. the thronged Palais de Justice and Revolutionary Tribunal can see her face beautiful and calm she dates it " fourth day of the Preparation of strange murmur ran through the Hall. IV. [bk. " I killed one man to save a hundred thousand a villain to save innocents a savage wild-beast to give I was a Republican before the repose to my country. at Peace. then ? " By no one's." stigation ? His crimes. alone amid the World." etc. — ." added she. : . sheeted in red smock of Murderess so beautiful. but needs not any shriving. What tempted you. 374-384- . The public gazes astonished the hasty limners sketch her features. Pari. confronted with these two Deputies. censures the dejection of Fauchet.' sight of her Tinville has his indictments and tape-papers the cutler of the Palais Royal will testify that he sold her the sheath-knife "All these details are needless." interrupted Charlotte " it is I that killed Marat. . On this same evening therefore. to a City all on tiptoe. declares . so full of life journeying towards death. . praises the grave firmness of Duperret. about half-past seven o'clock. . raising her voice extremely {extrcmement)^ as they went on with their questions. 311- 338). in high-flown classical To the Priest they send her she gives thanks spirit. The doom is Death as a murderess." By whose in- manner her.

From "Tableaux historiques .Glnxrlottc (Sox day.

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" It is true. whetting old animosities tenfold. for example. As the last act. . Lux is reckless thinks it were beautiful to die with her. : that she is greater than Brutus that it were beautiful to die with her the head of this young man seems turned.! — 199 JULY 17. the countenance of Charlotte wears the same still smile. and extinguished one another. 508. : . will be worse than any life. At the Place de la Revolution. the Beautiful and the Squalid. how were peace possible or preparable. but of Codrus'-sacrifices and Death well-earned ? That Twenty-five million hearts have got the soul of it lies in to such temper. Friends represent his danger. The executioners proceed to bind her feet she resists. JeanPaul Marat and Marie-Anne Charlotte Corday both. they take the neckerchief from her neck of maidenly shame overspreads that fair face and neck the cheeks were still tinged with it when the executioner . the severed head. : ! goes home. thinking it meant as an insult on a word of explanation. sleep ye well. : ! . . O ye hapless Two. Adam most complete angelic-daemonic like a Star lifted most ." In this manner have theBeautifulest and the Squalidest come in collision. this z's the Anarchy The whereof not peace can be the embodiment this death of Marat. . " that he struck the cheek inthe Police imsultingly for I saw it with my eyes ^ prisoned him for it. . to show it to the people. . in their convent-stillness. half-delirious to pour forth his Apotheosis of her. while. . suddenly. Greater than Brutus. 1793] CHARLOTTE CORDAY . in paper and print to propose that she have a statue with this inscription. " Day of the Preparation of Peace"? Alas." i. are dreaming not of Love-paradises and the light of Life. she submits with cheerful apology. the hearts of lovely Maidens. are no more. all being now a blush ready. in the Mother's bosom that bore you both This is the History of Charlotte Corday most definite. . mutually extinctive. . Lux ' " Briefwechsel." says Forster.

to rabid fighting behind whom Nievre Choi and the Girondins triumph there is. He could weep. ii CHAPTER IN CIVIL II WAR during the same BUT work. with whom he seems to speak earnestly. Ed." and Anarchists shall tremble. on the morrow. made answer " My death will . ! ." ' ^ [For the Jacobin revenge see bk. : cost this City dear. he also travels his final road. Chalier. another guillotine is at Charlotte. iii. and " fall on his knees on the pavement." blessing Heaven at sight of Federation Programs or the like then he pilgrimed to Paris. this man. So Chalier was soon found guilty. when the Tribunal sentenced him. indeed. " by the side of an ecclesiastic. v..— TERROR [bk. For. hours. it has come to firing of them. Jacobinism groans inwardly.] . : — . of Jacobinism. as everywhere. at Lyons but dare not outwardly. . chap. dies at Lyons — . of murderous Plot. From rumbling of cannon along the streets of that City. . for the Girondins. on another : at Paris today tomorrow. dies Chalier. by the Girondins. : . a Royalist Faction waiting to Trouble enough at Lyons and the dominant strike in. . to worship Marat and the Mountain now Marat and he are both gone we said he could not end well. along the streets of Lyons. . IV. CH." the axe now glittering nigh. the party carrying it with a high hand whole South is astir incarcerating Jacobins arming wherefore we have got a " Congress of for Girondins Lyons " also a " Revolutionary Tribunal of Lyons. in old years. " address with drawn dagger on the sixth of February last" and. — .

though in small force Major. or now perhaps sword only.— JULY 15. . Convention Committees. what man shall sum ? The Bar of Iron has never yet floated in Marseilles Harbour but the body of Rebecqui was found floating. . . Nantes: all France. ii. of the name of Napoleon Buonaparte. are busy night and day Convention Commissioners whirl on all highways bearing olive-branch and sword. that a Deputation " should go every day. .] ^ Barbaroux. felt that there was no refuge for a Republican but no one knew whither death. Chaumette and Municipals come daily to the Tuileries demanding a Constitution it is some weeks now since he resolved. in case of necessity. 529-541. of Salvation. 29. Ed. . tumbling on the salt waves ^ and Toulon perceived that Rebecqui had withdrawn forever. : [Bonaparte did not reach the camp outside Toulon till September 1 6th. to prove that the Marseillese have no chance publishes his ultimately. with the Congress Royalists and English. that is not under the swoop of Austria and Cimmeria. : . The Mountain labours like a volcano in a burning volcanic Land." and : — . Montelimart is . ! . 1793] IN CIVIL WAR .' This Napoleon. Bourdeaux.' Unfortunate Cities. seeing how confusion deepened. 201 Town is not buried under its ruins yet actually marching. Marseilles . seems rushing into madness and suicidal ruin. Hot Rebecqui. — . with their actions and Violence to be paid with violence in geotheir reactions Royalism and Anarchism both striking metrical ratio in the final net-amount of which geometrical series. ^ See Hazlitt." a Dialogue which has become curious. in Townhall. and Respectability grew poisoned with Royalism. Rebecqui disappeared till. p. not only fights but writes " Supper of Beaucaire. they found the empty case or body of him risen to the top. one morning. ^ . Against which a General Cartaux and with him an Artillery fights. sending delegates to likewise is incarcerating Patriots intriguing. self-drowned there. Montpellier. — . under order of a " Lyons Congress " is incarcerating Patriots the very Royalists now showing face. of Surety. .

^ [Puisaye was a royalist he afterwards organised the Breton . one might have hoped better things. : : ! . . 210. in a shriek With " seventy-two Departments " on our But it turns side. in the symbols that claim obedience. 345. that lumbers out from her. her nurselings. . . Why. we may say and no other whatsoever. of looking to Paris for its orders. though they will vote. the Calvados War itself had. there is not a leathern Diligence. will not fight. Mothei'-city rightly so with our enemies named all the rest are but as her children. ! : . ch. can see nothing for it but that one should fall back on Royalism Dark innuendoes he get into communication with Pitt whereat we Girondins start. : . Chaumette did some useful work on the Paris Commune." x. ^ " Deux Amis. immense irresolution and inertia they obey him who has Consider what. TERROR a ii demand suicidal Constitution. the opening of Ed.] crisis (3) the Girondins showed no organising skill at all. this one fact means the Metropolis is Metropolis. looking practically into the matter. it is ninety-and-nine Men do what they were wont to do and have points. one may say. This then is the fruit your Antianarchic Girondins have got from that Levying of War in Calvados ? This fruit. ! — . flings out. to that effect horrorstruck. but is as a huge life-pulse she is the heart of all. how much is cut short Wimpfen. out that Respectabilities. modern society. especially in times of national Ed.' Possession always is nine points in Law but in Lawsuits of this kind. [For the constitution see note on p. a thing in' expressibly desirable. till France might rally whereby one were got and pacify itself. ^ [The reasons for the collapse were (i) that Normandy and Brittany were in the main royalist.^ . iv. . and would not rise at the summons of the republican Girondins (2) France had the habit . as it were. dreamlike. For indeed. with its post-bags and luggage-boots. . such as the suppression of lotteries and gaming-houses.— 202 — [bk. Cut short that General one leathern Diligence. ! . before either Charlotte's or Chalier's head had fallen. He produces as his Second in command a entirely uncertain " Ci-devant^' one Comte Puisaye known to Louvet greatly suspected by him.] libraries daily. vanished. and the improvement of hospitals.

Lanjuinais are on cross roads making for Bourdeaux. British Museum. having fallen and in brief the Calunexpectedly into sanve-qui-pcnt vados War had burnt priming and the only question now was. 1793] IN CIVIL WAR more 203 in- Few wars. there. How on the fifteenth afternoon of and. accordingly. oneself! ^ The National Volunteers rush homewards. ii. without loss. in what hole to hide sufficient character : . shrieked mutually. was roused from his warm bed in the Castle of Brecourt and had to gallop without boots our Nationals. . The Seventy-two Respectable Departments. marching off with plenty of wind-music. How Puisaye thereafter. . July. To Bourdeaux cries the general voice.: ! JULY 15. will lie hid. the much-enduring man and Royalist How our Girondin National forces. Whitherward to vanish. in the night-watches. to meet the Mountain National forces advancing from Paris. 1803). were ever levied of a than this of Calvados. for the Mountain Nationals fled first. of Valour alike will there. and led the Quiberon expedition (1795) then retired to England and intrigued for the Princes finally left his MSS. and we thought ourselves the victors." we find placarded on our Intendance Mansion. as it were. they did meet and took mutually to flight.] ^ " Memoires de Puisaye" (London. " all turned round and forsook us. He that is curious in such things may read the details of it in the Memoirs of that sdivae Ci-devant Puisaye. or is Some flag of Respectability still floats thought to float. in the space of four-and-twenty hours. trates . Gaudet. — . 5 ! P^leven of peasants. each as he can Thitherward therefore . 142-167. : ? in Vanish Rennes . to the . the Decree of Convention which casts us Hors placarded by our Caen Magisla loi. in the wood-country near Vernon. as at Lyons for instance. have gone too far for turning " One morning. — — — . faster than they came. were drawn out about the old Chateau of Brecourt.— Ed. says Meillan." Unhappy those who. into Outlawry —clear hint that we also are to vanish. . Gorsas has friends indeed but whitherward he hide —unhappily not . ! and of Despair.

ch. . iv. and retreat southward with the Breton Battalion. pp. 241-270. retreat by ourselves. ii these ill-fated Deputies. a day or two. a solitary marching detachment. 81. These brave Bretons had stood Nevertheless. pp. as private soldiers of that corps. do an original thing Take the uniform of National Volunteers. Friend Riouffe the Man of Letters. at the end of truer by us than any other.' : . Meillan. 101-137 . among whom we may count as twelfth.204 TERROR [bk. they also do now get dubious. self-divided we must part from them and. — ' Louvet. with some half-dozen as convoy or guide. . through waste regions of the West.

it is market-day to the gaping public such . . Riouffe. more and more. Light Louvet . continually. a wider wave of inquisitive pursuing tumult is stirred up. blistered. . in the yellow autumn . with thy early-white head. not hare-hearted : only virtuous . . ITthatone History presents The handful of forlorn Legisis : lators retreating there. light purse Revolutionary Committees are in every with a sea Township of Jacobin temper our friends all cowed. by ill chance." only on tiptoe Barbaroux limps with sprained ankle. Buzot is too in motion. ye weary pilgrims allowed to march through. encompassed with perils as worn shoes. till the whole West will be " Cussy is tormented with gout. long hundreds of miles between them and Bourdeaux the country all getting hostile. has it come to this? Weary ways. : . yet ever cheery. In the Borough of Moncontour. — ! . glances hare-eyed. full of hope and valour. O virtuous Petion. this of the Eleven. marches fat for marching. of promptitude and luck. O brave young Barbaroux. bleeding. Louvet has preserved the Itinerary of it a piece worth all the rest he ever wrote. The country is getting up noise of you is bruited day after day. : transit of a solitary Marching Detachment is suspicious we have need of energy. a solitary Twelve retreating in this mysterious manner with every new day. our cause the losing one. with shouldered firelock and well-filled cartridge-box..! JULY 1793] RETREAT OF THE ELEVEN 205 CHAPTER III RETREAT OF THE ELEVEN of the notablest Retreats. . suspicious of the truth simmering and buzzing on all sides. to be Hasten.

it were madness to think well if you can get to Quimper on the sea-coast. Of Bourdeaux. In the paltry Village of Carhaix (be its thatched huts and bottomless peat-bogs long notable to the Traveller). Wayworn. heartworn. it is found advisable to march all night. - ^ Meillan. through fiery La Vendue and the long geographical spaces that remain. : . Thence lie let quiet. in agony of suspense. and mounted this or the other leathern vehicle. ! The doomed Twelve do it . who perhaps will harbour the homeless. "There they are. so hot has the country grown. Faster. till Quimper friendship get warning. and reap deathless laurels. some score or two-score months ago. 119-137. till a Bourdeaux ship weigh. dead of night by Jacobin mayors and tap of drum get off by firm countenance. Les voila qui passeyit ! " ' Swifter. in They rudest paillasse on the They are seized in the floor of a secret friend is luxury. with loss of road. . one is astonished to find citizens are awake. the still night-canopy they plod along Rumour has outplotted them. to be Conscript Fathers of a regenerated O France. squatted under the thick wet boscage suspicious of the face of man. they lie there. ever faster Before the end of the march. — hide them in sure places. though with difficulty. pp. and lie squatted there . ye doomed lame Twelve speed ere they can arm gain the Woods of Quimper before day. 138-164. and take shipping there. when 5^6 packed your luggage. Some Unhappiest of all pity to the brave to the unhappy . with rushlights light still glimmering burning. 2o6 TERROR was but once seen . ruffled. ! Legislators. : ! woody brakes . They do it under and yet behold. . Louvet pp.. ch. a voice is heard saying. In Quimper are Girondin friends. gradually or there they can moirs. : ." till a Bourdeaux ship will ." ' iv. hi lie Petion's serenity " in straw-lofts. them dissipate and write " Me- sail. [bk. did you think your journey was to lead hither! The Quimper Samaritans find them squatted lift them up to help and comfort . rattle of muskets and ready wit. in that nook of the terrestrial Planet as we traverse swiftly the one poor street. — . with peril and the mistakes of a night.

if the seals were once broken. he is evidently Deputy Brissot Back to thy Arrestment. he appealed to France as against Paris. stands legibly appended. fit to breed woe enough A secret solemn Protest against that suprema dies of the Second of June This Secret Protest our poor Duperret had drawn up. Nor must we forget Duperret. with this inscription. between two walls. poor Brissot or indeed to strait confinement. the same week. in all plainness of speech waiting the time for publishing it to which Secret Protest his signature. what yet remains of Convention. Seventy-three Respectable Girondism to think ! — Also we ' tale. Here dwelt the Traitor Bnzot^ who conspired against the Republic. find. At Caen the Corday family mourns in silence Buzot's House is a heap of dust and demolition and amid the rubbish sticks a Gallows. in dissipated . And thus. The worse fares it with the poor Arrested visible Deputies at Paris. but when the Convention was coerced by the Parisian mob. and the Revolutionary Tribunal. And now. Romme is out of prison. " Arrestment at home " threatens to become "Confinement in the Luxembourg " to end where ? For example. Buzot and the other vanished Deputies are ho7-s la loi. in the [Buzot was an ardent republican. whom they arrest in the town of Moulins ? To Revolutionary Committee he is suspect. . : : ! . in Prison. To Revolutionary Committee. and the seal put on his papers by reason of Charlotte. in a friend's house lives. the : . Ed. and that of other honourable Deputies not a few. meditating his Calendar ringleaders are locked in his room. on probing the matter. the famed Such by the Protesters. that in these last days of July. whither others are fated to follow.— JULY 1793] RETREAT OF THE ELEVEN Calvados all is 207 . as we saw their lives free to take where they can be found. your Merciers. . : Mountain still victorious ? Bailleuls. may tremble These are the fruits of levying civil war. in invisible darkness. It will end. journeying towards Switzerland as a Merchant of Neuchatel.] . this same Arrestment business. Rabaut has built himself a false-partition. — . what pale-visaged thin man is this. One Paper is there. : ! .

as these cavaliers. — . hi Siege of Mentz is finished the Garrison to march out with honours of war not to serve against the Coalition for a year. and sent out his nimble Host of Dwarfs. the name of a Jacobin Townsman and Clubbist and shook Merlin drew bridle referred to his itself to seize him. which struck every one. was that of the Chasers they had advanced {Chassem's) coming out mounted . Lovers of the Picturesque. The Convention decreed the arrest of Generals Custine and Beauharnais for not having well provisioned the place. with due interest. distinguishing himself by wild beard and look. of a certain age. dignity as French Representative. and a most seriousat. with mien suitable to the music. slight. : quite silent to where we stood. " But now a single troop became notable that of the Commissioners or Reprcsentans. iv. proportionate to the creeping step they rode It was piercing and fearful. . . lean men. long. however but at present they gave it in altogether briskly played slow time. : mass.— 2o8 . saw. Ed. came tripping on had opened the Dwarf Hill. as if King Edwin in patched clothes. had another person in similar costume on his left the crowd shouted out." xxx. Merlin of Thionville." in : . and Goethe standing on the Chaussee of Mentz. at sight of this latter.] . ^ . a column of Marseillese. Next followed regular troops serious. sullen not as if downcast or ashamed. parti-coloured. the Procession issuing forth. they were highly dignified. swarthy. for this was not the last time Thus rode Merlin threatenthey would see him here. 1 "Belagerung von Mainz" (Goethe's "Works. ch. . . looking thing. [Mainz surrendered on July 23rd. when their Band struck up the Marseillaise. in hussar uniform. But the remarkablest appearance. TERROR : [bk. . to the vengeance that should follow any injury done he would advise every one to compose himself.' This revolutionary Te-Deum has in itself something mournful and bodeful. in all solemnity: " Escorted by Prussian horse came first the French Nothing could look stranger than this latter Garrison. . came pacing on singly you might have likened them to Don Quixote ' ' ' . with rage. 315).

are both in the x\orih-east of France.— JULY 1793] — RETREAT OF THE ELEVEN ! 209 ing in defeat. Carnot and Prieur (de la Cote d'Or) were added on August 14th to supervise the Minister of War (Buchotte). Ed.^ to for meant keep them herself! . Valenciennes Siege is finished. in a splenetic manner that " the Monsieurs of the Palais Royal " are calling Long-life to this General. Andre. were supporters of Robespierre. has become a great Authority what we can call shield-bearer or bottle-holder. keep it from submerging the very heart of the country Furthermore. on all these captured French Towns there flies not the Royalist fleur-de-lys. The Jacobins Debates are reported in the " Moniteur. by successive " scrutinies or epuraiions. who kept their places. Perhaps General Custine. What seems very notable too. But what now shall stem that tide of Prussians setting-in through the opened Northeast ? Lucky if fortified Lines of Weissembourg. precisely in the same days." from all taint of Girondism. Hitherto it had been Dantonist. purged now. — : Valenciennes on July 28th. from tribune and gallery.] ' . Danton was not re-elected. Couthon. Herault de Sechelles and Thuriot.^ Cimmerian Coalition presses on. [Conde surrendered on July loth They — III. in the Northwest fallen. Ed. and Lindet. however. The Mother Society. nay call it fugleman. growls loud that he ought to do it remarks.] " [Carlyle has not noticed the very important changes made in the Committee of Public Safety on July loth. can give some explanation of the fall of these strong-places ? Mother Society.'and Robespierre took his place. under the red hail of York Conde fell some fortnight since. but a report proscribing only nine of the escaped Girondins was regarded as such a sign of weakness that the Convention elected uncompromising men like Jean Bon St. . Gasparin." like Parliamentary ones. Gasparin soon fell ill and resigned. still in Paris. St. Just. Thus the famous Committee was no longer Dantonist and inclined to mercy. Prieur (de la Marne). in the name of a new Louis the Pretender but the Austrian flag flies as if Austria : — ! . but Robespierrist and Terrorist. and impassabilities of Vosges Mountains confine it to French Alsace. to the purged National Convention itself. .

Fr. are come some time ago Chaumette very anxious about them. a new Feast of Pikes For Chaumette's " Deputation every day " has worked It was one of the rapidest out its result a Constitution." discerns there? Praised be the Heavens." p. did hasten to accept it point. .] .— Ed.). ^ [The draft of the Constitution was hurriedly completed by Herault de Sechelles. IV. on June 24th.TERROR [bk. lest Girondin Monsieurs. Year One specially into Paris City. in the name of the Committee of Public Safety and a Revolutionary Government took its place." vol. however. . Couthon.. Agio-jobbers. in Feast of Pikes? The Departmental Deputies. so as to pacify the Departments. which had been loudly asking for one (Wallon. iii.. we say. are. chap. by overwhelming maglad of any Constitution jorities. Just. for . Workmanlike or not." vol. Ramel. and Mathieu. Its acceptance by the Primary Assemblies of France was celebrated on August loth. Just. is this that of Liberty. iv CHAPTER O NATURE IV more what BUT looking History. year 1793. some say in eight days. "by old-style. i. on the lOth of August.. the venerablest Republicans of each Department. It was suspended on October loth. by Herault S^chelles and others probably a workmanlike. roadworthy Constitution enough on which ! : . we whatsoever. . and Morse Stephens' " French Rev. and sworn to. with solemn message of Acceptance and now what remains but that our new Final Constitution be proclaimed. CH. V. App. ii. . 306. St. or . " Le Federalisme en 1793. — some reasons.. on the motion of St. For an outline of it see Aulard's " La Rev. the Forty-four Thousand Communes of France. Constitutions ever put together made.^ Nay Departmental Deputies have come. little called to form a judgment.

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-5 X .

is the Day. Thanks to David and the French genius. led on by handsome Herault soft wind. palpable visible. tipping the hills and chimney-heads with gold. filling : the air. there steps forth into the sunlight. with the tools and emblems of their crafts among which we notice a Plough. Painter David has not been idle. were it their morals/ : — . Not a Dream spouting water from her two mavunelles. . Lo. Next are processionings along the Boulevards Deputies or Officials bound together by long indivisible " tricolor riband general " members of the Sovereign walking pell-mell. come Mother Society and Daughters comes National Convention. 1793] O NATURE 211 even Filles de joie of a Girondin temper. T^. with pikes. . drawn by and dissonance Arches enough on their children. this but a fact. lo. There she spouts. beginning. History can notice with satisfaction. . will say but little. which become blasts. and the roar of artillery and human throats finishing well the first act of this solemnity. Herault is at great Nature's Herault lifts. on the ruins of the Bastille. " O Nature " and all the Departmental Deputies drink. a Scenic Phantasmagory unexampled History. greater almost than Bastille July. — : : . with an eloquent Pagan Prayer. whereof this day. with hammers. in an feet (she is plaster-of-paris merely) iron saucer. . ! . of wind-music. But as the coming great Nature dim. regu- and unregulated come Departmental Deputies." xi. . as great Sol scatters his first fire-handful. so occupied with Real Phantasmagories. Sun ruddies the lated East. come . a Statue of Nature gigantic. corrupt Tenth of August.AUG. For one thing. . and ancient Baucis and Philemon seated music breathing note of expectation. countless Multitudes. water spouted from the sacred breasts drinks of it. it. . Many-voiced harmony Through Triumphal first at " the basis of the of which. immortal Anniversary. we ' Deux Amis. each with what best suitable ejaculation or propheticutterance is in him amid breathings. before daybreak.

— 212 . one fears). . with uplifted all-conquering club descry . by handsome Herault. " Three thousand birds " are let loose. and social repasts. Equality. And then forward across the River where is new enormous Statuary enormous plaster Mountain Her" manycnXQs-Peuple. and Pagan orisons offered up. \ . is not Romme's New Calendar getting ready? On all house-tops flicker little tricolor Flags. gesticulating and perorating. there with urn of slain Defenders. can be had and with flowing tankard or light-mantling glass. . there stand printed these words Republic one and indivisible Liberty. IV. . usher in this New and Newest Era. for no Patriot not suspect will be behind another. making pause of admiration. in the Place de la Revolution. Holocaust of Royalist and ci-devant trumpery. CH. which swiftly we shear off." xii. TERROR [bk.^ Towards six o'clock let the wearied President. into the whole world. 432-442. their flagstaff a Pike and Liberty-Cap. hoping to become of metal stands where a Tyrant Louis Ouinze once stood. let Paris Patriotism generally sit down to what repast. by pulley and cord ? The Statue of Liberty She too is of plaster. — — . We are free . Fraternity. . is burnt pontifical eloquence must be uttered. In fact. And now mark. — — : ' " Choix des Rapports. IV whom thinkest thou ? the Heroines of the Insurrection of Women. headed Dragon of Girondin Federalism rising from fetid marsh " needing new eloquence from Herault. what other august Statue may this be veiled in canvas. On all house-walls. imitate us. Strong Dames of the Market. Carpenter's-level of the Law and such exploding. such as one could still gather. . . they sit there (Theroigne too ill to attend. with labels round their neck. . To say nothing of Champ-de-Mars. tricolor bedizenment firm seated on their Cannons. addresses soothing eloquence whereupon they rise and fall into the march. . that Herault's lips must be growing white. To whom handsome Herault. . with oak-branches. or Death. and his tongue cleaving to the roof of his mouth. and Fatherland's Altar : — .

in defect of a better at all events. after menclature trouble enough. 5. have been sent to that effect and indeed. and Patriots It is in general. on the 5th of October 1793. more the New Era being come. for a year past. . ^ [The official term for these days was Jours Complementaires. The five odd days we will make Festivals. almost ten years ago. better New one of Romme's and our own. or Year. but a meditating it Romme. aided by a Monge. Four equal Seasons. furnishes Fabre d'Eglantine furnishes poetic nomathematics and so. has been not Marechal's New Calendar. . they bring forth this New Republican Calendar of theirs. But the Convention a subject not without difficulties. we may say here rather than elsewhere that speculative men have long been struck with the inequalities and incongruities of the Old Calendar that a New one has long been as good as determined on. have dated First Year of the Republic. in a complete state and by Law get it put in action. is made complete solely every fourth year. all Public Bodies. . Festival of Genius Festival of Labour of Actions of Rewards of Opinion these are the five Sansculottides. has taken it up and Romme. than once. . which offers tion. : : . or a better. is it not one of the luckiest coincidences that the Republic herself commenced on the 21st of September close on the Autumnal Equinox ? Autumnal Equinox. . at midnight for the meridian of Paris. whilom called Leap-year.AUG. free at least from superstition this the Paris Municipality would now adopt. in the . Marechal the Atheist. . a Lagrange and others. . — Ed. : . : . Twelve equal Months of Thirty days each this makes three hundred and sixty days and five odd days remain to be disposed of. we introduce a sixth Sansculottide and name it Festival of the RevoluNow as to the day of commencement. Journalists. . difficulties.J . and name the five Saiisculottides^ or Days without Breeches. . as we say. let us have either this of Marechal's Petitions. Whereby the great Circle. . 1793] O NATURE 213 As to the New Calendar. proposed a New Calendar. — .

or Tenth-day. is the New Calendar of Romme and the Convention calculated for the meridian of Paris. . shall always be the " Day of Rest. in brief. Then as to minuter subdivisions. stile-esclave " whereof we. make our Winter season. — . or Decade not without results. in so many Newspapers. Rainous. Vendaniaire. let us venture at once on a bold stroke adopt your decimal subdivision and instead of the world-old Week. iy year whilom Christian 1792. where needful. out of New-style into Old-style. divide the Republican Year. These Twelve. has stamped itself deep into that section of Time a New Era that lasts some Twelve years and odd is not to be despised. present to the reader. iv. Such ground-scheme. Memoirs. or Se'ennight. Frostarious these are our three Autumn months. in these pages. — . Prairial. in mixed English.Heatidor. in a singular manner. Snow07is. . then. Florcal. There are three Decades. Phiviose. in each of the months. or Buddal. Meadowal. Germinal. Vintagearious. in self-defence." And the Christian Sabbath. Public Acts. ch. or rule of Commutation from Newstyle to Old-style. Windous. from that moment shall the New Era reckon itself to begin. we shall now in a Note. Messidor. Fogarious. but still legible and printable. Fruitidor. — ' September 22d of 1792 is Vendemiaire ist of Year One. Nivose. are Republican Summer. almost worn out in our service. and have it lying by him. in that case? . Fnictidor. . therefore. Briiniaire^ Frimaire or as one might say. : : . shall as much as possible use the latter only. Reapidor. Ventose. Meadozvals History till at last. For the Romme Calendar. help himself.214 TERROR [bk. and Gospel of Jean Jacques not one of the least afflicting occurrences for the actual British reader of French confusing the soul with Messidors. : . one is forced to construct some ground-scheme. : . Shall shift for itself! This.^ Let the Reader. make it a Tennight. that is to say (<^cr being Greek iovgift). are our Spring season. which is very regular and the Decadi. called also " slave-style. Thennidor. Floweral. with such ground-scheme. or say.

nor ever will get. Salut Public. however. . from " September 23d " round to " February 29 " again. . . There are 5 Sansculottides. and in leap-year a sixth. . 20 rg November December OJ . in the present alarming circumstances. solicit fruition of it that it be set a-going. in some weeks. Ed. . did France accept her New Constitution the most Democratic Constitution ever committed to paper. with an infinity of other things." xiii. H Messidor. . . Till. . 20 19 19 <u March April . . must this poor new Constitution exist in which shape we may conceive it lying. . therefore ADD c DAYS c Vendemiaire Brumaire Frimaire Nivose Pluviose . 5. 28 . makes report. .. 31 • . . 199. xix. [For a fuller explanation of the Revolutionary Calendar see Appendix. in that Limbo near the Moon. . to be added at the end of Fructidor. Romme's first Leap-year is"yi. . not 1796). How it will work in practice ? Patriot Deputations. even now. . . unsuitable. January February . through the organ of Saint-Just. 6 Germinal Floreal Prairial ./ 4" (1795. which is another troublesome circumstance. Always. this seems questionable for the moment." Solely as Paper. 1793] Thus with new Feast of Pikes. and as a Hope. • Ventose s p G . 18 18 17 . every fourth year. 21 21 September October . the state of France is Revolutionary. 83-99. 30 31 .] . : . Thermidor Fructidor . Farther than paper it never got. . 20 19 18 . The New Calendar ceased on the ist of January 1806. . 30 31 • May June (U . that her "Government must be Revolutionary till the Peace. — O NATURE 215 OCT. . that. and New Era or New Calendar. • ^ August . then. from time to time. 30 31 31 J3 "IS . See " Choix des Rapports. . . 30 31 31 July . — and the new months are all of 30 days each .

in obscure battle and skirmish. unlaureled. viii. gling. bk. . whom we saw retreating out of Mentz. — lean Quixote-figures. He gained the battle of Hondschoote (near Dunkirk). " bound not to serve against the Coalition for a National Convention packs year.— 2i6 ! TERROR [bk." have got to Paris. Houchard soon had to retreat. chap. ch. Ashes and embers of confused Girondin civil war covered that region already. iv. can do less than nothing.. and for this he was - guillotined (Sybel.iron and audacity that France now needs. rustling with Bourbon banners. and " be ^ cut down gradually to the last man. Ed. let them. by post.. it is it is alas too literally Is not La Vendee still blazing rogue Rossignol burning the very corn-mills ? General Santerre could do nothing there General Rossignol. ii. grows ever madder. Rebellion spreads. : . .). etc. over the face of the South. iii. Happily those . IN fact. : * " Deux Amis.] . . save the Republic. [Year v i CHAPTER V SWORD OF SHARPNESS something quite other than paper theorems. [Houchard succeeded Kilmaine at the Army of the North. like a fire-tide." xi. xiii. them into post-vehicles and conveyances sends them There valiantly strugswiftly. England through the Northwest? General Houchard " prospers no better there than General Custine did let him look to it Through the Eastern and the Western Pyrenees Spain has deployed itself. 160-192. spreads. into La Vendue. in blind fury. but failed to make the most of his success and complete the discomfiture of the Duke of York. pour in Prussia through the opened Northeast Austria." Does not the Coalition. often in liquor. 147 . vol. under rogue Rossignol.

in the sudden nocturnal sunblaze! The roofs of hapless Lyons. to make a new But Gibraltar of it. victualling himself. which the eye of History saw. made momentarily . Freron. hamlet and smooth stubblefield.— AUG. curtains. . Napoleon Buonaparte Hood is fortifying himself. Dugommier. ! . . carrying " a hundred and seventeen houses " after it. but was deposed for gross incompetence his successor. . into the hands of the English On Toulon Arsenal there flies a flag. all. but not very capable. alas. terror-struck." vol. That our Government and Hood had no thought whatever of keeping Toulon I have shown from the British Official Records in my " Life of Napoleon. 54' : 56.] . has given itself to these enemies of human nature. was braver. With a light. ye Commissioners Barras. Ed.and wide it has awakened. " efinemis du genre huinain" Beleaguer it. 1793] Fruct. [Cartaux. has flung itself. little . clear Rhone and Soane streams flashing suddenly visible and height and hollow. which has caught fire in the Bombardment and sprung into the air. . all scarped and counter-scarped. one fancies. an ex-artist. not quenched to be quenched Toulon. ye righteous Powers. and all its domes and steeples last .] — SWORD OF SHARPNESS is . thou remarkable Ar! tillery-Major. redoubts blue Artillerymen. as of the noon sun with a roar second only to the Last Trumpet! All living sleepers far. 217 damped down. into trenches.' lo. what sudden red sunblaze is this that has risen over Lyons City with a noise to deafen the world ? It is the Powder-tower of Lyons. bombard it. in the Autumn night. late night.. nay not even the Fleur-de-lys of a Louis Pretender there flies that accursed St. nay the Arsenal with four Powder-towers. too far gone for turning. . i. thou General Cartaux. and all the region round heights. What a sight was that. Admiral Hood What remnant of sea-craft. arsenals. General Robespierre Junior Dugommier above . means. among the of August. George's Cross of the English and Marseilles in blood. war-navy France had. apparently. pp. ! roperies. commanded the Republican forces.

in name of the Two Pretender Royal Highnesses. Lyons consave this only.^ are in store. surrender at discretion. but it failed. were they not still our brethren ? In their blind wrath. doing what ! : . and ruin and fire. Provisions cut off. Convention Commissioners.— ! 2x8 TERROR ! [bk. And . Lyons Congresses have come and gone and action there was and reaction bad ever growing worse till it has come to this Commissioner Dubois-Crance. v [Year i Powder-devilkins. tains in it subdued Jacobins dominant Girondins mandant. and the sick buried alive. : We . their National Colonel and Com- Worse . will not the desperate Municipality fly. and all the Artillery of several Provinces. at last. mere deaf madness and cannon-shot enveloping them." . plying their hell-trade there through the not ambrosial night Let the darkness cover it again for it pains the eye. Ed. . not yet come Precy hoists the Fleurhelp secret Royalists. is coming through Switzerland with coming.] . into the arms of Royalism itself? Majesty of Sardinia was to bring help. . and slay us in their wrath. Bad is growing ever worse here and how will the worse stop. appealing to the pity of the besiegers for though maddened. ch. Desperate are the sallies of the besieged brave Pr^cy. till it have grown worst of all ? Commissioner Dubois will listen to no pleading. and aimed thitherward the more. iv. they took it for a flag of defiance. Famine is in Lyons. . black Flag hung on this latter noble edifice. : de-lys At sight of which down then. to no speech. bombarding Lyons day and night. Emigrant d'Autichamp. Chalier's death is costing the City dear. . now. things still is in man desperate but ineffectual. ^ their arms : — Let all true Girondins sorrowfully fling our Tricolor brethren storm us. nothing entering our city but shot and shells The Arsenal has roared aloft the very Hospital will be battered down. Of a truth. \\\\\\ yoii we conquer [Dubois-Crance and Couthon swelled the Jacobin forces by inviting the neighbouring districts to share in the plunder of Lyons. . A . " with seventythousand men.

and others. the Deputies from Quimper have dissipated themselves. . a dexterous greasy who. suspicious Louvet. — ! . waving his Revolutionary Sword of Sharpness. if peradventurehope yet linger there. ! ' "Deux Amis. in danger from the English. unfruitful Atlantic raving round. brave young Barbaroux. with their Edicts. hatches reverend Petion with his gray hair. 1793] Fruct. whithersoever they could. in cellars.AUG. in still worse banished by Heaven and danger from the French Earth to the greasy belly of this Scotch skipper's MerThey chant-vessel. - Louvet. retaken Precy under his Fleur-de-lys is vaHant as Despair. in this sad are now tacking and straggling in danger from craft the waves. in subterranean ways.' Or see. in these same weeks. waves you elsewhither On one side or the other of that Bee d'Ambes. 180-199. — .^ Unhappiest of all Senators not. barn-lofts. with Scotch skipper under hatches whereof sit. in friends' back-closets. Our " redoubts of cotton-bags " are taken. in caves of Saint-Emilion and Libourne. pale Death. Bloody Convention Enter not Bourdeaux. a greasy dingy little Merchant-ship. What will become of Lyons ? It is a siege of seventy days. after man with difficulty lands his Girondins reconnoitring. ! . : — . far in the Western waters breasting through the Bay of Biscay. — . . . disconsolate. Tallien and suchlike. as it were. stave-off cruel Death. or Beak of Ambes. 219 : The famishing women and children are sent forth rains in mere fire and deaf Dubois sends them back madness. . O Friends Representatives. They have escaped from Quimper. angry Buzot. must rapidly burrow in the Earth and so. with their Guillotine. ! . pp. are for Bourdeaux. .] SWORD OF SHARPNESS . From that Reole landing-place. Poor Riouffe fell into the talons of Revolutionary ComThe rest sit here under mittee and Paris Prison." xi. the last forlorn nucleus Several of Girondism. . 80-143. have arrived there Respectability is driven under ground Jacobinism lords it on high. the Scotch Skipper with difficulty moors.

gets decreed. On the twenty-third of August. two meetings of Section weekly Poorer Citizen he.^ This is the celebrated " Law of the Forty Sous " fiercely stimulant to Sansculottism." mortals raise themselves a la hauteur. of Surete. through the organ of Barrere and mittees Salut Public. Committee of Public Salvation. Let the Forty-four thousand Sections and their Revolutionary Committees stir every fibre of the Republic and every Frenchman feel that he is to do or die. as usual through Barrere. ! la France!' Committees. which is soon made into a Law. to the height of circumstances. to the life-circulation of Jacobinism. but they shall not conquer us. have raised themselves la hauteur. '" " Moniteur. : . by also that the law.. That there be in Paris. They are the life-circulation of Jacobinism." p.TERROR [bk. of " Levy in Mass. CH. and have his day'swages of P'orty Sous. "we will burn France to ashes rather. nous brfilero7is all AGAINST rors and disasters. horwhat can a Jacobin Convention oppose ? The uncalculating Spirit of Jacobinism. in words not unworthy of remembering.— Ed. IV. Fr. vi [Year i CHAPTER VI RISEN AGAINST TYRANTS which incalculable impediments. . their Report." Seance du 5 Septembre 1793. these Sections and ComDanton.] . 426). [This Levy in Mass was but the putting into practice of the decree passed on June 17th: "The armed forces of the Republic consist of the entire people " (see " L'CEuvre Sociale de la ' - Rev." "^ Let all . and Sansculottic sansformulistic Frenzy Our Enemies press-in on us. had promulgated. says Danton. of Salut. paid for attending.

be set up in the Luxembourg Garden." Seance du 23 Aout 1793. ! ' "Debats. which tingle through all French hearts. from America.000.000 francs were also voted for the manufacture of arms the white uniform of the line regiments was discarded (not without grumbling) for the blue of the volunteers. and there. the Sons of Freedom shall " Le Peiiplc Francais is to bear debout coiitre les Tyi^ans^ The French People risen against Tyrants. " Le Comite de Salui public. 226-237). their banner : . "to give military organisation to the popular fury. in these days. . By the close of 1794 this levy produced 425. ' . transport baggage and artillery provide subsistence the women shall work at soldiers' clothes.— AUG." Two-hundred and Forges shall. : . : : . towards their Departmental Town from all Departmental Towns. The young men shall go to the battle it is their task to conquer the married men shall forge arms." Corn was requisitioned. Salvation of the People The weapons are. Republic is one vast besieged city. ." pp. It was only carried out by the decree of September 27th for young men of from eighteen to twenty-five years of age 30. even : . of war. Carnot at once began.] ." Tyrtaean words seat Camp and march ." In order to provide rations the Committee of Public Safety requisitioned " the eighth part of the pigs now existing in the Republic. In this humour. excite the courage of the young preach hatred to Kings and unity to the Republic.000 men. will France rush against its enemies. then. all the . as he phrased it. " . make tents serve in the hospitals the children shall scrape oldlinen into surgeon's-lint the aged men shall have themselves carried into public places.] : RISEN AGAINST TYRANTS 221 All France. and round the outer wall of the Tuileries to make gun-barrels in sight of Earth and Heaven From all Hamlets. the best we know of his. per "decade "for soldiers (Gros." says Barrere really " The in Tyrtaean words. and ordered from abroad. [Danton and others had the courage to point out that the Levy in Mass was an impossibihty. reckoning no cost or consequence heeding no law or rule but that supreme law. by their words. Shoemakers were for a time compelled to provide two pairs. and whatsoever it contains of men or resources. Headlong. as such numbers could not be armed or fed. Ed. since no other serves. is put under requisition. or even five. ! . 1793] Fruct. towards the appointed fifty .

" says he. watch well your looks if Suspect of nothing else.. de Robespierre. Lifecirculation of the Revolutionary Committees being quickened by that " Law of the Forty Sous. p. 129). unless they constantly showed their attachment to the Revolution. or agents of emigres. comes. fathers..000 or more (Taine. but Merlin of Douai. " Are suspect. illuminating the matter still farther. about a week after. . i. sons or daughters.. that of all the men." Deputy Merlin. It may be noted that. and off to Committee and Prison.— 222 TERROR is [bk. "La Rev. in Nor with heroic daring against the Foreign foe. [This "Law of Suspects" (which supplemented the decree of March 19th) was not passed until September 17th. well your words. named subsequently Merlin Suspect. by their connexions.^ Nay Chaumette. Watch clutch him there. " all who by their actions. i. iii. . mothers. in their two-hundred and fifty shed-smithies. by their Committees. IV.] vol. let them Heaven and Earth. . and enemies of liberty those to whom civic cerofficials tificates had been refused [by the revolutionary authorities] discharged by the Convention or its Commissioners the d-devajti nobles the husbands. . not the Thionviller. you may grow. as came to be a saying. chap. twelve days after the formal decree of the Terror see bk. with his worldfamous " Law of the Suspect " ordering all Sections. in his Municipal Placards and Proclamations. women and children that are in France. iii. the number of e'jiiigres increased until in 1794 it stood at 150. instantly to arrest all Persons Suspect and explaining withal who the Arrestable and Suspect specially are. despite all the laws. There.e. wives. writings — — : . — : ." No deputy dared to protest against this decree (Hamel. can black vengeance against the Domestic be wanting.. v. will bring it about that you may almost recognise a Suspect on the streets. vi [Year i France the strength is. in Garden of iron that in ." vol. whom we saw ride out of Mentz. speakings. "Hist. Fr. sight of Luxembourg or Tuileries. The phrase given above by Carlyle concluded thus " shown themselves partisans of tyranny or federalism. " Suspect of being Suspect " For are we not in a state — — : ! of Revolution ? ^ " Moniteur.." Seance du 17 Septembre 1793. CH. have " in short become Suspect. forge gun-barrels." Ed. p. 381).

perfidiousness accused of many things found guilty. : : AUG. Aristocrats They were guilty against the Republic their death. Daily the great Guillotine has its due. daily at eventide glides the Deathtumbril through the variegated throng of things. Like a black Spectre. So have Municipality and Mother Society petitioned so has Convention decreed. we may say." with a ven: ! : . All Prisons and Houses of Arrest in French land are getting crowded to the ridge-tile Forty-four thousand Committees.] RISEN AGAINST TYRANTS 223 No frightfuler Law ever ruled in a Nation of men. gleaning France. Hearing his unexpected Sentence. for losing Saint-Domingo " Conspirators of Orleans. Custine was accused of harshness. . of unskilfulness. each on its own harvest-field. and strike-in wherever it finds such harvestwork slack. 1793] Fruct. lest the Forty-four thousand. : : . Blanchelande.9. and all men tremble " the Soil of Liberty shall be purged." silent for the space of two hours he fared. Federalists. " Custine fell down before the Crucifix. of one thing. Monsieurs vanish. we are to have an ambulant " Revolutionary Army " six-thousand strong. prove insufficient. Harvest of Aristocrat tares Nay. — : geance ! Neither hitherto has the Revolutionary Tribunal been keeping holiday. . like as many companies of reapers or gleaners." for " assassinating. to whom life was sweet.. will be useful to the Republic Vive la Rcpubliqite ! In the last days of August fell a notabler head General Custine's." for assaulting the sacred Deputy Leonard-Bourdon these with many Nameless. unsuccessfulness. 11 Septembre. for the moment next .^ Let Aristocrats. ' " Moniteur. and storing it in these Houses. have died. towards the Place de la Revolution glanced upwards at the clear forgets it : ! moment The ." Seances du 5. are gathering their harvest. under right captains. were it only that their goods are confiscated. The variegated street shudders at it. this shall perambulate the country at large. . with moist eyes and a look of prayer.

[The specific charges against Ciistine were that he had not properly provisioned Mainz before the siege." quoted by Morse Stephens. and that he had left his next command (the Army of the North) to come to Paris and intrigue with the Girondins. and only the dimmest light could enter.— 224 . [The cells at the "Conciergerie" were four feet below the ground. vol.] June. after hearing a report from the Com- mittee of Public Safety. the brutal Fouquier-Tinville.] [For the schemes of escape from the Temple. by its speed of going.. " November. April. ii. 69 (Wallon. de la Rocheterie's " Life of Marie Antoinette. in ignominious dreary cell. she. kindred. Ed.). . 9 May. friend and hope. The clanking of its huge axe. 5." vol. Ed. August 1st the Convention. ^ See " Memoires particuliers de la Captivite a la Tour du Temple" (by the Duchesse d'Angouleme. He had fought in America he was a proud. ii. App." xi. once Queen of France There in that Conciergerie.. from the Temple to the Conciergerie. contrived by Baron de Batz and Toulan. 318-332 (Eng. in horrid systole-diastole. led him hither. 13. vi [Year a suspended axe then mounted swiftly aloft/ swiftly was struck away from the lists of the Living. including in all sixteen judges and sixty jurors. ' [The numbers guillotined July. ch. brave man and his fortune . is portion of the whole enormous life-movement and pulsation of the " Orleans Conspirators " and Sansculottic System ! — * "Deux Amis. : . same month. 13. Ed. gets always a quicker motion. Simon. The Queen On refused to escape alone. September.. IX. . The Guillotine. with a Ed. decreed that she should be sent to the Conciergerie (near the Palais de Justice on the island in the Seine). iv. Hist. 21 Janvier 1817). with closed blinds. ! On sits long weeks .Antoinette. see M. at three in the mornvehicle rolled off. the 2d of this ing. will give index of the general velocity of the Republic. rising and falling there.] public prosecutor. 50. de Tribunal Rev.] there to await her trial. pp. Paris. 17. Within it were two Muni^ cipals and Marie. being divided into four sections. . 148-188. July 3rd the little Louis XVI L was torn from his mother and conOn fined alone under the charge of a brutal cobbler.' The Guillotine. edit. expecting when the end will be/' we find. The Revolutionary Tribunal was reorganised (September 5th). — TERROR — — [bk. a . 9 in 1793 were August. 58 December. as she perhaps might have done. October.). secluded from children. as other things are quickening. .

to Prison that evening. . Brissot and our poor Arrested Girondins have become universal Jacobinism Incarcerated Indicted Girondins clamouring for their punishment. Happy those of them who chanced to be absent Condorcet has vanished into darkness perhaps. suddenly one day. . . when the Calvados War burnt priming. recommending his wife and children to the pity of the Republic. sacred can become desecrated your very Deputy is not Poor Deputy Journalist greater than the Guillotine. ." was sent to the Place de la Revolution. one day was clutched. Ex-Mayor Bailly is in Prison Ex-Procureur Manuel. to Paris lurked several weeks about the Palais ci-devant Royal was seen there. Deputy that dies on the scaffold he will not be the last. Duperret's Seals are broken Those Seventy-three Secret Protesters. like Rabaut. identified." that none implicated might escape. in the house of a friend. being already " out of the Law. afterwards. Gorsas we saw him hide at Rennes. . He stole. They were marched. 9. in August. ! . in a very rough manner. are decreed accused the Convention-doors being " previously shut. He died. ! : \\\. 18] 1793] RISEN AGAINST TYRANTS 225 treating Assaulters had to die. Gorsas is the first It is the ninth day of October 1793. sits between two walls. : : . . . and without ceremony.OCT. are reported upon. in spite of much weeping and enYet the so sacred is the person of a Deputy. Vend.

when asked If he knows the Accused. Tall ci-devant Count d'Estaing. almost ghastly. We have cold Aristocratic impassivity." which bear title. . I know Madame. inculpatory. . shorn of their splendour.^ To such changes of human fortune what words are adequate ? Silence alone is adequate. cannot escape nor Bailly. stands here at Fouquier-Tinville's Judgment-bar answering for her life. . nine times. There are few Printed things one meets with of such tragic. ! : . forsaken. as if in disastrous eclipse like the pale kingdoms of Dis Pluis : ON Monday . vii [Year 2 CHAPTER VII MARIE-ANTOINETTE the Fourteenth of October 1793. ' "Proces de la Reine" ("Deux Amis. in the new Revolutionary Court. The once brightest of Queens. " Ah. Dim. significance as those bald Pages of the " Bulletin du Tribunal Revolutionnaire. Patriot. The Indictment was delivered her last night. they themselves are all hovering over death and doom they are known. Plutonic Tinville encircled. faithful to itself even . ! tonic Judges. anxious to show himself . who. now tarnished." xi." ExPatriots are here. IV. dim. in our imagination. Trial of the Widow Capet. such as those old stone-walls never witnessed the Trial of Marie-Antoinette. sharply dealt with. defaced. as Procureur Manuel Ex-Ministers. yes. with Fire-Phlegethon and Cocytus named of Lamentation The very witnesses summoned are like Ghosts exculpatory. with Styx and Lethe.226 TERROR [bk. answers with a reverent inclination towards her. a Cause pending in the Palais de Justice. CH. 251-381). as the prey of the Guillotine.

the result comes out sentence of Death. as that hideous " she was Indictment was reading. the imperial woman. For all now has become a crime in her who has lost. [The evidence as to this incident has been impugned in the review. of Patriot Corporals. . My plan is not denial it is the truth I have said. without speech. She has answered Hubert a Juryman begs to observe that she has not answered as to this. (Paris. .^ on whose foul head his foul lie has recoiled At four o'clock on Wednesday morning. and not wanting to herself." for March. "La Rev Fr. ill-lighted ex- Marie-Antoinette. but it seems to be authentic. and it will be Eternity and Day. wherewith Human Speech had better not farther be soiled. Night's candles are burning out and with her too Time is finishing. I appeal to all the Mothers that are here. p. her utter abandonment. 14. clear. 1884. August Tenth. Her answers are prompt. continued calm sometimes observed moving her fingers. Treasons. This Hall of Tinville's is dark. which has grown contemptuous without ceasing to be dignified. how she bears herself queenlike. " I have not answered. Patriot Washerwomen. 23] " 1793] MARIE-ANTOINETTE 227 in Tartarus. 179. jury-charging. then. broke out into something almost like swearing at the brutish blockheadism of this Hubert . often of Laconic brevity resolution. Her look. when he heard of it. 1825). in this is hour of extreme need. old Insurrection of Women. and other darkening of counsel. in denial?" veils itself in calm words." Robespierre. . who have much to say of Plots. and I persist in that. Vend. " Have you anything to say ? " The Accused shook her head. after two days and two nights of interrogating. rabid stupidity. " because Nature refuses to answer such a charge brought against a Mother.— OCT. Ed. they say. : . concerning Marie-Antoinette and her little Son. not without interest." she exclaims with noble emotion. across that dim Revolutionary Bulletin itself. " You persist. as when one plays on the piano. — *' : : — ." Scandalous Hebert has borne his testimony as to many things as to one thing. " Causes secretes de la Revolution de Thermidor ^ Villate." You discern.

whither she was to return no more. in the same manner as an ordinary criminal bound. . . Men and women alike abandoned themselves to such expression of their sorrow. It was an audible sound of wail. She motioned her regret. By ten o'clock. which was crowding here to bid her farewell." . At eleven.' . ' Weber. numerous patrols were circulating in the Streets thirty thousand foot and horse drawn up under arms. cept where she stands. She appeared you saw her sunk back into her carriage her face bathed in tears hiding her eyes now with her handkerchief. have often struck us with a strange feeling of contrast. to die. MarieAntoinette was brought out. . : : . : . in the streets and avenues of Vienna. quitting her Mother's City. three-andtwenty years apart. Silently she withdraws from Two Processions. her gratitude to the good Nation. on all sides. accompanied by a Constitutional Priest in Lay dress . The last Courier that followed her disappeared. 6. iv. The whole city crowded out at first with a sorrow which was silent. on a Cart. cannons getting placed at the extremities of the Bridges. or Royal Progresses. i." says Weber an eye-witness. 228 TERROR [bk. Then arose not only tears but piercing cries. all along from the Palais de Justice to the Place de la Revolution. The young imperial Maiden of P'ifteen has now become a worn discrowned Widow of Thirty-eight gray before her time this is the last Procession " Few minutes after the Trial ended. and the crowd melted away. now with her hands several times putting out her head to see yet again this Palace of her Fathers. . vii [Year 2 it. . the drums were beating to arms in all Sections at sunrise the armed force was on foot. The first is of a beautiful Archduchess and Dauphiness. at the age of Fifteen towards hopes such as no other Daughter of Eve then had " On the morrow. : . Crossways. She had on an undress of pique blanc: she was led to the place of execution. " the Dauphiness left Vienna. in the Squares. . ch.

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25] 1793] MARIE-ANTOINETTE 229 escorted by numerous detachments of infantry and cavalry. She spoke little to her Confessor. she appeared to regard with indifference." with seemed . her looks turned towards the Jardin National. amid universal long-continued cries of Vive la Rcpnbliquc. To the cries of Viz>e la Rcpublique and Dowti Tyranny. The tricolor Streamers on the housetops occupied her attention. 301. . OCT. Vend. i6. which attended her all the way. ^ ^ " Deux Amis. in the Streets du Roule and Saint-Honore she also noticed the Inscriptions on the house-fronts. On reaching the Place de la Revolution." xi.. . She mounted the Scaffold with courage enough at a quarter past Twelve. she to pay no heed. whilom Tuileries her face at that moment gave signs of lively emotion. her countenance there was visible neither abashment nor pride. and the double row of troops all along On her road. . her head fell the Executioner showed it to the people. These.

. This was true. . Republicans. op. viii [Year 2 CHAPTER VIII THE TWENTY-TWO The next are of a next. and the Trial lengthens " threatens to become eternal. all chief that Fouquier has yet had to do. Valaze.— — $30 TERROR [bk. Gensonne the once flower of P'^rench Patriotism. by the course of things. ch. 317)..). Undoubtedly this Trial of the Girondins is the greatest Twenty-two. M. ii. arrived. at Tinville's Bar.' How will Tinville prove these men guilty of Royalism. O Tinville! our poor Arrested Girondin colour Deputies. [Camille Desmoulins was there and said with remorse " My It is I who kill them " (Claretie." vol. Fouquier-Tinville must give what account of them he can.^ And Journalists report. Ed." chap.[His oratory was usually too ornate and overladen with classical But allusions to touch the heart (Aulard." from confinement in the Luxembourg. . cii. What of them could still be laid hold of. have they now.] ^ : God ! ' . p. . imprisonment in the Conciergerie. i. Conspiracy against the Republic ? different : WHOM : . p. Twenty-two by the tale hither. Jacobinism and Municipality rise to the . vol.. now he was roused by the slanders of a perjured witness and improvised with magical effect. 385). . onward from " safeguard of the French People. our Vergniaud. " Camille Desmoulins." they say. .] et de la Convention. Fauchet. Federalism. v. iv. Brissot. des Brissotins avait fourni toutes les calomnies dont on se servi pour tuer Vergniaud et ses amis" (" Les Orateurs de la Legislative Ed. ranged in a line there the most eloquent in P'rance Lawyers too not without friends in the auditory. Aulard says: " Sa terrible 'Hist. Vergniaud's eloquence awakes once more "draws tears." itself out day after day murmur many.

Vergniaud has his dose of poison but it is not enough for his . wherein Barrere and Robespierre discourse with Satan death's eve spent in " singing " and " sallies of gaiety. Reiske. Loud natural clamour rises among the poor Girondins tumult which can only be repressed by the gendarmes. . Pot-pourri by Ducos rhymed Scenes of Tragedy. falls down dead on the spot. at ten o'clock on the night of the 30th of October." t. when they Which pregnant suggestion. 1793] Brum. ! . " 0pp. and the Sentence on one and all of them is. .. 310. Riouffe. 'AiroKrefovai at 'AG>]vaioi. To our has lovingly recorded what death they made. The rest. feel themselves convinced. idv (jtD(ppovw<n. On the 28th of the month. . summoned back once more. have brought in their verdict that the Accused are found guilty. and the like of these. iv. Gay satirical notions. — Plut. . 30. receive this information." of cutting short. Accordingly. ed. passes itself. That the Jury feeling themselves convinced have cut short. with bloody breast. p. 9] THE TWENTY-TWO 231 aid of Fouquier. " I die on the day when the People have lost their reason ye No help Yielding to will die when they recover it. OCT. 1776. ^wkIwv' "Av jxavwaiv. amid loud clamour and confusion. the Twenty-two. are driven back to their Conciergerie Lasource exclaiming. Decree. ^ Aijixoadivovg tinovTOQ. the Doomed uplift the Hymn of the Marseillese return singing to their dungeon.." ^ violence. . Hebert and others come in deputation to inform a Patriot Convention that the Revolutionary Tribunal is quite " shackled byForms of Law " that a Patriot Jury ought to have " the power of cutting short. . with all despatch. into a . sleeps cold in death hears not the singing. we have to accept for what they are worth. fiTTi. It is the manner in which the Girondins make tJieir Last Supper. Valaze. Death with confiscation of goods." with " discourses on the happiness of peoples " these things. who was their Prison-mate in these last days. ak 0. it is not an edifying death. of terminer les debuts. . : . Valaze stabs himself.

" We may add that Lamartine tricked out the story in his " Girondins" (1847). Death. . iv. separate. it is . they determine to Not unpathetic the farewell tall Barbaroux. who in 1833 published an account " Le Banquet des Girondins. as Brissot. alas. difficulty pressing ever straiter. Such an act of music conThe yet Living chant there the chorus ceive it well Samson's axe is rapid one so rapidly wearing weak head per minute. sit sunk in silence. The chorus is wearing farewell forevermore. all hope now gone. 48-55. coat flung loosely round the neck bemurmured. weak the chorus is worn out ye Girondins. Others. the weariest months roll on apparel worn. In caves of Saint-Emilion. hands bound in their shirtroll along. Valaze's cold corpse stretched among the yet living Twenty-one.^ But on the morrow morning all Paris is out such a crowd as no man had seen. Riouffe's account shows ^ " Memoires de Rioufife " (in " — that the Girondins sang songs to one another in their cells during that was all. the O young. Te-Deum Fauchet has become silent Valaze's dead head is lopped the sickle of the Guillotine has reaped the Girondins all away. ." Paris. beshouted. ch. some of them keep answering with counter-shouts of Vive la Rcpublique. if not in this way. viii [Year 2 wherefore he flings at this Last Supper of the it Girondins. wintry November come under Tallien and his GuilloDanger drawing ever nigher. : . . with appropriate variations. the Hymn of the Marseillese. with wild coruscations of eloquence. in loft and cellar. so fare the sleeves. pp. and the painter Delaroche immortalised it by his brush in 1855. At the foot of the scaffold they again strike up. Memoires sur les Prisons. man named Nodier. ! . To the eloquent of France shouts of Vive la Rcpublique. " The eloquent.— 232 friends. the beautiful and brave " exclaims Riouffe. The Death-carts. Ed. .] that last night : . . then in that. — : ! ! . Poor human Will struggles to assert itself. ! . [This "last supper" is a mere invention of a 1823). TERROR enough only presides from him . . Bare-headed. . tine. or little less. for himself. what feast is toward in thy ghastly Halls Nor. purse empty. [bk. in the far Bourdeaux region will Girondism fare better. with song and mirth.

Barbaroux and his two comrades weathered it longer. with a fresh strength gathered from fury or frenzy. p. into the summer of 1794 but not long enough. One July morning. . . Valadi also is caught. covered carts and open lies hidden in one. [Louvet lay in hiding in the Jura. . finding the " sentry asleep he is gone.. splashing the mud on each . they knock. He sets forth. there and then. Alas." Louvet went with Guadet. ere long they died by the Guillotine in Bourdeaux drums beating to drown their voice. and waits better days. for help. . Valadi soon went southward. He bilks Revolutionary Committees rides in carriers' carts. on a way of his own. weariness and hunger. The two friends and Louvet had a miserable day and night the 14th of the November month. . under knapsacks and cloaks of soldiers' wives on the Street of Orleans. and guillotined." cries he. rain. . 1793. as they have often to do.' Poor Guadet and Salles were both taken. should chance ever lead : me where she ^ is. changing their hiding-place. with him a point of honour not to emigrate. Ed. with Salles and Valadi Barbaroux with Buzot and Potion.1 . they observe a great crowd of country-people " doubtless Jacobins come to take them ? Barbaroux draws a pistol. " about a league from Saint-Emilion. He passes villages. .] ^ '^ — It was . JULY Therm. . Sunk in wet. in the pouring Flying desperate. and it was not Jacobins it was harmless villagers going to a village . 213. Louvet. at a friend's country-house the fainthearted friend refuses to admit them. : . shoots himself dead. while men search for him has hairbreadth escapes that would fill three romances finally he gets to Paris to his fair Helpmate gets to Switzerland. on the morrow. Louvet thereupon will to Paris. 1794] THE TWENTY-TWO : 233 " In cheeriest of brave men. " try to be instead of a son to her no resource of mine but I will share with th}^ Wife. before the in his box in the thick rain " man can call after him. stoops to clasp his Louvet what place soever thou findest my Mother. They stood therefore under trees. but inside France. side of him.

these men and have accomplished this. found Two days afterwards. 107. ! : tion.^ Such was the end of Girondism. Buzot and Petion were in a Corn-field.— 234 TERROR [bk. like Saturn. Alas. As Vergniaud said " the Revolu. their bodies half-eaten by dogs. They arose to regenerate France. . Ed. viii [Year 2 wake." " Recherches Historiques sur les Girondins " (in " Memoires ^ he was de Buzot "). [Barbaroux' wound was not mortal taken to Bordeaux and executed. p.] : . the will of the Supreme Power was accomplished. whatever quarrel we had with them. iv. has not their cruel fate abolished it ? Pity only survives. ch. here too. is devouring its own children. So many excellent souls of heroes sent down to Hades they themselves given as a prey of dogs and all manner of birds But.

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till Sansculottism have consummated itself. iii. down. got to that black precipitous .) M. say only from Hugh Capet downwards. (Its beginning coincided with the decree for the levee en masse. they headlong.. having now arrived on the giddy verge. are now. therefore. Hamel. Just. Abyss ing — .] . Robespierre's apologist. pellmell. This was the last day of Robespierre's presidence of the Convention. as in a Doomsday. as also the forming of a revolutionary corps of 6. WE . Terror has long been terrible but to the actors themselves it has now become manifest that their appointed course is one of Terror and they " Que la Terreur soit a I'ordre dujour'' say. Be it so. ^ So many centuries. if not born again. had been adding together. : . century transmitting 1 [Barrere proposed this in the sitting of September 5th. 126-128) that But his hero was a stranger to the proclamation of the Terror. 1793." vol. hurl down. labours hard to prove ("Hist. 210) and substitute a Revolutionary Government.— BOOK FIFTH TERROR THE ORDER OF THE DAY CHAPTER I RUSHING DOWN whither all things have long been tendwhere. yet destroyed and engulfed. gave effect to it on October loth by asking in the name of the Committee that the Convention should suspend the Constitution of 1793 (see : : atite. and in this wondrous French Revolution. in confused ruin down. Barrere was then little more than the mouthpiece of the Robespierrist faction and Robespierre's disciple. pp. Ed. de Robespierre.000 men at Paris voted at once. St. p. a World have been rapidly.

i [Year 2 with increase to century.236 it TERROR THE ORDER OF THE DAY [bk. With and also without profit. and generation after generation. With cheerfully smoothed countenances. in their fair . they. Till at length such a sum of Quackery had accumulated itself as. we say. when History. : — History. suddenly. becoronetted." there was abundance to be said and shrieked. Heaven knows. ! . across the bluster and fanfaronade of Courtierisms. and His World is a Truth. in one day. sowing And yet. bemitred or the still fataler species of Secret-Scoundrels. . in this Reign of Terror and carried home. calling cheerfully to one another. but rather was the shadow of it. there were terrors and horrors enough yet that was not all the Phenomenon nay. the sum of Wickedness. in a new stage of the business. day after day. as God lives. . : . has had her own difficulties. as mere " Horrors of the French Revolution. the negative part of it. in dealing with this Reign of Terror. bediademed. to Unhappy Sons of Adam it is Hades and the Pit ever so and never do they know it. more properly. unlocked for by any man The harvest of long centuries was ripening and whitening so rapidly of late and now it is grown white. as it were. Wellbeloved Pompadourisms yet behold it was always coming behold it has come. since God is a Truth. While the Phenomenon continued in its primary state. Oppression of man by man. ch. Most Christian Grand Monai-gtie-isms. all imperceptible. speciosities. in brief. Slow seemed the Day of Settlement coming on. ceasing to shriek. Open Scoundrels rode triumphant. are at work. v. And now. ! — : . would try rather to include under her old Forms : . is possible. . the Earth and the Heavens were weary of. Well-speed-ye. that was not the Phenomenon at all. of Falsehood. ConqueringHeroisms. and People. whij'lwind no other thing. however. they shall reap the the wind. and is reaped rapidly. and Priests were. Kings were sinners. Reaped. hollow within the race of Quacks was grown many as the sands of the sea. nor will they know it. : .sounding formulas. respectabilities.

we must say. for example. to realise the Christian Religion Unity. did indeed stand printed on all Houses of the Living also on Cemeteries. that they might be saved but a Gospel rather." xii. and draw inferences and profit from it in this new stage. A thing different and distant toto coelo. Take. [This phrase was not Chaumette's but at loth ordered that at cemeteries there should be a statue of Sleep. the latest Form of speech we have seen propounded on the subject as adequate to almost in these months. not according to any of the Four old Evangelists." as Robespierre was wont to say. Roux A Gospel of Brotherhood. as we often hint. 237 of speech or speculation this new amazing Thing that so some accredited scientific Law of Nature might suffice for the unexpected Product of Nature. M. Indivisibility. " Le Culte de la Raison. and be saved by making the Constitution." The latest and the strangest that the French Revolution was a dead-lift effort. while Commissioner sweep away Christianity. : ! — ^ "- " Hist.1793] Year 2] RUSHING DOWN . by order of Procureur Chaumette. and farther if possible It is thus.). as they say the whole breadth of the sky. babbles and flounders perhaps in a still painfuler manner. after eighteen hundred years of preparation.)— The latter. : " in' est suspecte. in his " Histoire Parlementaire. i et seqq. and History might get to speak of it articulately. and amend each his own wicked existence. History. " Deux Amis.] . iii. Nevers. with the words " La Mort est un Sommeil eternel. and on October Fouche's. no. according to a new Fifth Evangelist Jean-Jacques. it. Here is Eternal Sleep " but a Christian Religion realised by the Guillotine and Death-Eternal " is suspect to me. calling on men to amend each the whole zvorld's wicked existence. . and calling on men to repent. BrotJicrhood or Death. that History." (Introd. and indeed all human Speech and Reason does ! . 78. or Houses of the Dead." chap. sought to Ed. by our worthy M." Alas. : — ! ' . Roux. Pari. stood printed. and it was at once adopted. i. (Aulard. however." Chaumette joyfully announced this ordinance to the Paris Commune on October i6th.

do we discern in this Reign of Terror. No — . but to disclose new ones ? In that case. Royal mantles. Misery is not a Lie and take the our Twenty-five million right-hands Heavens. Destruction rather we discern. Cardinal plush-cloaks. what Father Adam began life by doing strive to name the new Things it sees of Nature's producing. the black desperate battle of Men against a battle. fair-painted Sepulchres full of dead men's bones. their whole Condition and Environment. ye appear to us to be altogether a Lie. ! . with a sound which goes through far lands and times. Now surely not realisation. had stood up simultaneously to say. that this Untruth of an Existence had become insupportable.— 238 TERROR THE ORDER OF THE DAY [bk. the Thing the Thing is then ours. renouncing the pretension to name it at present. as has been often said. of Christianity or of aught earthly. forming. and the Earth and also the Pit of Tophet to witness. Wherefrom likewise there follow. be abolished ! inconsiderable Oath. is to say. dealt with. ye Credos. of all that was destructible. the most remarkable transaction in these last thousand years. and can be is known henceforth if But what the Names and Theorems ! : . behold. [Year i 2 yet. against the Sin and Darkness that was in them. or else we shall — O — . one and all. v. History were to admit. that all yet known to her fall short ? That this grand Product of Nature was even grand. withal. in that it came not to range itself under old recorded Laws of Nature at all. alas. : often helplessly enough. risen at length into the Pythian mood. results. ch. ye Hypocrisies and Speciosities. Formulas. Yet our Life is not a Lie yet our Hunger and Behold we lift up. truly. for once. will look honestly at it. History. It is as if Twenty-five millions. and The fulfilment of this Oath that will follow. Respectabilities. and name what she can of it Any approximation to the right Name has value were the right Name itself once here. in this French Revolution of which it is the consummating. and new. that either ye shall be abolished.

to devise for the want the way of satisfying it. as it were. . Gracchus has become Baboeuf. A nation of men. the Unwonted hastily builds itself up. free arena one of the strangest temporary states Humanity was ever seen in. we have always seen but the unseen heart of the whole. Cannibalism all isms that make up Man in France are rushing and roaring in that gulf. . very strangely in the vehicle of a Jean-Jacques Evangel. to try what will swim. ! : . . : — : . does. and the theorem has become a practice. in red Phrygian nightcap of Liberty. again.1793] Year 2] RUSHING DOWN : 239 Tranthis is the Reign of Terror. at all events. Classicism. completes the circle. christens his poor little red infant Cato. Censor. But just so do all creeds. on the spur of the instant. or else of Utica. scendental despair was the purport of it. by invention. and what not. have. suddenly plump down Catholicism. and edites Newspapers Mutius Scaevola. which the French have. . Political Millennium. the transcendental deneither has it been of no effect. call this Reign of Terror a very strange one. customs. full of wants and void of habits The old habits are gone to wreck because they were old men. tion. out of old Catholicism. False hopes. : . suddenly plump down out of its cloud-firmament and from a theorem determine to make itself a practice. Wherefore we will. knowledges. Dominant Sansculottism makes. though not consciously so. pushed far enough. Cordwainer of that ilk. true. according to the Free Peoples of Antiquity ? The French Patriot. presides in the Section Mutius-Scaevola and in brief. driven forward by Necessity and fierce Pythian Madness. The Wonted tumbles down by imitait is . of Fraternity. Not Evangelist Jean-Jacques alone there is not a Village Schoolmaster but has contributed his quota do we not thoii one another. intentions. Sentimentalism. there is a world wholly jumbling itself. thoughts and things. Doctrine of Fraternity. so to speak and becomes a kind of genuine productive hope selves as in others : . and whatsoever cannot swim sinks. was not false Despair. spair.

. on which the most variegated of scenes paints itself. ! : ' Mercier. /ajj/. if anywhere. Here. let the Government be one of Terror or one of Joy! In this Paris there are Twenty-three Theatres nightly some count as many as Sixty Places of Dancing. What — . for a time. [Year i 2 the French National head has in it comes out if not a great result. the ludicrous. surely one of the strangest. were of supreme service In defect of any such organ on our part./. the horrible succeed one another or rather. 124.^ The " Cesspool of Agio. Ever fresh Novel-garbage. accordingly. the " hundred tongues. - " Moniteur " of these months. : . in the fittest sequence we can." like Aladdin-Palaces really a kind of miraculous Fata-Morganas. fodders the Circulating Libraries.^ The Playwright manufactures. In startling transitions. . this Reign of Terror far from it. How many hammermen and squaremen. in colours all intensated. Neither shall the Reader fancy that it was all black. unimagined exhales from itself " sudden fortunes. as of old. bakers and brewers. ch.240 TERROR THE ORDER OF THE DAY [bk. washers and wringers. the sublime." which the old Poets often clamour for. let the Reader stir up his own imaginative organ let us snatch for him this or the other significant glimpse of things. must ply their old daily work. works with a vivacity unexampled. since you can live in them. Terror is as a sable ground. over this France. ii." now in a time of Paper Money. v. pieces of a strictly Republican character. accompany one another. in crowding tumult. : : .

served with Custine guillotined for incapacity or slackness. Likewise. Unfortunate-female. R . Brumaire For. It is. soon to be the widow she that is Josephine Tascher Beauharnais that shall be Josephine Empress Buonaparte." Amid such fellow-travellers does Philippe arrive.] III. when Philippe. the third of November 1793. for a black Divineress of the Tropics prophesied long since that she should be a Queen and more. : . according to Forster. home : ." along with the Girondins. On which same day. at Mainz and was Ed. Dame whilom Countess Dubarry. be the month name transit to his long . had returned from London they snatched her. arrives in Paris. ^ [Her husband. after his long half-year of durance at Marseilles. nigh turned in the head. 6. : — . not only as Ex-harlot of a whilom Majesty. . in the same hours. " has taken no food these three weeks." Contemporaneously with whom there comes the wife Beauharnais. as we calculate. much to his and their surprise but not tried along with them. who. and therefore suspect but as having " furnished the Emigrants with money. two notable Female Prisoners are also put in ward there Dame Dubarry and Josephine Beauharnais. 16] ' 1793] DEATH 241 CHAPTER DEATH II one transient the early days of November there INglimpse the last of things that to be noted is is : of Philippe d'Orleans Egalite." marches to the Guillotine for his Pamphlet on Charlotte Corday he " sprang to the scaffold " said " he died for her with great joy. Philippe was "decreed accused. the General. poor Adam Lux. They are doomed and dead. Brum.— NOV. some three days.

: . as before. . " I voted in my soul and conscience. . Philippe's attitude was erect and easy. to signify that he might still do the State some service by revealing the truth about a plot or two. stood up with an air of graciosity. Philippe. Objecting or not objecting. was willing. marked for its elegance green frock. in in the pass things had come to. entirely composed. or the Emissary went his ways. It is five years. not to say easy . it is a guilt in him that he voted Louis's Death. and conversed in an undertone. all but a few days. : company. and asked . that. " Whether it was a Royal Session. to give a reasonable answer. thereupon called for breakfast sufficiency of " oysters. in the interest of Liberty. with great seeming composure till the leisure was done. Philippe answered. almost commanding. says Montgaillard." The doom he finds is death forthwith this present 6th dim day of November is the last day that Philippe is to see. the . within these same stone walls. He finds himself made guilty of Royalism. he leant his elbow on the mantel-piece. impassive. or Three poor blackguards Bed of Justice ? " O Heaven were to ride and die with him some say. his jury soon convinced. and had to be flung in. neck and heels seems not true. waistcoat of white pique. li [Year 2 year 2 of Liberty. they objected a ! — : to such but it Philippe's dress is regallows-vehicle gets under way. Philippe's indictment is soon drawn. Montgaillard. then arrived. Enough. Guillotine va toujours. boots clear as Warren his air. were a reasonable question asked him. iv. on him. though he answers. best part of an excellent bottle of claret " and consumed the same with apparent relish. And so. 141-157. having still some leisure on his hands. he thought. 628.' 242 TERROR THE ORDER OF THE DAY [bk. Conspiracy and much else nay. says Montgaillard. since Philippe. the Guillotine goes always. the State had. * Forster. At the door of the Conciergerie. or some official Convention Emissary. he. . two cutlets. or November year 1793 of Slavery. ch. small claim that nevertheless. v. A Revolutionary Judge. ii. King Louis. yellow buckskins. then. .

FRAslowly. Enough for us Chaos has reabsorbed him may it late or never bear his like again! Brave young Orleans : ! : virtues perhaps more than we know of — ." full : ^ [Brummel. Brummellean-polite. Brum. unlike any Nero. then ? God forbid that there should be any living man without it He had the virtue to keep living for five-and-forty years other ! . Tush. he lived in the Age of Pamphlets. ' . 1793] DEATH . Ed. consider what a combination Also. deprived of all. it is said. the several centuries Wife of Roland. sublime in her . " they will come " ! better off after us have done. On the : . For he was a Jacobin Prince of the Blood. any Borgia. REPUBLIC ONE AND INDIVISIBLE LIBERTY. 6.— Ed.' Through street after street amid execrations past the Palais Egalite. dcpccJions-noiis So Philippe was not without virtue. — But probably no mortal ever had such things recorded of him such facts. pp. known as Beau Brummel. in Jezebel headtire along the ashlar Wall there ran these words in huge tricolor print. Egalite. 243 and Brummellean-polite. under the name of Corby. seemed she to Riouffe in her " Something more than is usually found in Prison. was a well-known fop of the early part of the nineteenth century." let said Philippe. at the Grate we were all attentive painted itself. TERNITY OR Death National Property.] ^ "Memoires" ("Sur les Prisons. Philippe's eyes flashed hellfire. for drawing off his boots : " . and he sat impassive. uncomplaining sorrow. : ." i.— NOV. A far nobler Victim follows membrance from pon. whilom Palais Royal The cruel Populace stopped him there. She spoke me says Riouffe.' " in those of expression and sweetness. to teach Mathematics. : women to large black eyes of hers. EQUALITY. 55-57. and also such lies.). some minutes Dame du Buffon. The Egalite Family is at the gone darkest depths of the Nadir. — ! : . 16] . the looks of one who will claim reJeanne-Marie PhliQueenly. Samson was scaffold. looked out on him.] ^ [This is very doubtful she is said to have loved him. only not deprived of himself. one instant but the next instant it was gone. often. is to Coire in the Orisons.

She returned with a quick step lifted her finger. she too shall go her last road. " Director of Assignatprinting " whose dejection she endeavoured to cheer. Arrived at the foot of the scaffold.] [When she felt herself doomed. of which the ear could never have enough. Her conversation was serious. that of death. short preparation soon done. in her " Memoires " that this release Ed. " clad in white. she occupied Charlotte Corday's apartment. she will sit three hours sometimes leaning on the window. v. Look. — . i. Ed. to signify to us that she was doomed her eyes seemed to have been wet. not cold coming from the mouth of a beautiful woman. " to write the strange thoughts that were rising in her " :^ a remarkable request which was refused. it was frank and courageous as that of a great man. those " Memoirs " of hers were written.] ^ " Memoires de Madame Roland" (Introd. with scorn. " TERROR THE ORDER OF THE DAY il [Year 2 round her. Here in the Conciergerie. . on the 8th of November. with ExMinister Claviere calls the beheaded Twenty-two " Nos amis. with a harmony and prosody that made her language like music." she is gone to the Judgment-bar. There went with her a certain Lamarche." But now." whom we are soon to follow. . ch. liberated once. .— 244 — [bk. 220-221. our Friends. : . During these five months.). ' : . Two are given in Mathilde Blind's " Mme. ' [Mme. And now. in a sort of admiration and astonishment she expressed herself with a purity. which all the world still reads." says Riouffe.' She has been in Prison." pp. was a . not without tears.^ but recaptured the same hour. and weeping. ever since the first of June in agitation and uncertainty which has gradually settled down into the last stern certainty. In the Abbaye Prison. she frankly confessed her love for Buzot in letters to him. : . Fouquier-Tinville's questions had been " brutal " offended female honour flung them back on him. she asked for pen and paper. she speaks with Riouffe. " with her long black hair hanging down to her girdle. 68. . she collects her strength but in her own room. Roland declared trick." "And yet her maid said Before you. Roland.

a cold bitter drizzling rain. First National President. with its high queenly face. long black hair flowing down to the girdle and as brave a heart as ever beat in woman's bosom Like a white Grecian Statue. ." said Samson. for leaving Champ-de-Mars It is the his Astronomy to meddle with Revolution. Encyclopcdies. easy it is to die " Contrary to the order. and the Gospel Biography will long reaccording to Jean-Jacques member that trait of asking for a pen " to write the strange thoughts that were rising in her. : . 8. Brum. its soft proud eyes. " Pshaw. they have got to the ChampNot there vociferates the cursing Populace de-Mars such Blood ought not to stain an Altar of the Fatherland not there but on that dung-heap by the River-side So Officiality gives ear to vociferates the cursing Populace : ! . Fayettism one may say in general. as poor Bailly is led through the streets howling Populace covering him with curses. 18] 1793] DEATH 245 ing at the Statue of Liberty which stands there. what things are done in thy name will die first show she him how For Lamarche's sake. can make a Jeanne Phlipon. Still cruder was the fate of poor Bailly. — . unpitied. through the sleety drizzle." It is as a little light-beam. though but on Logics. Noble white Vision. . . shines in that black wreck of things Honour to great Nature who. and a kind of sacredness. : ! . in Paris City. : . ! : . — : . and nourish her to clear perennial Womanhood. in the Era of Noble-Sentiment and Pompadourism. Slow faring Silent. — . with mud waving over his face a burning or smoking mockery of a Red Flag. shedding softness. . — ! : . you cannot refuse the last request of a Lady" and Samson yielded. sits the innocent old man. lOth of November 1793.! NOV. . First Mayor of Paris doomed now for Royfor that Red-Flag Business of the alism. over all that preceded so in her too there was an Unnameable she too was a Daughter of the Infinite there were mysteries which Philosophism had not dreamt of! She left long written counsels to her little Girl she said her Husband would not survive her. serenely complete. she long memorable. she says " bitterly "O Liberty.

" some four leagues from Rouen." said Bailly. with farewell too sad for tears. against the smart. : . i6th of the month. but indignation. il [Year z Guillotine is taken down. it rain is for cold. i. virtuous and honest. forensic or other. ch.). this Barnave. 246 TERROR THE ORDER OF THE DAY . though with hands the sleety drizzle is carried to the Riveris there set up again. " Mon ami." said one. He is still but twoand-thirty. his word a law to all Patriots and now surely he in stormful altercation with is at the bottom of the wheel a Tinville Tribunal." " Not fear. once also of the Extreme Left.^ Some days afterwards. 88. made me quit my retreat. i. [bk. Roland. v. them. 29. which is dooming him to die ^ And Petion. On the morrow morning. where is he . For hours long amid curses and bitter frost" Bailly. on learning that my Wife had been murdered. near Bourg-Baudoin. ^ * ^ " "Vie Memoires de Madame Roland" Forster. " dest defroid" Crueler end had no mortal. ii. hearing the news of what happened on the 8th.). p. we saw him at the top of Fortune's wheel. leaves their kind house which had given him refuge goes forth. dumb Clotho-shears of Tinville.secrated all his life to being useful and who has died as he lived. The numbed by . and has known such changes. .'' . and named Petion Civilly dead in the Caves of Virtue. . They have sent for him from Grenoble to pay the common Vain is eloquence. ! . I wished not to remain longer on an Earth polluted with crimes. ! . in M. . Paris-ward. Short while ago. de Bailly" (in " Memoires." . Normand's Avenue. thou tremblest. embraces his kind Friends at Rouen. (Introd. respect my remains they are those of a man who con. . . : : . with slow numbness side pulse after pulse still counting itself out in the old man's weary heart." 629." there is seen sitting leant again.st a tree the figure of a rigorous wrinkled man stiff now in the rigour of death a cane-sword run through his heart and at his feet this writing " Whoever thou art that findest me lying. ." Barnave's appearance at the Revolutionary Tribunal was of the bravest but it could not stead him.

-ii." Custine the ExNoble was replaced by Houchard the Plebeian he too could not prosper in the North for him too there was no mercy he has perished in the Place de la Revolution.. had resigned his seat as deputy in the Convention at the close of the King's trial in protest at the terrorism of the mob in the galleries. : . This was his offence. 247 pierre. 1793: his son. So giddy-swift whirls and spins this immeasurable tormcfitmn of a Revolution wild-booming not to be followed by the eye. on the Scaffold. Chatillon over the Vendeans (July 3rd). . the general beloved by the Paris Commune. one of the contrivers of the September massacres. 1794. is about to go and Rabaut. ' : ! : . . valiant and diligent in none of them. National Deputies not a few And Generals the memory of General Custine cannot be defended by his Son his Son is already guillotined. 1793] Brum. It was not till after his return to Paris that he was arrested with the other Dantonists. famed also in August and September.] [Custine the father was guillotined in July. 216. i. see note on p. " This. Sec- [Manuel. Ed. Beauharnais.) Ed. Barnave.] ^ : . satian Westermann. but was acquitted^ and did valiant service against the Vendeans at Beauge and Le Mans (December 13th). then. La Vendee his soul from : ^ How ^ busy are the Revolutionary Committees .] Westermann. Brunet. (See bk. can.—— NOV. not until '' January 3rd. after gaining the battle of [This is inexact. . Ed. - Ed. vi. : : .] [For Houchard's crime. and the Brother of Rabaut. ! . is my reward and Deputy Ex-Procureur Manuel is already gone Deputy Osselin.^ And Generals Biron. whatsoever General prospers not tough old Luckner. This and his feud with Rossignol. after attempting suicide in Prison. stamped with his foot and looking upwards was heard " to ejaculate. chaps. with his eyes grown rheumy Al. as the Psalmist sings. discovered treacherously between his two walls. — DEATH — . Saint-Emilion to be devoured of dogs. led to his (first) arrest he was tried at Niort. was surprised by them and routed. is in Committee of Salut civilly alive not to live always.] . And Robeswho rode along with him on the shoulders of the people. death deliver.

287. Louvet. once Conde's In at Blankenberg. seized in a hayloft. and in a word all Luxembourg Palace. withal. and the suspect. under the disguise of a working man. and the rich. " The Guillotine goes not ill. as into their storehouse. CH. is instantly conducted to death. has become a huge loathsome Prison ChanAnd their landlords are tilly Palace too.^ Nay. . to be consumed by Samson and Tinville. once manner of Culottic men Monsieur's. if property he have. v. therefore. thick as brown leaves shaken down in Autumn. To avoid accidents. : .248 TERROR THE ORDER OF THE DAY ! [bk. p. arrestment falls quick. . on the wrong side of the Rhine. ExMinister Lebrun. is it not what Barrere calls " coining money on the Place de la Revolution " ? For always the " property of the guilty." is confiscated. . in France some Paris are now some Twelve Prisons Forty-four Thousand thitherward. — ^ " Moniteur. rustle and travel the suspect by Revolutionary Committees. we even make a Law that suicide shall not defraud us that a criminal who kills himself does not Let the guilty tremble. the less incur forfeiture of goods. continual Ex-Minister Claviere has killed himself in Prison. 30 Decembre 1793." . La Guillotine ne va pas mal. they are swept thitherward. il [Year 2 Arrestment on tions with their Forty Halfpence a-day followed by death." 11. ! : — .

'vim wig\ mM liffg -' i' '/\ fp .

.

] " Deux Amis. In Brest.-DEC. — . 1793] Brum. va toujours and his wool-capped " Company of Marat. . Swift as the machine is.— OCT. Whereupon you must frightfuler still . as incompetent as he was cruel. which Rossignol has literally set on fire " Carrier will try what captives you make what accomplices they have.^ : . DESTRUCTION 249 CHAPTER III DESTRUCTION 'HT'^HE suspect may well tremble but how much more X the open rebels the Girondin Cities of the South! Revolutionary Army is gone forth. and was then superseded by Marceau. . . Johnson's " Life of Marceau. rules Jean-Bon Saint-Andre. Representative Carrier has got to Nantes. in trousers. with an Army of Red Nightcaps. [Rossignol. with ^ . . in black-shag ." xii. : . with his Isabeau and henchmen Guadets. enormous sabre.-Frim. Royalist or Girondin his guillotine goes always.l — . 249-251. Bristly . a brave and able general. blazing La Vendue." Ed. 301. See Capt. suffered a crushing defeat from the Vendeans at Antrain (November 22nd). See Louvet. under Ronsin the . in carmagnole complete " and has portable guillotines." Little children are guillotined. In Bourdeaux rules Tallien. to like purpose. ^ '^ ' . p. Salleses. worn down with work declare that the human muscles can no more. Cussys. " in red nightcap. it will not serve the Headsman and all his valets sink. black-shag enormous mustachioes. Playwright tricolor six thousand strong waistcoat. by the edge of spencer. and aged men. try fusillading to which perhaps methods may succeed. many fall the bloody Pike and Nightcap bearing supreme sway the Guillotine coining money.

or any kind of power. has softened the red bristly countenance — . : . Fouch^'s. still young in years.] .^ The keys of Tartarus.daughter of Cabarus the Spanish Merchant. ." their rasoir natioftal. that a certain Senhorina Cabarus. . we mean. a Pluto on Earth. is Dis. . once Able Editor. Fr^rons scour the Southern Departments like reapers. or call her rather Senhora and wedded not yet widowed Dame de Fontenai. Many By the hundred are the labourers. which he sent on pikes. ! . hi [Year 2 fox-haired TalHen. v. softens his stone heart a little. by this red gloomy and. at Orange in the South Lebon. at Marseilles. become world's wonders. they say. . low as Low now is Jourdan the Headsman's own head Deshuttes's and Varigny's. with their " national martial-law districts razor. they sternly shave away. Jacobin Popular Tribunal. men's lives are cropt cast like brands into the burning." Only 301 heads fell at Bordeaux in the Terror. are something gloomy Pluto himself is not insensible to to a woman . Maignet. brown beautiful woman.— 250 TERROR THE ORDER OF THE DAY . with its National Representative. with their guillotine-sickle. perhaps where Girondin Popular Tribunal had lately been. She became known as " Our Lady of Mercy. it is Him they have clutched. potent and has the keys of Tartarus. Like a new Proserpine. gathered . rises wheresoever needed. and the thousand. Barrases. is now become most gloomy. of a tile-colour } By Nemesis and the Fatal Sisters. love. in No more shall he. [rk. however. — . One remarks." and later as " Our Lady of Thermidor. . Marseilles is taken. she. in these Jourdan Coupe-tete him too. — ! [Tallien pardoned Fontenai on condition that he divorced his and that she would become his (TaUien's) mistress. and put under martial law lo. with this which they cut copper-studded face plenteous beard. here and rises there Maignets. at Arras in the North. as a the Insurrection of Women . or beard-stubble. pleading for herself and friends and prevailing. ch. what one besmutted red-bearded corn-ear is one gross Man. ^ wife Ed. great is the harvest.

Behold Representative Fouche. The all-hiding Earth has in the Ice-tower of Avignon. Alas. lie massed together for us counted by the cartload and yet not an individual faggot-twig of them but had a Life and History and was cut. Precy drew his sword. Priests. deaf as Destiny. . ! : .-DEC. now Bishop Lamourette. They cut . : . : . 145.— OCT. stern as Pr6cy do Doom. capturing their " redoubts of cotton-bags " hemming them in. hardly Lyons. Aristocrats and Federalists that The manes of Chalier are to be appeased are in Lyons the Republic. that Autumn night when the Powder-tower sprang aloft.-Frim. The Lyons Jacobins were hidden in cellars the Gironde Municipality waxed pale. it is . Abbe Lamourette. is seized here sent to Paris to be " he made the sign of the cross. be seen gyrating through the Cities of the South no more sit judging. : . on the 9th units of them ever saw Switzerland.] " Deux Amis. treason and red fire. guillotined when Tinville intimated his death-sentence to him and died as an eloquent Constitutional Bishop. : ! — . ! [Jourdan was executed as a federalist or moderate Ed. ! . with his Artillery-lava? Never would that ci-devant D'Autichamp arrive never any help from Blankenberg. . not without pangs as when a Kaiser dies Least of all cities can Lyons escape. received him." xi.] — 251 . 1793] Krum. . ever closer. they. . like confused faggots. in famine. Dubois-Cranc6.^ way to Switzerland. [Precy took his best troops with him and the women and children in their midst. of October. he of the old Baiser-V Amourette or is Delilah-Kiss. was clearly verging towards Inevitable what could desperate valour and a sad end. whilom Legislator. Lyons. surrenders at discretion it is become a devoted Town. Ed. has bared her right arm. to cut their fiercely and and cut down not hundreds. were fiercely cut. which we saw in dread sunblaze. the bloated Tilebeard may we never look Jourdan one names ^ the other upon his like again Hundreds are not named. with pipes and brandy." they say.] ' ! ^ . DESTRUCTION copper Portent. . But wo now to all Bishops. and some Fifteen Hundred with him sprang to saddle. maddened to the Sibylline pitch.

Convention Representatives succeed one another there is work for the hangman work for the hammermen." . at its tail. and the Jacobin it had prophecy had been fulfilled. etc. but little else was touched (Morse Stephens. ch. though it rebelled against the Republic. : . writes Fouch6. Collot d'Herbois. begin strikes thee " Crash of downfal. the Commissioner. taps on the wall. with this Inscription. are doomed. ^ [The city walls and about forty large houses in the chief square were demolished. if Jacobinism prophesy right and a Pillar to be erected on the ruins. But Towns are not built of soap-froth Lyons Town is built of stone. once great City." . "-La Lai te frappe. and La Fouche. ' he company goes duly. ! — shall be satisfied. v. Lyons rebelled against the Republic . Lyons. all vanished in those weeks. some say the very Bible. Couthon. of " Vengeance : : . Fouche. with wedge and crowbar. Paralytic Couthon. had begun atheistic practices at Nevers (see note on p. The Law masons."Moniteur" (du 17 Novembre 1793). we say. The Holy Books were part of the funeral Amid cries pile their ashes are scattered to the wind. to raise the corpse of Chalier. a name with a Patriot become well known . Lyons is no more. Fouche. with a mitre on his head. was arrested on his return though soon released. Porte were sent as commissioners to wreak vengeance. Lyons in fact is a Town to be abolished not Lyons henceforth. this the very name of it shall perish. Collot. iii 2 [Year Fouch6 of Nantes. not in building. Vengeance!" which. . Ed. The very Houses of Aristocrats. to Paris. .— 253 : TERROR THE ORDER OF THE DAY to [bk. ' the recreant priest. [Dubois-Crance. fly in the winter wind. : wondrous ProAss housed and trailing the Mass-Books. but " Commune Affranchie. Township Freed " It is to be razed. . in An cession. and burnt the ashes are collected in an Urn to be worshipped of Paris Patriotism. dim ruin and dust-clouds demolition. Had Lyons been of soft stuff. in Priest's cloak. The body is dug up.] . . borne in a chair. with emblematic mallet. paces through Lyons streets escorted by multitudinous Patriotism. by clangour as of the Pit towards the grave of Martyr Chalier. is to this day. saying. 237).

It is the second of such scenes the first was of some Seventy. turn away their faces. There were Two-hundred and nine marched out one escaped at the end of the Bridge yet behold. of world-catcall or hoarse Tartarean Trumpet. . 1793] Brum. snatching the musket from one such National. 376). that you could despatch it at one swoop. says. as they fire. The number of persons executed was given as 1. : Collot ? After long guessing. O mind " Fr.] . — : . . they say." This is the second Fusillade. Rev." vol. are to be buried on land. here in the Brotteaux ground... by musket and cannon. . Collot. Two-hundred and nine men are not to be repeated marched forth over the River. Collot d'Herbois. and Military Commission. in this his new character of Convention Representative. officially ii. Jacobin National Guards give fire but have again to give fire. that they were Police riddle. . Revolutionary Tribunal here. as they state that 1. it is called to that two individuals. and again and to take the bayonet and the spade. but the Rhone stranded some so these now. The corpses of the first were flung into the Rhone. was once hissed on the Lyons stage but with what sibilation. guillotining. they are Two-hundred and ten. Their one long grave is dug they stand ranked. and happily the last it is found too hideous even inconvenient. Rede us this : . when you count the corpses. do what they can des Terreaux run red mangled corpses roll down the Rhone.684 were acquitted. for though the doomed all fall. Ed. of the second lot. the figures are more than doubtful. . and levelling it with unmoved countenance. .682 by the Commissioners. protesting with agony that they were not condemned men. but. "It is thus a Republican ought to fire. to be shot in mass.— NOV. So that the very Nationals. in the Promenade of the Brotteaux.] DESTRUCTION 253 Neither have the Lyons Girondins all one neck. by the loose mouldridge the younger of them singing the Marseillaise. will ye hiss him now. the kennels of the Place fusillading. they do not all die and it becomes a butchery too horrible for speech. p. did attempt to leave the rank. . : — ! .

. taciturn.254 TERROR THE ORDER OF THE DAY : [bk. and disbelieved. serving of artillery well and ill. in new-style and still their cursed Red-Blue . Much battering and bombarding. ." has que " None but : : : We . And still Toulon is not taken. 251-262. she will alight for a moment. as Barrere the dead do not come back. who often takes his nap of sleep among the guns a short. heating of balls in furnaces or farm-houses. have had as yet to small purpose. Forts Malbosquet. month now . It is the fourth . a pupil of WashConvention Representans also we have had ington. : ^ " Deux Amis. but cannot take Toulon." But before quitting those Southern regions. of extreme diligence. over which History can cast only glances from aloft. in Salut Public. Surely this. hi [Year 2 Commissaries which two we repulsed. took Lyons." and wide " the Guillotine goes not ill. // ny a Terror hovers far les inorts qui ne revieyinent pas. by name Buonaparte one of the best Artillery-officers yet met with. : — . has sent us a plan of siege on Meanwhile Frostarious Nivose. December. Frostarious or Frimaire. is Justice " under rough forms. They are provisioned from the Sea they have seized all heights. a whilom Painter elevated in the General Doppet. and look fixedly at one point the Siege of Toulon." But the Republic. who. under Crance. there has been General Cartaux here. attacking of Ollioules Passes. " march it : to Liberty over corpses. ch. as Fouche says. felling wood. and shot with the rest Such is the vengeance of an enraged Republic. sous des formes acerbes. olive-complexioned young man. also an Barrases. : in slave-style .theyhave built their nest in the rocks. when . Robespierres the Younger Artillery Chef de brigade. . Flag flies there. Finally we have General Dugommier. according to Barrere's phrase. v. Carnot. Salicettis. must ^ ! Or again. a whilom troubles of Marseilles Medical man elevated in the troubles of Piemont. is not yet become Snowous or Instructions a Council of War is called have just arrived from Government and Salut Public." xii. and fortifying themselves like the cony. not unknown to us.

^z '- .

.

as the plan on p. however." I'operation. with negatory sniff: who is this young gentleman with more wit than we all ? Brave veteran Dugommier. Chuquet says ("Toulon. Mr.).i the taciturn bronze-countenance therefore. By stratagem and valour. three days before Bonaparte reached the hnes of Toulon) the Commissioners had drawn up a plan for pouring red-hot cannon-balls on the British fleet. 257 will show. It is his humble opinion. . Essays" (1902). Cottin shows ("Toulon et les Anglais. Spenser Wilkinson's " Napoleon the First Phase " in the " Owens College Hist. See. 136-137): "Bonaparte partagea I'avis des Representants. . Dugommier. thou seest. there sits a grimmer gravity than ever. ." chap. mener rapidement I'Eguillette. This could hardly have been done except from the Eguillette promontory. His skill in artillery and his vigour made the plan a success. . compressing a hotter central-fire than ever. . turned inside out. M. . — . with thoughts. 1793] Frim. Commissioners arch their eyebrows. . as M. ^ [It is now known that on September 13th (that is. Des son arrivee il indiqua le moyen de . That a : . the . Commissioner Salicetti has that and criticisms and plans are very various when that young ArtilleryOfficer ventures to speak the same whom we saw snatching sleep among the guns. ! On . On devait. as with lionspring. se saisir de But. very heart of Toulon might be battered the English Lines were. yet a possible one this day to be tried Tried it is and found good. were it once ours. thinks the idea worth a word questions the young gentleman becomes convinced and there is for issue.— DEC." pp. the name of him Napoleon Buonaparte. Yonder. saw that this was the weak point of the defence and turned their thoughts to it before Bonaparte arrived. as well as the Commissioners. things being now all ready. but he did not originate it. and Hood and our Natural Enemies must next day either put to sea. for he has been gliding about with spy-glasses. ii. however. stealing through ravines. plunging fiery through the fire-tempest.] : .] DESTRUCTION : 255 which plan General Uugommier has this criticism to make. is Fort I'Eguillette a desperate lion-spring. disait il. on the sudden wherefrom. — certain Fort I'Eguillette can be clutched. or be burnt to ashes. so to speak. who has emerged several times in this History. Try it. Ed.

etc. there is Civic Feast and high-tide and Toulon sees fusillading. though the flame spread far and high some two ships were burned.n^ the rest. : . v. or Painter David and Nay. have to carry not yet can they this same young Man to Egypt first be changed to ashes. voniie a grands jiots " and Twelve-thousand Masons are requisitioned from the neighbouring country. ^ " Moniteur. war-ships in Toulon Harbour. finding the interior of defences right. Next morning. . before their time And so. is carried having cleared. 98. guillotining and fusillading may begin. makes for his shipping. it did not prosper. truly but at least that infamy of an English domination is purged away. For it is to to raze Toulon from the face of the Earth. . we see the Tricolor fly on it . 96. it is said. these the Convention assist in a body. or to Sea-Nymphs not yet to skyship r Orient rockets. arsenals. so reports Barrere all but the National Shipping Establishments and to be called henceforth not Toulon. Taking such Royalists as wished it on board with him. as Lyons saw and " death is poured out in great floods. Ship V Orient 2. Then the Commissioners (among whom was the younger Robespierre) began to try suspects. his lines exposed.] . loi (31 Decembre). not more the very galley-slaves ran with buckets to quench. grapeshotting in mass. and condemned over four hundred to death. Toulon is once more the Republic's and now the Cannonading has ceased at Toulon .^ infamous English (with an attention rather to their own interests than to ours) set fire to our store-houses. 95. hi [Year 2 Fort I'Eguillette is clutched at. his turned inside out. [At first the fusillades swept off indiscriminately all who were suspected of having served with the royalists. the smoke the bronze- complexioned young man was Hood. — O \ ! : . the only ones we now had However.! ! 256 TERROR THE ORDER OF THE DAY . before weighing some score of brave warships. nor become the prey of England. Let there be Civic Feast universally over France: so reports Barrere. Civil horrors. . ! ! : . . over France universally. [bk.— Eu. on this 19th of December 1793. be razed. These same proud Ships. ch. he weighs anchor. Nos." 1793.

- '^ III.. .

as of musketry and tumult. and women with children at the breast children and women. become famous sank worn out .— 258 . the wool-capped Company of Marat is not sleeping. that gabarre about eleven at night with Ninety Priests under hatches ? They are going to Belle Isle ? In the middle of the Loire stream. sinking it with them? Fling them out fling them out. on signal given. He deep It is the first of the Noyades. as of rage and lamentation mingling with the everlasting moan of the Loire waters there ? Nantes Town is sunk in sleep but Representant Carrier is not sleeping. " was cargo. till the fit pass. 266-272. Why unmoors that flatbottomed craft. ^ . Ed. O Reader (for the sound reaches through centuries). Hold have got Noyading and on the 24th night of Frostarious year 2. "Moniteur. v. which is 14th of December 1793. ." The Ninety Priests." du 2 Janvier 1794. [Carrier hypocritically gave out that the first 7ioyade (of a large batch of priests) was an accident Some apologists of the Terror afitect to believe this. : ! . . confused noises. : forever. : "Deux Amis. of Carrier which have — There in . " in . so hot is La Vendue till the very Jacobins grew sick. ch. in the dead December and January nights. One begins to be sick of "death vomited in great floods. ." xii. executed vertically. by the hundred and twenty and by the five hundred." Nevertheless. over Nantes Town. hearest thou not." writes Carrier. black death-cloud we must leave it hoping only that Toulon too is built of stone that perhaps even Twelve-thousand Masons cannot pull it down. with their hands tied pour a Guillotining there was at Nantes." Or why waste a gabarre. . TERROR THE ORDER OF THE DAY . then fusillading . the gabarre is scuttled she sinks with all her " Sentence of Deportation. we have a second Noyade consisting of "a Hundred and Thirty-eight persons. hi [Year 2 but Port of the Mountain.] ^ ! . with their gabarre-coffin. — . till the Headsman the Plain of SaintMauve " little children fusilladed. [bk. and all but Wherefore now we the Company of Marat cried. ! . what we may call Drownages.

in their agony. : .. 1793] Frim. feet and feet. Ed. will turn to another aspect of the Consummation of Sansculottism leaving this as the blackest. at the fall of every ." answered the Company of Marat. daylight itself witnesses Noyades women and men are tied together. ! : . And women were in that gabarre whom the Red Nightcaps were stripping naked who begged. . 1795). p. Rev." Proces de Carrier" [The total number (4 tomes. at Arras.] . : : . the victims tumble confusedly seaward along the Loire stream the tide clouds of ravens darken the River rolling them back wolves prowl on the shoal-places Carrier writes. as pale swoln corpses. : — We .' Cruel is the panther of the woods. have to like it " stand by while the Guillotine devours their children a band of music is stationed near and. . . till the last Unsound sleepers of Nantes. dashes his sword into the blood flowing from the Guillotine exclaims. Republican Marriage. " Quel " torrent revohitioiuiaire.] DESTRUCTION ! 259 continual hail of lead over all the space. ii. And that their smocks might not be stript from them. : ! . but it was probably about one-third of that number. young children were thrown in. . Dumb. hands and this they call Manage Repiibhands and flung in licaifi. ^ [The stories as to these ghastly incidents have been partially discredited. their mothers vainly pleading " Wolflings.. struggler of them be sunk and the Sea-Villages thereabouts.— DEC." By degrees. hear the musketry amid the night-winds wonder what the meaning of it is. out of suffering now. These are the Noyades of Carrier twenty-five by the tale. " How I Mothers. . by his orders.)— Ed. as the Time is. they say. But indeed men are all rabid Representative Lebon." vol. of victims at Nantes in the four months of Carrier's activity has been reckoned at 15. 389. What a torrent of Revolution For the man is rabid and the Time is rabid. the she-bear bereaved of her whelps but there is in man a hatred cruder than that.000. : : . Paris. " who would grow to be wolves.] . (Morse Stephens' " Fr. for what is done in darkness comes to be investigated in sunlight ' not to be forgotten for centuries.

one good time. and publish large volumes. ii. have only emptiness. .. on these matters. ira of 1793 was Christian in tone. Champagne. in an Age of Formulas and to look. that of self-preservation. (Morse Stephens. CH. 26o TERROR THE ORDER OF THE DAY [bk. head. or drives them into the caves and hills." vol.. It should be remembered that the Terror scarcely touched p.J ^ Montgaillard. — . part. and in their interior unclean accumulation of beetles and . and 326 afterwards. for our withal. Mission. [This Caof 1789. hears of it burns Bedouin Burgh to the last dog-hutch guillotines the inhabitants. . V. Ed. iii [Year 2 In the Burgh of Bedouin. Chaos. iv. v. 366) estimates that 14. : ! . Representative Maignet. the dull-blustering Printer and Able Editor. 395. regulated modelled shapes some of which have bodies and life still in them most of which. the Wallon (" Les Representants en Perigord. Dauphine. Prudhomme. strikes up its Ca-ira} in the Orange region. notably Lorraine. " glass-eyes glaring on you with a ghastly affectation of life. oftenest in silence.^ Republic One and Indivisible! She is the newest Birth of Nature's waste inorganic Deep.807 persons were executed in the provinces up to the fall of Robespierre. " Crimes of the Revolution " adding innumerable lies We..) some provinces. in the language of metaphor. which men name Orcus. as if the truth were not sufficient. according to a German Writer. 1823). primeval Night and knows one law. supposititious we call them. the Liberty-tree has been cut down overnight. For the Formulas are partly genuine. ^ "Les Horreurs des Prisons d'Arras" far (Paris.. . as yet a Jacobin Editor." vol. 200. " Fr. will become a renegade one. find it more edifying to know. different from that M . : : . how the so genuine Nature-Fact will demean itself among these. 541 persons were executed. at Orange. Rev. — . which was During Lebon's mission to Arras and Cambrai. and the Limousin. . p. partly delusive. Tigresse Nationale Swift-rending is her meddle not with a whisker of her pity has not stroke look what a paw she spreads entered into her heart. that a this Republic and National Tigress is a New-Birth Fact of Nature among Formulas.

. Whatsoever is equally sincere may front it. as very Death. 1793] Frim. let all men observe. .] DESTRUCTION ! 261 spiders " But the Fact. . is a genuine and sincere one the sincerest of Facts terrible in its sincerity. and beard it but whatsoever is not} — .DEC.

ch. iv [Year 2 CHAPTER IV CARMAGNOLE COMPLETE SIMULTANEOUSLY with this Tophet-black aspect. as Mercier observes last Corpus-Christi Day 1792. supposed with a quite devout air to be irreverent. Far and wide. and in an hour stands bare Since that Corpus-Christi Day. Curate of Boissise-le-Bertrand. in the sympathies of leaved or . New Calendar establish its of Rest and asked. the whole world. for the time being. the Destruction of the Catholic Religion and indeed. v. Butcher Legendre. an unsophisticated People defying Philosophism. and is grown weary of doing it wherefore he will now lay down his . were it never so slowly. writes to the Convention that he has all his life been preaching a lie. but not browner than of late years or decades to flourish far and wide. like a brown-leaved Vallombrosa which waits but one whirlblast of the November wind. and the Emigrants. : ! : . call there unfolds itself another aspect. Very singular. — itself. what would become of the Christian Sabbath ? The Calendar is hardly a month old. and Church. of Religion . and Church Formulas seemed to flourish. a certain Citoyen Parens. there comes. which one may a Tophet-red aspect. till all this is set at rest. and eighteen months of Time to all flourishing. walked in religious gala. a little brownso. especially to brownleaved flourishing. an end. and La Vendee. was like to be massacred in his Gig. Legislature and the Encyclopedic.262 TERROR THE ORDER OF THE DAY [bk. Tenth : and Sovereign Authority . the thing went by. Brunswick has come. On the 7th of November. . itself We Day saw Romme's . as A Gallican Hierarchy. alas.

The Paris Commune imitated them. . has given one." The French nation is of gregarious imitative nature it needed but a fugle-motion in this matter and goose Gobel.) that atheistic practices were begun by the Commissioners." (see " come Curates who " are Curates with their new- [Gobel did this under constraint from the Paris Commune L'CEuvre sociale de la Rev. to be among our intercalary Days Sans-breeches. ''Mention honorable'. courageously declines to the sound of " We force no one let Gregoire consult his conscience " but Protestant and Romish by the hundred volunteer and assent.. 1793] CARMAGNOLE COMPLETE 263 tion Curacy and stipend. From far and near. of Municipal Chaumettes and Heberts. a Feast .^ Goose Gobel will now acknowledge " no Religion but Liberty " therefore he doffs his Priestgear. all through November into December. To the joy of Departmental Momoro." chap.— NOV. iii. What Cur6 will be behind him of Boissise what Bishop behind him of Paris ? Bishop Gregoire. Aulard has proved (" Le Culte de la Raison. Lalande. There shall be Universal Republic now. and begs that an august Convenwould give him something else to live upon. till the work is accomplished. 332)." Seance du 17 Brumaire (7th November). . . Speaker of Mankind. in these circumstances. Constitutional Bishop of Paris. 1793. of Vincent and the Revolutionary Army Chaumette asks. learning to be Carpenters. Ought there not. M. present to the Convention his " Evidences of the Mahometan Religion. Uumont at Abbeville and Fouche at Nevers. come ^ Letters of renegation.] ^ " Moniteur. to do as Parens has done.' shall we give him ? Or " reference to Committee of Finances " ? Hardly is this got decided. and receives the Fraternal embrace. in September-October. Brum. with his Chapter. . makes his appearance. 20] ! . ." p." " a work evincing the nullity of all Religions. and little Atheist Naigeon rejoice let Clootz. . when goose Gobel. thinks Clootz of Reason?' Proper surely! — . . Le Peuple. with Municipal and Departmental escort in red nightcaps. lo. and "one God only. driven by Municipality and force of circumstances. Fr." with thanks. indeed. Ed. Let Atheist Marechal.

. descend from their belfries. : : . v. iv [Year 2 wedded Nuns has not the day of Reason dawned. : . beaten broad Good Saintevention. In all Towns and Townships as quick as the guillotine may sacristies. 1801). to Dalmatics of shoot the " enemies dit genre hiunain" plush make breeches for him who had none linen albs will clip into shirts for the Defenders of the Country old-clothesmen. . is what the streets of Paris saw " Most of these persons were still drunk." Above all things. with the eating brandy they had swallowed out of chalices Mounted on Asses. was but a type of what went on. The remnant of bells. they reined them with they held clutched with the same hand Priests' stoles . they are fit for the povertystricken Mint of pewter. sent to the Conmetallic Priest-tackle. Jew or Heathen. Patriotism has been down among the Tombs. This. which mackerel on the patenas were housed with Priests' cloaks. ^ "Analyse du Moniteur" (Paris. no longer Saint-Denis but Franciade. to be burst open. Saint this time. and become noon ? ships come Addresses. let them become bullets. — : . go. stating plainly. so quick goes the axe and the wrench the Mass-Books lutrins. drive the briskest trade. into the National meltingpot to make cannon. — ! . of Churchfurniture. to the poverty-stricken Mint. 280. in those same days. ^ . rummaging. accordingly. though in Patois dialect.264 TERROR THE ORDER OF THE DAY : [bk. the Revolutionary Army has taken spoil. Chalier's Ass-Procession. at Lyons. except for tocsin. Censers and all sacred vessels are beaten broad of silver. That " they will have no more to do with the black animal called Curay. and burnt on the Place de Greve. there come Patriotic Gifts. altar-rails are pulled down torn into cartridge-papers men dance the Carmagnole All highways jingle with all night about the bonfire. might not a Defender of the Louis's Shirt is burnt Country have had it ? At Saint-Denis Town. in all Towns. ch. animal noir appele Curay. ii. : . Genevieve's Chasse is let down alas. very From sequestered Townswiftly.

." Seance du 26 Novembre. is For it not passing strange to see a new Formula arise ? the human tongue is not adequate to speak what " triviality run distracted " there is in human nature. — ." tide have they. Brum. exaggerative Mercier. 265 communion-cup and sacred wafer. They enter there. being in Limbo now. ciboriums. in an immense train. — In such equipage did these profaners advance towards the Convention. as one of Duperret's Seventy-three. plates of gold and silver. . sacristy and : .' the captors of such spolia opium crave. in his place and demanding that Nevertheless there be prose and decency in future. See also " Moniteur. " several Members. censers. took the hand of girls flaunting in Priests' vestures. tumbling there confused welter. once named of Grace 1793. ." continues the but accede. Black Mumbo-Jumbo of the woods. one can understand but this of Procureur Anaxagoras. Chaumette? We will Man is a born idol-worshipper. Mules high-laden with crosses. chandeliers. who was not there to witness. not untouched with liquor. : ' Mercier. whilom John-Peter. iv. suns. stoup in hand. hyssops Cybele." Seance du 10 Novembre. sight-worsay only Out in . in this year. betrampled by the Patriotic dance. whose panniers. ranged in two rows all masked like mumbearing on mers in fantastic sacerdotal vestments hand-barrows their heaped plunder. . had to fill them thrice.NOV. — . 20] 1793] CARMAGNOLE COMPLETE . filled with the instruments of their worship. holyrecalling to mind the Priests of water vessels. with all the parts glooming considerably. temple. quitting their curule chairs. served at once as storehouse. lo. 134. sung viva voce. : of which strange fall of Formulas. ^ See " Moniteur. They stopped at the doors of Dramshops held out ciboriums and the landNext came lord. and danced Such Old-Hallowthe Carmagnole along with them. and most Indian Wau-waus." ^ The Address we do not give for indeed it was in Danton strophes. permission to dance the Carmagnole also on whereto an exhilarated Convention cannot the spot Nay " several Members. candelabras.

gathering its limbs. [The hymn was by Marie Joseph Chenier. Reason taking seat on the world. not by Andre Chenier the poet ' his brother " Descends. borne at due height round their platform. v. escorted by wind-music."^ . . straightway. of the Opera a woman fair to look she. Her henceforth we adore. and executed a few strophes in worship of her } President and Secretaries give Goddess Candeille. For the same day. so sensuous-imaginative is he much of the nature of the ape. : ! . . . is our New Divinity and alone worthy of revering.: 266 TERROR THE ORDER OF THE DAY . — one judges. . Le Peuple a reconquis son pouvoir immortel. by decree. executed National Convention chanting " the Hymn to Liberty. . music by Gossec. worthy. O National Convention wonder of the uniit Goddess of Reason. the requisite worship or quasi-worship is. sails in heralded by white young women girt in tricolor. high-altar of Notre-Dame. does get under way in the Reason. and with them the strangest freightage a New Religion Demoiselle Candeille. And now. fille de la Nature. borne on palanquin upon. borne. and the madness of the And so. the Convention. Let the world consider This. successively the Fraternal kiss whereupon she. words by It is the first of the Feasts Chenier. ch. verse. iv [Year 2 shipper. while this brave has hardly jigged itself out. O Liberte. required procession towards Notre-Dame again in her litter. . by men in the Roman costume . . sails to the right-hand of the President and there alights. [bk. there and also partakes Carmagnole-dance arrive Procureur ! Chaumette and Municipals and Departmental. as . when well rouged : . with red woollen nightcap in azure shoulderhigh mantle garlanded with oak holding in her hand the Pike of the ]uplter-Petip/e. Nay were it too much to ask of an august National Representation that it also went with us to the ci-devant Cathedral called of Notre-Dame. after due pause and flourishes of oratory. say the Newspapers. sitting in the van of them. red nightcaps.

^Ticixc-

Cf

ciApaxJ

(chilli

mcttc

From "Tableaux historique^"


NOV.
Brum.
lo,
20]

:

;

:

1793]

CARMAGNOLE COMPLETE

267

of Reason first communion-service of the New Religion of Chaumette. " The corresponding Festival in the Church of SaintEustache," says Mercier, " offered the spectacle of a great tavern. The interior of the choir represented a landscape decorated with cottages and boskets of trees. Round the choir stood tables overloaded with bottles, with sausages, pork-puddings, pastries and other meats. The guests flowed in and out through all doors: whosoever presented himself took part of the good things children of eight, girls as well as boys, put hand to plate, in sign of Liberty they drank also of the
; ;

bottles,

and

their

prompt intoxication created

laughter.
;

mantle aloft, in a serene manner Cannoneers, pipe in mouth, serving her as acolytes. And out of doors," continues the exaggerative man, " were mad multitudes dancing round the bonfire of Chapel-balustrades, of Priests' and Canons' stalls and the dancers, I exaggerate nothing, the dancers nigh bare of breeches, neck and breast naked, stockings down, went whirling and spinning, like those Dust-vortexes, forerunners of Tempest and Destruction."' At SaintGervais Church, again, there was a terrible " smell of herrings " Section or Municipality having provided no food, no condiment, but left it to chance. Other mysteries, seemingly of a Cabiric or even Paphian character, we leave under the Veil, which appropriately stretches itself " along the pillars of the aisles," not to be lifted aside by the hand of History. But there is one thing we should like almost better to understand than any other what Reason herself thought

Reason

sat in azure

;

;

:

Sur

les

pompeux

debris de I'antique imposture

Ses mains relevant ton autel.
" Venez, vainqueurs des rois, I'Europe vous contemple Venez, sur les faux dieux etendez vos succes Toi, sainte Liberte, viens habiter ce temple Sols la deesse des Frangais." Ed.]
^

Mercier,

iv.

127-146.

268

TERROR THE ORDER OF THE DAY
it,

[bk. v, ch. iv
[Year 2

words poor Mrs. Momoro, for example, uttered when she had become ungoddessed again, and the Bibliopolist and she sat quiet at home, at supper ? For he was an earnest man. Bookand had notions of Agrarian Law. seller Momoro Mrs. Momoro, it is admitted, made one of the best Godthough her teeth were a little defecdesses of Reason tive. And now if the Reader will represent to himself that such visible Adoration of Reason went on " all over the Republic," through these November and December weeks, till the Church woodwork was burnt out, and the business otherwise completed, he will perhaps feel sufficiently what an adoring Republic it was, and withof
all

the while.

What

articulate
;

;

^

;

out reluctance quit this part of the subject.

Such

gifts

of Church-spoil are chiefly the work of the
\
:

Armee Rcvolutionnaire raised, as we said, some time comIt is an army with portable guillotine ago. manded by Playwright Ronsin in terrible mustachioes and even by some uncertain shadow of Usher Maillard,
;

the old Bastille Hero, Leader of the Menads, September Man in Gray Clerk Vincent of the War-Office, one of Pache's old Clerks, " with a head heated by the ancient orators," had a main hand in the appointments, at least in the staff-appointments. But of the marchings and retreatings of these Sixthousand no Xenophon exists. Nothing, but an inarticulate hum, of cursing and sooty frenzy, surviving dubious They scour the country round in the memory of ages seeking Prisoners raising Requisitions seeing Paris that Edicts are executed, that the Farmers have thrashed lowering Church-bells or metallic Virgins. sufficiently Detachments shoot forth dim, towards remote parts of France nay new Provincial Revolutionary Armies rise dim, here and there, as Carrier's Company of Marat, as like sympathetic clouds in Tallien's Bourdeaux Troop
! ! ; ;
;

;

:

;

^ [It is not known who was the goddess, whether Mile. Mile. Maillard of the opera, or Mile. Candeille, or Mme. (Aulard, " Le Culte de la Raison," p. 55.)— Ed.]

Aubry or Momoro.

NOV.
Brum.

lo,
20]

1793]

CARMAGNOLE COMPLETE

269

in

an atmosphere all electric. Ronsi'n, they say, admitted, candid moments, that his troops were the elixir of the

One sees them drawn up in Rascality of the Earth. travel-splashed, rough-bearded, in carmarket-places magnole complete the first exploit is to prostrate what
; :

Royal or Ecclesiastical monument, crucifix, or the like, there may be to plant a cannon at the steeple fetch down the bell without climbing for it, bell and belfry together. This, however, it is said, depends somewhat on the size of the town if the town contains much population, and these perhaps of a dubious choleric aspect, the Revolutionary Army will do its work gently, by ladder and wrench nay perhaps will take its billet without work at all and, refreshing itself with a little liquor and Pipe in cheek, sabre sleep, pass on to the next stage.^ on thigh in Carmagnole complete Such things have been and may again be. Charles Second sent out his Highland Host over the Western Scotch Whigs Jamaica Planters got Dogs from the France too Spanish Main to hunt their Maroons with is bescoured with a Devil's Pack, the baying of which, at this distance of half a century, still sounds in the
: ;

:

;

;

;

!

;

:

:

mind's

ear.
^

"

Deux Amis,"

xii.

62-65.


270

TERROR THE ORDER OF THE DAY

[bk. v, ch.

v

[Year 2

CHAPTER V
LIKE A THUNDER-CLOUD
the grand and indeed substantially primary BUT and generic aspect of the Consummation of Terror
still to be looked at nay blinkard History has most part all but overlooked this aspect, the soul of the whole that which makes it terrible to the Enemies of France. Let Despotism and Cimmerian Coalitions All French men and French things are in a consider. State of Requisition Fourteen Armies are got on foot ;^

remains

;

for

;

;

Patriotism, with all that it has of faculty in heart or in head, in soul or body or breeches-pocket, is rushing to Busy sits Carnot, in the Frontiers, to prevail or die Salut Public busy, for his share, in "organising victory." Not swifter pulses that Guillotine, in dread systolediastole in the Place de la Revolution, than smites the Sword of Patriotism, smiting Cimmeria back to its own borders, from the sacred soil. In fact, the Government is what we call Revolutionary and some men are " a la hauteur" on a level with the circumstances and others are not a la Jmuteur, so much the worse for them. But the Anarchy, we may say, has organised \\.s^{ Society is literally overits old forces working with mad activity, but in the set inverse order destructive and self-destructive. Curious to see how all still refers itself to some head and fountain not even an Anarchy but must have a centre to revolve round. It is now some six months since
!

;

;

;

:

;

;

;

^

Army

[Only twelve were really constituted the thirteenth was Ronsin's of the Interior. Ed.]
:


NOV. 1793]
Brum.]

LIKE A THUNDER-CLOUD

271

the Committee of Salut Public came into existence some three months since Danton proposed that all power should be given it, and " a sum of fifty millions," and the " Government be declared Revolutionary." He himself, since that day, would take no hand in it, though again and again solicited ;^ but sits private in his place on the Mountain. Since that day, the Nine, or if they should even rise to Twelve, have become permanent, always reelected when their term runs out Salut Public, Silretc Gcncrale have assumed their ulterior form and mode of operating. Committee of Public Salvation, as supreme; of General Surety, as subaltern these, like a Lesser and Greater Council, most harmonious hitherto, have become the centre of all things. They ride this Whirlwind they, raised by force of circumstances, insensibly, very strangely, thither to that dread height and guide it, and seem to guide it. Stranger set of Cloud-Compellers the Earth never saw. Robespierre, a Billaud, a Collot, Couthon, Saint-Just not to mention still meaner Amars, Vadiers, in Silretc Gcncrale these are your Small intellectual talent is necesCloud-Compellers. sary indeed where among them, except in the head of Carnot, busied organising victory, would you find any ? The talent is one of instinct rather. It is that of divining aright what this great dumb Whirlwind wishes and wills that of willing, with more frenzy than any one, what all the world wills. To stand at no obstacles to heed no considerations, human or divine to know well that, of divine or human, there is one thing needful, Triumph of the Republic, Destruction of the Enemies of the Republic With this one spiritual endowment, and so few others, it is strange to see how a dumb in; ;
:

;

;

A

;

:

:

;

;

;

!

'

[This

is

inexact.

Danton's retirement from the Committee was
p. 209),

at its re-election

on July loth (see note on

when

it

became

frankly Terrorist. It is not known how far Danton's exclusion was involuntary he had lately married again and was disgusted at the supremacy of the Paris Commune, but he certainly could not have resumed his place in the Committee at will. After the debates of August he fell into the background. Ed.]
;

272

TERROR THE ORDER OF THE DAY
Whirlwind of things
its

[bk. v, ch.

v
it

[Year 2

articulately storming

puts, as

were,

reins into

your hand, and invites and compels
;

you

to be leader of it

all in red nightsits a Municipality of Paris caps since the fourth of November last a set of men fully " on a level with circumstances," or even beyond it. Sleek Mayor Pache, studious to be safe in the middle Chaumettes, Huberts, Varlets, and Henriot their great Commandant not to speak of Vincent the War-clerk, of Momoros, Dobsents and suchlike all intent to have Churches plundered, to have Reason adored, Suspects cut down, and the Revolution triumph. Perhaps carrying the matter too far ? Danton was heard to grumble at the civic strophes and to recommend prose and Robespierre also grumbles that, in overturndecency. ing Superstition, we did not mean to make a religion of Atheism. In fact, your Chaumette and Company constitute a kind of Hyper-Jacobinism, or rabid " Faction des Enrages " which has given orthodox Patriotism some umbrage, of late months. To " know a Suspect on the streets " what is this but bringing the Law of Men half-frantic, men the Suspect itself into ill odour ? zealous over-much, they toil there, in their red nightcaps, restlessly, rapidly, accomplishing what of Life is allotted them. And the Forty-four Thousand other Townships, each with Revolutionary Committee, based on Jacobin Daughter Society enlightened by the spirit of JacobinThe French ism quickened by the Forty Sous a-day Constitution spurned always at anything like Two Chambers and yet, behold, has it not verily got Two Chambers ? National Convention, elected, for one Mother Mother of Patriotism, self-elected, for another of Patriotism has her Debates reported in the "Moniteur," which indisputably they as important state-procedures Second Chamber of Legislature we call this are. if perhaps it were not rather comMother Society parable to that old Scotch Body named Lords of the Articles, without whose origination, and signal given, the
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Hard by

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NOV. 1793]
Brum.]

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LIKE A THUNDER-CLOUD

273

so-called Parliament could introduce no bill, could do no work ? Robespierre himself, whose words are a law,

opens his incorruptible lips copiously in the Jacobins Smaller Council of Sahit Public, Greater Council Hall.
of Silrete Gcnerale, all active Parties, come here to plead to shape beforehand what decision they must arrive at, what destiny they have to expect. Now if a question arose. Which of those Two Chambers, Convention, or Lords of the Articles, was the stronger'^ Happily they
as yet

go hand
for the

As

most composed Body.
;

vescence Friends of the Girondins sunk all into silent men of the Plain, called even " Frogs of the Marsh," Crapauds du MaraisX Addresses come, Revolutionary Church-plunder comes Deputations, with prose or strophes these the
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it has become a Quenched now the old efferthe Seventy-three locked in ward once noisy

in hand. National Convention, truly

Convention receives. But beyond this, the Convention has one thing mainly to do to listen what Salut Public proposes, and say, Yea.^ Bazire followed by Chabot, with some impetuosity, declared, one morning, that this was not the way of a " There ought to be an Opposition Free Assembly. " if none else will side, a Cote Droit',' cried Chabot People say to me, You will all get form it, I will. guillotined in your turn, first you and Bazire, then Danton, then Robespierre himself" ^ So spake the Disfrocked, with a loud voice next week, Bazire and he lie wending, one may fear, towards Tinville in the Abbaye and the Axe and " people say to me" what seems to Bazire's blood was all inflamed with be proving true Revolution Fever with coffee and spasmodic dreams.'' Chabot, again, how happy with his rich Jew-Austrian
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^ [So many deputies were " on mission " with the armies or in the provinces, that the number present in the Convention rarely exceeded one hundred the " Plain " was thoroughly cowed after the fall of the Girondins ( Mortimer- Ternaux, "Hist, de la Ter:

reur," vol.
^

viii.,

pp. 395, 416).

Ed.]
i.

" Debats," du 10 Novembre 1793. " Dictionnaire des Hommes Marquans,"

115.

III.

T

For the time presses from the fuliginous Olympus of Salut Public. that within four-and-twenty hours. Saint-Just and Lebas order the rich classes of Strasburg to " strip-off their shoes. . shoulder to the work not with bursts of Parliamentary eloquence. therefore. Forced-loan they have the power of life and death. ' ! — . ch. girt with flowing tricolor taffeta in close frock. Do and he must do it all men's . set its its function. and know Let the Convention. oftenest in pairs scatter your thunder-orders over make France one enormous Revolutionary France thunder-cloud. to all points of the Territory carrying your behests far and wide. sword and jack-boots. with tricolor feathers. . like the Herald Mercury. lie with him waiting the urn of doom. and sent under beds " be got ready Like swift bolts. . all as one man. rush these men.! 274 TERROR THE ORDER OF THE DAY ! [bk. take warning. . " a thousand wrapt in matting. Also. goods are at ." these : men are powerfuler than King or Kaiser. for France is as one huge They smite with Requisitions and City in Siege. where as many as " ten-thousand pairs " are needed. the Bankers Frey." and send them to the Armies. their disposal . tricolor sash. Let a National Convention. what we ought to call Representatives. issuing way. They say to whomso they meet. " Representans on mission. v [Year a But he lies in Prison and Frey two Jew-Austrian Brothers-in-Law. ." du 27 Novembre 1793. his . . plumed wife. v." fly. In their " round hat. late Fraulein . but in quite other and serviceabler ways Convention Commissioners. ^ " Moniteur.

Charleville? Two-hundred and fifty-eight Forges stand in the open spaces of Paris itself a hundred and forty of them in the Esplanade of the Invalides. reduced to the minimum. Six lecturers were told off to lecture on saltpetre and gunpowder and three. and. .— 1793-94] Year 2] I50 THY DUTY 275 CHAPTER ACCORDINGLY. Towns that knew only iron. the Republic must learn to make steel for itself. 240-243). by aid of Chemists. " Le Comite de Salut public. by sword-cutlery ? The wheels of Langres scream. : VI DO THY DUTY alongside of these bonfires of Church-balustrades. A paper setting forth the means of extracting it was to be read under the tree of liberty of each commune on three successive De'cadis. and sounds of fusillading and noyading. we. was paid by the Government for saltpetre. now know Aristocrats steel : from their new dungeons at Chantilly. Among them were the celebrated savants. and then deposited at the Municipality for consultation twenty-four sous a lb.^ Cut off from Sweden and the world." pp. : : Ed. amid grinding mere swords. she has learnt it. on the making of cannon. hear the rustle of our new steel furnace Do not bells transmute themselves into cannon there.] . by order. The use of gunpowder in theatres was. there rise quite another sort of fires and sounds Smithy-fires and Proof-volleys for the manufacture of arms. The their sputtering fire-halo What say stithies of Charleville ring with gun-making. . iron stancheons into the white-weapon {arine blanche). may : ' [The decree of August 23rd requisitioned all the soil and the materials that produced saltpetre. fiftyso many Forges four in the Luxembourg Garden . Berthollet and Monge (Gros.

. 360. . to do the touch-holes. ch. The Clockmakers have come. : — : . see the Citoyens. each in his own cellar." or he shall answer it to Tinville sew tents and coats. What of saltpetre is essential the Respeed ye public shall not want. vi [Year 2 grim Smiths beating and forging at lock and barrel there. The Earth-heap rises at every door the Citoyennes the Citoyens. all men the is in requisition : from Town to Town flutters. earth of the Paris Cellars holds a sprinkling of it.. . though in attenuated quanthat old plaster of walls holds a sprinkling of it tity — that the . shovelling and digging and right well Dig. for saltpetre. ! . The : French People risen against Tyrants. stand loud with boring the great press-drills grating harsh thunder to the general ear and heart. ^ Ibid. . . requisitioned. TERROR THE ORDER OF THE DAY . the question Interrupted Comshut us out from saltpetre arises ? . v. . the old men sit in the market-places able men are on . xv. [bk. Whereupon. diffused through the common rubbish that were these dug up and washed. according to their cunning in the language of hope. my braves life and saltpetre. ! digging fiercely. well. : . the hard-solder and file-work. All which is But now What to be done for saltpetre merce and the English Navy and without saltpetre there is no gunpowder. with up-shoved bo7inet 7'ouge^ or with doffed bonnet. Repub- discovers that saltlican Science again sits meditative petre exists here and there. ! ' I "Choix des Rapports." ^ have taught us miracles of swift tanning " the cordwainer bores and stitches not of " wood and pasteThe women board. And deft Stockmakers do gouge and rasp and all men bestir themselves. march . this Banner. with hod and bucket carrying it up for pith in every muscle.— 276 . 189. it is reckoned that " a thousand finished muskets Chemists of the Republic can be delivered daily." xiii. saltpetre might be had. and hair toil-wetted . swiftly. Five great Barges swing at anchor on the Seine Stream. the children scrape surgeon's-lint. on Heaven's winds.

and bread. and are destitute of most things. falters at such cat-o'-mountain welcome draws itself in again too happy now were the See. with your Gaelic impetuosity. on . Consummation : tints Ever since Dumouriez's defection. which came bursting through the Pyrenees. : . three Convention Representatives attend every General. board." says the Convention Representative. All Girondism. Committee oi Salut has sent them often with this Laconic order only " Do thy duty. under what impediments the fire of Jacobinism. Cobourg." It is strange. in these circumstances. Forward. on Austria. Pais ton devoir. but a practical truth and necessity. like other such fires. ye Soldiers of the Republic. works miracles. Halfness. Compromise is swept away. in dead of winter they skewer a bast mat round their shoulders. which internally fills France with hatreds. rustling with Bourbon banners. do recoil the Sons of the Republic flying at them. Prussia. : . ! ! . Spain. fervour of Jacobinism. : . on the Frontiers.1793-94] Year 2] DO THY DUTY 277 of Sansculottism has many aspects and but the brightest tint. What then ? It is for Rights of Frenchhood. and went conquering here and there for a season. or demon incarnate which no Son of Night can stand Spain. York. that they fight the unquenchable " With steel spirit. — . is this which the Armies give it. how the Sons of Night." The generals go fast to the guillotine justly and unjustly. show itself as a glorious Pro patria niori. with the temper of cat-o'-mountain. scaffolds and Reason-worship. From which what inference ? This. England. with wild Ca-ira or Marseillese Aux annes. of Manhood. These Soldiers have shoes of wood and pastewill burn. Apotheosis and Millen. or go booted in hay-ropes. ! . captain and man Dash. does. Behind us is but the and the Devil and the World Guillotine before us is Victory. " one may get to China. among others That ill-success is death that in To conquer or die is no theatrical victory alone is life palabra. really of a solar or stellar That same brightness. suspicions. nium without end ! all Frontiers. accordingly. here as elsewhere. : . ! . Sardinia Pitt. astonished after short triumph.

which also carries yf. but as hard as flint. . sentative Levasseur. Conquerors. Spain will or the petard. Nay at bottom are they not Kings. burst by terror In the course of another year. conquered or hanged. conqueror of Toulon. can be notabler than these Convention Representatives. is still capable of being proved to have none. is to no purpose. Shall.. wantest thou of men.Accoucheur. were done. Infallible answers done. . General Dugommier invades it by the Eastern Pyrenees General Muller shall invade it by the Western.r in it hosts (mad Doom — . " The Committee is deaf on that side of its head. has mutinies to quell at the mad of Custine) bellowing far and wide he alone amid them. impossibility. of horses.. Able-men.^ Which things also. pacific by trade a mere . [bk.^ Pyrenees Town after Town flies open. Toulongeon. we repeat. . Surgeon. but. Do thy duty ? Repre. much more singular. Impossible Difficulty. in " Prudhomme. " nentend pas de cette oreille Id. cannons? Thou shalt have them. that is the word Committee of Salut Public has said it Representative Cavaignac." answers How many Cavaignac. Cavaignac. and Passes and Heights of the most scarped description Spanish Field-officerism struck mute at such cat-o'-mounSwept are the tain spirit. 205-230. Few things. ^ "Deux Amis. ." an . even as the RepresentaThe Spring of the new tives spake them. : ! — ! : . with their power more than kingly. Year sees Spain invaded and redoubts are carried. of small stature. which not only has no truth in it. must see it cries Muller. v. Not only does Dugommier." etc. the one small Representative. of a sort chosen from the Seven-hundred and Forty-nine French Kings with this order. ch. in Madrid. etc. acknowledge its sins and the Republic crave Peace nay. there will be joy as for a victory. ! 278 TERROR THE ORDER OF THE DAY . drive Spain back he invades Spain. atrocity ct la Captain-Kirk re- which has been copied into Dictionaries of'Hommes Marquans. ^ There is. ported of this Cavaignac ." xiii. small. vi [Year z Pyrenees impassable. on mission there." of " Biographic Universelle. the cannon forgetting to fire. forward we must. that even Peace is got.

in long- winded Battles of Watigny. or say on foot. ! — . commands in his stead : he. with his own obstetric hand under him. in a night-foray at Maubeuge.. occasionally at full gallop like to be swallowed by the tide and his siege of Dunkirk became a dream.— 1793-94] Year 2] a . In the course of a new Summer.] ^ " ." ii. which. Levasseur. he says making a show of him. v. Him. Sergeant Jourdan. though it remains unfulfilled.' . . Representative Drouet. himself. near Maubeuge. Ed. Air and Fire. it would appear.^ " murderous artillery-fire mingling itself with sound of Revolutionary battle-hymns. — show what spirit one is of. far in the afternoon. : Cond6 beleaguered . c. Valenciennes will see itself beleaguered purging the soil of Liberty. as King-taker of Varennes. They stript him almost naked. . late . in October last." has hopes of forces Austria behind the Sambre again . realising only much loss of beautiful siege-artillery and of brave lives. as an Old-dragoon. With hard whatsoever is yet in the hands of Austria beleaguered and bombarded nay. may . 1^0 THY DUTY . it shall be done. at Hondschooten. or else be put to the sword " high saying. stood behind a hedge on this Hondschooten occasion wherefore they have since guillotined him. as natural. : General Houchard. ii. could fight by a kind of second nature but he was unlucky. — . in defiance of Water. " Memoires. to " a Fortress called Spitzberg " on the Danube River and left him there.^ A new General Jourdan. They sent him far into the interior of flung him into carts Cimmeria. Earth. the Austrians took alive. we even summon them <r//" either to surrender in twenty-four hours. by Convention Decree.] ' [The Battle of Wattignies was fought October i6th. " up to the haunches in tidewater " cutting stoccado and passado there. at an elevation of : . wrestling. [For Houchard's ofifence see note. 279 So too. Jourdan became a Marshal under Napoleon. . Royal sentative that he was Highness of York had to withdraw. chap. he declares and that the Battle is not lost that it must be gained horse shot fights. Ed. with artillerying and fa-ira-ing. bk. 2-7. the choleric little RepreWhereby.

in the Black-sea or Constantinople region a la Sindbad Authentic History. In the dead night-watches. beyond which nothing could be hoped when the Bastille barriers falling made passage for him. 177-186). ^ His Narrative (in "Deux Amis. ci-devant Sergeant Hoche. Tall was Teacher of Pichegru was meant for the Church Mathematics once. and Prussia and the Emigrants rolled through but we r^-force the Lines of Weissembourg and Prussia and the Emigrants roll back again still faster. hurled with bayonet-charges and fiery ^a-ira-m^. till day dawned. looking far into Cimmeria. vi [Year 2 perhaps a hundred and tions. ! . sentative. . . ch. will follow the River's course where in Crim Tartary. though physically of a timid apprehensive nature. twenty pounds weight or thereby " which proved accelerative so he fell. ." xiv. moaning. v. of Paperkite saws window-bars determines to fly down. enlisted. how " he charges with his " Alsatian Peasants armed hastily for the nonce the solemn face of him blazing into flame his black hair and tricolor hat-taffeta flowing in the breeze These our Lines of Weissembourg were indeed forced. and he is . He will land someseize a boat. Ci-devant Sergeant Pichegru. — — . fracturing his leg and lay there. own bitter reflec- For the indomitable Reflections. in Brienne School. till you could discern clearly that he was not a Portent but a Repre. : ! : — . discerns dimly a phenomenon. alas For Drouet had taken with him " a small provision-store. then. exchanging ferula for musket and had got the length of the halberd. accordingly. descending by Paperkite too rapidly..^ Or see Saint-Just. not in the sweetest humour. the Spitzberg sentry is near fainting with terror Is it a huge vague Portent descending through the night-air? It is a huge National Representative Old-dragoon. in the Lines of Weissembourg. ! : . . risen now to be Generals. . : 28o TERROR THE ORDER OF THE DAY fifty feet. to his ! [bk. and also devices Old-dragoon constructs wing-machinery. have done wonders here. . his remarkablest He Pupil there was the Boy Napoleon Buonaparte.

— 1793-94] Year 2] ! : DO THY DUTY Hoche bore . ! . spending his pay in rushlights and cheap How the Mountains are burst. compensations were (secretly) promised to Prussia at the general peace. very Sons of Fire. recoils faster or slower all round the Republic there rises fiery. joined the royalists. famed for the conquest of Holland in 1794. Majesty of Prussia. This treaty was an immense success for the revolutionists they detached Prussia and many German States from the Coalition. as it were. a magic ring of musket-volleying and qa-ii'a-\x\^. from the central Carnot in Salut Public to the outmost drummer on the Frontiers. as we prophesied. the flowers of Summer continue to be stained with warlike blood. Ed. many an Enceladus is disimprisoned and Captains founding on Four parchments of Nobility are blown with their parchments across the Rhine. men strove for their Republic. let Readers fancy. ^ [Pichegru (1761-1804) was the son of a labourer at Arbois in the Jura. virtually secured the Rhine boundary. Gaelic impetuosity mounts ever higher with victory spirit of Jacobinism weds itself to national vanity: the Soldiers of the Republic are becoming. will by and by acknowledge his sins and the Republic and make a Peace of Bale. 1795) was signed only with Prussia. for love of Liberty and hope of Promotion. astonished. and editions of books. . barebacked but with bread and iron you can get to China It is one Nation against the whole world but the Nation has that within her which the whole world will not conquer. . Cimmeria.] ^ [The (first) Peace of Bale (April 5th. therefore. and coaxed the Court of . which recognised the French Republic. were done in these Fourteen Armies and how. if France gained the Rhine boundary Prussia's mediation in favour of secondary German States was to be accepted and North Germany was to be "neutralised" under her guarantee. committed suicide in prison at Paris in 1804. as Majesty of Spain. as we saw. In return. Barefooted. ." . : . . lowborn valour cut its desperate way to Generalship and. . What high feats of arms. a Sergeant of the Gardes Frangaises. 281 here/ a hand at the literal overturn of the he was. The snows of Winter. into Lunar Limbo Bastille . and ceded the part of the Duchy of Cleves west of the Rhine.

Factories in the East and in the West. ! : — . etc. vi [Year 2 Foreign Commerce. streamers. sinking. ii. are we weak ? jacks. . ch." vol. of tone most piercing ? War-thunder from off the Brest waters Villaret-Joyeuse and English Howe. shouts Vive la Republique^ sinking. she recognised For the the French Republic and ceded her part of St. . Colonies. Strong are ye. She staggers. : tria].. xvi. on the first of June 1794. and with universal soul-maddening yell. strike she will not." Register" of 1794. negotiations see Sorel. Ocean yawns abysmal down her last drunk whirl rushes the " Vengeur. " Manuel historique de Politique Etrangere. . it [the Committee] was thinking of war. fly rustling aloft the whole crew crowds to the upper deck. into Eternity. v. : man. wished for it. the Battle lost what Ship soever can still sail. Twelve hours of raging cannonade sun now sinking westward through the battle-smoke six French Ships taken. The enemies of human nature are on their own element cannot be conquered cannot be kept from conquering." carrying Vive la Rjpiiblique along with her. : . unconquerable. and 134. Fire rakes her fore and aft from victorious enemies the " Vengeur " is sinking. 282 TERROR THE ORDER OF THE DAY [bk. P. to the ruin of Prussia in 1806. iv. she lurches. sound as of war-thunder borne from the Ocean too. and by these very treaties had always meant to form a Coalition for a fight d. pp. signing them. when he stands on his Rights of Man : let Despots It was to lead Berlin to play the part of jackal to the French lion. after long manceuvering." pt.' Let foreign Despots think of that. 120The latter says of these treaties " In working for them. Spain made peace at Bale on July 22nd.. Lo all flags. prepared for it.] ' Compare Barrere Howe ("Annual (" Choix des Rapports. she neither strikes nor makes off? She is lamed. Tyrants of the sea : . Fr. 1795. 416-421). then. Nevertheless what sound is this that we hear.. Lord . Bourgeois.86). . she cannot make off. making off! But how is it. are fallen or falling into the hands of sea-ruling Pitt. every rag of tricolor that will yet run on rope. " L'Europe et la Rev. There is an Unconquerable in yet we also. oiitrance [against England and Aus. Domingo."— Ed. enemy of human nature. have ranked themselves there and are belching fire. with that " Vengeur " Ship.

on Nothing proved by Convention Report. as falsehood. the whole French People to this hour. like the sinister of .' Founded. in a new edition. for some centuries. Barrere. Anacreon of the Guillotine ! . 13] and Slaves and all people know this. forth memorable. be it hence. ' Carlyle's " Miscellanies. contumelious lamp-black through thee and it? Alas. her captain and above two-hundred of her crew escaping gladly in British boats and this same enormous inspiring Feat. 1794] DO THY DUTY 283 Prair. of the sunk " Vengeur. So has History written. As such. and rumour " of sound most piercing." . most inspiring piece of blague manufactured. and only them that stand on the Wrongs of Men tremble to know it. with resentful brush.' " in this its glorious suicidal sinking and. " is it with the Vengeur. and not otherwise. ! World itself. Cagliostro. besung by ." — Reader Mendez Pinto. and wooden " Model of the Vengeur " believed. Munchausen." after fighting bravely. nothing doubting. in the brain of Barrere Actually so. alas The " Vengeur." turns out to be an enormous inspiring Non-entity. ask again. by any man or nation. dash a bend- How ! ' . it may be regarded as Barrere's masterpiece the largest.! JUNE I. Psalmanazar have been great but they are not the greatest. did sink altogether as other ships do. extant nowhere save. . O Barrere." § Sinking of the " Vengeur. must inquisitive pictorial History. bewept. by solemn Convention Decree and Decrees.

and the thousandth part of the things that were projected and decreed to be done. and miraculous improvements in Tannery ' ! [These were: (i) a column in the Pantheon.] * [Carlyle gives scant notice of these educational efforts. Then Equalisation of in the Place de la Revolution." — [bk.— enormous. from the red of Tophet to of all imagin- the stellarbright.' indeed. (2) a column on the Place des Victoires to commemorate the loth of August. . The Constituent Assembly had desired that there should be public instruction common to all and Talleyrand sketched citizens. . Eleves de la Patrie. in With other the like enormous Painter David's Head For. high as Strasburg Steeple which shall fling its shadow from the Pont Neuf over Jardin National and Convention Hall . of Music and of much else . The designs were to be open to competition up to the end of July. School of Mars. and these schemes fell with him. and free in its elementary grades . would tire the tongue of History. with decimal division InstituInstitute in general tions. . ch. TERROR THE ORDER OF THE DAY CHAPTER VII FLAME-PICTURE this manner. which were to be lavishlyornamentedwith statues and a huge triumphal gate opening on the quay. Ed. the Statue of Liberty herself is still but Plaster. Altar-burning. Saltpetre-digging. blazes off this Consummation of Sansculottism. vil [Year 2 . but by that time Robespierre had fallen. Statue of the Peiiple Souverain. (3) a statue of Rousseau in the Tuileries Gardens. to those who had died for lapatrie. ! Weights and Measures. Normal Schools: amid such Gun-boring. School of Arts. Statues not a few: realised in paper Decree. mad-blazing with flame INable tints. which were of the highest importance. v. But the hundredth part of the things that were done.

through special committees.— JUNE 26. for example. Yes. Nevertheless he has accomplished it.] . 1794] " FLAME-PICTURE 285 JSIess. the indefatigable Chappe this his Far-writer. they say. The more advanced schools (or " central schools ") met with more By the law of February 25th. and a National Institute which would complete and perfect all the schools and learned bodies of the land. Ed. Fr." advanced schools for the Department. to embody this plan in a system. Citoyenism For writing to Traitors. 1790) a plan of elementary schools for every commune. in the Park of Vincennes? In the Park of Vincennes and onwards. . to the North Frontiers and elsewhither. which was to be free (but of a very elementary type). Wolfif's "L'Education Nationale". Lavisse and Rambaud). can intelligibly signal and lines of them are set up. . to Austria ? and Chappe had to escape. : — . attendance ceased to be compulsory and the whole system was laxly administered. Far-writer having just written that Conde Town has sur. in the Park of Lepelletier Saint-Fargeau the assassinated Deputy and still onwards to the Heights of Ecouen and farther. Legislative Decree. See M. By the law of December 19th. there was to be at success. and get a new tears it down. pp. has posts driven in joints are jerking and fugling in the air. O Citoyens. is this that Engineer Chappe is doing. leading up to secondary schools for the "district. 1793. or the "Conservatoire des Arts et Metiers" (1794). 531-554. After November. "La Rev. ! : . we are signalling it is a device this. 1795. with its wooden arms and elbow-joints. The Legislative Assembly and the Convention sought. worthy of the Republic a thing for what we will call Far-writi7ig without the aid of post-bags in Greek it TtflegrapJie sacre ! answers shall be named Telegraph." (edited by MM. 1794. and 98 were founded.000 inhabitants. the Convention ordered that all children from eight years upward must receive State education. The sieves de la patric were promising pupils who were enabled by scholarships to pursue their studies at higher schools or colleges. least one for every 300. (September. which was designed chiefly by Condorcet. which replaced the old Academies and supervised these newer creations. The crown of the educational edifice was the "Institut" (1795). On an Autumn evening of the Year Two. — : . in the most rapid mysterious manner Citoyens ran up. such as the " Ecole Polytechnique " and the " Ecole Normale established in 1795 (the latter for the training of teachers). suspicious. 3] What. he has scaffolding wooden arms with elbowset up.

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rendered to us, we send from the Tuileries ConventionHall this response in the shape of Decree " The name of Cond6 is changed to Nord-Libre, North-Free. The Army of the North ceases not to merit well of the country." To the admiration of men For lo, in some half hour, while the Convention yet debates, there arrives " I inform thee, je fannonce, Citizen this new answer President, that the Decree of Convention, ordering change of the name Conde into North-Free and the other, declaring that the Army of the North ceases not to merit well of the country are transmitted and acknowledged by Telegraph. I have instructed my officer at Lille to forward them to North-Free by express.

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Signed, Chappe." Or see, over Fleurus in the Netherlands, where General Jourdan, having now swept the soil of Liberty, and advanced thus far, is just about to fight, and sweep or be swept, hangs there not in the Heaven's Vault some Prodigy, seen by Austrian eyes and spy-glasses in the similitude of an enormous Wind-bag, with netting and enormous Saucer depending from it ? A Jove's Balance, ye Austrian spy-glasses ? One saucer-scale of a Jove's
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Balance your poor Austrian scale having kicked itself quite aloft, out of sight ? By Heaven, answer the spyglasses, it is a Montgolfier, a Balloon, and they are making signals Austrian cannon-battery barks at this Montgolfier harmless as dog at the Moon the Montgolfier makes its signals detects what Austrian ambuscade there may be, and descends at its ease.'* What will not these devils incarnate contrive? On the whole, is it not, Reader, one of the strangest Flame-Pictures that ever painted itself flaming off there, on its ground of Guillotine-black? And the nightly Theatres are Twenty-three and the Salons de danse are Sixty full of mere Egalite, Fraternite and Carmagnole. And Section Committee-rooms are Forty-eight redolent
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" Choix des Rapports," xv. 378, 384. * June 26th, 1794 (see "Rapport de Guyton-Morveau sur les Aerostats," in " Moniteur " du 6 Venddmiaire, An 2).
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:

287

of tobacco and brandy vigorous with twenty-pence aAnd the Houses of Arrest day, coercing the Suspect. are Twelve, for Paris alone crowded and even crammed. And at all turns, you need your " Certificate of Civism "; be it for going out, or for coming in nay without it you cannot, for money, get your daily ounces of bread. Dusky red-capped Bakers'-queues wagging themselves;
;

;

;

For we still live by Maximum, in all not in silence things waited on by these two, Scarcity and Confusion. The faces of men are darkened with suspicion with The streets lie unswept suspecting, or being suspect. Law has shut her Books speaks the ways unmended. little, save impromptu, through the throat of Tinville. Crimes go unpunished not crimes against the Revolu" The number of foundling children," as some tion.^ compute, " is doubled." How silent now sits Royalism sits all Aristocratism Respectability that kept its Gig! The honour now, and the Your Citizen, who safety, is to Poverty, not to Wealth. would be fashionable, walks abroad, with his Wife on his arm, in red-wool nightcap, black-shag spencer, and carmagnole complete. Aristocratism crouches low, in what submitting to all requisitions, vexashelter is still left tions too happy to escape with life. Ghastly chateaus
!

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

stare

on you by the wayside disroofed, diswindowed which the National Housebroker is peeling for the lead and ashlar. The old tenants hover disconsolate, over the Ci-devatit Rhine with Cond^ a spectacle to men. Seigneur, exquisite in palate, will become an exquisite
;
;

;

Restaurateur Cook in Hamburg ; Ci-devant Madame, exquisite in dress, a successful Marchande des Modes in London. In Newgate-Street, you meet M. le Marquis, with a rough deal on his shoulder, adze and jack-plane under arm he has taken to the joiner trade it being necessary to live {faut vivre)? Higher than all French;

;

" Deux Amis," xii. 142-199. v. 25 See "Deux Amis," xv. 189-192; " Memoires de Genlis"; " Founders of the French Republic," etc., etc. [Carlyle does not state that our Government for many years gave pecuniary help to
'

Mercier,

;

^


288

;

TERROR THE ORDER OF THE DAY
the domestic Stock-jobber flourishes,

[bk. v, ch. vii
[Year 2

men


:

in

Paper-money. The Farmer also flourishes " houses," says Mercier, " have become like Pawnbrokers' shops " all manner of furniture, apparel, vessels of gold and silver accumulate themselves there: bread is precious. The Farmer's rent is Paper-money, and he alone of men has bread Farmer is better than Landlord, and will
;
:

a day of Farmers'

himself become Landlord.

And

daily,

we

say,

like

a

black

Spectre, silently

through that Life-tumult, passes the Revolution cart writing on the walls its Mene, Mene, Thou art weighed, and found wanting ! A Spectre with which one has grown familiar. Men have adjusted themselves complaint issues not from that Death-tumbril. Weak women and ci-devants, their plumage and finery all tarnished, sit there with a silent gaze, as if looking into the Infinite Black. The once light lip wears a curl of irony, uttering no word and the Tumbril fares along. They may be guilty before Heaven, or not they are guilty, we suppose, before the Revolution. Then, does not the Republic " coin money " of them, with its great axe ? Red Nightcaps howl dire approval the rest of Paris looks on if with a sigh, that is much Fellow-creatures whom sighing cannot help whom black Necessity and Tinville have clutched. One other thing, or rather two other things, we will still mention and no more The Blond Perukes the Tannery at Meudon. Great talk is of these Perruqiies blondes O Reader, they are made from the Heads of Guillotined women The locks of a Duchess, in this way, may come to cover the scalp of a Cordwainer her blonde German Frankism his black Gaelic poll, if it be bald. Or they may be worn affectionately, as relics rendering one suspect ? Citizens use them, not without
:

;

;

;

:

;

:

;

;

:

;

:

!

;

;

^

mockery
" Bouillon
^

;

of a rather cannibal sort.

The details are to be seen in the Papers " at our Public Record Office, also in the "Puisaye Papers" at the British Museum (MSS. Room). Ed.]
numbers of these emigres.
Mercier,
ii.

134.

1

1794]
Year
2]

FLAME-PICTURE

289

deeper into one's heart goes that Tannery at not mentioned among the other miracles of " At Meudon," says Montgaillard with contanning siderable calmness, "there was a Tannery of Human Skins such of the Guillotined as seemed worth flaying for of which perfectly good wash-leather was made " The skin of the men, he breeches, and other uses. remarks, was superior in toughness {consistance) and that of the women was good for quality to shamoy History almost nothing, being so soft in texture looking back over Cannibalism, through " Purchas's Pilgrims " and all early and late Records, will perhaps find no terrestrial Cannibalism of a sort, on the whole, so It is a manufactured, soft-feeling, quietly detestable. Alas, then, is man's civilielegant sort a sort perfide sation only a wrappage, through which the savage nature of him can still burst, infernal as ever! Nature still and has an Infernal in her as well as a 'makes him
Still

Meudon

;

!

;

:

;

;

!

'

;

!

;

Celestial.
^ Montgaillard, iv. 290. [This story of the tanning of human skins is one of the many myths of this period. The Convention sent deputies to look into the charge, and they showed its absurdity.

—Ed.]

Ill,

BOOK SIXTH
THERMIDOR

CHAPTER

I

THE GODS ARE ATHIRST

WHAT, which,

then,
like

is

this

Thing

called

La

Revolutio7i,

an Angel of Death, hangs over

France, noyading, fusillading, fighting, gun-boring, tanning human skins ? La Revolutio7i is but so manyAlphabetic Letters a thing nowhere to be laid hands where is it ? what on, to be clapt under lock and key It is the Madness that dwells in the hearts of is it? men. In this man it is, and in that man as a rage or Invisible, impalpable and as a terror, it is in all men. yet no black Azrael, with wings spread over half a continent, with sword sweeping from sea to sea, could be a
; : ;

;

truer Reality. To explain,
this

what is called explaining, the march of Revolutionary Government, be no task of ours. Man cannot explain it. A paralytic Couthon, asking in the Jacobins, " What hast thou done to be hanged if Counter-Revolution should arrive ? " a sombre Saint-Just, not yet six-and-twenty, declaring that " for Revolutionists there is no rest but in the tomb " a seagreen much Robespierre converted into vinegar and gall more an Amar and Vadier, a Collot and Billaud to inquire what thoughts, predetermination or prevision, Record of their misfht be in the head of these men Death and Darkness have swept thought remains not
;
; :
!

;

MARCH
Year
2
:

1794I

THE GODS ARE ATHIRST

291

Vent.]

it out Utterly. Nay, if we even had their thought, all that they could have articulately spoken to us, how insignificant a fraction were that of the Thing which realised itself, which decreed itself, on signal given by As has been said more than once, this Revoluthem tionary Government is not a self-conscious but a blind Each man, enveloped in his ambient-atmofatal one. sphere of revolutionary fanatic Madness, rushes on, impelled and impelling and has become a blind brute Force no rest for him but in the grave Darkness and the mystery of horrid cruelty cover it for us, in History; as they did in Nature. The chaotic Thunder-cloud, with its pitchy black, and its tumult of dazzling jagged fire, in a world all electric thou wilt not undertake to show how that comported itself, what the secrets of its dark womb were from what sources, with what specialties, the lightning it held did, in confused brightness of terror, strike forth, destructive and self-destructive, till it ended ? Like a Blackness naturally of Erebus, which by will of Providence had for once mounted itself into dominion and the Azure is not this properly the nature of Sansculottism consummating
!

;

;

!

:

;

;

itself?

Of which Erebus Blackness be

it

enough

to dis-

cern that this and the other dazzling fire-bolt, dazzling fire-torrent, does by small Volition and great Necessity, verily issue, in such and such succession; destructive so and so, self-destructive so and so till it end.

:

" sunk," as they say, " in the is extinct of the Loire " Republicanism dominates without and within what, therefore, on the 15th day of March 1794, is this? Arrestment, sudden really as a bolt out of the Blue, has hit strange victims Hebert Pere Duchesne, Bibliopolist Momoro, Clerk Vincent, General Ronsin high Cordelier Patriots, red-capped Magistrates of Paris, Worshippers of Reason, Commanders of Revolutionary Army Eight short days ago, their Cordelier Club was loud, and louder than ever, with Patriot denunciations. Hubert Pere Duchesne had " held his tongue
;

Royalism
:

mud

;

:

;

!

"

;

292

THERMIDOR

[bk. vi, ch.

i

[Year 2

and

his heart these two months, at sight of Moderates, Crypto-Aristocrats, Camilles, Scelerats in the Convention itself: but could not do it any longer; would, if other remedy were not, invoke the sacred right of Insurrection." So spake Hubert in Cordelier Session with vivats, till the roofs rang again.' Eight short days ago; and now already They rub their eyes it is no dream they find themselves in the Luxembourg. Goose Gobel too and they that burnt Churches Chaumette himself, potent Procureur, Agent National as they now call it, who could " recognise the Suspect by the very face of them," he lingers but three days on the third day he too is hurled in. Most chopfallen, blue, enters the National Agent this Limbo whither he has sent so many. " Sublime Prisoners crowd round, jibing and jeering National Agent," says one, " in virtue of thy immortal Proclamation, lo there I am suspect, thou art suspect, he is suspect, we are suspect, ye are suspect, they are suspect The meaning of these things ? Meaning It is a Plot Plot of the most extensive ramifications which, howSuch Church-burnever, Barrere holds the threads of ing and scandalous masquerades of Atheism, fit to make the Revolution odious where indeed could they originate but in the gold of Pitt ? Pitt indubitably, as Preternatural Insight will teach one, did hire this Faction of Enrages, to play their fantastic tricks to roar in their Cordeliers Club about Moderatism to print their " Pere Duchesne " worship skyblue Reason in red nightcap rob Altars, and bring the spoil to tis Still more indubitable, visible to the mere bodily sight, that the Cordeliers Club sits pale, with anger is this and terror and has " veiled the Rights of Man," without effect. Likewise that the Jacobins are in considerable confusion busy " purging themselves, s'e'ptirant,'' as in times of Plot and public Calamity they have Not even Camille Desmoulins repeatedly had to do.
;
!

:

;

;

!

;

;

!

!

!

;

:

;

;


;

;

;

!

:

;

'

" Moniteur,"

du

17

Ventose (7th March) 1794.


MARCH
Vent.]


293

1794]

THE GODS ARE ATHIRST
:

but has given offence nay there have risen murmurs against Danton himself; though he bellowed them down, and Robespierre finished the matter by " embracing him in the Tribune."^ shall the Republic and a jealous Mother Society trust ? In these times of temptation, of Preternatural Insight! For there are Factions of the Stranger, de rctranger" Factions of Moderates, of Enraged; all manner of Factions we walk in a world of Plots strings universally spread, of deadly gins and falltraps, baited by the gold of Pitt Clootz, Speaker of Mankind socalled, with his " Evidences of Mahometan Religion," and babble of Universal Republic, him an incorruptible Robespierre has purged away. Baron Clootz, and Paine rebellious Needleman lie, these two months, in the Luxembourg limbs of the Faction de Vetranger. Representative Phelippeaux is purged out he came back from La Vendee with an ill report in his mouth against rogue Rossignol, and our method of warfare there. Recant it, O Phelippeaux,- we entreat thee Phelippeaux will not recant and is purged out. Representative Fabre d'Eglantine, famed Nomenclator of Romme's Calendar, is purged out nay, is cast into the Luxembourg accused of Legislative Swindling " in regard to moneys of the India Company." ^ There with his Chabots, Bazires, guilty of the like, let Fabre wait his

Whom

''

:

;

!

;

:

!

;

;

:

^

[Danton, when he returned from Arcis (end of November,

1793), protested against the atheistic doings of Hebert and the But when he went on to say, " I insist on your Paris Commune. sparing the blood of men ; and I beg the Convention to be just to
all

men except those who are the declared enemies of the Republic," For the present, he then Robespierre parted company with him. spoke lukewarmly in his favour, but seemingly only because he needed his support for the overthrow of the Hebertists. Ed.] ^ [Phelippeaux was an honest fanatic and exposed the cowardice and shameless orgies of Rossignol the darling of the Paris Commune. (See his Life, by M. Mautouchet, 1900.) Ed.] ^ [Robinet (" Le Proces des Dantonistes," pp. 362-394) proves the falsity of this charge: so, too, Michelet and Louis Blanc. Robinet agrees that Bazire and Chabot were culpable in financial Ed.] affairs, if not wholly guilty.

— —
294


!

THERMIDOR

[bk. vi, ch.
[Year

i

2

And Westermann friend of Danton, he who destiny. led the Marseillese on the Tenth of August, and fought well in La Vendee, but spoke not well of rogue RosLucky, if he too go not to signol, is purged out. the Luxembourg. And your Prolys, Guzmans, of the Faction of the Stranger, they

he fled, Cook."

is
I

gone,

am

have gone Pereyra, though taken in the disguise of a Tavern suspect, thou art suspect, he is suspect
;

"

!

The great heart of Danton is weary of it. Danton is gone to native Arcis, for a little breathing-time of peace :' Away, black Arachne-webs, thou world of Fury, Terror and Suspicion; welcome, thou everlasting Mother, with thy spring greenness, thy kind household loves and The memories true art thou, were all else untrue great Titan walks silent, by the banks of the murmuring Aube, in young native haunts that knew him when a boy wonders what the end of these things may be. But strangest of all, Camille Desmoulins is purged Couthon gave as a test in regard to Jacobin purout. gation the question, " What hast thou done to be hanged if Counter-Revolution should arrive?" Yet Camille, who could so well answer this question, is purged out The truth is, Camille, early in December last, began publishing a new Journal, or Series of Pamphlets, entitled the " Vieux Cordelier,"' Old Cordelier. Camille, not afraid at one time to " embrace Liberty on a heap of dead bodies," begins to ask now, Whether among so many arresting and punishing Committees, there ought not to be a "Committee of Mercy"? Saint-Just, he observes, is an extremely solemn young Republican, who " carries his head as if it were a Saint- SacrenLCjit"
;
!

;

^ [The chronology is a Httle loose here. Danton left for Arcis on October 12th, 1793: he returned on November 21st; and was attacked at the Jacobins' Club on December 3rd. Ed.] ^ [The name Vieux Cordelier was meant to recall that club to the aims of 1792, when Danton was supreme there. Now the

Hebertists lorded
:

it

there as in the Paris

Commune.

In the

first

two numbers, which were revised by Robespierre^ Camille attacked them only in the next numbers he pleaded for mercy, and was denounced by the Jacobins and Robespierre. Ed.]

that Camille must be expelled. - Ed. nay of humour. get cast into Prison. Camille. knew not at last what to think then thought. Danton and he were of the earliest primary Cordeliers. as the Sun-god (for poor Camille is a Poet) shot into that Python Serpent sprung of mud. dexterity and light graceful poignancy.] 1794] THE GODS ARE ATHIRST 295 ! adorable Hostie. with all the old wit. 3d February 1794. translating " out of Tacitus^ from the Reign of Tiberius. with his Jacobins. as was natural. who fill the Twelve Houses of Arrest on whom a ray of hope dawns Robespierre. — . in the Decade. Momoros. your Heberts. . * . and ends with these words of Montezuma's. Les ' dieux ont soif. and Juggernaut less manner. 1794. man of true Revolutionary spirit. A . at first approbatory." pricks into the Law of the Suspect itself making it odious Twice. with their brawling brutalities and despicabilities say. ! . — '' ^ [The Hebertists at the Cordehers' Club sought (March 4th) to organise a revolt. corruptibilities. neck-gins and baited falltraps of Pitt ennemi du genre humain. Carrier crying out that there must be " a holy insurrection. — . in their wild-sparkling way. this old Cordelier.— MARCH Vent. Camille's Plrst Number begins with "(9 Pitt!" his last is dated 15 Pluviose Year 2. ! . Whereat." At once Robespierre struck them through the secret Committees. in a rather reckthe great joy of Josephine Beauharnais." Sacrament heads. one of the strangest phenomena of that dark time and smite. as we saw. at various monstrosities. shoots his glittering warshafts into your neiv Cordeliers. ! . Saint- — — . of harmonious ingenuity and insight. this Camille but with the unwisest sallies whom Aristocrats and Moderates have the art to corrupt Jacobinism is in uttermost crisis and struggle enmeshed wholly in plots.] [Camille was expelled from the Jacobins on January 10th. To . . idols. his wild Leaves issue full of wit. the Hebertist Python did hiss and writhe amazingly and threaten " sacred right of Insurrection " and. and the other Five-thousand and odd Suspect. The gods are athirst. Nay. . or divine Real-Presence Sharply enough.

They have been massed swiftly into a lump. the Hebertists lie in Prison only On the 24th of March. This Faction of Rabids.). — : despair. sits Clootz Speaker of Mankind. eye of command the rest are sunk in a stony paleness of . this miscellany of Nondescripts and travel now their last road. Vincent. General Ronsin too. still with an air of polished sarcasm. Hebert Pere Duchesne shall never in this world rise in sacred right of insurrection he sits there low enough.Guillotine. so is it done to them. endeavours to jest. No help. to offer cheering " arguments of Materialism " he requested to be executed last. is worse than the old Saints of Superstition a mandevouring Saint ? Clootz. . he still looks forth with some air of defiance. . in frightful parody of his Newspaper Articles.] . — they might Bibliopolist. " Grand choler of the Pere Duchesne " Thus perish they the sack receives all their heads. no Agrarian Law Evreux." pp. Sainte. . Full extracts of the " Vieux Cordelier" are given in Claretie's " Camille Desmoulins. when Girondin Buzot . head sunk on breast Red Nightcaps shouting round him. the Revolution Tumbrils carry through that Life-tumult a : Hebert. [Year i 2 Be this some nine may. therefore. therefore. Nineteen spectre-chimeras shall flit. They too must " look through the little window " they too " must sneeze into the sack. ! as well have hanged thee at ago. curious enough. Ronsin. [bk. . Momoro. ch. is also purged from the Republican soil here also the baited falltraps of . Through some section of History. edit. Momoro.— 296 THERMIDOR as it days. new cargo . Philosophy has got no good of. A seventh number came out in June after Camille's death. Ed." which hitherto. vi. 274-282 (Eng. poor yet realised. squeaking and gibbering till Oblivion swallow them. twenty months hindered them. . I think. . In the course of a week. meseems. Nineteen of them in all with whom. . . the Revolutionary Army itself is disbanded the General having become spectral." eterniier dans le sac as they have done to others. " in order to establish certain principles.

1794] THE GODS ARE ATHIRST . 297 and anew that Pitt have been wrenched up harmless The Revolution. is verily devouring its own children ? All Anarch}/.MARCH Germ. 4] 24. there is joy over a Plot Discovered. then. by the nature of it. is not only destructive but selfdestructive. .

. brought them to meet. conceives easily the deep mutual incompatibility that divided these two with what terror of feminine hatred the poor seagreen Formula looked at the monstrous colossal Reality. read his speeches. To understand that influence. ! ' [Incorrect: Danton had not stayed in Arcis since November. 1793.. chief-products of a victorious Revolution. of virulence. . poltroonery barren as the eastwind ' Two such chief-products are too much for one Revolution. ch. . cried Phelippeaux and Friends. blown large by Popular air not a man. struggling to think no ill of a chief-product of the Revolution yet feeling at bottom that such chief-product was little other than a chief windbag. cried Camille. who scented danger in the wind. rule together. with the heart of a man. THERMIDOR [bk. or the Report on the Ah! Who State of the Republic (November 19th. . : .— Ed. 1793): ". ii 2 [Year CHAPTER II DANTON. with a logic-formula instead of heart of Jesuit or Methodist-Parson nature full of sincere-cant. Friends. again. part. a Danger enough from Arcis ^ : ! D ANTON Robespierre." said Danton.] . incorruptibility. . . A Danton. One — . NO WEAKNESS meanwhile has been pressingly sent for he must return instantly. are now arrived in immediate front of one another must ascertain how they will live together. trembling at the results of a quarrel on their " It is right. and grew greener to behold him the Reality.[It is impossible that a man of merely negative qualities could have gained the enormous influence that Robespierre wielded. but a poor spasmodic incorruptible pedant. vi. .

at the thought that we are fighting not for — . The man Danton was not prone to show himself. ' "Biographic des Ministres. but to the unfortunate . but for are to be For the rest. and pitiful avoid not only Moderatisiii that is cruel. . NO WEAKNESS swallowing much indignation. . : . : : for the world . to act. this Paris and others urged him to show himself. who gave it to the world after the reaction of Thermidor." pt. " p. hoping nature a large nature that could rest he would sit whole hours. Be revolutionary and also politic be terrible to the wicked. hearing Camille talk. they say. x. n] 31.. turning round to Friend Paris self-named Fabricius. Not even the arrestment of among us does not feel all his faculties rise within him." " And who told you. One carries not his country with him at the sole of his shoe !" The man Danton sat still. not Revolutionary Tribunal one innocent ? What sayest thou of it." § Danton. Ed. Force may overturn a throne Wisdom alone can found a Republic.] the blood of France. For proofs of his guile in ensnaring him. but all those who . . . [This version of their interview rests on the authority of the newspaper-editor. On the very next day. .— MARCH Germ. Fr. large. . Ed.] one people." p. Fabricius ? " Friends. there are only dungeons for me elsewhere. Foil the snares that the enemy is for ever laying. or uproar for his own safety. VVestermann. The French Republic is invincible as reason. Prudhomme. see Robinet." also the systematic exaggeration of false patriots. . A man of careless." vol. Another version is given by Louis Blanc (" La Rev. 1794] — — 299 : DANTON. . 347).. even above the level of humanity. Robespierre coiisented to " abandon Danton. .] ^ [Robinet ("Danton: Homme d'Etat. to ascend the Tribune and act. immortal as truth." replied Robespierre with a poisonous look. not for the men of to-day.' Friends urged him to fly his Wife urged him " Whither fly ?" answered he "If freed France cast me out. The report was unanimously adopted and widely circulated it stirred Ed. and liked nothing so well. 457) has shown that up to his arrest Danton was active in the Convention and that his advice was generally taken.'' . — : ' . iii. you are stronger than Europe. : . . Juryman in the " Quoi. " to repress the Royalists but we should not strike except where it is useful to the Republic we should not confound the innocent and the guilty. were the whole of Europe to declare against you. " that one innocent person had perished ? " " Quoi" said Danton. " Le Proces des Dantonistes.

I crave pardon for it of God and man. . I was moving the creation of that same Revolutionary Tribunal. leave the whole business in a frightful welter {gdchis epouvantable): not one of them understands anything of government. it were better to be a poor fisherman . of Paris and Friends Danton sat silent for a while then answered. And yet. Robespierre. then. must take his doom. a member of Saltit. : ! : . Murmuring " They dare not. Prisoners crowding forth to see this giant of the Revolu- — . : : . " Us n'oseraient. is safe? Legendre. mounting the Tribune. yet arrested by Salut. They dare not " and would take no measures. Danton's Prison-thoughts were curious to have but are not given in any quantity indeed few such remarkable men have been left so obscure to us as this Titan of the Revolution. They are all Brothers Cain Brissot would have had me guillotined as Robespierre now will.— 300 THERMIDOR [bk. hoped soon to have got you all out of this but here am myself. ii [\'ear 2 Friend Herault. I : Rumour may spread into itself groups : : . . whispering " Danton arrested!" Who. Camille." he goes to sleep as usual. can rouse Danton. Phelippeaux. : ! : tion " I I enteramongthem. on the morrow morning." said Danton politely. He was heard to ejaculate " This time twelvemonth. a feeble word for him moving that he be heard at that Bar before indictment but Robespierre frowns him down " Did you hear Chabot or Bazire ? Would you have two weights and measures ? " Legendre cowers low Danton. "Messieurs." : over Paris the Convention clusters wide-eyed. and one sees not where it will end. Lacroix have been arrested overnight It is verily so the corridors of the Luxembourg were all crowded. he is to be arrested this very night Entreaties there are and trepidation of poor Wife. Robespierre will follow me I drag down O. On the night of the 30th of March Juryman Paris came rushing in haste looking through his eyes A clerk of the Salut Committee had told him Danton's warrant was made out. at his own peril. utters. : : . vi. strange rumour spreads over Paris City Danton. ch. like the others.

Swindler Chabots. It is the 2d of April 1794. : . What is your name ? place of abode ? and the like. Camille." . A.Fabred'Eglantines." spirit. . 270." Camille's young beautiful Wife. a man does see the Shade of his Mother^ pale. Westermann. 1-29.^ " I carry my head like a Saint-Sacrament ? " so SaintJust was heard to mutter: "perhaps he will carry his like a Saint-Denis. ! . and is said to have martyrdom on Montmartre. . " My age is that of menteers. ^ "Apergus sur Camille Desmoulins" [St. a most motley Batch. at the Bourne of Creation. where. pp. Just's fierce speech in the Convention on April ist that sealed the doom But notes by Robespierre have been found that of the Dantonists. (in "Vieux Cordelier.D. who had made him rich not in money alone. It was St. Foiirnce" as such things will be called. like a dis- — embodied to her night. once light Procureur de la Lantertie. Ed. Fouquier asks according to formality. Camille's stolen letters stained with the mark of his tears. Denis was the first Bishop of Paris. stand ranked at the Bar of Tinville.] - suffered — . then. thou still unhappier light Camille." Paris. hovers round the Luxembourg. — ! ^^ . and was detested of ParleCamille makes answer. 1794] DANTON. exist Unhappy Danton. " My name is Danton. very strangely massed up with Bazires. Danton has had but three days to lie in Prison for the time presses. and the others." answers he "a name tolerably known in the Revolution my abode will soon be Annihilation {dans le Ncant) but I shall live in the Pantheon of History.— " APRIL Germ. 2. 1825). NO WEAKNESS 301 13I than to meddle with governing of men. ineffectual and days when his Mother nursed and wrapped him are ail-too sternly contrasted with this day Danton. gazing into that dim Waste beyond Creation. Herault. be it by nature or not Herault mentions epigrammatically that he " sat in this Hall." A man will endeavour to say something forcible. still day and ." the bo7i Sansculotte Jesus an age fatal to Revolutionists. supplied material for it. Banker P>eys. like Ulysses Polytlas at the limit and utmost Gades of his voyage. ye also have arrived.

let us say. But here is a still greater to do a thing which tasks the whole faculty of Fouquier which makes the very heart For it is the voice of Danton that of him waver. ! — . when ^ [Westermann asked seven wounds ^ — that he all in front.] . it would seem. " in the Rights of Man. as Accusers he " will cover ." les trots plats coq?iins. ii [Year 2 yet in that Divine Transamong other things. them with ignominy. Your best Witnesses he shivers into ruin at one . .] [This was in answer to the charge that shortly before that date he was at Arcis. these Accusers of mine I have all the clearness of my self-possession that : men I demand them. the fatalest Reproof ever uttered here below to Worldly " the highest fact. " Danton hidden on the loth of August?"^ reverberates " where are the he. The only wound might be stripped to show his in his back was this act of accusation. with swindling Stockjobbers that his Indictment is a list of platitudes and horrors. : had to press Danton to show himself. Ed. piercing with their wild sincerity. piercing to all Republican hearts very Galleries." He shakes his huge black head. is thirty-four. he from the eyes of so that the him.— 302 — THERMIDOR [bk. with the roar of a lion in the toils . Couthon." so devout Right-honourableness Novalis calls it. winged with wrath. raises his fire huge : flashes stature. stroke." Camille's real Camille." and went to Arcis to say good-bye to his mother and friends. murmur sympathy and are like to burst down and raise the He complains loudly that he People. age. He demands come selves that the Committee-men themas Witnesses. He replied that he had "prepared the loth of August. though we filled them by ticket. in passionate reverberates now from these domes words. Danton is one year older. CH. . . I will unmask the three shallow scoundrels. Saint-Just. and deliver him is classed with Chabots. Camille ! O And action. Ed. the Trial of the Twenty-two Girondins was the greatest that Fouquier had then done. there did lie.' Some five months ago. that day? Where are these high-gifted souls of whom he borrowed energy ? Let them appear. vi.

^ If this Danton Very curious indeed to were to burst your mesh-work It turns on a hair and what a hoitytoity consider. Danton's inots were passed along this quivering coil of people. matters looking not better but worse and worse. . withal." Ed. the people Danton's prophecy will tear my enemies to pieces. the Artillery-Officer at Toulon. and lead him towards Let them produce themselves here I will plunge them into Nothingness. He only. and Palais de Justice as far as the Pont Neuf. Tinville. manner: "What : is ! .] ^ [The crowd filled stretched past the : . out of which they The agitated President ought never to have risen. President Herman. the wild amorphous Titan and perhaps that other olive-complexioned individual. and others of the Suspect. plotting the hall (now called the Pas-Pe?-dus). by strictest Revolutionary Law. whom we left pushing his fortune in the South } On the evening of the second day. . The voice of a man speaking for his honour " and his life may well drown the jingling of thy bell higher till the lion-voice of Thus Danton. rush over to Saint Public. there not " a Plot in the Luxembourg Prison " ? Cidevant General Dillon. in a vehement it to thee how I defend myself?" " the right of dooming me is thine cries the other always. What is to be done ? Saint Public rapidly concocts a agitates his bell . enjoins calmness. is . NO WEAKNESS 13] Robespierre." Lebas. Fouquier and Herman. new Decree be " whereby if men " insult Justice. who fawn on his destruction. distraction in their aspect. ! . Imagine the thrill that swept along the crowd at " Before three months are past." they may thrown out of the Debates. 2. what will ye do ? They have two days more of it." For indeed. The Galleries murmur ominously the first day's Session is over. O ! — : . The Galleries already murmur. His voice could be heard (so Michelet has proved) on the other side of the river. higher and him "dies away in his throat": speech will not utter what is in that man.— APRIL Germ. were tJiere^ Justice and Culprit changing places and the whole History of France running changed For in France there is this Danton only that could still try to govern France. — 303 1794] " DANTON.

then " but. is sent by an Official. overset the Republic ? Citizen Laflotte. riches. ye insolents Policemen. I shall never see thee more. which hangs knotted. credible like a madman's dream Camille struggles his shoulders shuffle the loose coat off and writhes them. It is the 5th of April 1794. ch.— 304 — — [bk. the hands tied " Calm. reduced now almost to extremities. Leroi Dix-Aotit. even Legendre did not Ed. and yet inRabble now howling round. Nay let her kiss her poor children and prepare to enter it. Salut. And so. Danton was heard to ejaculate my Wife. Camille's poor Wife may cease hovering about this Prison. : . do your duty In such manner. himself Suspect but desiring enfranchisement. and all stanch jurymen setting heart and shoulder to it. . . Horace. and all is so topsyso Camille turvied angel Wife left weeping ^ love. His last words were to Samson the Headsman himself: on : . with a deadlift effort. no weakness !" He said to H^rault-Sechelles stepping forward to embrace him " Our heads will meet there" in the Headsman's sack. on a report that may bear fruit the morrow morning.] protest. the Sentence is Jury becomes " sufficiently instructed " passed. interrupting himself: " Danton. vi. . an obedient Convention passes this Decree/ Salut rushes off with it to the aid of Tinville. . Laflotte's story of the trumped-up plot. left all at the Prison-gate Palpable. Camille already knew that she was arrested on His agony was for her.[Scarcely so. : O ! — : [The cowardly Convention passed it unanivtously and without having examined the informer Laflotte.] ^ . and torn and trampled : — ! ! . Ed. ! THERMIDOR ii [Year 2 with Camille's Wife to distribute assignats to force the Prisons. Out of the Debates. Death this day. ! . my well-beloved. Tinville. Not it is but one week. and to follow Danton carried a high look in the Death-cart. has reported said Plot for us Enough. revolucarnivorous tionary fame. Herman. Hors de Debats. and their little boy. ! : . . my " heed not that vile canaille friend." said Danton {laissez la cette vile canaille')'' At the foot of the Scaf" fold.

" passes. 1794] DANTON. but a ceptive. this Danton. . ghastly to the natural sense. whither it led him. . fury. affection and wild revolutionary force and manHe was of hood. from the great fire-bosom of Nature herself He saved he walked straight his own France from Brunswick . to his unknown home. may live for some HI. deceptive and self-deof Cant. . is worth showing. like a gigantic mass of valour. born of " good farmer-people " there. NO WEAKNESS show 305 it 13] " Thou So wilt my head to the people . generations in the memory of men. 2. He had many sins but one worst sin he had not. Arcis-sur-Aube .APRIL Germ. ostentation. was this very Man with all his dross he was a Man fiery-real. X . . He wild road. that No hollow Formalist.

is gone. Hubert's Widow was weeping. . no Sect or Party of this hue or that. there Widow. hi [Year i CHAPTER it III THE TUMBRILS week. and adored blue Reason in red nightcap. Down to the catacombs they are become silent men Let no Paris Municipality. Camille's Widow tried to speak comfort to her. vi. God shall judge thee." which were speedily to try suspects and liberate them or send them to the Revolutionary Tribunal. resist the will of Robespierre and Salute Mayor Pache. it seems. Hubert's is still . beautiful. . azure. but the loth of NEXT comes a new Nineteen Chaumette. Committee to put St. 1794: the first established six "popular commissions. Gobel. Just in Carnot's place. ch. O ye kind Heavens. The second suppressed all the Revolutionary Tribunals in the Departments and all suspects were now haled to Paris. Great Danton. the Widow of Camille these also roll their Mean fated journey black Death devours them. is there not pity in store for all Gobel. Just. . was repentant he begged absolution of a Priest died as a Gobel best could. and Couthon in that of .^ therefore. . For Anaxagoras Chaumette. not I.] [Power was concentrated more and more at Paris by two proposals of St. . and the Hebertists they that robbed Churches. what hope is there? Unless Death w^r^ "an eternal sleep"? Wretched Anaxagoras. Ed. Hebert.— 3o6 THERMIDOR [bk. the sleek head now stripped of its bonnet rouge. and the Dantonists they also are gone. eternal behind your tempests and Time-clouds. ! ^ [Hebert was condemned nominally on political grounds the charge against Chaumette was of trying to establish atheism. : April. About April 15th attempts were made inside the : '^ . which became law on February 26th and April 15th. not prompt enough in denounc! .

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Swift and ever swifter goes Samson up. Ed. On April ist the Council of Ministers was replaced by twelve Executive Commissions subordinate to the great Committee. to threescore and more at a Batch. over-electric Two masses. thy last day The Palais Hall here is the same . . Terror of the Guillotine was never terrible till now. — ! 1794] THE TUMBRILS . His course likewise is Never so heartily it skills not We appoint one Fleuriot-Lescot to the Luxembourg. Indictments cease by degrees to have as much as plausibility: Fouquier chooses from the Twelve Houses of Arrest what he calls Batches. Systole. Had these succeeded. an mass of Cordelier Rabids. somewhat. " Fownees" a score or more at a time his Jurymen are charged to make feu defile. . and. it is as if the Erebus-cloud had got to internal composure and did only pour its hellfire lightning on the World that lay under it. . as we often remark. Citizen Laflotte's . diastole. Our new Agent-National is Payan. It is the highday of Death none but the Dead return not. But now these two discrepant masses being mutually annihilated. . so to For the Erebusspeak. swift and ever swifter goes the Axe of Samson. what a day is this the 22d of April. these two masses. Fouquier has always this a Plot in the Prison. this Fleuriot he is a man one can depend on. darts its lightning withal into itself. we perceive. ! 307 21] may congratulate about them now. Thus then. lo.— APRIL Germ. in cloud. have annihilated one another. this confusedly electric Erebuscloud of Revolutionary Government has altered its shape ing these Pitt Plots. In plain words. belonging to it . and an underelectric of Dantonist Moderates and Clemency-men. lately Juryman whose cynosure also is Robespierre. file-firing till the ground be clear. report of Plot in the If Luxembourg : is verily bearing fruit no speakable charge exist against a man. : ! Barrere. ." they say. O dusky D'Espremenil. or Batch of men. the Robespierrist trio would have been absolute. shooting bolts at one another. or wings. Interim-Mayor in his stead: an "architect from Belgium. finally. is of suicidal nature jagged irregularity.

by the roar of Niagara Falls. Peroration. it has all fled. ! : . the Sister of Louis. She was among the kindliest. Her Trial was like the rest for Plots. — ! . long since. like the phantasms of a dying brain. Pathos. amid four-and-twenty others. vi. like a gibbering troop of ghosts. towards Death. or rabid jangle of Hypothesis. father of Constitutional Law-acts he whom we heard saying. stoodest perorating. and sing my sick heart thy mystic everlasting lullaby-song. Constitutionbuilding and the Guillotine speak thou to me. O ! : . . with a loud voice. daughters. Marquise de Crussol. a once timorous Marexpressing tochioness de Crussol courageous now wards her the liveliest loyalty. Rebellion. The stones are the same stones but the rest. . in the gray of the morning bound to march with D'Agoust to the Isles of Hieres. sons and grandsons. Mother.— 3o8 " : THERMIDOR [bk. see. . like a gray old rock dissolving into sudden water he journeys here now. not unkind. . amid endless pathos of rebellious Parlement. would your Royal Highness deign her. five years ago. : . hi [Year 2 stone Hall. Thouret likewise. with his kindred. — . on the Versailles Road. Elizabeth with tears in her eyes thanked this Marchioness said she was grieved she could not reward " Ah. Chapelier goes. Parliamentary Eloquence. " The Constituent Assembly has fulfilled its mission And the noble old Malesherbes. goes the mournfulest medley. With D'Espremenil. for Plots. the moan of endless forests Welcome thou great Nature. Madame. in the same line of Tumbrils. who defended Louis and could not speak. where thou. " Right to embrace me. but not false. and with my whole . ch. my wishes were complete " willingly. savage. At the foot of the Scaffold. ci-devant popular President of the Constituent whom the Menads and Maillard met in his carriage. most innocent of women. One young Chateaubriand alone is wandering amid the Natchez. . and let all the rest be far Another row of Tumbrils we must notice that which holds Elizabeth. Men. Chateaubriands silent. There sat with her. unmotherly no Formula thou. his Lamoignons. cidevant President.

one bleared May morning. lamentably. Cynic Cham fort." PP. says. round Paris. to swear. The Spring sends its : : Lavoisier was Farmer-General Lavoisier too. a la Tour du Temple. .^ Lavoisier begged a fortnight more of life. 231)- . " it is a . " Captivite Duchesse d'Angouleme. bright May. lurked deep. the refuge of death. to . to sing the carSimon is now gone to the Municipality and magnole." — . in thickets and stone-quarries. from which in his fright and bewilderment and early decrepitude he wishes not to stir out. these many months Argus-eyes watching and searching for him. His concealment is become dangerous to others and himself. he has to fly again." Thus they at the foot of the Scaffold. Condorcet has . lies perishing. gains. and now " all the Farmers-General are arrested " all. ^ - Montgaillard. famed Chemist. brighter than ever Lavoisier. not slashes himself with frantic uncertain hand without difficulty. The a girl and a little is now reduced to two boy. on service then about the TemplePrison. " his shirt not changed for six months " amid squalor and darkso as none but poor Factory Children ness. was taken from and given to one Simon. to finish some experiments but " the Republic does not need such " the axe must do its work. Death pauses not. and shall give an account of their moneys and incomings and die for " putting water in the tobacco " they sold. Simon taught him to drink. 3] 22. his Mother while she yet lived by trade a Cordwainer. : . this Chamfort cuts and : . shall die and not live Chemist like are wont to perish. and the and not be lamented green leaves and bright weather." No. 1794] THE TUMBRILS : : 309 heart. once named Dauphin. 200. The boy. reading these inscriptions of Brotherhood or Death. then liberated Brotherhood of Cain " about to be arrested again. hidden in a tower of the Temple. to bring him up in principles of Sansculottism.37-71^ "Tribunal Revolutionnaire " du 8 Mai 1794 (" Moniteur. so at the Village of Clamars. then arrested.! APRIL Flor. And skulk. : the poor boy. ' Royal Family . iv.

to see Paris City drawn out. they eat frugally together. why is the reign of Brotherhood not come It is come. and main Streets and Spaces. or partially spontaneous. in the twelfth. hobnobbing Night to the Reign of Liberty. . to the open air joins it to his neighand with common table. 150. it shall have come. Night in her wide empire sees nothing similar. recollecting him. towards Bourg-la-Reine." § Soupers Fraternels. say the Citoyens frugally these everlasting stars. in civic ceremony. one after one. and almost touching. Along the Rue Saint-Honore. Ah me not look down " like glistening eyes. the Citoyens. . Brotherhood. you enter Condorcet lies dead on the floor. with their wives in best ribands. Suspect. sit there. under the kind stars. which you are snuffing out. thirteenth. over the lot of man " . breakfast unfinished.— 3IO THERMIDOR . each Citoyen brings forth what of supper the stingy Maximum has yielded him. ! ! — ! ! * "Tableaux de la Revolution. with their little ones romping round. do they hobnobbing. is it not singular. and what due modicum of cut-glass and other garnish and relish is convenient. Equality. ragged. fourteenth nights of this May month. and disappear the Notabilities of France disappear. hungerasks breakfast in the tavern there. iii 2 [Year there enters a Figure. O With cheerfully pledged wine-cup. : Under which circumstances. in the meek May nights. Mercier. like lights in a Theatre. [bk. ! : : . vi. which they call " Souper Fraternel" Brotherly Supper ? Spontaneous. it is seen. They die fast. ii. sayest by the look of him thou ? " Committee-President of Forty-Sous finds a " Art not thou one of those CiLatin Horace on him wont that were to keep servants? Suspect!" devants He is haled forthwith. CH. stricken " Servant out of place. on foot he faints with exhaustion is is flung into his damp prisonset on a peasant's horse cell on the morrow.^ See it. cheerful light bour's supper burning frequent. in frugal Love-feast. bright with immortal pity. : . O my brothers. rough-bearded. .

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momentarily. it is still but the 23d of May. She has left a basket in a shop hard by in the basket are female change of raiment and two knives Poor Cecile. is that individuals will attempt assassination of Representatives of the People. . and towards nine in the evening. swart grim-clenched countenance recognisable as that of our little fellowlodger. with lungs fit to awaken all the Rue Favart Amiral snaps a second time a second time flashes in the pan then darts up into his apartment and. formerly " a clerk in the Lotteries. Two days more. however. after there firing. . declares she " wanted to see what a tyrant was like " the change of raiment was " for my own use in the place I am surely going to.! MAY Flor." xii. a pair of truculent saucer-eyes. Member even of Salut. but took Collot as more convenient Rumour enough hereupon heaven-high congratulation of Collot. Paper-dealer's daughter. And yet. ." Collot shouts Murder. is clutched and locked in Prison. . . one musket at himself and another at his captor. Such things come of Char- — ^^ . Citoyen Amiral." He denies not that he meant to " purge France of a Tyrant " nay avows that he had an eye to the Incorruptible himself. returning home. 298-302. of Southern temper and complexion. a young woman of soft blooming look. . Representative Collot. " about one in the morning. still with inadequate effect. it would seem." probably touched with liquor. : ! : — — — . the assassin mood proves catching." " What place ? " " Prison and then the Guillotine. p. of " considerable muscular force.j 1794] THE TUMBRILS 311 One lamentable thing. They lay hold of her. at the Jacobins and elsewhere. 73. Cecile Renault. as he is apt to be. . meets on the stairs the cry Sa'lerat!" and also the snap of a pistol: which latter flashes in the pan disclosing to him. . fraternal embracing. "Deux Amis." answered she. examined by Committee. Robespierre cannot be seen she grumbles irreverently. . * Riouffe. presents herself at the Cabinet-maker's in the Rue Saint-Honore desires to see Robespierre.^ An indignant little man this Amiral. .

^ [Cdcile Renault's silly action. and ye Faction of the Stranger. iv. thus renewing their former decree. only half-resolute. and all that knew them. and monoSwart choleric men try Charlotte's feat. leave their knives in a shop. O Pitt.— 312 lotte . and many that did not know them. waiting the scrutiny of Tinville. by wires of explosive spring-guns ? Amiral. THERMIDOR ! [bk. iii. lie locked. was two days later gravely asserted bv Barrere to be the work of Pitt. .. chap. ch. vi. The Convention at once decreed unanimously that no British or Hanoverian prisoner should be taken. and mania soft blooming young women try their pistols miss fire . fair young Cecile.^ it. and. (See Ed.) .] bk. shall the Republic never have rest but be torn continually by baited Swart springes. hi [Year 2 Corday in a people prone to imitation. on May 24th.

was there not need of one? Incorruptible Robespierre.] . on improved Anti-Chaumette principles a New Religion. : Catholicism being burned out. 20 BUT Prairial. in the brightness of leafy June. if it please Heaven. . are the innumerable Citoyens and Citoyennes the weather is of the brightest cheerful expectation lights all countenances. and had his room hung round with seagreen Portraits and Busts. the Convention. in the Pavilion ci-devant of Flora rejoices in the bright-looking multitudes. . but Catholics were still persecuted in many parts. . not unlike the Ancients. the atheistic orgies of November. we are to have. xviii. He Vilate. " Causes Secretes de la Revolution du 9 Thermidor. Prair. This day. or New-Sabbath. not without vanity even. in his official Apartment." Catholicism had not been burnt out even amidst [Incorrect. " Le Culte de la Raison. and ^ "- " La Rev. will now also be Priest and Prophet. decreed that there should be toleration for all religious creeds." pp. at the suggestion of Barrere. 1793. whilom Tuileries : Garden ? ' All the world is there. In holiday clothes. The cult of Reason was already dying down. would never once countenance that but went always elegant and frizzled. in holiday clothes foul linen went out with the H^bertists nay Robespierre. 1793. Juryman Vilate gives breakfast to many a Deputy." and Reason-worship guillotined. for one.. 20] 1794] MUMBO-JUMBO 313 CHAPTER IV MUMBO-JUMBO on the day they Dccadi.JUNES. as Legislator of a free people. Fr. we say. in the auspicious Decadi. — : . (Aulard.. is this going forward in the Jardin National. New-Sabbath. On December 6th.)— Ed. 473-487." chap. 8th June by old what thing call style.

iv [Year* has donned his sky-blue coat. black silk He is breeches. de Robespierre. xxiii. and that the decree was passed on May 7th." and likewise " ce principe consolateur These consolatory of the Immortality of the Soul. republicans. See. iii. vi. We (Hamel. however.. yet. . which he had to read over again to the Jacobins. 511-519. frizzled and powdered to perfection. [bk. cit. how after Decree passed. created offered to him a sight so worthy of his looks." principles.] op. or at least interval. President of the Convention he has made the Convention decree.] : . after a very able speech by Robespierre. ." vol. pp. On the top of it not half of us can stand wherefore there arises indecent shoving. . thou Bourdon de I'Oise peace. . and what has been called " the scraggiest Prophetic Discourse ever Mahomet Robespierre. David. Monticule or Elevation Anarchy and suchlike. as is remarked. made for the occasion white silk waistcoat broidered with silver.. The Monticule was on the Champ de Mars. thanks to Heaven and Painter Unluckily. by getting decreed help of Heaven and Painter David. or it may be worse for thee — . Peace. with an Amphitheatre has been raised." This speech was given in an amphitheatre close to the Tuileries. issues proudly from the Convention Hall Convention following him. decreter the " Existence of the Supreme Being.— 314 — THERMIDOR ! . at last has come this ever happy day which the French people conNever has the world that he secrates to the Supreme Being. Aulard. hideous Statues of Atheism. bearing in his hand a bouquet of flowers and wheat-ears. the basis of rational Republican Religion. shoe-buckles of gold." the liberty of public worship. amidst great enthusiasm. The speech began " Frenchmen. Ed. "Hist. chap. ch. is to be our first act of worship. strike abhorrence into the heart. our Monticule is too small. accordingly. Ed. white stockings."^ coat and black breeches. so they name it.) ^ [The festival was held thirty-two days after the passing of the famous decree. ' [The first article of the decree ran thus : " The French people recognises the existence of the Supreme Being and the Immortality may also note that the eleventh article reaffirmed of the Soul. on this blessed Decadi. 1794. are and here. nay treasonous irreverent growling. ' . in sky-blue uttered by man.

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at bottom. tu commences a ni'embeter: With thy Eire Supj'eme thou beginnest to be a bore to me. better or worse. which are but made of pasteboard steeped in turpentine. there rises " by machinery. " an ancient serving-maid seventy-nine years of age. that thou wottest of. what distracted Chimera among realities art thou growing to This then. by ill hap. . ." an incombustible Statue of Wisdom."" Catherine Theot.' They burn up rapidly and. and bid her plagues cease ? Vanish. The shabbiest page of Human Annals or is there.] thought. Painter David handing it mouths some other froth-rant of vocables. thou and it! " Avec ton Eire Supreme" said Billaud. smoked a little it . . " (Vilate's Narrative is very See Vilate. which. O seagreen Prophet. in spite of its title. not a Narrative but a Pleading. Prair. then. . A curious . is come Look at it one moment. the men below anotlier the women another. this common pitch-link for artificial fireworks of turpentine and pasteboard this is the miraculous Aaron's Rod thou wilt stretch over a hag-ridden hellridden France. in sight of expectant France sets his torch to Atheism and Company. from within. and knows that he is machinery. 20] — . not two. .) [A hymn to the Supreme Being (composed by Marie Joseph Chenier) was played by the band on the Mount the deputies on the Mount sang one verse . on the other hand. Causes Secretes. And then ? Why. 1794] MUMBO-JUMBO 315 The seagreen pontiff takes a torch. without sifting being. but does stand there visible in as serene attitude as can. there is other Processioning. and this is our Feast of the Eire Supreme our new Religion. . scraggy Discoursing. one shabbier? Mumbo-Jumbo of the African woods to me seems venerable beside this new Deity of Robespierre for this is a conscious Mumbo-Jumbo. — : '" but is not to be taken as true. sits in an upper room — . which happily one cannot hear strides resolutely forward. gets be.— — JUNES. ! : ." inured to Prophecy and the Bastille from of old. O Reader. ! . unhappiest of windbags blown nigh to bursting. '' ^ [The statue of Atheism was in the Tuileries Gardens it bore the words: " Seul Espoir de TEtranger" seemingly Carnot's Ed.

honourable women among whom Old-Constituent Dom Gerle. cannot be wanting. is Will not this Feast of the Tuileries Mumbo-Jumbo be a sign perhaps that the Guillotine is to abate? Far enough from Precisely on the second day after it. iv [Year 2 Book of Re- finds that this velations. : ! . as Plots still abound. with his addle head.) — Ed. say. tu trompais la Nature Tu supposais un Dieu qui n'est que dans son sein Que sais-je. vi. and is well worth tion of many. the Law of the Suspect shall have extension. with an eye to Robespierre astonishing thrice-potent MaximiHen really is the Man spoken of by Prophets. Couthon. . however. ci-devant again." gets himself lifted the of produces a bundle of papers. ix. A . who is to make the Earth young With her sit devout old Marchionesses. adfin. Couthon into the Tribune proposes that. have extension each with its President.] . fierce Patriots with feruled sticks He enjoys the admirakissing the hem of his garment. all labouring at once. tion . the worship of some the wonder of one and all. invoquant I'imposture Tu voulais etre luil" . . one that " three shallow scoundrels. (" CEuvres de Robespierre. : He has his conspicuous man this Robespierre. into Four Tribunals. in the Rue de Contrescarpe Mumbo is Mumbo. P"arther. They sit in mysterious adorathere.: 3i6 in the THERMIDOR Rue de Contrescarpe. and any remnant of shackle or dilatory formality be struck off: in this way it may perhaps still overtake the work. si toi-menie. let us say Strikeand Jacobins sharps." vol. volunteer Bodyguard of Tappe-durs. that as in such case business is like to be heavy.. curious poem by Taschereau-Fargues contains the lines: fers" (1794) — — "A Robespierre aux En- " Hypocrite profond. each with its Fouquier or Substitute of Fouquier. The grand question and hope. and Robespierre is his Prophet. poring over the . and Arrestment new vigour and facility. Such is Couthon's Decree of the Twenty-secotid Prairial. . ch. [bk. our Revolutionary Tribunal too shall be divided.

Meanwhile will not the people of the Place de la ! . de Sombreuil of the Invalides. Law getting a Guillotine set up of improved velocity. John Morley's " Crit. seventy-three years old. in September. as : . " would blow Vain saying! The Incorruptible knit spoke a prophetic fateful word or two the he." asks Collot. . and forbid him thou demoralise the Guillotine. what a BatcJi.— JUNE Prair. So that " Wilt SahU itself has to intervene. punished with death anyone who opposed the Government. ii. Daughter saved him this. Fouquier is enlarging his borders making room for Batches of a Hundred and fifty at once ! . and it was but for In Faction of the Stranger. Even so.. his his brains out. (See Mr. it were already done. ! . " demoraliser le supplice ! There is indeed danger of that were not the Republican faith great.. — . entire kith and kin the Widow of D'Espremenil old M. one Representative. etc. with his Son. * [Robespierre's notes on this decree. they flit along there red baleful Phantasmagory.] — . the and one Ruamps very Mountain gasped. deprived the accused of advocates. Collot. towards the land of Phantoms. for example.) Ed. and discredited him the while. suppressed the hearing of witnesses. drawn up for Couthon's guidance. Tallien. fifty-four of them red shirts and smocks. and declared that judgment might be given. poor old Sombreuil.] — — MUMBO-JUMBO . Miscell. reproach" fully. See. 1 10-120. of Pratrial is Law Ruamps glad to leave his rash Death then. Billaud." brows . but on grounds that satisfied " a man of reasonable mind." There is good evidence for believing that Robespierre meant soon to use this law against the worst class of terrorists men like Fouche. and always Death brains where they are. awestruck ventured to say that if it passed without adjournment and discussion. . 1794] 317 famed in those times/ At hearing of which Decree. prove him to be its real author. as Assassins and Faction of the Stranger. Fifty-four at once Swart Amiral is here. not only on definite proofs. The law instituted four tribunals." vol. he of the pistol that missed fire young Cecile Renault. with her father. and that they and the ultras filched it from his control. his : . and to work under cover. intensified the Terror. family. in the apartment close by. pp. on the 17th of June.

iv. then again shifted finally set up at the remote extremity of the South-east :^ Suburbs Saint. the inhabitants along the Rue Saint-Honore. ch. it is to be hoped. begin to look gloomy ? Republicans too have bowels. The Guillotine is shifted. have very tough ones. ^ Montgaillard. 237.3i8 THERMIDOR [bk. if they have bowels. iv [Year 2 Revolution. . . vi.Antoine and SaintMarceau. as these continual Tumbrils pass.

ranked themaccording to method at what hour " the selves Citoyennes took to their needlework" and we. or even to sing and harp more or less. even needlework must cease the Prison rises. yielding the chairs to them. of various Girondin. There exist records of personal experience in them. Fayettish. five-thousand persons. enmities. flung pell-mell into a heap. endeavoured to talk gallantly in a standing posture. habitudes. " M^moires sur les Prisons" one of the strangest Chapters in the Biography of Man. of herbs and carrion. joys explain fully how our lean dinner.JUNE. : . Un-Jacobin Perhaps no human Habitation or Prison ever colour. nay gracefulnesses. Plot Alas. is now. 1794] Prair. are Ci-devants. Duchess and Doll-Tearsheet. Very singular to look into it how a kind of order and rises up in all conditions of human existence wherever two or three are gathered together. by Citoyen Laflotte and Preter: . .] THE PRISONS 3^9 CHAPTER V THE PRISONS time ITPrisons. by degrees. ! : . observCitoyen Coittant will ances. of . Royalists in far greater part. equalled in squalor. to cast a glance into the When DesmouHns moved for his Com- mittee of Mercy. these Twelve Houses of Arrest. these Twelve Houses of Arrest held Continually arriving since then. in noisome horror. . there are formed modes of existing together. are not wanting nor flirtations. an in effective character. they are Republicans. They there have now accumulated twelve-thousand. Jealousies. however. was consumed not without politeness and place-auxdanies: how Seigneur and Shoeblack.

were it but a pipepicker. as your fell Red Caps are heard in the Corridor rummaging and slamming. the two Citoyens light their pipes. eager to preserve an implement or two. breathe but one mouthful burst forth into chorus of barking and coughing. : . is ruthlessly searehed for.! 320 THERMIDOR . " you don't smoke ? Is the pipe disagreeable ? Est-ce que vous ne fuviez pas ? " But the Red Nightcaps have fled. O surely." par Coittant. No help from shrieking Better was that of the two shifty male Citizens. [bk. of means or metal. The Red Nightcaps. or needle to darn hose with. as we said. and begin smoking.^ My poor brother Citoyens. ch. This Plot in the Prison. de Port-Libre. says the reproachful Collot. in a reign of Brotherhood." . . who report and bear witness that they themselves may be allowed to live. determined to defend themselves by tobacco. (" M^moires sur les Prisons. . at robbery of its very thimble. Nightly come his Tumbrils to the . Suspicious Municipality snatches from us all implements all money and possession. Old Nuns shriek shrill discord demand to be killed forthwith. vi. opening the cell. " Quoi. Swift then. fills the gentle heart. detestable traitor jackals. as their door slams-to again. with slight search " Vous n'aimez pas la pipe ? " cry the Citoyens. towards Death. ! : Thick darkness envelops them.). etc. v [Year 2 natural Suspicion. in pocket. His Foiirnees. ' " Maison d' Arret ii. in pillow and paillasse. " shall in no case exceed threescore". is now the stereotype formula of Tinville against whomsoever he knows no crime. are drawn out in blank you insert the Names after. you are not the two I would . He has his inotctons. who. — . Indignation. Messieurs" cry the two Citoyens. His Judgment-bar has become unspeakable a recognised mockery known only as the wicket His Indictments one passes through. temporary desperation. stiffens into horrid tyranny Plot in the Prison getting ever rifer. this is a readymade crime. : guillotine Rigour grows. that is his niaxiintc7n. : . and snatched away red-capped Commissaries entering every cell. for a time.

Ed. : . if rush towards the Grate their name be in it ? One deep-drawn breath. Quick these. they mount. are accustomed to " act the Guillotine " by way of pastime. in his turn. [Suspects from all parts of France were now brought to Paris for trial. has possessed all hearts. 1794] THE PRISONS . a shaggy Satan snatches him not unshrieking shows him. Riouffe. their locks not yet made into blond perukes. Y . p. they clasp their loved ones to their heart. to the Guillotine tomorrow.376 were executed.— JUNE Prair. list of the Fournce fatal Roll-call listen. and the What hour? answered by. Weak women and Ci-devants. for instance. This night to the Conciergerie through the Palais misnamed of Justice. . is guillotined by the oversetting of two chairs. A : Montgaillaid. when the the name is not in we live still one day And yet some score or scores of names were in. . the fire that the monotony is not quenched.] ' •^ . Sometimes we carry it farther Tinville himself. a mock Sanhedrim of Judges sits. . defiant levity. It is Eternity} And still the Prisons fill fuller. with towel-turbans. or say even Paris. and still the Guillotine goes faster. . thirty-two men of Nantes. a mock Tinville pleads a culprit is doomed. and not With blackened face. the Stoicism if not of strength yet of weakness. in these same days Luxembourg.] . III. the worm that dies not of Hell-pain. . Of the arrested. ! . horned." 1. only about one in eighty were now set free. Recklessness. is doomed. with outstretched arm and voice. their skins not yet tanned into breeches. with the Men . . wending towards Paris. to the Guillotine alone.220 persons perished in thirteen months but in forty-nine days afterwards 1. wet-eyed or dry-eyed. blanket-ermine. hirsute. are mown down it is Republicans now." Not Ci-devants now they. and are away. in exasperated Chained two and two they march hundred and moments singing their Marseillaise. before the "Law of Prairial. In fantastic mummery. march towards Republicans. On all high roads march flights of Prisoners. 218. 321 of tomorrow. At Paris. the noisy of them. 273. iv. one last time with brief adieu.

endure. by the nature of it. closed under hatches. [bk. They are wayworn. as under horrid enchantment. seventy of them in a berth. .. circularly. . Ragged.! . All Anarchy. all Evil. weary of heart can only shout Long live the Republic we. vacuity. . v [Year 2 Jacobins to the marrow of the bone but Jacobins who had not approved Noyading/ Vive la Republique rises from them in all streets of towns they rest by night in unutterable noisome dens. : . in the attitude of prayer " ' How long. . vi. 288- 335)^ "Relation de ce qu'ont souffert pour la Religion les Pretres deportes en 1794. dragon's teeth suicidal. ride at anchor " in the roads of the Isle of Aix. . dans la rade de I'ile d'Aix " (7(5. crowded to choking one or two dead on the morrow. with finger and thumb beating their scandalous clothes between two stones choked in horrible miasmata." ii. 322 THERMIDOR . ! — ! . sordid. of whom also there is record. in parties of a dozen. is. ch. Injustice. : . . ^ " Voyage de Cent Trente-deux Nantais " (" Prisons. hungry wasted to shadows eating their unclean ration on deck. waste Sands of Oleron and the ever-moaning brine. 387-485). dying in this way for it Some Four-hundred Priests. ii. through night so that the " aged Priest is found lying dead in the morning." long months looking out on misery. and cannot : . O Lord Not forever no.

] TO FINISH THE TERROR 323 CHAPTER VI TO FINISH THE TERROR very remarkable. long since. that among the Prisoners in the Twelve Houses of Arrest. This Theot mystery they affect to regard as a Plot but have evidently introduced a vein of satire. Report on that old Catherine Th6ot. not against the Spinster alone. Ed. Ought these things to be ? We note farther. and her Regenerative Man spoken of by the Prophets not in the best spirit. They also declaimed against the new Bureau de Police Generale recently organized by the Saltit Committee. . by recall. Robespierre has gone little to Committee but held himNay they have made a self apart. and the sublime continued harangues is it. indeed. iii. Proserpine whom Representative Tallien Pluto-like did gather at Bourdeaux. the Theot Report had its effect wrinkling the general Repub^ lican visage into an iron grin. which Billaud feared would become a bore to him. as if in a kind of pet. which his foes misrepresented as his plot for restoring Catholicism He set free Theot and the other dupes. born Cabarus. of irreverent banter. 594-598) has proved that Robespierre was absent from the Committee only seven times between 15th Prairial and 9th Thermidor. He withdrew into the background only for a few days owing to the Theot affair. that since the EtreITSupreme Feast. . pp. . the fair seen before.— JULY 1794] Mess. which the Siirete Generale deeply resented.. which his foes adduced as proof of his guilt. [Hamel (" Hist. there is one whom we have Senhora Fontenai. ! : .] ^ ! . de Robespierre. not without effect on himself! Tallien is home." vol. but obliquely Barrere's light pen was against her Regenerative Man perhaps at the bottom of it read through the solemn snuffling organs of old Vadier of the Surete Gcnerale. from Bourdeaux on .

And now his fair Cabarus. not at all to Committee speaks nothing except to" his Jacobin House of Lords. ' " Deux Amis." for we are now far in July.— 324 ! THERMIDOR in the [bk. : . . Vain that he sounded . vi." Meanwhile Robespierre. . " with eyes red-spotted. for thou too hadst a life. — : : . as in the Polyphemus Cavern the fawningest slave of you will be but eaten last! Tallien feels with a shudder that it is true. with an intensely meditative air some say. few years ago. the Senhora smuggles out to her red-gloomy Tallien the most pressing entreaties and conjurings Save me save thyself Seest thou not that thy own head is doomed thou with a too fiery audacity a Dantonist withal against whom lie grudges? Are ye not all doomed. . Dim vestiges there flit of Agrarian Law a victorious Sansculottism become : . was a young Advocate of promise and gave up the Arras Judgeship rather than sentence one man to die ? What his thoughts might be? His plans for finishing the Terror? One knows not. July and heart of flesh. Bourdon has had words. ." xii. the note of Jacobinism. we still observe. . what is this that the stern gods. lies Arrested. he has not showed face in Committee could only work there by his three shallow scoundrels. Suspect. who. vi [Year 2 and most alarming : position. ch. Tallien has had words of omen. ^ : ! — — . These " forty-days." fruit of extreme bile the lamentablest seagreen Chimera that walks the Earth that O hapless Chimera. Freron is hated and Barras each man " feels his head if it yet stick on his shoulders. louder even than ever. in spite of all he could do !— Shut in horrid pinfold of death. to hide past shortcomings the Jacobins purged him out two times has Robespierre growled at him words of omen from the Convention Tribune. seeming to smile all the way. amid his bodyguard of Tappc-durs. The Incorruptible himself sits apart or is seen stalking in solitary places in the fields. have led and let thee to Art not thou he. ZM-llZ- . hit by denunciation. goes little to Convention. and the terror there was of him.

^ . . a List made out which the Hairdresser has got eye on. : . others of them gave dinners had " country-house at Clichy. . Convention to be butchered. Frugality.. deputies. through seas of blood. : Fraternity. Billauds. 83-87. in Hospital Palaces of Chambord and Chanbreaches healed by peace bought by victory tilly and so. or else there is not actually." with elegant enough sumptuosities. Feast of Etre Supreme . O Reader. there was a remarkable bachelor's dinner. virtues.] . and Republic of the : Blessed shore.There is actually. of such a sea of Aristocrat blood but how to land on it ? Through one last wave blood of corrupt Sansculottists traitorous or semi-traitorous Conventionals. Vestiges of schemes flit dim. For the socialism of the Jacobins and Robespierre. Is it I ? Nay. Ed. one hot day.. like a seastock green ghost. " La Rev. Just's indictment of Hoche.] — 325 1794] TO FINISH THE TERROR .— JULY Mess. Each man asks himself. this Barrere and at Barrere's. For doubt not. The " Deux Amis" are nowhere very accurate. down to the right pitch. ^ [It is a mistake to suppose that Robespierre was the most cruel He saved the seventy-three surviving Girondin of the Terrorists. worksome Blessedness. Landed Proprietor — . some say. . ! — . 453-460 also " L'Qiuvre Sociale de la Rev. Ed. old Soldiers sitting in National Mansions. through the blooming July." pp. [These stories date from after the reaction of Thermidor and are almost certainly false. the day high-rouged." See Vilate. are digging for a huge simultaneous butchery..] ^ ' "Deux Amis. and pleasures But at this dinner we speak of. by General Henriot and Company Jacobin House of Lords made dominant and Robespierre Dictator. . and he interviewed in favour of clemency in several cases. 350-358. as Tradition and rumour of Anecdote still convey it. as he frizzled the Incorruptible locks. But ivJiat his schemes or his thoughts were will never be known to man. xii. Fr. to whom with my Etre Suprhne I have become a bore with my Apocalyptic Old Woman a laughingSo stalks he. rebellious Talliens.^ New Catacombs. this poor Robespierre. Fr. he quashed St." pp. to Equality. but their tales here about Robespierre are Thermidorian inventions. see Aulard.

26th July 1794. pp. . before ! — . . lest never day. . de Ed. iii. : . It is a voice bodeful of death or of life. . iii. ready to die at a For all which what remedy is moment's warning. . The Guillotine new vigour to the all-healing there ? death to traitors of every hue . Bourdons. and hair up ? Rash Tallien."— Ed." of punishing traitors. with his rash temper and audacity of tongue he shall bell the cat. 721-732. not at the wine-cup that day Friends ye dull Frogs of the Marsh. ." vol. Does not a feline Maximilien voiceless as yet his green eyes red-spotted. alone left incorruptible." vol.So sings Guillotine the prophetic voice into its Convention sounding-board. vi [Year 2 being so hot. pp. even you now must croak or die nocturnal. mute ever since Girondism sank under. He inveighed against the rogues and intriguers. " Hist.— 326 ! ! THERMIDOR it [bk. ch. unmelodious as the screech-owl's. Longwinded. " Hist. vi. . infected Maximilien. on the fixed the day which they call Lo. . thus neglecting the advice of St. the guests all stript their coats. Salut Committees themselves rupt Moderatism backsliding on this hand and on that I. . driven by a necessity. found and tarried a list of Forty. For the speech see his " CEuvres. ! Eighth of Thermidor. . .'' vol. his own name among them Ye must bestir yourselves. O . when " itself purged. groped in Robespierre's pocket. stalk there back bent. .] ^ [Rather exaggerated. . — .] Robespierre. ! . 406-449 Hamel. is said.. self . and urged the need of ceasing to vex " good citizens. Robespierre himreappears in Convention mounts to the Tribune The biliary face seems clouded with new gloom judge whether your Talliens. sounds that prophetic Degenerate condition of Republican spirit corvoice Siiretc. Parlementaire. The vagueness of these charges alarmed the "Plain and ruined his cause. He himself was strangely passive in these days. of purging the Committee of General Security and of subordinating it to the Committee of Public Safety. needing of all things paper. ^ [The plotting was done by Robespierre's enemies. listened with interest. : and left them in the drawing-room from the dinnertable Carnot glided out. ^ Fix a day and be it soon. with word and beck mysterious as death.. speaking little at the Conven- tion (though present). Councils are held. Just to " dare. xxxiii.

cerned. and you may still tread it out: hesitate ship and ship's captain. greener than ever before. and get his work done by them. : . .] ' . and began gesticulating and demonstrating. ! . . that the Robespierre Speech be " printed and sent to the Departments. Honourable Members hint diseven of dissonance sonance Committee-Members. that evil is nigh .— JULY Therm. crew and cargo till next moment. Ed. — . a gasp of in this Convention silence nay a certain grating of one knows not what Lecointre. in these questionable circumstances. O Heavens. he and Sanscullotism may still subsist some time if not. [The Convention ordered the two Cornmittees to report on the speech before printing. has the sounding-board ceased to act ? There is not resonance there is. has to retire. swift-frightful But mutiny in a Robesnot to be dealt with in fright. how the matter blew Agitator lay plucked a pistol from his holsters — ! — . with those truculent eyes of his. probably not. are shivered far the ship's voyage has suddenly ended between sea and sky. and move. disas the mouthpiece of Thousands expectant there. so to speak. 1794] S] ! — : TO FINISH THE TERROR : 327 The old song this but today.^ pierre. produce his Henriot and Company. Mutiny prises is a thing of the fatalest nature in . all enter- whatsoever a thing so incalculable. which had got passed. ing in the ship's powder-room One death-defiant plunge at it. our old Draper of Versailles. is rescinded. above all." Hark gratings. tonight. ." higher rises the note of dissonance inquiry is even made by Editor Fr6ron " What has become of the Liberty of Opinions in this Convention ? " The Order to print and Robestransmit. when that Agitator Sergeant stept forth from the ranks. Ever utter dissonance. "insidiously" or not insidiously. 26. foiled discerning that it is mutiny. it is like fire seen sputterpierre Convention. Oliver Cromwell. : ! . according to established wont. If Robespierre can. inculpated in the Speech. this moment. sees nothing he can do so safe as rise. demand " delay in printing. with plea of grievances.

vi [Year 2 and Agitation instantly Noll was a man fit for such things. . Report on Republican Things in General we may say. which is to be read in Convention on the morrow." cries Painter DdLwid. ch. does act Applauses heaven-high cover the rejected Oration fire-eyed fury lights all Jacobin features Insurrection a sacred duty the Convention to be purged Sovereign People under Henriot and Municipality we will make a new June-Second of it To your tents. [A more trustworthy version states that went on with his own work. he sends not it. in the unhistrionic Cambyses vein " What is passing ? Nothing but revolt and horrors are passing. . incorruptibilities. is elbowed. : . and send it. " What is passing at the Jacobins ? " " What is passing ? " repeats Collot. Thou shalt not die! shouts Jacobinism from its thousand throats. say- . though of the supreme Salut. but an answer that he will not send it that they will hear it from the Tribune tomorrow. . among the rest who in his sleek way asks. I will drink the hemlock with thee. O Israel In this key pipes Jacobinism in sheer tumult of revolt.'' Je boii'aila cigue avectoi" a thing not essential to do. : ! . . . Collot d'Herbois. [bk. . can be said.: 328 THERMIDOR out. all dishevelled. bullied is glad to escape alive. ^ reply. for his part. — ! . Let Tallien and all Opposition men make off. Once home. sleek sombre Saint-Just there. he cannot show it them. in the fire of the moment. left Just deigned no about dawn. and finally St. will get it. he finds . his uncommon virtues. then. at this moment a friend has it he. therefore. vi. " Robespierre. Entering Committee-room of Saiut." Saint-Just stutters at such Cambyses oratory takes his hat to withdraw. That Report he . instead of some adequate resolution. — . his rejected screech-owl Oration reads this latter over again and declares that he is ready to die at a moment's warning. Saint-Just. glides over at evening to his Jacobin House of Lords unfolds there. his woes. of. — : .^ . were he once home. Ye want our lives ye shall not have them. secondly. but which. Our Jacobin sounding-board. Robespierre. had been speaking . and so lately near shot.

Collots ? Puissant Henriot. Procureur Payan. . . and keep his powder Swift dry " Paris. Frerons. can it fall on the eyes of Talliens. from SAretc and Salut from conclave to conclave from Mother Society Sleep. will see a thing. ! . believe that. " pray to Heaven.] pierre would have triumphed. had he been allowed to make his speech there. all night. scouts fly dim or invisible. therefore. on the morrow. Judge Cofifinhal. 1794] 8] TO FINISH THE TERROR 329 Let every man. 26. Robespierre and all the Jacobins are getting ready.— JULY Therm. Mayor Fleuriot. Many ing that he would open his whole soul to the Convention. according to a well-known good-advice. to Townhall. RobesEd.

in Legal Convention here we have not been snatched seriatim treated with '^Allans." to see that the Convention had actually met. . and brandishing it there the Steel of Brutus. but the Hall is . however. And Robespierre is struggling to speak. I said to myself. impetuous acclaim. Saint-Just has read but few sentences. and impetuously acclaim. a second time. as he passed in Saint-Just's sonorous voice being now audible from the Tribune. and all men accuse. brave men of the a Pride's Purge at the door. "Triumvir. watching nigh. Paris is in rumour but at least we are met. and the game of games begun. if the Convention dare not strike the when . . the at Jacobins last night. and brandish. . and this man starts and and Tallien. T ALL! EN'S . pale of face Couthon as call it. and uproar. Whereat we all bellow. on the morrow. ejaculating. ch. Plain. " Tyranny Dictatorship Triumvirate " And the Saint Committeemen accuse. starts to his feet. with his " Citoyens. but President Thuriot is jingling the bell against him." late Frogs of the Marsh cried Tallien with a : ." said he. Ninth of Thermidor. rapid crescetido when Tallien and Billaud. vi. — : Tyrant. if need be. Behold. I trembled for the Republic. then I myself dare and with this I will do it. vii [Year 2 CHAPTER VII GO DOWN TO eyes beamed bright. whisking out a clear-gleaming Dagger.^" with a look at his paralytic legs. Saint-Just is verily reading that Report of his green Vengeance. that. in the shape of Robespierre. . " about nine o'clock. ! we ! ! . And Saint-Just is standing motionless. ! squeeze of the hand.33° THERMIDOR [bk. interruption rises.

" Debats. Accusation passes the incorruptible Maximilien is decreed Accused. " [Robespierre replied " It is Danton. like an Aeolus-Hall and Robesmounting the Tribune-steps and descending again going and coming. " The blood of Danton chokes " him. sawest thou ever the like of this? Jingle of bell. desperation and mutiny is the order of the day : — ^ ! President Thuriot." cries Augustin." ." iv. " I demand to share my Brother's fate. Bastille battlements sawest Saint-Antoine rising like the Ocean-tide. Just. which thou jinglest against Robespierre. thou that vvert Elector Thuriot. ! ! . blows now victorious. .] [This was at Lebas' own request. And Thuriot's bell jingles. O and from the . finding audience one moment. that you wish to avenge. It is noon the Aeolus-Hall has delivered itself. as I have striven to share his virtues. . into Salut Committee-room their tongue cleaving to the roof of their mouth. Ed. " I appeal to you " The virtuous men of the Plain sit silent as stones. — . Triumvirate and Company are packed forth. is hardly audible amid the Bedlam storm and men rage for life. Robespierre's frothing lips are grown " blue " his tongue dry. " To you. and Lebas. : u Moniteur."^ " Accusation Decree of Accusation Thuriot swiftly puts that question. and Saintand packed forth. then. . " I demand speech of thee for the last time " It cannot be had. and the Hall sounds like Aeolus's Hall. and hast seen much since. 421-442. " President of Assassins. like to choke with rage. O virtuous men of the Plain.— JULY Therm. You have but to summon the Municipality to cashier Commandant Henriot." Nos. 390-41 1.\ii. 312.] I : ' . terror. cleaving to the roof of his mouth. "Deux Amis. ! ! . And Couthon. ." cries he. harmonious. — 331 27."* they are all decreed not without difficulty." cry they. the Ushers almost trembling to obey. as one irresistible wind. and launch Arrest at him to regulate formalities hand Tinville his victims. the Younger Robespierre: Augustin also is decreed." shrieks Robespierre. 311. Cowards! Why did you not defend him?" Ed. 1794] 9] GO DOWN TO : sounding against him pierre is .

to the Luxembourg and ? then. earnestly pleading and drawing sabre. C. accordingly. " at five . in the summer evening Judge Coffinhal is galloping with new Gendarmes. three or four other acts still to come and an uncertain catastrophe huge City holds in it so many confusions seven hundred thousand human heads not one of which knows what its neighbour is doing. this day On the Quai de la Ferraillerie. room. tocsin bursting from all steeples. openly insurgent no Gaoler to admit any Prisoner Barriers to be shut and Henriot is galloping towards theTuileries. sent off under : . to deliver Robespierre. how instead of sitting cashiered. ." The Gendarmes strike down the young ! . to deliver Henriot from Tuileries CommitteePuissant Henriot vaults room and does deliver him An The end was . there is yet but the first-act finished it is not so. cipal he gallops along the Quais. Hark. A.— : : 332 THERMIDOR so the [bk. seize this Henriot get the Henriot Gendarmes persuaded not to fight get Robespierre and Company packed into hackney-coaches. ! A . 1825). : . while exhausted Representatives sit at victuals. vi. a young Citoyen. vii [Year 2 and yet finished ? One thinks so Alas. . walking with his wife. — . " to speak with Robespierre " with difficulty. — arrested. ! 1 " Precis des ancien Ev^nemens du Neuf Thermidor. exhausted Convention did it not come only the end of the second-act. And work is : . Commandant Henriot. and repented it. drums rolling. who accost him. for a o'clock " ? other Prisons. This. ch. that man is not your Commandant he is under arrest." par Gendarme (Paris. is the end May little adjourn now. followed by MuniGendarmes. Citoyen with the flat of their swords. See. nay not what itself is doing. escort.^ Representatives themselves (as Merlin the Thionviller). " trampling down several persons " For the Townhall sits deliberating. Meda. : . not an exhausted Convention repose and sustenance. the Ushers and Tuileries Gendarmes. . this puissant Henriot flings into guardHe bursts towards the Tuileries Committeehouses. about three in the afternoon. says aloud " Gendarmes.

1794] 9] . we appoint Barras Commandant of what Armedforce is to be had send Missionary Representatives to all Sections and quarters. What a distracted City men riding and running. the Death-tumbrils faring September. .] les Prisons. however. Robespierre. paleness on his face his hat says with solemn tone " Citoyens. ominous . 27. . Out of Law. Is not here a pretty enough third-act of a natural Greek Drama catastrophe more uncertain than ever ? . rushes together again. 333 on horseback sets to haranguing the Tuileries Gentrots darmes corrupts the Tuileries Gendarmes too off with them to Townhall. . signals to them. . and raise force will die at least with harness on our back. we must verily die. — GO DOWN TO . in the President Collot. Better still. apparently signals of hope cannot in the least make out what it is. this time. . reporting and hearsaying the Hour clearly in travail. durst not.— JULY Therm. " Memoires sur 277. child not to be named till born The poor Prisoners in the Luxembourg hear the rumour tremble for a new rodomontade. the Municipality. : . to die at our post " nightfall : The hasty Convention . : ! " Oui" answer one and all : " We swear it ! " It is no . but a sad fact and necessity Swift do at our posts. have floated safe into the Townhall There sit Robespierre and Company. They see men making . armed Villains have beset the Committee-rooms. Loi. Alas. in the eventide. admit any Prisoner the . . on skylights and roofs." ii. unless we . . embraced by Municipals and Jacobins in sacred right of sounding tocInsurrection redacting Proclamations sins corresponding with Sections and Mother Society.^ claps-on enters with long strides. - Ed.' observe. are declared Rebels put Hors la. ! . to preach. The hour is come. as usual. and Robespierre is not in prison the Gaoler showed his Municipal order. on pain of his life. and got possession of them. for the chair is his. . We ^ [Thuriot had taken his place only for a time in the afternoon sitting. Henriot. therefore. Robespierre Hackney-coaches. ! in this confused jangle and whirl of uncertain Gendarmes.

place close to the Revolutionary Court. their . the night before last. again. can only be painted in gross somewhat Loiserolles.)— Ed. Paine's life lay not there. that it must. Sampson Perr)'. Our fifth-act. the outer doors of tomorrow's Fournee. but the official reports ^ Ed.m. Rev. O Heavens." pp. it was in support of him and of the Terror.] to the scaffold ' . with waved Quit hope. ye poor Doomed The sabres. Paine's outer door happened to be open. is that of Deputy Paine Paine has sat in the Luxembourg since January and seemed forgotten but Fouquier had pricked him at The Turnkey.^ But in this set of Tumbrils there are two other things notable one notable person and one want of a notable : .' — THERMIDOR — . bellow. The notable person birth is Lieutenant-General . Christian name is little The want of the notable person.. or some other detention. vi. 31-34. " I am Loiserolles. : . The son was asleep at the moment. ! . . It shall Saint-Antoine surrounds the Tumbrils Henriot and Gennot be. [The story of the tumbrils forced through the reluctant crowd by Henriot and gendarmes is probably mythical. If there was much excitement in St. story was made up by a journalist. ch. The (See Alger. Glimpses of the Fr. 334 [bk. the Fournee went without Paine. through Saint-Antoine.] state that the execution took place quite as usual. The victims left the Palais de Justice about 4 p. Antoine. : . before trial there. it was merely a place of They were taken to the Conciergerie. says. a nobleman by and by nature down his life here for his son. laying In the Prison of SaintLazare. [This story is also a fabrication. and hurried on another Turnkey came. towards Saint-Antoine's tough bowels melt Barrier du Trone.. he caught the name of his son. ! ! Tumbrils move on. . and shut it no chalk-mark now visible. Prisoners were never taken from the Luxembourg. of this natural Greek Drama. is marking with chalk last. before the ai-rest of Robespierre had bee7i decreed. with its natural unities. List in hand. scouring the street that way. person. vii [Year 2 Southeastward. an error in the cried the old man small objection was made. turned back on the wall the Turnkey marked it on the side next him. why should it darmes." at Tinville's bar. — . hurrying to the Grate to hear the Death-list read.

tumultuous gloom and glare and " Destiny as yet sits wavering. emptying out the Jacobins. : . . 1794] 10] GO DOWN TO 335 as that antique Painter. Sections going that Representatives reading Proclamations by torchlight Missionary Legendre. Citoyens cries the voice of Discretion loudly enough. range themselves on the Convention side. which he has recruited. ." About three in the morning the dissident Armedforces have met. Convention sits permanent on this hand Municipality most permanent on that. in sudden whirl. that it is now the catastrophe Stumbling in again. . silvers the Northern hem of Night it wends and wends there. ! : ! — . . Henriot's Armed-force stood ranked in the Place de Greve and now Barras's. arrives there and they front each other. driven desperate. Meek continual Twilight streaming up. . The poor prisoners hear tocsin and rumour strive to bethink them of the signals apparently of hope. anxiousl}' unanimous. to endless civil-war. and flinging their key on the Convention table " I have locked their door it shall be Virtue that reopens it. hear the Convention Decree read " Robespierre and all rebels Out of Law " Out of Law? There is terror in the sound. . with shouting. that meek brightness. we say. rushing confused. So still. Unarmed Citoyens disperse rapidly home. of Sections confusion very great. who has raised force somewhere. far gone in drink as some say finds his Place de Greve empty the cannons' mouth turned towards him and on the whole. the wretched drunk-sobered Hen. For through this blessed July night. eternal and on Earth all is confused shadow and conflict dissidence. JULY Therm. . and shakes her doubtful urn. sounding there. . like a silent prophecy. Henriot descends from his upper room. cannon bristling against cannon." Paris. is set against itself. . along the great ring-dial of the Heaven. there is clangour. At which shout. . did the foam. as Ocean-currents do a huge Mahlstrom. . of marching troops of Missionary going this way. under cloud of night. ! .! — . Municipal Cannoneers. Before coming to bloodshed. 28. which will be Dawn and a Tomorrow.


336
riot

:

THERMIDOR
announces
: !

[bk. vi, ch. vii
[Year 2

that hast lost it and fling him, or else he flings himself, out of window far enough down into masonwork and horror of cesspool not into death but worse. Augustin Robespierre follows him with the like fate/ Saint-Just, they say, called on Lebas to kill him who would not. Couthon crept under a table attempting to kill himself; not doing it. On entering that Sanhedrim of Insurrection, we find all as good as extinct undone, ready for seizure. Robespierre was sitting on a chair, with pistol-shot blown through not his head but his under-jaw the suicidal hand had failed.' With prompt zeal, not without trouble, we gather these
:

" All is lost " cry they ;

!

"

"

Miserable,

it

is

thou

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

wrecked Conspirators fish up even Henriot and Augustin,'^ bleeding and foul pack them all, rudely enough, into carts and shall, before sunrise, have them safe under lock and key. Amid shoutings and embracings. Robespierre lay in an anteroom of the Convention Hall, while his Prison-escort was getting ready the mangled jaw bound up rudely with bloody linen a spectacle to men. He lies stretched on a table, a deal;
; ;

;

:

box
'

his pillow the sheath of the pistol is still clenched convulsively in his hand. Men bully him, insult him
;

:

[It was Robespierre's long delay in signing the Commune's appeal to the populace which clogged the defence at the Hotel de Ville. The statement that Henriot was flung down into a drain rests on the word of Barrere and no word could be weaker. The official records at Henriot's trial say nothing about this. Besides, he was arrested later on. Ed.] Meda, p. 384. (Meda asserts that it was he who, with infinite courage though in a lefthanded manner, shot Robespierre. Meda got promoted for his services of this night and died General and Baron. F"ew credited Meda in what was otherwise incredible.) [M. Aulard (" Etudes et Lemons sur la Rev. Fr.," pp. 282-300) has shown that the external evidence is about evenly balanced between Mr. the version of suicide and that of assassination by Meda. Belloc (" Robespierre," pp. 377-380) shows that the direction of the wound downwards, from the cheek to the jaw, affords strong presumption against the theory of suicide. Ed.] ^ [The younger Robespierre certainly did not fall into the drain he threw himself down on the steps leading to the main entrance.

'"

;

—Ed.]

!

JULY
Therm.

28, 1794]
10]

GO DOWN TO
;

337

his eyes still indicate intelligence " He had on the sky-blue coat he

Feast of the Eire Supreme" O Reader, can thy hard heart hold out against that ? His trousers were nankeen He the stockings had fallen down over the ankles. spake no word more in this world. And so, at six in the morning, a victorious Convention Report flies over Paris as on golden wings adjourns. penetrates the Prisons irradiates the faces of those that were ready to perish turnkeys and moutons, fallen from It is the 28th day their high estate, look mute and blue. of July, called loth of Thermidor, year 1794. his Prisoners being Fouquier had but to identify At four in the afternoon, never already Out of Law. From before were the streets of Paris seen so crowded. the Palais de Justice to the Place de la R(fvolution, for thither again go the Tumbrils this time, it is one dense the very roofs and all windows crammed stirring mass ridge-tiles budding forth human Curiosity, in strange The Death-tumbrils, with their motley Batch gladness. of Outlaws, some Twenty-three or so, from Maximilien to Mayor Fleuriot and Simon the Cordwainer, roll on. All eyes are on Robespierre's Tumbril, where he, his jaw bound in dirty linen, with his half-dead Brother and halfdead Henriot, lie shattered their " seventeen hours " of agony about to end. The Gendarmes point their swords woman at him, to show the people which is he. clutching the side of it with springs on the Tumbril one hand, wavering the other Sibyl-like and exclaims " The death of thee gladdens my very heart, yn'enivre de Robespierre opened his eyes " Scele'rat, go down j'oie " " At to Hell, with the curses of all wives and mothers the foot of the scaffold, they stretched him on the ground Lifted aloft, his eyes again opened till his turn came. caught the bloody axe. Samson wrenched the coat off him wrenched the dirty linen from his jaw the jaw hideous to fell powerless, there burst from him a cry hear and see. Samson, thou canst not be too quick Samson's work done, there bursts forth shout on shout Z III.
;
;

he speaks no word. had got made for the

;

:

;

;

;

;

A

;

;

:

;

;

!

;

;

;

:

!


[bk. vi, ch. vii
[Year
2

338

THERMIDOR

Shout, which prolongs itself not only over of applause. Paris, but over France, but over Europe, and down to Deservedly, and also undeservedly. O this generation.^ unhappiest Advocate of Arras, wert thou worse than other Advocates ? Stricter man, according to his Formula, to his Credo and his Cant, of probities, benevolences, pleasures-of-virtue, and suchlike, lived not in that age, man fitted, in some luckier settled age, to have become one of those incorruptible barren Pattern-Figures, and have had marble-tablets and funeralsermons. His poor landlord, the Cabinet-maker in the Rue Saint-Honore, loved him his Brother died for him. May God be merciful to him and to us This is the end of the Reign of Terror new glorious Revolution named of Therniidor\ of Thermidor 9th, which being interpreted into old slave-style year 2 means 27th of July 1794. Terror is ended; and death in the Place de la Revolution, were the " Tail of Robeswhich service Fouquier, in large pierre " once executed Batches, is swiftly managing.

A

;

;

;

;

^ [Wordsworth (" Prelude," bk. on hearing the news
:

x.,

adJin.)

thus describes his joy

" Great

was

my

transport, deep
.

my

gratitude

To everlasting Justice, by ih'xs/iat Made manifest. They who with clumsy desperation
. .

brought

A

and preached that nothing else Could cleanse the Augean stable, by the might Of their own helpers have been swept away." Ed.]
river of Blood,

BOOK SEVENTH
VENDEMIAIRE

CHAPTER
DECADENT

I

little did anyone suppose that here was the end not of Robespierre only, but of the Revolution System itself! Least of all did the mutinying Committee-men suppose it who had mutinied with no view whatever except to continue the National Regeneration with their own heads on their shoulders.
;

HOW

And

yet so

it

verily was.
^

The

insignificant stone they

had struck out, so insignificant anywhere else, proved to be the Keystone the whole arch-work and edifice of Sansculottism began to loosen, to crack, to yawn and tumbled piecemeal, with considerable rapidity, plunge after plunge till the Abyss had swallowed it all, and in this upper world Sansculottism was no more. For despicable as Robespierre himself might be, the death of Robespierre was a signal at which great multitudes of men, struck dumb with terror heretofore, rose out of their hiding-places and, as it were, saw one another, how multitudinous they were and began
;

;

;

;

;

[Carlyle in later times admitted that he had underrated the personality and influence of Robespierre; but this term "keystone" suits the case exactly. Robespierre's probity, eloquence and political tact had kept the Terrorists together. Now their different cliques fell asunder and therefore under the control of the
'

Moderates.

Ed.]

: ; !

340

VENDEMIAIRE

[bk. vii, ch.
[Year

i

Speaking and complaining. They are countable by the thousand and the million who have suffered cruel wrong. Ever louder rises the plaint of such a multitude into a universal sound, into a universal continuous peal, of what they call Public Opinion. Camille had demanded a " Committee of Mercy," and could not get it but now the whole Nation resolves itself into a Committee of Mercy the Nation has tried Sansculottism, and is weary of it. Force of Public Opinion What King or Convention can withstand it? You in vain struggle the thing that is rejected as " calumnious " today must pass as veracious with triumph another day gods and men have declared that Sansculottism cannot be. Sansculottism, on that Ninth night of Thermidor suicidally " fractured its under-jaw " and lies writhing, never to rise more. Through the next fifteen months, it is what we may call the death-agony of Sansculottism. Sansculottism, Anarchy of the Jean-Jacques Evangel, having now got deep enough, is to perish in a new singular system of Culottism and Arrangement. For Arrangement is inArrangement, were it grounded dispensable to man only on that old primary Evangel of Force, with Sceptre Be there method, be there in the shape of Hammer! were it that of the Drill-sergeant order, cry all men More tolerable is the drilled Bayonet-rank, than that
;

;

;

:

!

:

;

;

;

undrilled Guillotine, incalculable as the wind. How Sansculottism, writhing in death-throes, strove some but twice, or even three times, to get on its feet again fell always, and was flung resupine the next instant and finally breathed out the life of it, and stirred no more this we are now, from a due distance, with due Courage, Reader brevity, to glance at and then I see land
;

:

;

—O

!

!

acts of the Convention, very natural Thermidor, are to be specified here the Both first is, renewal of the Governing Committees. Surete Generale and Salut Public, thinned by the Guillo-

Two
it

of the

first

for

after this

:


AUG.-SEPT. 1794]
Fruct.]

;

DECADENT
up
:

341
fill

tine,

need

filling

we

naturally

them up with

Talliens, Frerons, victorious Thermidorian men. Still more to the purpose, we appoint that they shall, as Law
directs, not in

name only

changed from period

to period

bat in deed, be renewed and a fourth part of them
;

going out monthly.' The Convention will no more lie under bondage of Committees, under terror of death but be a free Convention free to follow its own judgment, and the Force of Public Opinion. Not less natural is it to enact that Prisoners and Persons under Accusation shall have right to demand some " Writ of Accusation," and see clearly what they are accused of Very natural acts the harbingers of hundreds not less so. For now Fouquier's trade, shackled by Writ of Accusation, and legal proof, is as good as gone effectual only
; :

;

against Robespierre's Tail.

The

Prisons give up their

Suspect

;

emit them faster and

faster.

The Committees
; :

see themselves besieged with Prisoners' friends complain that they are hindered in their work it is as with men rushing out of a crowded place and obstructing one another. Turned are the tables Prisoners pouring out in floods Jailors, Moutons and the Tail of Robespierre going now whither they were wont to send The Hundred and thirty-two Nantese Republicans, whom we saw marching in irons, have arrived shrunk to Ninetyfour, the fifth man of them choked by the road. They arrive: and suddenly find themselves not pleaders for life, but denouncers to death. Their Trial is for acquittal, and more. As the voice of a trumpet, their testimony sounds far and wide, mere atrocities of a Reign of Terror. For a space of nineteen days with all solemnity
;
:

;

!

;

;

and publicity. Representative Carrier, Company of Marat Noyadings, Loire Marriages, things done in
;

The two secret Com] [This was decreed on August 12th. mittees also had to share their powers with fourteen other Committees, a step which prevented any attempt at a dictatorship, but led to much overlapping and friction in the administration. Two efforts to impeach prominent Terrorists entirely failed, and the reaction was not so rapid as Carlyle has stated. Ed.]


342

VENDEMIAIRE
: ;

[bk. vii, CH.

I

[Year 2

clear is the voice of darkness, come forth into light and Journals, and these poor resuscitated Nantese Speech, and universal Committee of Mercy reverberate it loud enough, into all ears and hearts. Deputation denouncing the atrocities of Reprearrives from Arras tamed Convention loves its own sentative Lebon. life Representative Lebon, Repreyet what help ? sentative Carrier must wend towards the Revolutionary Tribunal struggle and delay as we will, the cry of a Nation pursues them louder and louder. Them also if indeed Tinville himself be Tinville must abolish not abolished. must note, moreover, the decrepit condition into which a once omnipotent Mother Society has fallen. Legendre flung her keys on the Convention table, that Thermidor night her President was guillotined with Robespierre. The once mighty Mother came, some time after, with a subdued countenance, begging back her keys the keys were restored her but the strength could not be restored her the strength had departed forever. Alas, one's day is done. Vain that the Tribune in mid-air sounds as of old to the general ear it has become a horror, and even a weariness. By and by. the mighty Mother sees herAffiliation is prohibited self suddenly childless mourns as so hoarse a Rachel
;

A

:

;

;

We

;

:

;

;

:

:

;

may.

The Revolutionary Committees, without Suspects to prey upon, perish fast as it were, of famine. In Paris the old Forty-eight of them are reduced to Twelve their Forty sous are abolished yet a little while, and Revolutionary Committees are no more. Maximum will be abolished let Sansculottism find food where it can.'' Neither is there now any Municipality, any centre at the Townhall. Mayor Fleuriot and Company perished
;
;

:

'

;

;

' [The meetings of the forty-eight sections had long been thinly attended, while the pay demanded for them (forty sous for each man present) was often double or triple the due amount. In future the sections were to meet only on " Decadis." Ed.] December 24th, 1794 (" Moniteur," No. 97).

.

.

and the human tongue Journals. : ^ * October 1795 (Dulaure. . only the contrary way. without centre or subdivision and sacred right of Insurrection fell into abeyance So much is getting abolished fleeting swiftly into the Inane. loud they as ever. : '" ! : .. And Cideva?its show themselves. . a Dozen separate Municipalities incapable of The Sections were thus rendered safe to act concert with or indeed might not the Sections themselves be abolished ? You had then merely your Twelve manageable pacific Townships. For the Press speaks. say. . and mere foes of Terror. What if we should split Paris hall whom we remains . The compressed Mountain shrinks silent more and more. : . as the rushing of a mighty organ-blast. 3-39. and out of it. with a struggle. Lanjuinais. recalled from their haylofts. 454-456). in Philippic and Burlesque a renegade Fr^ron. and melodious deafening Force of Public Opinion. heavy and light. . The Townbroken submissive state knows not well what it is growing to knows only that it is grown weak. and caves in Switzerland. : — ! ^ : ! . back to their seats your Louvets. The very Frogs of the Marsh croak with emphasis. viii. a renegade Prudhomme. Isnards. will resume their place in the Convention natural foes of Terror Thermidorian Talliens. Moderatism rises louder and louder not as a tempest. . almost parade themselves resuscitated as from death-sleep publish what deathpains they have had. and wrecks of Girondism. with threatenings say rather. be emitted out of Prison. 1794] Year 2] DECADENT shall not in a 343 be in haste to replace. and must obey. rule in this Convention." xiii. " Deux Amis. from the Twenty-five million windpipes of a Nation all in Committee of Mercy which how shall any detached body of individuals withstand ? into. Your protesting Seventy-three shall.

vii. bewildered by long terror. Your moneyed Citoyen ponders in what most elegant style he shall dress himself.. and try to keep itself steady and rush. as from the sweet Southwest your devastating Northeasters. 344 VENDEMIAIRE [bk. . and wild Tornado-gusts of Terror. ! . ! things are becoming Culottic. and make ^bout ship A bewildered Convention sails not in the teeth of the wind but is rapidly blown round again. . where is the red nightcap? With the things beyond the Flood. : . But now in this winter 1794. there is not now even a Danton. men went in red nightcap Municipals themselves in sabots the very Citoyennes had to petition against such headgear. and trim. Do but look at the cut of clothes that light visible Result. that beautiful adventurous Citoyenne in costume of the Ancient Greeks. whether he shall not even dress himself as the Free Peoples of Antiquity. such Greek as Painter David could teach . withstand II LA CABARUS poor National Convention In this poor National Convention. . away all . . in such press of weather. [Year i 2- CHAPTER above HOW. significant of a thousand things which are not so visible. undrowned. perturbations and guillotinement. who could undertake to steer you anywhither. ch. shall a it? Convention can do. The more adventurous Citoyenne has already done it. is to veer. we say and so changed blowing fresher and fresher. Needless to struggle to fling helm a-lee. before the wind. broken. her are passing . In winter 1793. The utmost a bewildered all. Behold her. So strong is the wind. there is no Pilot. . blown utterly out All Sansculottic things .

and . drawn from Ci-devant bottles. public are there good against sabre-cuts the hair gathered all into one knot. : . once more. who has known other Orateur du Peuple dances than the Carmagnole. home from the Italian Wars Grim enough . to in straitened circumstances blandish-down the grimness of Republican austerity. and Euterpean Thermidorian rhythm by the Graces. Salons. in enormous horse-collar neckcloth. The fair Cabarus is come out of Prison wedded to her red-gloomy Dis. both of them. what with money coined on the Place de la Revolution. relighted herself. as in Antique Statues. and then with the Aladdin's-lamp of Agio in a time of Paper-money. ! : . " flowing down behind. : — . defying the frost There is such an effervescence of Luxury. in this cause. winding-strings of riband. : : recivilise mankind. what with Army-furnishings. Old wine. with mere sandals.! . that little bronze. publican Army. labours fair Josephine the Widow Beauharnais. Grim Generals of the ReRecivilise. beam once more with suitable effulgence.complexioned Artillery -Officer of Toulon. by the Smiles Editor Freron. and . . though intent. Paris has swept herself. For your Emigrant Ci-devants carried not their mansions and but left them furnitures out of the country with them standing here and in the swift changes of property. descends new throats. I794-9S] Year 2-3] LA CABARUS 345 sweeping tresses snooded by glittering antique fillet bright-dyed tunic of the Greek women her little feet naked. Deputies are there in those soirees Barras. whom they say she treats too loftily fair Cabarus gives the most Round her is gathered a new Rebrilliant soirees. Soupers not Fraternal. sales of Emigrant Domains and Church Lands and King's Lands. ! . : . such mansions have found new occupants. of Citoyennes in sandals Ci-devants or other what remnants soever of the old grace survive are rallied there." Among which latter do we not recognise. even as of old they were civilised by witchery of the Orphic fiddle-bow. fixed with a comb. very singular in colour. At her right-hand.

stands that Artillery-Officer looks. it would seem. Sulto [At certain parts of the dance heads were sharply Ed. in ill health also in ill favour. nodded . almost cruel aspect for he has been in trouble. for the present. Somewhat forlorn of fortune. . vii." says he. in this forsaken manner glances nevertheless. with severe countenance. with those deep earnest eyes of his. Barras speak a word for him ? Yes. at the kind glance of Josephine Beauharnais and. under varieties of figure this great business of dancing " goes on. deservingly or not. if at any time it will serve Barras so to do. CH. ! . except in rags. " precursors of storm and destruction " no. for the rest. Victiine Peace to the Dead let us dance to their memory For ! : . . being himself of the genus Reality He stands here. . ii [Year 2-3 of lean. — . That the winter. : : ." as Mercier called them. A — . in choice costume. and closed lips. without work or outlook. Bals a Victivie. therefore. Taciturn yet with the strangest utterances in him. Among the innumerable kinds of Balls. . — . it needs that you be a that you have lost a relative under the Terror. with open eyes. which smite home. as a man promoted. have a new figure this Not Carmagnoles. by the Terrorists and Robespierre But does not Barras know him ? Will not Junior. we can see. blasts of rags. " are Nymphs. . let the hasty reader mark only this single one the kind they call Victim Balls. The women. ! in all It ways one must is dance. rather dangerous ? " dissocial " man ? Dissocial enough a natural terror and horror to all Phantasms. into a future as waste as the most. like light or lightning on the whole. rude " whirl: . if you awaken him.— 346 VENDEMIAIRE : [bk. waits what will betide. have all crape round the left arm to be admitted. The dancers.^ what ' very remarkable. soft Ionic motions fit for the light sandal and antique Grecian tunic Efflorescence of Luxury has come out for men have wealth nay new-got wealth and under the Terror you durst not dance.] imitate the fall of the head under the guillotine. according to Mercier. Balls.

. names them Jemiesse Doree. these Gilt Youths. 138. What is singular. ' . in a kind of resuscitated state they wear crape round the left arm. . they carry clubs loaded with lead . what new street-groups are these ? Young men habited not in black-shag Carmagnole spencer. yet without deranging them. notes a no less strange thing able Citoyenne you meet is in an interesting situation. Good heavens. ' * Mercier. . iii. . — ." No farther seek its merits to disclose. long-flowing. but in superfine habit cam'. " Nouveau Paris. More. LA CABARUS 347 sometimes Minervas." and knotted back. or spencer with rectangular tail appended to it " square-tailed coat. iv. contre-dances. in his fondness." way. as by a double effect of Looking forward a little gravitation and attraction. : ! . ! . even Dianas. Montgaillard. so absorbed are they. 1794-95] Year 2-3] . in fact. Golden or Gilt Youth. Like a glittering comet she travels her ellipse revolving on herself. In tanas with such lightly-unerring gyrations they swim there earnestness of purpose with perfect silence. They have come out.:. as it were. 436-442." Montgaillard. a circumambient element round the different It is rare. instead of the old grim Tappe-durs of Robespierre." with elegant anti" the hair plaited at the guillotinish specialty of collar temples. Junos. Behold also. " the onlookers are as it were mingled with the dancers form. an the smallest collision. with his splenetic that every fashioneye. she is as a flash of inch from mine she is off again light but soon the measure recalls her to the point she set out from. that a Sultana in such circumstances experiences Her pretty foot darts down. : . being the fashion. 153. every ? Mere pillows and stuffing adds the acrid man such in a time of depopulation by war and guillotine. . in military wise young men of what they call the Muscadin or Dandy species Freron. into Time. the same Mercier discerns Merveilleuses mere in " flesh-coloured drawers " with gold circlets dancing Houris of an artificial Mahomet's-Paradise much too Mahometan." continues he. . . such of them as were Victims.

moves and has his being in cloth " ? frolics. only Thermidorian ones. In the Theatre Feydeau. So goes it. when Sin had " lost all its deformity " (with or without advantage to us)." iii. in sacred right of insurrection. . by law of existence " a cloth-animal one that lives. with vigour. shall fare the worse. waltzing. that inexpressible tone of society known under the old Kings. .. and airy Nothing had obtained such a local habitation and establishment as she never had. "Considerations. or remnant of in an angry manner Jacobinism they may fall in with. even to this day. be recovered ? Or even. how petulant it is. think what an element. we beat down Jacobinism with shall be permitted here clubs loaded with lead. : superfine collars ruthlessly repressed 'ware now the base Red Nightcaps who did it Fair Cabarus and the Army of Greek sandals smile approval. we hear. Ii [Year 2-3 any Tappe-dur. . struggling to recivilise mankind. cessfully. What utmost Republican grimness can resist Greek sandals. new-politeness rises whether. : ! : ! . by Orphic Not unsucwitchery.. whether it be not lost beyond recovery ? ^ Either way the world must contrive to struggle on. c. habilatory. young Valour in square-tailed coat eyes Beauty in Greek sandals. especially in the gregarious state. Mercier {ubi supra). bickering fair Cabarus. in Ionic motion. — — ^ * De Montgaillard. ! 348 VENDEMIAIRE : [bk. . etc. the very toes covered with gold rings ? ^ By degrees the indisputablest And yet. But let any one who has examined the Dandy nature. as Death and or measure Night. 1 . ch. Stael. lo. and No Down with Jacobinism kindles by her glances Jacobin hymn or demonstration. this war without truce Broils and battery Gilt Youth was Hateful is Sansculottism. They have suffered much their friends guillotined : their pleasures. For indeed is not the Dandy culottic. vii. grows.

. Cimmerian ment she had.000 men under arms. v." frt-zV«-ing. it has flown victorious.000 men. c. Gros (" Le Comite de Salut Public. 194). far is Cimmeria hurled back from the sacred Motherland. c.000 was probably the outside limit reached. they rose. abhorrent of her Guillotine. Jeunesse Doree in semi-miHtary costume betoken. [The Convention had decreed that each army (there were really only thirteen. if there ever was. volleying and thousand. " Seventeen-hundred Like a ring of lightning. 235236) reckons that 750. And with cause. do not these long-flowing hair-queues of BUT.. — fighters on foot. This was found utterly impossible.] . begirdle her from shore to shore." this Republic : " at one particular mo- or supposed she had. of the Republic. For surely." ^ * Toulongeon.. even if the Army of the Interior be included) should comprise 100." pp. . Northward along the Rhinevalley. Fierce as fire. 7. to deliver her from Slavery and Cimmeria. At no time were 800. as it is in its season and be with the vulgar of men.1794-95] Year 2-3] QUIBERON 349 CHAPTER QUIBERON III indeed. 10 (p. if good fighting be a kind of honour. even the chief kind of honour then here is good These Sons fighting. another still more important tendency? The Republic. over cannon-batteries. in good season. She has " Eleven hundred-thousand . they have carried her Triover scarped color over the faces of all her enemies heights. —Ed. through gorges of Pyrenees. di unconsciously. in mad wrath. they. iii. through Low Countries. And have they not done it ? Through Maritime Alps. winged with rage. loves her Army.

. like a demon-host. this hard winter. scorching all things and. smitten with astonishment and strange pangs. is a romance. and that they peacefully handed over the fleet to the French. we say. The "fraternising" ceased when the Dutch found that by the Treaty of The Hague (May i6th.000. it is begun. mess-room moralities and the drummer's cat However. your fighters animated only by drillsergeants. who have had to clutch Generalship out of the cannon's throat. ! . And even so it will blaze and run. from Cadiz to Archangel. Such a fire is in these Gaelic Republican men highblazing. Ed. led on by some " armed Soldier of Democracy " (say. . They have bread." See Pichegru's soldiers. " Compensations" were promised in the future. a Pichegru. The Dutch official . and will not end not for a matter . for the moment. ! : . the ice having bridged all waters and rush shouting from victory to Ships in the Texel are taken by hussars on victory horseback fled is York fled is the Stadtholder. 1795 (Montgaillard. such a fire have ye kindled yourselves fireless. in their looped and windowed destitution. a Hoche lead them on. hi [Year 2-3 Coalition of Despots recoils. and will set its foot cruelly on the necks of its enemies its shouting and their shrieking shall fill the world Rash Coalised Kings. — . they have iron " with bread and iron you can get to China. vii.] * January 19th. with four degrees of nobility but ci-devant Sergeants. 287-311). . that monosyllabic Artillery-Officer). . 1795) their newly-constituted Batavian Republic had to cede to its liberators all the land south of the Meuse (except Zealand). glad to escape to England. in their " straw-rope shoes and cloaks of bast-mat. a Jourdan. ch. mad Sansculottism. blazes in this People.000 men for service against England and to pay to France a war indemnity of 100. : [This episode records prove that the democrats were then in power in Holland. .— 350 — ! VENDEMIAIRE [bk. iv. like the conflagration of grass and dry-jungle which no mortal can withstand. to give up all control over the navigation of the Scheldt to furnish France with thirty ships-ofwar and 25. whichnoCoalitioncan withstand! Notscutcheons. . — ." how they overrun Holland.000 florins.' Such a Gaelic fire. and leave Holland to fraternise. drilled now into Soldiership.

( /sJ .%.

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this Gaelic fire. In the spring of the year. British subsidies had Httle influence on Austria's though she struggled hard to get them.^ hesitate. x. suspending his Habeas-corpus. suspending spite of foreign his Cash-payments. iv. ^ [Incorrect. Leibnitzes. — ! ." say it was not for the last time they saw him there? The Elector of Mentz circulates among his brother Potentates this pertinent query. "Fr. : ! . xii. Racines. stands inflexible.. no for a man. namely and be swallowed up.— 1794-95] Year 2-3] — — 35^ QUIBERON So long. Laplaces. policy. in July. but then or even of anthracite coal which no known thing will put out.). . will less remain the same unity of a man. through its of twenty years. on the other hand. iv. is our Europe that has both kinds But be this as it may.] bk. will blaze over the face of Europe. ShakHow happy speares." bk. Mentz Town again sees itself besieged will again change master did not Merlin the Thionviller. whoever refuses. but in innumerable Voltaires. the Republic is clearly triumphing. " with wild beard and look. successive changes of colour and character. reverses spite of domestic obstacles. — . Austria hesitates As to Pitt. is preferable for smelting metals. being subsidised by Pitt. — . : . he. . Rev. in every conceivable sense. as we see in Luthers. or sing. only. ! . When assured of Russian and support. difficult to kindle. 1795. or think. The ready Gaelic and remark not in Pichegrus fire. . whether he fight. . But. and afflict and scorch all men till it kindle another kind of fire. The Teutonic anthracite again. so to speak.. The Hapsburgs were anxious to continue the war with France. Austria's policy turned on the Polish Question. till it provoke all men the Teutonic kind. is admirable for roasting eggs. Were it not advisable to treat of Peace ? Yes answers many an Elector from the bottom of his finally heart. England and Russia Ed. high-blazing and another fire which we liken to the burning of coal. of Scotch National : . (Sybel.. we can remark farther. in a day For there is a fire comparable to the burning of dry-jungle and grass most sudden. chap. if Russia supported them against Prussia in the matter of the Third Partition. they pushed on the war on the Rhine a Triple Alliance was formed by Austria. Their proposals of peace to France were merely formal. chap.

to hang. The Chouans (Chat-huans. 319). whom he is obliged to arraign. The Majesty of Spain. [See note on p. 1795). 1795 (Montgaillard. limb after limb of the Revolt is brought under. . . Georges Cadoudal. It has cost. or even to see acquitted with jubilee a lean inflexible man. .] . vh." vols.e. . when disorders began. ch. i. makes Peace also the Majesty of Prussia and there is a Treaty of Bale. . Likewise. " .^ owls) of Brittany gave in for the most part about the same time. what help ? You cannot hang this Anarchy it is like to hang you you must needs treat with it. last of our Nobles. by sagacity and industry. " La two light columns through the west. This is the La Vendee War. But Hoche saw that peace would not last long. [Charette first came to terms. marched thirtySee Cretineau-Joly. " Memoires " of Gen. it does burst-up once more.— 352 VENDEMIAIRE [bk. which defy arithmetic. — ^ April 5th. as we predicted. the lives of a Hundredthousand fellow-mortals with noyadings. hi [Year 2-3 Conventions and English Friends of the People. Ed. General Hoche has even succeeded in pacificating La Vendee. and iii. by our Ci-devant once only Puisaye of Calvados.^ Nay in few months. English ships will ride in Quiberon roads. conflagratings by infernal column. Florent. and acknowledged the Republic. : . La Rochejacquelin. cutting down the resistive. but blown upon by Pitt. Vendee militaire. In the month of July There 1795. Taking " Movable Columns. . : . i. fell in battle Stofflet himself makes terms Georges-Cadoudal is back to Brittany. : ! . and. D'Andigne. de Cadoudal. among his Chouans the frightful gangrene of La Vendee seems veritably extirpated. General Hoche has done it.^ Treaty with black Anarchists and Regicides Alas. : ." not infernal girdling-in the Country pardoning the submissive. Rogue Rossignol and his " Infernal Columns" have vanished: by firmness and justice. by Stofflet continued the Peace of La Jaunais (February i8th. vol. the struggle until May 2nd." par M. when he agreed to the Peace of St. iv." by G. —Ed.] - Vauban " Histoire de la Guerre de la Vendee. le Comte de " Memoires de Madame de la Rochejacquelin. as they reckon in round numbers. and others." etc. 281. ii.

" iii. who just then wished to clear himself of charges of royalism. Charette then ordered an equal number of republican prisoners to be shot and the war went on for months. If all wars. and then sailed away (November. — ! . but loitered off the coast Ed. on the Republican side. I795).^ Again. . hides her woes from History the elder son perishes here shot by military tribunal as an Emigrant Hoche himself cannot save him. " Mdmoires. . ProPrisoners-of-war eager to desert clamations. ^ " Deux Amis. Royalists and specie. . clothes-chests. what a thing must right-understanding be — . it has cost the lives of many a brave man. : . civil and other. are misunderstandings. Whereupon also. AA . a Ci-devant Puisaye with wreck and wail as totally ineffectual here as he was in Calvados. The Comte d'Artois sailed from England with another force. .] of Brittany. : . in one word.-vii. not to Hoche. This was due. 94-106." xiv. Puisaye. there will be rapid stand-to-arms with ambuscade marchings by Quiberon beach. at midnight storming of Fort Penthievre warthunder mingling with the roar of the nightly main and such a morning light as has seldom dawned debarkation hurled back into its boats. III. therefore. Ill-fated family younger son went to the guillotine the heroic daughter languishes. but to the Commissioner Tallien. [The triumph of the republicans was disgraced by the slaughter of some 600 prisoners in cold blood. when he rode from Vernon Castle without boots. of volunteer of fire-arms. . reduced to want. who was pursuing the Vendeans. or into the devouring billows.! — 353 1794-95] Year 2-3] QUIBERON will be debarkation of chivalrous Ci-devants. Among whom the whole world laments the brave The father and Son of Sombreuil.

flinging out Mirabeau to make room for him. . p. how we veer and whirl." vol." du 25 Septembre 1794. and scud before the wind. to satisfy the rabble. 522). burned his effigy and threw the ashes into the sewer of Montmartre. 1795. 1793. we. on the other hand. de la Terreur. one hand. — : ! . " Hist. vii. in such a velocity. for the transference of the remains of Marat to the Pantheon.-Genevieve (Mortimer-Ternaux.] — .^ the Cesspool of his Chapel from the Place du Carrousel Montmartre will receive his very dust. ch. His remains were expelled from the Pantheon after the decree of February 8th. and driven by the strong wind of PubHc Opinion towards Clemency and Luxury. : ^ " Moniteur. that Marat's body was thus treated. iv [Year 2-3 CHAPTER IV LION NOT DEAD THE wards Convention. we re-admit the Protesting Seventy-three. and were buried close by the church of Ste. To no purpose so A Gilt Youthhood. du 4 Fevrier 1795. Curious to see. viii. This gave rise to the story. was not carried out till September 21st. borne on the tide of Fortune toforeign Victory. 1794 a sop thrown by the Thermidorians The jeunesse doree on January 21st. agree to consummate the Apotheosis of Marat lift his body from the Cordeliers Church. all skill of pilotage is needed. in strong blows Public Opinion plaited hair-tresses. into the Cesspool of Montmartre. yet must ever If. and transport it to the Pantheon of Great Men. Ed. tears down his busts from the Theatre Feydeau tramples them under foot scatters them. 1795. and more is rushing fast than all. .. with Swept is vociferation. . Shorter godhood had no divine man. followed by Carlyle. [The decree of the Convention of November 25th.— 354 VENDEMIAIRE [bk. on the whirl round again. Some four months in this Pantheon.

with jingle The female Jacobins. that the Constitution of Ninety-three will never come into action. arose in the Palais-Egalite between cries of " Down Tappe-d7irs and the Gilt Youthhood meaning scouncoquin with the Jacobins. of " suspending the Jacobin it is in Allhallow-time. Twice were Billaud. or on Hark. means by the awakening of the lion ? And bickerings. . famed Tricoteuses and execration with knitting-needles. — The Sally out. ! . but empty gums. disaster and confusion. When will the Con! ! stitution of Ninety-three. where now are the Jacobins ? Childless. it was not voted calumnious. by a Lecointre. there Sessions. come into action? Considerate heads surmise. sad eve for Jacobinism. volley of stones dashing through our windows. year once named of Grace 1794. cotillons retrousses . again. Billaud from the Jacobin tribune says. Or. as we saw. Let them busy themselves to get ready a better. " The lion is not dead he is only sleeping. the Jacoquins" The Tribune in mid-air gave battle-sound andrel swered only by silence and uncertain gasps. What he . against a traitorous Thermidorian Convention and the current of things. So that armed Authority has to intervene and again on the morrow to intervene and suspend the ! . by a Legendre and the second time. the Hallow-eve itself." four to one time amounted of All the Immortals and Cloaca of the World. flouted. sat the mighty Mother gnashing not teeth. " in Government Committees. take flight are met at the doors by a Gilt Youthhood and " mob of four thousand perfustigated in a are hooted. in all privacy." They ask him in Convention. hustled sons " and vanish in scandalous manner. 355 Temple of All the Immortals then to the Cesspool. . of 1793. month ci-devant November. Collot and Company accused in Convention. how are poor human creatures whirled Furthermore the question arises. " His Busts at grand Cloaca of Paris and the World Temple Between thousand. . ! — ! . Talk was. . . most decrepit.— : 1794-95] Year 2-3] LION NOT DEAD . . of an extensive sort. ye male Jacobins mere hysterics. . male Jacobins sally out but only to battle.

to a Hackney-coachman. the gold louis. shackled. long sinking. : : Maximum . effulgence of recivilisation. vii. 1795. so to speak. in Paper-money. can for the present take no course at all but only reel and stagger. "Deux Amis. into a Market of Saint-Honor^. ii. where is now peaceable chaffering for poultry and greens. " Two ounces of bread per day " is the modicum allotted wide-waving. and we parading. iv. Assignats. and Balls in flesh-coloured Greek tunics and sandals hosts of Muscadins drawers. xii. ! as Dreams are made of? being abrogated.' Pressure of Maximum withdrawn. ." of 20 francs in silver. . the first of the kind seen it then vanishes into a " Market of Thermidor Ninth". as low as 2 1 percent. the things it compressed likewise withdraw. doleful are the Bakers' Queues Farmers' houses are become pawnbrokers' shops. One can imagine. — "Moniteur. [The Jacobin Club did not perish. — . 7 P^^ cent. chap. Whoever possessed ready money could then buy up the national domains at five years' purchase.. Trade was to take its own Alas. emitted in such quantities. with what humour Sansculottism growled in its throat "Z« Cabarus" beheld Ci-devants return dancing.] «l ." Stances du 10-12 Novembre 1794. 419.). . we and this world of ours. " sink now with an alacrity beyond parallel." Montgaillard. in these circumstances. . in proportion to money was in May.. 1795. Trade. (" ist February 1796: at the Bourse of Paris. the Thermidor . There is. iv [Year 3 VENDEMIAIRE Jacobin Sessions forever and a day} Gone are the Jacobins into invisibility in a storm of laughter and howls. Ed. ch. Their Place is made a Normal School. 94.) [The normal vaXue." answered he pounds sterling. The solemn temples.— 356 — [bk. " Combien ? " " " Six said one. the great globe itself the baseless fabric Are not we such stuff. What fare ? some three hundred thousand livres. no Trade whatever for the time being. Large fortunes were thus made (Sybel.'" After the coup 43-49. topsyturvied in the free course. and in August.] * Mercier. . ii. " costs 5. bk. and now suddenly let-go again.300 francs in assignats. oi assignats ^ xiii. d'etat of Fructidor (1797) it was revived for nearly two years. and showed great activity. with their clubs loaded with lead . Ed. way we saw.

once again." vii. 4. The lion is dead . not. : ^ Fantin Desodoards. Pichegru. : . Our Collot. Collot and Com- Germinal (which ! . bread. in one day so to speak. Conqueror of Holland. no Constitution. how lively are these streets of Paris once more Floods of hungry women. in these last days of March 1795. disturbance end. "Bread. ends it. c. ! '' ! . I. who are of the money-changing species these and Gilt Youthhood fly to the rescue sweep chaos forth Paris is declared "in a again. old Filles SaintThomas. . ! . our Billaud. . I79S] LION NOT DEAD 357 . are found worthy of Deportation. accordingly. with levelled bayonets. for Bread and a Constitution. with unalterable countenance. He accomplishes the transfer of Billaud. . The Convention. " picking offals from the street " agitating in Baker's Queue for our two ounces of bread! Will the Jacobin lionrvvhich they say is meeting secretly " at the Archevech^. . Bread." happens to be here. unhappy People. cast out. in bonnet rouge with loaded pistols. pain. of Banishment beyond seas and shall. there is yet. like the Ocean-tide is flowing towards the Tuileries. till the He. for the present. " Bread " and the Constitution Unhappy Senators. with what thought one knows not. Tuileries Sentries do their best but it serves not the Ocean-tide sweeps them away inundates the Convention Hall itself howling. APRIL Germ. Barrere. after Du all toils and broils. is named Commandant. . not bursts of Parliamentary eloquence " so wailed the Menads of Maillard. no Bread. on the day they call Twelfth of is also called First of April.'. and the Constitution of Ninety-three " Paris has risen. " Histoire de la Revolution. five years ago and more so wail ye to this hour. pas tant de longs discours. who state of siege. of squalid hungry men ejaculating. 12] here. be trundled off to the Castle of Ham. not a lucky day). — or writhing in death-throes ! Behold. keeps its seat in this rings its storm-bell from the waste howling chaos Pavilion of Unity. Section Lepelletier." not awaken ? Seemingly. Vadier. abhorred.

(June 8th. has passed. vol. and many others perished in the south." blank cannon-shots. To stop these excesses the powers of the Committee of Public Safety were extended. chap. The stories of the rescue of Louis XVII. This was a blow to the royalists. This Revolt of Germinal. ch. . 1795. 1795) owing to the filth and darkness in which the Committee of General Security kept him of set purpose. therefore. the fleshis called a Plot of Pitt coloured Drawers gyrate as before.] . ^ lays down his Commandantship. shedding our blood like water? Expressive Silence. were arrested by order of the Convention. Lecointre and Thuriot. xii. ii. Fr.. your decrees are executed. with its misery. In May-June the men of Lyons and Marseilles massacred some 200 Terrorists. . opposition " by two cannon-shots. vii. " La Rev.— 358 — [bk. has vanished. not retire to our dark dens for us our cry of hunger the Saloons glitter. For that theory see Louis Blanc. announcing. and her Mitscadms and Money-changers that we fought ? It was for Balls in flesh-coloured drawers that we took Feudalism by the beard. with a Laconicism which should be imitated. [Other chiefs of the Mountain." pany dissipating all . who cared little for the next claimant to the throne. Legislation seems to have got bayonets Section Lepelletier takes its firelock. " Representatives. swept forth with bayonets. like a vain cry." also several perversely ingenious monographs. as Cambon. The royalist reaction was further checked by the death of the little Louis XVII. to the bottom of SaintAntoine and Saint-Marceau.. ." Time was when Usher Maillard with Menads could alter the course of Legislation but that time is not. The Prisoners rest safe in Ham. . and did and dared. muse thou ' their praise ! " Moniteur. Ed." Seance du 13 Germinal (2d April). waiting for ships some nine-hundred " chief Terrorists of Paris " are disarmed. Sansculottism. ! We . — . and the terror of his name and thereupon. the Comte de Provence. It was for " The Cabai'us" then. and the substitution of an idiot boy are very far-fetched. iv [Year 3 VENDEMIAIRE .

^ In the early days of May. The Revolutionary Tribunal. of the venatory Attorney-spirit and lo. Let there be an Incarnation. this was which keeps its eye on the bond only it and they have attorneyed it in its turn. as Anarchic things do. . Fouquier died hard enough " Where are thy Batches?" howled the people. which hunt ravenous on this Earth.— 1795] Year 3] LION SPRAWLING ITS LAST 359 CHAPTER V LION SPRAWLING ITS LAST REPRESENTATIVE CARRIER Guillotine. thou rat-eyed Incarnation of Attorneyism. then. not divine. Ed. and too hungry sons of : . men see a remarkable thing Fouquier-Tinville pleading at the Bar once his own. has now only. For the rest. ' [It was abolished shortly after the revolt of the ist Prairial. wanting them ? Remarkable Fouquier once but as other Attorneys and Law-beagles. Thus men break the axe with which they have done hateful things the axe itself having grown hateful. in . went to the December last protesting that he acted by orders. heroi A t^^us^pleading TentJi. : . Vanish. a Batch of Sixteen hard. ! . in this terreslived and hunted in the Upper Air trial Course of Time. protesting that they acted by orders but pleading in vain. — . — . "Hungry canaille'. a well-known phasis of human nature and now thou art and remainest the most remarkable Attorney that ever For. after all it has devoured.] . He and his chief Jurymen. who at bottom wert but as other Attorneys. there was to be an Avatar of Attorneyism the Heavens had said. to devour itself. " is thy Bread cheaper. : . Juryman Vilate.' " asked Fouquier.

: ." Moniteur. upon. now sunk in trough of the sea. is handed over to the ordinary Law Courts. is not a poor National Convention hard bested ? It is like the settlement of winds and waters. . in its vengeance. 292-293. is all that remains of him. vii. du 31 Aout. Now flung aloft. from his Prison. will not wait the slow process of Law but bursts into the Prisons. an ingenious Book.— 36o ! VENDEMIAIRE [bk. Aristocratisms to worship Reason and dig Saltpetre to fight Titanically with itself and with the whole world.] . Reprdsentants en Mission." full of lies. A * [Lebon was only thirty years of age. of and goes on with jumble and seas long tornado-beaten with jangle. " Les Ed." " Companies of the Sun " slaying Jacobinism wherever they meet with it flinging it into the Rhone-stream which once more bears seaward a horrid cargo. . . Jacobinism rises in revolt and is like hang the National Representatives." xiii. . . What Parliament that ever sat under the Moon had such a series of destinies as this National Convention of France? It came together to make the Constitution. Representative Lebon. See Wallon.. pp. your Vessel of the Republic has need of all pilotage and more. that he had assaulted young girls. sets fire to the Prisons burns some threescore imprisoned Jacobins to dire death. . With such action and reaction. v. to — . at Toulon. not unknown to us but it would not stead he also had to vanish and this his Book of the " Secret Causes of Thermidor. 1795 121-129. after long struggling. and published. : : ." du 27 Juin. . and instead of that it has had to make nothing but destruction and confusion to burn-up Catholicisms.' Where. "Deux Amis. with particles of truth in it undiscoverable otherwise. ch. resuscitated guillotined. or chokes them " with the smoke of straw. and by them Nay at Lyons and elsewhere. . v [Year 3 Adam Juryman Vilate had striven hard for life. for a sentence formerly passed on The evidence showed and had executed z-jitge de paix him (Lebon).' Moderatism. ." There go vengeful truculent " Companies of Jesus. Revolutionary Tribunal has done but vengeance has not done." vol.

these six weeks moaning. 20th of May . in the Pandemonial Midnight. . neither bottom nor shore. where is neither path nor landmark. in baths. in secret conclave under ground. Has it not heard the chimes at midnight? It has deliberated. in singularity of position. . It has been betocsined. Jacobins disarmed. . beset by a Hundred-thousand armed men with artillery-furnaces and provision-carts. selves. saying. For. : . . and which has congealed which has been red with rage. Awake. it has perhaps but in not far surpassed the average of Parliaments . on the First day of the month Prairial. : Lo therefore. and answering his dirge-voice by a dubious gasp. or at its fellow. Egalite's dames in tricolor drink lemonade. must needs try to help them. . There it has lain moaning. bestormed overflooded by black deluges of Sansculottism and has heard the shrill cry. frankness of purpose. fidelity. In intrinsic valour. Revolt of Germinal Twelfth ended as a vain cry moribund Sansculottism was swept back into invisibility. it was the nucleus of Chaos it sat as the centre of Sansculottism and had spread its pavilion on the waste Deep. A Convention which has effervesced. O France. as we say. it seeks One other Sansculottic submersion. flung forth from their Tribune in mid-air. . . stabbed at. Assassinated. seen Carmagnoles danced before it. and also scheming. ingenuity. : . and smite the tyrants now frozen mute under its Robespierre.1795] Year 3] LION SPRAWLING ITS LAST . and patriotic strophes sung amid Church-spoils the wounded of the Tenth of August defile in handbarrows and. . and spectrum of Sieyes mount. drawing sword (in a moment of effervescence) now storming to the four winds. most two. through a Danton-voice. 361 above the Convention decimated by the Guillotine Which has tenth man has bowed his neck to the axe. and general force and manhood. and this wearied vessel of a Convention reaches land. decimated on streets and staircases which has been the nucleus of Chaos. Deatli sans phrase. Bread and Soap. and also pale with rage sitting with pistols in its pocket. shot at.

with unfruitful brine. yet again. considering this. — . and also considering that. . : . : : . sounding under the axe of Saint-Antoine plaster-work crackles. And so the Barriers are seized. once more Women are driven out firelocks . . to our Order of the Day. they. drum-music astonishment to eye and ear. ch. ! . with Rag-standards. . What a day. v [V'ear 3 beating sharp 1 795) sound of the gmerale once more. They have their pikes. choke all corridors. wood-work booms and jingles door starts up bursts-in Saint-Antoine with frenzy and vociferation. ." so sounds it so stands it written with chalk on the hats of men. : . and the gena^ale beats." Report has risen that the " Convention is assassinating the women " crushing and rushing. . Black deluges overflow the Tuileries spite of sentries. clangor and furor The oak doors have become as oak tambourines. Deputies. ! men storm all irresistibly in . To arms. drawn-up in quite official manner. printed Proclamation. conjure. Saint-Antoine rages. : 362 VENDEMIAIRE ! [bk. wailing. putting forth head. baring his bosom scarred in the Spanish wars. near to swamping. Paper of Grievances standards printed Proclamation. " Bread and Constitution. the Sanctuary itself is invaded: enter. Obtesting Deputies obtest vainly Respect approach not the President the President Deputy Feraud. stretching out his hands.! . — . their . a muchenduring Sovereign People. as the unfruitful Sea. loyal Sectioners charge through the other door they are recharged musketry exploding Saint-Antoine cannot be expelled. from its deathlair waste. To arms Sansculottism has risen. . thunder at gates. a torrent of dishevelled women. obtests vainly threatens and resists vainly. and tocsins discourse discord. vii. ."Bread! Bread!" President may well cover himself and have his own tocsin rung in " the Pavilion of Unity " the ship of the State again labours and leaks overwashed. . obtest. Gendarmes. Rebellious Deputy of the Sovereign. . ran-tan. Saint" Bread and Antoine is afoot the Constitution of Ninety-three. wild-flowing. are in Insurrection will have Bread and the Constitution of Ninety-three. .

.P^ l' %.ir^T^i^lS* 1 * -i^-^ ^-i ^''^iP^i it •s /"C' .

.

Ballot-Box. he yields not Feraud's bloody head to him. ! : . . And so it billows free through all Corridors within and without. read its Paper of Grievances. did an unexit ampled Convention want this variety of destiny. they hold up level muskets at him. Vernier. like sphere-music. the Paper of Grievances cannot get itself read for uproar and the drums roll. i] have no thou have fought. : . or other miraculous Political Ark of the Covenant to do for you to the end of the world I also demand arrestment of the Knaves and Dastards. : . Such a game has begun Paris and the Earth may wait how it will end. . and the throats bawl and Insurrection. wrath waxing to see they drag him into the corridor. . wrote several literary and political works.. to this hour. . then? Feraud's bloody head goes on a pike. with grave stern air he ! We . and fix it on a pike. who was acting as deputy in place of the infirm President. He was named a Senator by Napoleon. . President Boissy and the great Deep broken loose d'Anglas' sits like a rock the rest of the Convention is Sectioners and Genfloated " to the upper benches " darmes still ranking there to form a kind of wall for And Insurrection rages rolls its drums will them. ^ [Boissy d'Anglas (1756-1826)." " Je deniande V arrestation des coqiiins et des laches^ Really one of the most comprehensive Petitions ever put up which indeed. : And . bows to it. will have this decreed. far as the eye reaches. too. Covered sits President Boissy unyielding They menace him. and a Count by Louis XVIII. Decree us that. RottenBorough.] . is inaudible for very Decree us this. like a rock in the beating of seas. One man we noise discern bawling " for the space of an hour at all intervals. and yields not. Ed. have not we too ? They wrench poor F^raud Bread. Ah. . will have that. 1795] ! LION SPRAWLING ITS LAST 363 Prair. was one of the chief men of the " Plain " in the Convention. . nothing but Bedlam. no Constitution they tumble him. includes all that you can reasonably ask Constitution of the Year One. dead or near itself work sever his head.— MAY if 20. and a member of the Committee of Public Safety after Thermidor. trample him.

: remnant of the Mountain-crest. them now or never let them descend. there remain hardly more than some Sixty Members mere friends. or even secret and nothing more whatever. . far into the depths of Saint-Antoine. Money-changer Sections and Gilt Youth sweep them forth. the work of months in hours. Goujon. Ruhl. what will awaken the dormant lion. lies sprawling sprawling its last. About four in the afternoon. . with levelled bayonets. and Gilt Youth. that Sansculottism may escape fast enough. Tramp. — . and the rest. : . what will cheapen bread. Fast enough now comes Decree after Decree. grown heartless. 129-146. but roll back. ch. but rush back. Sansculottism. deluged with black Sansculottism. ^ " Deux Amis. or strophe and antistrophe. . in alternate brief strains. glides out for help elsewhere. when Fast enough a Figure enters. Sansculottism shouts " Decreed. vii. these Sixty. : ! : ! . Ruhl of the Sacred Phial. see. with steel besom. Duquesnoy.^ resupine. some thirteen Permanent-session ends at in all. for safety elsewhere here is no help. whom in the lamp-light we recognise and utters words fit to be hissed out to be Legendre And then see. . held in Now is the time for silence by Thermidorian thraldom. And at every new decree. dark. v [Years National Representation. Glad Sansculottism Romme takes the President's forms a ring for them chair they begin resolving and decreeing. Soubrany. worn down with long riot." xiii. a ! . and speak They Romme descend. — . decreed " and leaders . — ! rolls its drums. countenances screwed to the sticking-place tramp. once more flung three in the morning. Section Lepelletier or other Muscadin Section enters. hungry. Triumph The Decrees of that Sixty are not so much once more they are declared null and non-extant as rescinded Romme. and escape who can ? The very windows need to be thrown up. invited by Sansculottism of the New Calendar. with bayonets gleaming in the lamp-light what can one do. Goujon and the ringleaders. .! ^564 VENDEMIAIRE [bk. are decreed Accused.

20th of May 1795. v. Second and Third of Prairial. — . along with cannon. passed it to his neighbour Romme and fell dead. . old Ruhl shot a pistol through dashed his life in pieces.— MAY Prair. during which Sansculottism still sprawled. and now near to Guillotine and Place de Greve. availed Sansculottism nothing. pose. Santerre even advising it. and assembled in arms. taken with red hand. threatened to bombard St. i. " MtisBlood-drinkers. some thirtythousand men. The Convention then ordered all pikes to be given up everywhere.000 horsemen. 245." cadins" against Feraud's Assassin. Buveurs de Sang. . over in the East Out of Law ? What though we rank in arms and march ? Armed Force and Muscadin Sections. Romme did the like and another ail-but did it Roman-death rushing on there. Romme. What though with our Rommes and Ruhls. to seek him nay to disarm SaintAnd they do disarm it by rolling of cannon. a knife. [On the Convention temporised with the " Convention of the Sovereign People" sitting at the Town Hall.] 1795] LION SPRAWLING ITS LAST 365 Such was the First of Prairial. Antoine. : . Saint-Antoine surrenders its and terror of the Law. chap. 244. anxious for life and arms Feraud's Assassin flings himself from a brewhouse. Goujon drew Military Tribunal. xii. Ed. environ that old False Convention we can but bully one another bandying nicknames. Goujon and the others stand ranked before a swiftly-appointed. we make a new " True National Convenand put the others tion " of our own." Nos.^ Discerning which things. 297 " Moniteur. swift Hearing the sentence. bk. . ! : . high roof: and all is lost. accused but not yet arrested. 246. and sent for When these arrived. they 3. Antoine by springing upon enemy's cannon by military audacity. For the Jacobin revolt in Toulon (May I7th-3ist) see Sybel. which gave in on the night of the 3rd..] ^ Toulongeon. *' : . . and expelled sansculottes from the National Guard. and unexpectedly rang its tocsin. and sentenced. is reto no purtaken is carried back into Saint-Antoine Convention Sectionaries and Gilt Youth come. as he had his old white head done the sacred Phial of Rheims. . . struck it into his breast. . 2nd Prairial the . according to Decree.

. CoUot and Company are now ordered to be tried for life but are found to be already off. Collot. before your Bailiffs could intervene The Guillotine had the rest.! 366 VENDEMIAIRE [bk. . They were the Ulthni Romanorum. any hoof may smite him. There let Billaud surround himself with flocks of tame parrots Collot take the yellow fever. burn up his entrails. shipped for Sinamarri. vii. ." §§ Billaud. Billaud. [Year v 3 as in electric-chain. ' " Dictionnaire des Hommes Marquans. . ch. The dormant lion has become a dead one and now. as we see. and the hot mud of Surinam. and drinking a whole bottle of brandy.^ Sansculottism sprawls no more.

. founds on garnitures. Sansculottism is dead extinguished by new isms of that kind. and. : — ! — ^ [The customs of theei7ig and thoumg in talk. SO dies Sansculottism. . formulas. as is the way of cunning Time with his Newtill. it embrace the Births For the wise man may now whole circuit of the world everywhere discern that he must found on his manhood. with such deafenis .] . Its ragged Pythian Carmagnole-dance has transformed itself into a Pyrrhic. in some perfected shape. He who. through one bodily shape into another less amorphous. died out the name Place de la Revolution was altered to Place de la Concorde the laws against the public celebration of divine worship were repealed and the Coniite' de Legislation was allowed to strike names from the lists oi emigres^ crowds of whom began to return to France. culottisms of what sort soever.— 1795] Year ^] GRILLED HERRINGS 367 CHAPTER VI GRILLED HERRINGS changed. in these Epochs of our Europe. . is founding on old cloth and sheepskin. that only after some half-century or so does one begin to learn clearly why it ever was alive. . one : . that is dead and buried.^ And yet a meaning lay in it Sansculottism verily was alive. Ed. and wearing the Phrygian cap. But as for the body of Sansculottism. the body of Sansculottism . or ing jubilation and disharmony of funeral-knell on their part. The soul of it still lives still works far and wide. and is not dead but changed. we may say. into a dance of Cabarus Balls. . a New-Birth of Time nay it still lives. not on the garnitures of his manhood. and cannot endure. which were its own natural progeny and is buried.

1793. the third soul of whom had not. fusilladed. who. did. noyaded. publish Lists of what the Reign of Terror had perpetrated The Lists. .Law Commission. could rush at once to the It One : — : . . I'Abbe and studies Cocker to small purpose. feels bound that starvation to consider that starvation is starvation from age to age presupposes much History ventures to assert that the French Sansculotte of Ninety-three. and several other places Probably at Nantes alone not fewer than 5. ch. How many persons thinks the Reader ? Two-thousand all but a few.231 (Wallon. VENDEMIAIRE another thousand years. as many third-rate potatoes as would sustain him?^ History. I'Abbe some ten times as many shot rightly on a field of battle." Appendices to the six vols. need not reappear. By which Seven-Years War. for was the frightfulest thing ever born of Time? of the frightfulest. were not complete." 1836.— 368 .Victory with Te-Deitm. It is not far from the two-hundredth part of what perished in the entire Seven-Years War. [The number of those condemned to death by the Revolutionary Tribunal at Paris from April 15th. were executed. There were above Four-thousand. iv. " Hist du Trib. now grown Anti-jacobin. did not the great Fritz wrench Silesia from the great Theresa and a Pompadour. in that case. 1793. frontiers. It is a horrible sum of human lives. M. [bk. ^^^s c)nly 1. and die fighting for an immortal Hope and ^ Montgaillard. roused from long death-sleep. in primary amorphous shape. Ed.000 is not known. cries Montgaillard so many were guillotined. for thirty weeks each year. revolutionnaire de Paris. . stung by epigrams. They contain the names of. to June 9th. satisfy herself The head of that she could not be an Agnes Sorel? man is a strange vacant sounding-shell.). This Convention. : — ^ . and one might have had his Glorious. v [Year 3 hopes. 241. Lists of Persons Guillotined. vii.] " Report of the Irish Poor. done to dire death of whom Nine-hundred were women. But what if History somewhere on this Planet were to hear of a Nation. The totals of those who perished at Nantes. M. cries splenetic Abb6 Montgaillard. Lyons. with an eye to justify and fortify itself.

and made the world ring with that is the grand their wail. was this. had frozen him into a kind of torpor and numb callosity.. some assuagement or the crudest wretchedness of all ? Such things were such things are and they go on and Sansculottisms follow them. for these soon die they are the . . squalor and winged — . but in the spring of that year the rations doled out by the Paris municipality to the poor were half a pound of bread and half a pound of rice per head. beggar. looking back over this France through long times. chap. when dumb Drudgery staggered up to its King's Palace..1795] Year 3] GRILLED HERRINGS and his. Nay. adjiji. was but the had . raggedness. : . in which the general Twenty-five Millions of France suffered less than in this But it was period which they name Reign of Terror not the Dumb Millions that suffered here it was the Speaking Thousands. and Hundreds. : — . he not senses." confesses mournfully that there is no period to be met with. nay a soul? In his frozen darkbitter to ness. and in wide expanse of sallow faces. and tolls. ^ [This is very doubtful. 369 Faith of Deliverance for him j-^<r^«c/-miserablest of men ! The Irish Sans-potato. vii. in silence peaceably History. which in ducts. while British cruisers cut off colonial proIn the towns. convulsed by civil strifes. This prosperity began slowly to react on the towns after 1795. if that dreary Greenland-wind of benighted Want. Carlyle had stated (bk. for a creature so that he saw not. there was much distress. . therefore. a liar and a knave. B B .000 persons perished Most of these were peasants. iii. peasants began to prosper owing to their freedom from dues. In the provinces that were not its turn aggravated the Terror. The laws of Maximum had checked production in France. presented hieroglyphically its Petition of and for answer got hanged on a " new Grievances gallows forty feet high. it was bitter for him to die famishing It was bitter for him to be a see his children famish. the loud-speaking ones.— Ed.] in La Vendee and Brittany. back to Turgot's time for instance.) that about 100. then. III. — ! ' . and Units who shrieked and published. with a soul in it. felt not. tithes. perennial from sire to son. as they could and should The frightfulest Births of Time are never peculiarity.

in these summer evenings. has risen. and. the cook's gridiron hissing near by. To anarchic Republic of the Poverties there has succeeded orderly Republic of the Luxuries which will continue as long it can. sprinkled with shorn onions. indolent as Epicurus' gods. let us understand well what the first was and let Rich and Poor of us go and do otherwise. ch. hateful as Death. . for example. . far too moderate for the keenness of their appetite and the would seem. : . among the first gods of this lower world will sit on their glittering thrones. . — — . which can Hve from century to century Anarchy. Republic without Anarchy. with just sympathy and just antipathy. One's allotment of daily bread has sunk to an ounce and a half " Plates containing each three grilled herrings. Peace. with clear eye and open heart. and the pot simmering on a fire between two constones. But to our tale. have not we solved it? Law of Fraternity or Death is gone chimerical Obtain-wJio-need has become practical Hold-wJio-have. Wherefore let all men know what of depth and of and with fear and height is still revealed in man wonder. and lentils swimming in a clear sauce at these frugal tables. . in long sheds. On the Pont au Change. it . peace. is no peace. : at their feet. with the living Chaos of Ignorance and Hunger weltering uncared-for . I have seen them ranged by the hundred suming. has will rise not tanned their skins into breeches for itself? That there be no second Sansculottism in our Earth for a thousand years. . it when there and smooth Parasites preaching. on the Place de Greve. without bread. : — : . Mercier. it That " if the inference. vi [Year 3 silent ones. is abhorrent to the whole nature of man and so must itself soon die." then the dark Chaos. vii. contemplate it and appropriate This and draw innumerable inferences from it. O Heavens. wetted with a little vinegar to this add some morsel of boiled prunes. their scant messes.! ijyo •" VENDEMIAIRE [bk. saw working men at their repast. The Muscadin Sections greatly rejoice Cabarus Balls gyrate the well-nigh insoluble problem.

thy struggling and thy daring. of Earth and Tophet. : ^ " Nouveau Paris. discomfiting of Brunswicks. fronting of Principalities and Powers. O Man of Toil. these six long years of insurrection and tribulation. ii8." Seine water. it was for a Republic of the Cabarus Saloons ? Patience thou must have patience the end is not yet.1795] Year 3] GRILLED HERRINGS ^ 371 extent of their stomach. will supply the deficiency. — . . all that thou hast dared and endured. rushing plenteous by. O why was the Earth so beautiful. thou hast profited nothing by it. becrimsoned with dawn and twilight." iv. if man's dealings with man were to make it a vale of scarcity. of tears. in the blessed gold-red evening. not even soft tears ? Destroying of Bastilles. then ? Thou consumest thy herring and water.

Hast thou considered how Thought is stronger than Artillery-parks. that Pleasure is pleasant. and most other Evangels. becoming incredible. there is this advantage. we arrive It is the course at Aristocracy of the Moneybag. by a natural course. . Arisis Mammon ? . . vii [Year 3 CHAPTER VII THE WHIFF OF GRAPESHOT fact. or were it two thousand years) writes and unwrites Acts of models the World like Parliament. which ended in Reign of Terror. is Love and the wise head never yet was. that Loyalty to the Moneybag is a noble Loyalty? . travelling.Social is true or untrue. removes mountains Also how the beginning of all Thought. however. one may say inINevitable. Jacques. and (were it fifty years after death and martyrdom. vii. soft clay? worth the name. without first the generous heart? The Heavens cease not their bounty they send us generous hearts And now what generous heart into every generation. can pretend to itself. ch. it cannot continue. that. is arranging Evangel of Jeanitself into such composure as it can. . through which all European Societies are. In which. Apparently a still baser sort of Aristocracy ? An infinitely baser the basest yet known. at this hour.372 VENDEMIAIRE [bk. like Anarchy itself. what can be more natural. : tocracy of Feudal Parchment has passed away with a mighty rushing and now. what there for it but return to the old Evangel of Contrat. Brotherhood but money always will buy is Brotherhood or Death money's worth in the wreck of human dubitations. this remains indubitable. than even this ? Confused wreck of a Republic of the Poverties. as a Post-Sansculottic transitionary state. . . or be hoodwinked into believing.

these three years. ill-matched with despicability . that out of a world of Unwise nothing but an Unwisdom can be made. too much . . Meanwhile we will hate Anarchy as Death. . detestability. even of known In him what glory is there. sift it through ballot-boxes as thou wilt. that ye should worDevils. once announcing itself. it is and remains an Unwisdom. were it under the Soldier's Sword let there be Peace. constitution-build it. Arrange it. driven such a course by wild wind. and sacred right of Insurrection was blown away by gunpowder wherewith this singular eventful History called Freftch Revolu- Who And . which it and the things worse than Anarchy shall be hated is Surely Peace alone is fruitful. the new prey of new quacks and unclean things. the latter end of it slightly better than the begin. Not one. The Convention. Know this abilities also. To the . — : ! — . moistening its ounce-and-half of bread with tears and. sees all men weary of it and wishes heartily to finish. what can Anarchy do more ? Let there be Order. can bring a wise thing out of men unwise ? so Vacancy and general Abolition having come for this France. ! — . and steerage and non-steerage. cannot but glitter of such sort. . a burning up. dark without and within. carries _/?«/ 2ind p ereat in it. wide-spread Wretchedness. has become weary of its own existence. on that hand. and inane or foul cannot but ejaculate. : ! Generous hearts. wild tide. of Shams and Insupportstruction but which leaves Vacancy behind. on this hand. discerning. for all things here below. tion ends. is the basest of known Gods. .— 1795] Year 3] THE WHIFF OF GRAPESHOT cries the 373 all Mammon. announce Too much. say. not even terror at ship him ? No glory discernible best. that the bounty of the Heavens be not that what of Wisdom they do send us bring fruit spilt It remains to be seen how the quellers of in its season Sansculottism were themselves quelled. — ning. mere Balls in flesh-coloured drawers. O divine Mammon somewhat The voice of these. Anarchy is demore. generous heart out of ages and countries.

and the limit of ' : : A The former proposed for the Upper House was forty years. " Council of Anto that cients. The Active Citizen Electors shall for this time have free choice of only One-third of their National Assembly. Cloud. clause was that the mob would have in coercing two Chambers. admits much. Unsavoury as this appendix Townships. With Directory of Five ^ with Two good Chambers. and even refused to advise the former Committee its most active members were Boissy d'Anglas. Money-quaHfication for Electors nay Two Chambers. eschewing conclusion have we come that fatal self-denying ordinance of your Old Constituents. measures. VENDEMIAIRE : [bk. accept and ratify." No one under thirty years of age could sit in the Council of Five Hundred. of Two-thirds to be reelected. the . [Sieyes did not sit on the Committee of the Constitution he preferred to remain on the Committee of Pubhc Safety. and LanThe first drafted the report. Such enactment. double-majority of them nominated by Accept both. the latter passed or rejected them. : ." as well as " Council of Five-hundred " In a like spirit. he could claim to Safety. we append to our Constitution we submit our Constitution to the Townships of France. La ReveiUiere-Lepeaux. vii. be the lineal heir of that terrible Committee. ch. Daunou. and say. Warned by experience. which was adopted by the . by overwhelming majority. that is. Sieyes. also added that the " Council of Ancients " (the 250 oldest members of the Legislature) might meet away from Paris so as to be free from mob-rule. Ed. Ed. may be.] * [The Directors (appointed by the two Councils) inherited nearly all the powers at present wielded by the Committee of Public As Napoleon took their place in 1799.— — 374 last it . and so carry out the coup d'etat of Brumaire (i799)The Convention also decided that only those who paid taxes could vote in the " primary assemblies. yet knows no peace.uinais. of Active and Passive Citizen. the Distinction great Architect alters much. It is noteworthy that this very clause enabled Bonaparte and his fellow-conspirators to transfer the session to St. vii [Year 3 has to strive with contradictions it is now getting fast ready with a Constitution. It dwelt on the greater difficulty J Convention with but few changes. is making the Constitution once more has as good as made it. or reject both.J age . we say. but that Two-thirds of them must be reelected. we enact not only that actual Convention Members are reeligible. ! ' .

who would perpetuate yourselves For the truth is. Nay spoiled all men. will simply not conform thereto and invites all other free Sections to join it. who see their trade thereby near ending. there spout wolves in sheep's clothing. Consider. 375 ourselves." Deux Amis. Rue Vivienne. Laharpes Orators spout. Lepelletier foremost. On the West Frontier. and long right of Insurrection. able to march. and Jacobinism. xvii. 4th of October 1795. there is to be fruition. masked Emigrants and Royalists. too. finds that such clause is a manifest infraction that it. Black is united with white against this clause of the Two-thirds all the Unruly of France. durst he trust his Army. day of Vendemiaire. The Sections join itself ! it." in : : . in its Convent of Filles Saint-Thomas. Section Lepelletier. one hopes this Constitution may prove final. Rights of Man. had hoped. Lepelletier for one. has spoiled these men. tongues once begun wagging Journalists declaim. There is Royalism traceable in it. 398-411). nearly strong with their Forty-thousand fighting men. with guns primed.^ All men. . what confused ferments will rise. Las Cases (" Choix des Rapports." all . this appendix of reelecting your Two-thirds ? Greedy tyrants. . is treating with Conde in these Sections. how each man was free to hope what he liked and now there is to be no hope. The ^ ^ " Napoleon. The Convention on this I2th therefore may look to Lepelletier. each that the Election would do something for his own side and now there is no Election. the reelected Two-thirds. your Lacretelles. " in central Committee. Pichegru. March it will for the legs of it. 375-406. Is it not manifest in- fraction of one's Elective Franchise." xiii. or only the third of one. in deep secrecy. resistance to oppression. are already here. . kick against the pricks. fruition of this.! 1795] Vear 3] THE WHIFF OF GRAPESHOT . as we say. is sitting in open contravention. ! — . and Sovereignty of the People. But now see how the contumacious Sections. victory over Saint-Antoine. after Addresses enough. In men spoiled by long right of Insurrection. Sieyes looks at his paper-fabric with just pride. .

General Menou marches accordingly. Barras was . heard it he withdrew. A man of head. after such voyaging. . sends its General Menou to disarm Lepelletier. [bk. . : this young Artillery-Officer is named Cloak ComHe was in the Gallery at the moment. : just entering harbour. with due summons and demonstration with no result. with whole skin. into the it. Ed. some half-hour. under Strong in Law. emitting vain summonses with primed guns pointed out of every window at him He has to and that he cannot disarm Lepelletier. it the title oi Patriots of Eighty -nine. Barras to be made Commandant he conquered in Thermidor. what is more to the purpose. . Some." p. unemployed Artillery-Officer." ^ whole Forty-thousand join this Lepelletier which cannot be vanquished to what hand shall a quaking Convention now turn ? Our poor Convention. bethink them of the Citizen Buonaparte. ! it struggles. as " a traitor. Some for . whom in this crisis it has hastily got together and armed. He was. so to speak. —Ed. to be or not to be. vii. — and round its labours there frightfully.— 376 VENDEMIAIRE ^ . ready to perish. tricked by them. vii [Year 4 Convention has some Five-thousand regular troops at Generals in abundance and a Fifteen-hundred hand of miscellaneous persecuted Ultra-Jacobins. . 63) that Menou only ordered a " recall " when the " sections " fell back after a parley. ch.] ' [Carlyle here follows Napoleon's own account. but without success . and mandant.] ^ [M. he answers Yea^' . and Sieyes Cargo and the whole future of France. has struck on the bar. ' Invalides. Whereupon the thrown into arrest. like to wash it. to consider with himself: after a half-hour of grim compressed considering.000 National Guards and The Sections mustered scarcely more than 30. . Helene. a man of action Barras is named Commandant's- deep Yet one call last time. who took Toulon. given in the " Memorial de Ste. General Menou. finds that he is standing ranked in the Rue Vivienne. Zivy has shown (" Le treize Vendemiaire. [Besides these there were nearly 2. and be return. in fact. with breakers roaring Forty-thousand of them." which is mostly false. about eight in the evening.000 men.

and Vezu (Zivy. i. from Pont-Neuf all along the north Quays. and was ordered to serve under Barras along with Brune.] . world to gaze at. op. : .) says. Murat is the name of him. : Saint-Honore. : all days. A : . — . Insurgent messmessenger admitted ages. 5. Vachot. it was he who gave the order to seize Bonaparte was not appointed even to the second in command. Eng. chaps. p. named Commandant. pp. d'ceil. it is . there is seen sacred vessel of State labouring on Insurrection once again and tumultuous sea all round her.) praises his coup effect. .. Dupont. All accounts agree.. Swift. however. 260. Menad-march. for the whole Unity. ijj 1795] THE WHIFF OF GRAPESHOT yil And now. for Lepelletier was also on march that way the Cannon are ours. in Cul-de-sac Dauphin. it swift Adjutant. Carteaux. a ring of steel discipline let every gunner have his match burning.. of labours! — . the whole matter gets vital.. a man of head being at the centre of it.. in Rue ! . xxi. and the cannon at Sablons." vol. and beset that rapid and firm at Wicket of the Louvre. arming and sounding." vol. Vend..! — . year 4: curious enough. that poor huge peril for her. received and not received blindfolded counsel and counter-counsel the poor ship Vendemiaire 13th. southward to Pont ci-dcvant Royal." Ed. anniversary of that by sacred right of Insurrecsix year ago are got thus far. . Loison. Frightfully she labours. gallops gets thither some minutes within time. we have left no tocsin but our own in the Pavilion of It is an imminence of shipwreck. for gcncrale. rank round the Sanctuary of the Tuileries. and Thiebault ("Mems. within cable-length of port However. edit. — . 69-78). tion we the 5th day of October. there are not twenty men guarding . beating the bar not ringing tocsin. i. that Bonaparte's skill and energy had a great Barras (" Mems. cit. " His activity was astonishing. xxii. and all men stand to their arms Thus there is Permanent-session through the night and thus at sunrise of the morrow. she has a man at the helm. The archives of the French War Office show that he was restored to his rank in the army (from which he had been discharged for refusing to serve in La Vendee). OCT. ship. And now beset this post. to Camp of Sablons to secure the Artillery.

. shrieking. by fraternity or hatwaving. The in latter shortly afterwards resigned his command. is ' " Citoyen Buonaparte ^ named General of the Interior. in huge veritWhereupon. by acclamation " ! — amid shouting and vivats is ove^^- the bar. Ed. And roar ? Officer and thunder. then . On the other hand. honourable Members shall act with . 96). bursts out. roar and again roar. . : — ! ! . . on 17th Vendemiaire. ! . treble-quick.] . women advance dishevelled." says he. . . Bonaparte was chiefly at the positions to the east of St." ^ The Ship ward. Stray shots fall from Lepelletier rattle down on the very Tuileries Staircase.] ^ [The Convention. Four of the afternoon is struck.^ Lepelletier.— 378 VENDEMIAIRE [bk. bronze can. finished at six. in the Cul-de-sac Dauphin against the Church of Saint-Roch go his great guns blow to air on the Font-Royal go all his great guns some two-hundred men. volcanolike.. . along streets and passages. mainly about the Church of Lepelletier cannot stand such horse-play Saint-Roch no Sectioner can stand it the Forty-thousand yield on " Some hundred or so of all sides. our piquet there retreating without fire. thou bronze Artilleryable onslaught " Fire " say the bronze lips. — ! . named him second to command Barras. op." Seance du 5 Octobre 1795. be quick as lightning. The malcontents surrendered that position early next morning (Zivy. which was only then conferred on Bonaparte. these in case of extremity whereat they look grave enough. if need were. 67/. not opposite that church. free she bounds shore. pp. " a few shells dislodged them. goes his great gun. He sends eight-hundred muskets with ball-cartridges to the Convention itself. them gathered about the Theatre de la Republique It was all but. 90. making nothing by messengers. vii. Peace Lepelletier behind them waving his hat in sign that we shall The Artillery-Officer is steady as Steady fraternise. continual. ch. " Moniteur. ii. [See the plan of the Tuileries and neighbourhood at the beginning of vol. along the Southern Quai Voltaire. Roch. viii [Year 4 Lepelletier has seized the Church of Saint-Roch has seized the Pont-Neuf. ^ —Ed. scour towards covert.

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" Carlyle's dictimi is wrong. " Mems. Vend. miaire was the last great day (Journt^e) of civil strife. and that thereafter the Revolution began to " consolidate. if we take " the open violent rebellion.. ii. ad init.! — '^HE : OCT. xx.. and the man and behold. Fr. Revolution from the attack of malcontents. in History " It is says Napoleon. de Stael. . and Carlyle's view of the Revolution victory. know what they wanted. " that we fired first with had been a waste of life to do that. changed. as Epic Ships are wont. of disimprisoned Anarchy against corrupt out-worn AuIt is true that the 13th Vendethority" (vol." Most false the firing was with sharp and sharpest shot the to all men it was plain that here was no sport rabbets and plinths of Saint-Roch Church show splintered by it to this hour. vi. if we assign any other conceivable meaning to the term " Revolution. The miraculous Convention Ship has got to land and is there. into a kind of Sea Nymph.] the face of the royalists. 5. i. . Now. some of .. and become a thing that was false. the time is come for it. — . the decree retaining two-thirds of the existing deputies was expressly meant to shut the door in Ed." vol. In fact. Indeed. The new Constitution was entirely republican. however. — : . vi. blank charge : it . never to sail more to roam the waste Azure. This day saved the political and social work of the — whom did not while the greater number were royalists." vol. shall we figuratively say.). namely. 13] 1795] WHIFF OF GRAPESHOT ! 379 quelled Sections have to disarm in such humour as they may sacred right of Insurrection is gone forever The Sieyes Constitution can disembark itself. a Miracle . you have it and the thing we specifically call French Revolution is blown into space by it. and begin marching.. . i. chap. ! — ^ ^ [Only in a limited sense is this correct. Singular in old Broglie's time.) was rescued from royalism and everything that the Revolution embodied and typified was perpetuated. bk.. " Con(See Pasquier. France siderations sur la Rev. ." . Mme. . . chap.. six years ago. this Whiff of Grapeshot was promised but it could not be given then could not have profited then." But.

Emperorships. and make it leap out of window. but merely ceases. : . . Directorates." 275. has been a new : 1 " Moniteur. Restorations. 1-96).VENDEMIAIRE [bk. by milder methods growing ever milder.^ Nay Soldiers' bayonets can be used a posteriori on a Senate. is the Epos of Universal History itself. . and then by orderly word of command almost like mere changes of MinisNot in general by sacred right of Insurrection. tinged with Royalism. way we see. and produce an Eighteenth of Brustill bloodless Such changes must happen but they are manmaire. du 4 Septembre 1797. Citizen-Kingships succeed this Business in due series. Nevertheless the in due genesis one out of the other. de Statil. which owned. 1799 (" Choix des Rapports." and no visible money or It is its arrangement whatever. vii. viii [Year 4 CHAPTER FINIS VIII it is remarked. Consulates. 9th. these three things. First-parent of in the all these A Senate. shall the events of French History be henceforth brought to pass." aged by intriguings. Such." 2 ^ November Bailleul. is like a Bas-Relief sculpture it does not conclude. a sheet of paper.' did wonders that France. A may be said to have gone to air Baboeuf Insurrection. an " old table. can be purged by the Soldiery and an Eighteenth of Fructidor transacted by the mere show of bayonets. ii. stifled by the Soldiery. — . but try. ch." xvii. : HOMER'S Epos. "Examen critique des Considerations de Mad. next year. at starting. admitted that this Directorate. indeed. since the Reign of Terror hushed itself. will die in the birth if . caballings. and an inkbottle.

only Phantasms. and of the rest the peasants owned about one-third more than the bourgeois.. 13] 1795] FINIS .— OCT.] * "Diamond Necklace" (Carlyle's "Miscellanies"). This was the chief material gain brought by the Revolution. by the sale of the confiscated lands of the Church and of the emigre's. M. not yet shot. we understand all Frenchmen have " the right of duel " the Hackney-coachman with the Peer. . which (owing to the law of the equal division of property among all children of a family) tended to become smaller and smaller. therefore. what as yet is the peculiarity of France. Ed. The new Realities are not yet come ah no. what can we say. But.'' '^ : ! ' [This must not be taken to mean that this multiplication of holdings was due only to the Revolution. if insult be given such is the law of Public Opinion. the very Cant of them is burnt up. tentative Prefigurements of such In France there are now Four Million Landed Properties that black portent of an Agrarian Law is. awakened like a giant out of torpor and has on. . after 1789 they were freeholders. : ! . Cote d'Or. . After 1792 there were few vast estates the bourgeois held a great number of estates of moderate size. e. thus spake ." (1899). frequently shot at. ex postfacto indeed. Sagnac. whereas before 1789 the peasants held their plots under an oppressive and vexatious form of copyhold.g. and how far the peasants. 381 France. in the Internal Life of it. And. as he looked in rapt vision " Ha and amazement into these things. In some parts. Long before 1789 the peasants had been increasing their holdings. author of " L'Histoire Sociale de la Rev. As for the External form and forms of Life. has it not been fulfilled what was prophesied. as it were. Equality at least in death The Form of Government is by Citizen King. states that we cannot even now determine how far these sales benefited the bourgeois. Paper models. and the peasants an immense number of plots. with continual progress. the peasant holdings were greatly increased. Vend. elsewhere the peasants did. or another He. by the Arch-quack Cagliostro. except that out of the Eater there comes Strength out of the Unwise there comes not Wisdom Shams are burnt up nay. He points out that before 1789 the privileged classes owned about half of the land. realised} What is still stranger. : ! On the whole. 5. gone ! — . the bourgeois bought up most of the confiscated lands .

. Light-rays from out of its dark foundations as it rocks and heaves. piercing. as ashes. and thou Outer Limbo. leaves the Earth not to return save under new Avatar. which men name Hell Does the EMPIRE OF Imposture waver ? Burst there. . . . Heaven. that salute the Heavens. viii [\'ear 4 Angels. For it is the End of the dominion of Imposture (which is Darkness and opaque Fire-damp). : : . was there wreck of Wheel-vehicles like this in the Sea of Fire. . . wailing. Light-rays. lo. not in travail-throes but in deaththroes ? Yea. The metal Images are molten the marble Images become mortar-lime the stone Mountains sulkily explode. shall they wander in the wind. Imposture is burnt up one red sea of Fire. Anachiel. RESPECTABILITY. when will they grow green? The Images all run into amorphous Corinthian brass all Dwellings of men destroyed the very mountains peeled and riven.— 382 VENDEMIAIRE is [bk. all is me Never since Pharaoh's Chariots. . Uriel. ah. vii. . like paper-scroll. through generations how it is burnt up for a time. ! : : ! Wo — ! — ! . crackling. this'^ . the valleys black and dead it is an empty World to them that shall be born then A King. . in the Red Sea of water. a Queen (ah me !) were hurled in did rustle once flew aloft. — . as gases. and Prebendal Stalls that drop fatness. they kindle it their starry clearness becomes as red Hellfire " Imposture is in flames. Imposture how it burns. and Dubois Mitres. . : ! Wo ! . wild-billowing. The World is black ashes which. . Iscariot Egalit^ was hurled in thou grim De Launay. Desolate. enwraps the World. and ye other Five. whole kindreds and peoples five millions of mutually destroying Men. higher yet flames the Fire-Sea crackling with new dislocated timber hissing with leather and prunella. ch. with thy grim Bastille. updarting. clear. with all her collected Gigs inflamed for funeral pyre. ! What . with its fire-tongue licks at the very Stars. " Higher. Thrones are hurled into it. Pentagon of Rejuvenescence Power that destroyedst Original Sin Earth. and ha what see I ? all the Gigs of Creation all. in starry sheen.

we say. O sacred things become hollow jargons. Farewell. . the disembodied or not yet embodied spirit of a Brother. Toilsome was our journeying together without offence but it is done. Vend.! OCT. 5." Ill stands it with me if I have spoken falsely thine also it was to hear truly. has the time come for us two not to part. is definable as " an incarnated Word. yet while the Voice of Man speaks with Man. by the nature of him." This Prophecy. 13I 1795] FINIS 383 and the burning up. For whatsoever once : . Yet was our relation a kind of sacred one doubt not that . To thee I was but as a Voice. is it not fulfilling? And so here. and will yet spring ? Man. has it not been fulfilled. To me thou wert as a beloved shade. hast thou not there the living fountain out of which all sacrednesses sprang. Reader. with unquenchable fire. . of all the Gigs that are in the Earth.

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Massachusetts June "ji/i. 1770). i772ii Tea." December i6th. far over seas. dies. the second in very successively called " Dauphin " — . years ago {May i6th. none a Daughter known long aftertill 1778. 12th child) of the great Empress Maria-Theresa and her Emperor Francis (originally " Duke of Lorher age at this time was under raine. New King. is appointed Prime-Minister. Louis XVI. while last child.New Queen was Marie-Antoinette. 1774 : of small-pox. a still : — 1774—1783- Change of Administration.: THE BASTILLE October ^th. who were but died both. Louis and she wei^e wedded four 19 (born November 2d. when their first was born wards as Duchesse d'Angouleme. Scenes about : L OUIS XV." Retrospect to 1774: " sad decay of Realised Ideals. piously reckoning themselves "too young to reign. Daughter (Sth daughter. i775. 1755).) 1774. a man now jT) years old and of great levity. These two were now King and Queen." to do — . had been flung out in the harbour of Boston. a celebrated cargo of it. first of the American War. Their fourth and in boyhood. noise like thunder. lived only 11 months.— CHRONOLOGICAL SUMMARY OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION [Drawn up by " Philo. 's deathbed. May 10///. for his embassies in TurCC in. age then after a short illness 64. loih. age then near 20. Battle of Bunker's Hill. in the 59tli year of his nominal "reign. Scene of the Noblesse entering. Maurepas. miserable circumstances..] VOLUME {May I.. at Versailles. was his Predecessor's Grandson. Daughter (1786)." but with no territory there) Louis XV. " with a homage to the New King and Queen. but had as yet no children. Two Sons followed. 1774 Great-grandson of Louis XIV. Vergennes favourably known for his correct habits. 1789. is fought in the same neighbourhood." for Edition 1857. ." secular and sacred. . born August I'^d^ I754.

and whatever is desirable. War from England. expected to be rapidly approaching on those terms. Sensualism portentous " Electuary.386 key. as being ** platitudes^' (in the notion of a fashionable snuffing public). and of a probity beyond question. Balloons. numerous discontents at Court from Noblesse and Clergy. and are only partially gone into Frugality is of slow operation curtailment of expenses occasions numerous dismissals. Turgot aiming at juster principles. made ControllerGeneral of Finances ("Chancellor of the Exchequer" and something more). . May 1776. Turgot. if their privilege of exemption be touched. : — fact. of supreme sig- . Horse-races. that is the only History of the Period. like the Plans of this Controller. . a Genevese become rich by Banking in Paris." the distinctions of them lost. cannot " Corn-trade" (domestic) " made free. of Liberty. There are many changes . is appointed Controller in his stead and there is continued Deficit of Revenue. not sanctioned. \77Ai gives rise to high hopes. particularly tax-edicts. . Jean-Jacques." of sweet taste. into which " Good and Evil." which had been invented for getting edicts. nificance. where their Cause is in high favour. Flat snuff-boxes come out. Contrat-Social Brotherhood. Noblesse and Clergy are exempt from direct imposts no tax that can be devised. and well seen by the Philosophe party." and made available in law. being already known as a man of much intelligence speculative and practical. Philosophism. extensive Official smugglings of supplies to them (in which Beaumarchais is much concerned) for some time before. Tolerance. of noble patriotic intentions. — : : : . (1776) For the rest. vvhat is to be hoped t American-English War (since Aptil 1775). the public clamour being strong that way. univei'sal Millennium. is dismissed. 1778. Sweden. in CHRONOLOGICAL SUMMARY . Benevolence. Scepticism. but one steady Revenue. Old Parlement is reinstated " Parlement Maupeou. Necker. August 2/^th. : . at Paris (1776 and afterwards). Meanings of that fact little surmised by the then populations of France. Continued Deficit of Revenue. — . " registered. Necker's plans for "filling up the Deficit " are not approved of. will yield due ways and means. under Lafayette. French Treaty with Revolted Colonies. and " gallows forty feet high. 1778. Departure of French "volunteer" Auxiliaries. Doctrine of universal Love and Charity to good and bad. under the name of Turgotines. this summer." and many improvements and high intentions much discontent at Court in consequence famine-riots withal. continued Deficit of . only countenanced and furthered. and Agents of the Revolted Colonies. " Volunteers " these." Turgot will tax Noblesse and Clergy like the other ranks tempest of astonishment and indignation in consequence Turgot dismissed. Anglomania. February 6///. in consequence Rochambeau to America. on such principle. : . gets the Department of Foreign Affairs. Franklin. have been mashed up.

contenting all the world by his liberality. sat from . 1787. who can do nothing. Ever-increasing Deficit of Revenue. I held out my hat. except by the Siege of Gibraltar. — . — : Continued Deficit of Revenue Necker's ulterior plans still less approved of. becomes public as Criminal-Trial." of himself and them). Who continues. Lafayette returns in illustrious condition. by Noblesse and Clergy. and by the general result arrived at shortly after. and evidently no : — . Arch-Quack Cagliostro the principal actors). since Necker's dismissal.?/. Siege of Gibraltar {September 13//?. 1787. " Two hundred thousand copies of it sold " and is and dismissed in the May following. 1781 " Prime-Minister " is henceforth the Controller-General. 1787. . May 31. who will not hear of them or of him: so that he is dismissed. hopeless since that day {September I'^th) of the red-hot balls. his borrowing resources being out. on the same interesting subject or pair of . if any such could be found there being an ever-increasing Deficit of Revenue.CHRONOLOGICAL SUMMARY : 3S7 with public Auxiliaries. November 1783. in 1780 War not notable. money in its pocket. convokes the Notables (First Convocation of the Notables) February 22c/. Worse. but of all manner of public things. with lavish expenditure raised by loans. 1785 penal sentence on the above active parties and others. Stamptax {Edit du Timbre. Returns to Switzerland there writes New Books. who treat not of this thing only. to sanction his new Plans of Taxing. General result arrived at is important: American Independence recognised {Peace of Versailles^ January loih. worthless devises Tax-Edicts. 17S7. who had long been ambitious of the post. Calonne. named Scipio Aniericamis by some ableeditors of the time. " All the world was holding out its hand. a Millennium thought to be just coming on. Calonne. January 1781. " quenching fire by oil thrown on it " for three years and more. is nominated. : — February zzdto May — 25///. Cardinal Lomenie de Brienne. and mention States-General among others. . to middle of November^ 1782): Siege futile on the part of France and Spain. subjects." April Zlh. who had no vestige of concern with it. least of all. not better. . November 21s/. 1783— 1787. he publishes a " Compte Rendu" ("Account Rendered. First Convocation of Notables. A man now of sixty dissolute. a memorable one. the essential Maurepas dies." Ominous scandalous Affair called of the Diamond Necklace (Cardinal de Rohan. July 6th. After one or two transient Controllers. tragically compromising the Queen's name. Dame de Lamotte. 1786 with immense rumour and conjecture from all mankind. 1783). — . and "exiled. succeeds Calonne.

as in deciding. with "successive loans. and the like methods. depart without most points remain unsettling any of the points in question ^especially that of the Third Estate and its relative force. September 10th. two-fifths in paper. all virtually in opposition Parlements. to by Royal Edict simply. Jidy i2. Lomenie helps himself by temporary shifts till he can. settled. often year. 1788. That "Treasury Payments be hence- Parlement itself raise supplies) — ." and the like which the Parlement. general "Exile" of Parlement {August 15///. vaguely promised before. get ready for wrestling down the rebellious Parlement." : — 1788. 1787). which was remembered next Royal Edict {August 8t/i). Aus^ust 6tli. Necker. grand scheme of dismissing the Parlement altogether.. Attempt to govern (that is. have a cheap method of becoming glorious. > : dismissed to exile. favourite of all the world. November — December. 1787) and others. That States-General. or Two ? Above all. . Proclamation {August i6t/i). seem now to be about becoming Revolution in France. idle Public more and more noisily approving and applauding. Ominous condition of the Public. what is to be the relative force. for the purpose of settling how. Spring of 1788. Beds-of-Justice (first of them.'' other less formal Assemblages had done and do. Troubles of France — . of the Third Estate or Commonalty. forth three-fifths in cash. by Necker. Second Convocation of the Notables {November 6th i2//i). Increasing ferment of the Public. — December in various For inessential particulars. greatly to the joy of the Public. the States-General shall be held. January 1789. privately. " Plenary Court" having Rebellion of all the Provincial Parlements expired in the birth. January — September. Com- . 388 CHRONOLOGICAL SUMMARY . Are the Three Estates to meet as one Deliberative Body? Or as Three. Destructive Hailstorm." Lomenie thereupon imthat the Treasury is fallen insolvent. in other words. and be " Saviour of France. 1787). and nominating instead a " Plenary Court {Cour Ple'ttiere)" which shall be obedient in "registering" and in other points. mediately dismissed with immense explosion of popular rejoicing. and whirled off to distant places of imprisonment : . Notables. stance. Contests of Lom(fnie and Parlement. Pai-lement in permanent Scheme detected before quite ripe applausive haranguing all night {May 2>d) session thereupon D'Espremenil and idle crowds inundating the Outer Courts Goeslard de Monsabert seized by military in the gray of the morning {May ^th). more riotous than usual. is immediately {August z^th) I'ecalled from Switzerland to succeed him. Letires-de-Cachct. shall actually assemble in May next. Elections begin everywhere.th. at Paris and elsewhere. who return upon conditions. will not register.

" Inertia. that it must be the main element of all. I the King will myself achieve the happiness of my People. Procession to the Assembling of States-General at Versailles Church of St. " amid seas of angry people. the hope of France Hall of Assembly is found shut Court decides to intervene. grandson of another. by sound. . Third Estate has the Nation behind it wishes to be a main element in the business. great e. : : . " If you Three Estates cannot agree. Louis there. namely. All Fiance. May June. : . be joined with it in which conjunct state it can outvote them. Sunday July 12th." All France on the edge of blazing out Court recoils Third Estate. . till the other Two Estates. cele{Saturday Jjtnc lotJi) ' Oath of the Tennis-Court. Enter Supreme-Usher de Breze. sucThe States-General are henceforth cessful in every particular. giving open with reverse effect intimation of much significance. this is the Broglio who was young in the Seven-Years War son of a Marshal Broglio. . nothing. in that emergency. for seven weeks much to to the alarm of Necker and the Court." and do . till that come about Noblesse and Clergy. Kind of "firebaptism" to the Revolution. " as . — : . —rand will continue " inert. Emotion brated Monday June 22d. " like the City of Jericho. fruitless and worse. Seance Royale^ Royal Speech. who much filled the Newspapers in their Gardes Fratiqaises at Paris need to be confined to their time. Hopes. . under which the P'rench People might realise their Millennium. kindling into hot frenzy and in taking it. " National Assembly " called in Books distinctively " Constituent Assembly" that is. and beyond hope of suppression. '"' : . Court terrors and plans old Marechal Broglio. . ." others for mankind. Bastille falls. — henceforth — phe- is commonly dated — . which continues insuppressible thenceforth. great suspicion. chiefly by infinite noise. to command departure Mirabeau's fulminant words to him exit De Breze. but of French mankind.Kcitement." Noblesse and Clergy leave the Hall along with King Third Estate remains pondering this intimation." or the scheme of doing only harangues and adroit formalities. and : — . is adopted by it adroitly persevered in. and (led by Mirabeau and other able heads) decides. : . other Two now joining it on order. 1789.— CHRONOLOGICAL SUMMARY mencement of the nomenon absorbing here." Tuesday July ii\th. and cannot (Ju?ie 26///). June —Jttly. 389 a " all French Revolution. Third-Estate Deputies take Oath. May i\t]i. Assembly met "to make the Constitution. 1789. 1789. News that quarters Necker is dismissed. the Gardes Fra7icaises at length mutely assisting in the rear. and may become what it wishes. . and gone homewards overnight panic terror ends in besieging the Bastille of Paris. Great hope. triumphs. Court does intervene." perfect Constitution.

they bring the Royal Family and National Assembly home with them to Paris Paris thereafter Centre of the Revolution.d) 2. . detailed.Versailles [September 22. September). Progress of swearing it. Americanus.d). years. Journalisms advent of anarchic souls from every quarter of the world." Regiment de Flandre has come Officers have had a dinner {October to^. Clubs. Result is.) [January 1790 1790. " " some 10. King's visit to Constituent Assembly. . otherwise called " Feast of Pikes " {fuly \\th. . of an anticonstitutional and monarchic character. " First Emigration. Mutineer Swiss sent to the Galleys." takes arms. emotion thereupon and National Oath. Much legal inquiring and procedure as to Philippe d'Orleans and his (imaginary) concern in this Fifth of October who retires to England for a while. Scipio — . and attempts to mend it. February ^th. Paris.: THE CONSTITUTION Atigtcst 12th. called " Massacre of Affair of Nanci (catastrophe is August 31J/) Nanci" irritation thereupon. suspicion. 1789. which also is a memorable Day. — and at length on an altogether profuse scale. Mayor Bailly and " Patrollotism versus Patriotism" {August. which flies over France. Phenomena and procedure there. with much demonstration and gesticulative foolery. General "Federation. . excitement. semi-delirious. Constitution-building.000 women (men being under awe of " Patrollotism ") march upon Versailles followed by endless miscellaneous multitudes. Hope. General disorganisation of the Army. and its difficulties and accompaniments. terror. called here " Insurrection of Women. to suppress Brigands and enemies to the making of the Constitution. and October Five a memorable day. hears of it {Sunday October ^th). towards the transcendental pitch continued scarcity of grain. . 1792. 1789. and finally by Lafayette and National Guards. in Lieutenant Napoleon Buonaparte's experience.— 390 CHRONOLOGICAL SUMMARY National Guards. with endless emotion next day. rising ever more. Progress towards Fifth of October. VOLUME II. . . and is ill seen by the polite classes there. Its effects on the Military. October December. — ." or mutual Oath of all Frenchmen." of certain higher Noblesse and Princes of which more or less continues through the ensuing the Blood . . August — October. Anniversary of Bastille-day).

which they think calls upon regular Governments to interfere and mend it they themselves. from Lafayette and Mayor Bailly." . Suspected of such intention visit to St. still hopeful to control it. Foreign Governments. a Twelvemonth all but nine — destitute. pold II. it. has interviews with the Queen. inferior in talent. of anarchy spiritual and practical. prepared at present to " resist French aggression " on their own territories. : and are not quenched for twenty-five years after. that its Sessions are all ended . now set about preparing for actual interConvention of Pilnitz {August 2'^th-2']th): Emperor Leoference. 1 79 1. Constituent Assembly proclaims " in a sonorous voice " {September jOth). with certain less important Potentates. Actual Flight to Varennes {June 20th). Constitution finished. A Throne held up as if " set on its vertex.CHRONOLOGICAL SUMMARY and 391 solemn Funeral-service for the Slain at Nanci {September 20th). desperate of Constitution-building under such accompaniments. . 1 79 1 Assembly. " Republic" mentioned in Placards. with extensive shrieks following. means to get away from Paris as the first step. September 21st. Should not this runaway King be deposed? Immense assemblage. April-^July. assembling at this Pilnitz (Electoral Country-house near Dresden). October December. who had long looked with disapproval on the French Revolution.— and goes its ways amid " illuminations. Its debates. More ties." to be held there by hand. during King's Flight generally reprobated. Legislative first and also 1791: sat till days. Royal Family. which blaze up higher and higher. riotous menaces and mobs in consequence. Cloud violently prevented by the Populace {April \()th). . in a frightfully and misventures there worsened position. the the last Assembly of that character. meets October ist. like republican than its predecessor. : . and leaving remembrances of a very bitter kind. 1-3). elected according to the Constitution. petitioning at Altar of Fatherland to that effect {Sunday July 17th). August. return captive to Paris. 1 79 1. the fifth evening after {June 25/^)." This Document. Mirabeau. accepted by the King {September \\tJi). Court . express their sorrow and concern at the impossible posture of his now French Majesty. of parliamentaiy experience. Friedrich Wilhelm II. King of Prussia. is dispersed by musketry. will cooperate with said Governments in " interfering by effectual methods. 1792. 1791. Queen and Barnave. rouses violent indignations in France.. and Emigrant Princes of the Blood. of date August 27th. : Death of Mirabeau {April 2d) last chance of guiding or controlling this Revolution gone thereby. cc. futilistaggering parliamentary procedure (Book V. and contemplates great things. Steady progress of disorganisation.

and is squeezed. understood to be in the rear of these two. say the People. . against War War. make public Treaty. with demonstrations marching through the streets of Paris. December Jth." 1792. Emperor Leopold and the . and the dialogue with him. and behaviour in his House. with Roland as Home. In presence of these alarming phenomena.Minister. after violent debates." L'Escuyer. at Avignon. are of an utterly chaotic kind. some months after. Immense Procession. : . The Prussian Declaration. and whether they are in a right condition to meet it painful questionings of Ministers. then Servan. Journalists. which followed first. the combined perate. who. French Assembly. That they specially will endeavour to keep down disturbance. Assembly without leave. occupy France and its Legislative with sad debates. lasts only five days (had. mending their Pilnitz offer. Jujie Twenty henceforth General Lafayette suddenly appears in the a memorable Day. dangerous and scandalous." and give Called " Procession of the Black it a fillip as to the time of day. Government cannot Clubs. in that capacity. crushed against the Tuileries gates and doors till they give way and the admission to his Majesty. Sections and leaders. and no access to his Majesty. peaceable but Breeches" in this Book. which 1792. been otherwise in place for a year or more) mere " pretending to be dead. Febricary yth. ganised population of Paris) growing ever more violent and desIssue forth {June 20th) in vast Procession. Sardinia. Sections (orACt will not." — Sunday October ibth. .. and if attacked will assist one another. . Naples. finds the Tuileries gates closed. crushes. — . pro and contra^ all round. . " Ghosts of Ministries. "To quicken the Executive. 392 CHRONOLOGICAL SUMMARY not " aiding the Constitution to march. February April. Massacres in the Ice-Tower follow. Terror of rural France {February-March) Camp of Jales copious Emigration. and of each other anxieties about foreign attack. continual changes of Ministry. . Narbonne (Madame de Stael's friend) made War-Minister. squeezes. — King of Prussia. Giving rise to much angry commentary in France and over Europe. Suspicions of their King. . and even Russia and the Pope. as is splenetically observed makes withfruitless attempt to reinstate authority in Paris {Jutie 28///) draws as an extinct popularity. though not otherwise than peaceable. with banners. . Spain. who lasts three months. June. murdered in a Church. dangerous. like pieces of a great Firework blazing out now here now there. continues for nearly half a year. April 20th. then Dumouriez. growing ever more desperate and stormy in the coming months. decrees Emperor Leopold. is the immediately important one. This is the first Declaration of the others followed.

which awoke endless indignation in France and much criticism in the world elsewhere. listening to the debates. : . King. That in terms of the Constitution in such alarming crisis a National Convention (Parliament with — . October \i\th of that year). Reconciliatory L . though like to be Sunday July 22d. Solemn Proclamatoo late for the Federation. in the Seven.Years War. and Austrians from Netherlands. tion that the " Country is in Danger." July i^t/i. Secret conclaves. . in a reporter's box. : France. " Insigne vengeance^'' " military execution. when he suddenly encountered ruin and death at the very This Prostarting (Battle of Jena. Universal Insurrection of the Armed Population of Paris. Marseillese." do not get out again except to die. who were along with him in force). how to die " who accordingly get under way. No: not without reason of Barbaroux writes to Marseilles for " 500 men that know its own. had with Queen and Dauphin sought shelter in the Legislative-Assembly Hall. 393 Scene in the Assembly. is understood to have been prepared by other hands (French-Emigrant chiefly. " Third Federation. Swiss Guards cut to pieces. August lotli. boiling with Indignation waxing desperate at Paris ability and will. : . Danton understood to be the Legislative Assembly is itself plotting presiding genius there. tied up from defending itself by "an inactive Government" (fatally unable to act). other terms of overbearing menace Prussian Army. July 27//z. Legislative Assembly has its Decree ready. Baiser could not the assembling " Federates" be united into some Nucleus of Force near Paris? Court answers. and had gained distinction by his swift marches. " who know how to die. clamation." and against his will. and to have been signed by the Duke much July 6th. and before any act of violence." arrive in Paris {July i<^th) dinner-scene in the Chafnps Elysecs. audacity and battle-spirit: never hitherto commanded any wide system of operations nor ever again till 1806.CHRONOLOGICAL SUMMARY 1792. Are conducted thence to the Temple " as Hostages. Prince Ferdinand often in command of detachments bigger or smaller. 1792. under his Father's Brother. very young. and Father of our unlucky (sister's son) of Frederick the Great "Queen Caroline": had served. derisively called amourette. . threatening France " with military execution " if Royalty were meddled with the latter bears date. when once violence was imminent. being at hand. They continue there till August \-^th {Friday-Monday). Prussian Declaration of War and Duke of Brunswick's celebrated Manifesto." July 24///. July. . Tuileries forced. August. are advancing in that humour. consultations of Municipality and Clubs . 1792. in the name of both Emperor and King Duke of Brunswick commands in chief: Nephew of Prussia. Cobletits. and participant. no other course for it.

Prussians detained three weeks forcing in the Passes of Argonne. February ist." the splinter of a Lille bombshell. 4-6. Famine. almost without resistance {Atigust prepare to take Verdun. Total failure of that Brunswick Enterprise. renouncing Thionville. Austrians besieging Thionville . Valmy {September 20th) French do not fly. Revolutionary activities in Paris and over France King shall be brought to "trial. February. : — .) continues its sittings till Election be completed. Febj-uary nth: Dumouriez immediately invades Holland English. little or no hindrance. with armed Emigrants. same day. the Legislative only waits in VOLUME {August 1792. : : 1792. before. Luxembourg region take Longwy. while the Massacres are beginning) except on the score of proDumouriez waiting visions and of weather.394 CHRONOLOGICAL SUMMARY . has seized the whole Austrian Netherlands. August Great agitation in Paris. Executed. in rear of the retreating Austrians. wards till Thursday 6th.: THE GUILLOTINE i\th. iT^i — October A ugust— September. Legislative . and now gives place to it Austrians. September Massacres: described Book I. . . Dumouriez. War between the two countries imminent. Sunday September 2d and oni()th." Trial of the King {Tuesday December nth Sunday i6th). cc. Decree issued that same day. are obliged to retreat Goethe's account of it. absolute powers) shall be elected August loth. Three Votes {January i^th-iyth. — . French Ambassador ordered to quit England {January 24th). in a month or less {Novetnber ^ih 2d Decejnber last) and now holds that territory. 1792. 23^) cannot take it. January. III. After which existence till it be fulfilled. : 1793. Battle or Cannonade of these. 1792 Legislative had sat till the day Republic decreed. as expected. : . 1793. enter France. Monday January 21st. : : . September 22d. September 2d {Sunday. drenched deep in mud. Enemy advancing. . Prussians. December — 1793. 1793) Sentence. France declares War against England and Holland England declares in x&iurvi. Prussians have taken Verdun. under Duke of York. Convention meets. Death without respite. 1795. English Ambassador quits Paris morning about 10 o'clock. loth. . and torrents of rain. go to the rescue rather — . in dysentery and famine. Dumouriez seizes the Passes of Argonne. besiege Lille {September 2%th October 2>th) cannot " fashionable shaving-dish.

Revolutionary Tribunal instituted. . 1 793.d. Book II L cc. A ugnst Mountain. . : . May 20th. quite beaten. " ilia siiprema dies" Convention begirt by Armed Sections under Yitmxoi {Sunday June 2d) Girondins. 395 successful at first. Vergniaud etc. or scarcity in all kinds Law of Maximum (fixing a price on commodities). September : : — : . Battle of Neerwinden in Holland {March i%th) Dumouriez. but the reverse. wander ruined. September ^th-iith. Third Girondin Epoch. jth. Petion. that same day {March loth). obliged to withdraw homewards faster and faster. Famine. a kind of Girondin in his way. General Dumouriez. — as it proved. besieged by Duke of York since May. disguised over France. March —July. who are of Girondin temper their attempt at civil war. Great Republican vengeances in consequence Girondin Deputies. August ^th. the Twenty-two. its severe summary procedure Law of the rapidly developing itself into a " Reign of Terror. Committee of Salut Public (instituted ycmwrtry day of the King's Execution) the supreme Administrative Body at Paris. Barbaroux. " France risen against Tyrants " {August 22.. Powder-Magazine explodes Barrfere's Proclamation of Levy in Mass. Lyons and other Girondin Cities to be signally punished. Comes to nothing ends in " a mutual shriek" (at Vernon in Normandy. 7-9. "Revolutionary Army" (anarchic Police-force of the Mountain). the Twenty-two and some more. resting on the " Forty-four thousand Jacobin Clubs and Municipalities". April isl. in return. Danton's Contrivance. _/7^/>' 15M): Charlotte Corday has assassinated Marat at Paris two days before {Saturday July i2)th). when they broke with Danton. Austrians force the Lines of Weissembourg. goes over to the Enemy {April 3^). Valenciennes. surrenders _/«/)/ 26//. Uanton's contrivance. anarchic population does demand " Arrestment of Twenty-two " by name. 1793. : their strifes detailed. 1793. . victorious. War to Girondins and Mountain first. now imprisoned. Law of the Suspect. Brissot. March 10///. Second Girondin Epoch. when the Girondins fancy they are to be " Septembered" by the anarchic population." Forty Sous (Sectioners to be paid for attending meetings).). : October.J»^y- Revolt of the Departments in consequence.CHRONOLOGICAL SUMMARY list. await trial. : Mutual quarrel of Parties once the King was struck down Girondins or Limited "legal" Republicans verstis Mountain or Unlimited: Spain. 3. Guadet etc. penetrate into France on the East side Dunkirk besieged by Duke of York {August 22d) Lyons bombarded by DuboisCrance of the Mountain. March Three Epochs in the wrestle of . Louvet. put " under arrest in their own houses " never got out again.

and he ends " killed by a cannon-shot. October ibth (day of the Queen's death) Duke of York repulsed from Dunkirk. at Strasburg. Just and Lebon. : . : : . is "immediately guillotined" {October (^th) first Deputy who died in that manner. captured in a state of outlawry. un(10 Thermidor. Spanish War. " Marseillaise sung in chorus " at the scaffold {October sii'/). which is the acme of the process. " Strip off your shoes. after trial of some length. after frightful sufferings. November— December. " Death poured out in great floods {vomie a grands Jlots)." Lines of Weissembourg " retaken by St. Just charging with peasants " {ends the Year). Year 2). June ist. may become important ? Toulon. and Terror the Order of the Day. December igth Earth." Last scenes of Robespierre July 2Sth which. November %th. Execution of d'Orleans Egalite. 1793. of Mayor Bailly. . Howe's Sea. . Napoleon serving in " To be razed from the the Artillery is captured. : . General Jourdan has driven Cobourg and : — the Austrians over the Sambre again. . November loth." and other horrors." there is besieged." Carrier at Nantes: Noyadings by night. surrenders to DuboisYTth. neglected hitherto. : own children " among them.: 396 CHRONOLOGICAL SUMMARY : Lyons. a Girondin Deputy. May \Zth: successes of Dugommier against Spain {May i^d). which continue in brilliant series. guillotined with his Consorts expectedly. "like to be swallowed by the tide. sore stroke against the Austrian Netherlands {June 26th). Goddess of Reason (first of them. — : .000 pairs wanted. Hood and the English and even " Louis XVI II. ends tiie Reign of Terror.— under way in 24 hours " {November I'jth). Conspiracy of Mountain against Robespierre Tallien and others desirous not to be " eaten. and not successful . Maignet at Orange. General Jourdan Battle of Fleurus. . November 6th of Madame Roland. likewise 1000 beds. Wednesday October i6th. . till the business ends. at Paris) sails into the Convention. . Execution of the Queen Marie-Antoinette. 1794- " Revolution eating Anacharsis Clootz 24th Danton himself and the Dantonists {April yi). 10. Victorious French Armies . second of them December 14th become " Marriages of the Loire." Same day Gorsas at Paris. Execution of the Twenty-two." six months hence. March its : the Hebertists guillotined. dangerously Girondin in dangerous vicinity. '•'• ." Convention Rep7-esentativcs on Mission :" St. Armies successful Pichegru in the Netherlands defeat of Austrians at Moneron. Lebon at Arras.victory and Fable of the Vengeur. same day {Novcftiber loth) Plunder of Churches " Carmagnole complete. Reign of Terror." a month before. April ic^th of Austrian Emperor at Turcoing. Crance {October ()th) "To be razed from the Earth.

Emigrant Invasion. if still anarchic. Fouquier Tinville guillotined {^May St/i). Continued downfall of Sansculottism. : — . La Cabarus Greek Costumes." assassinating Jacobins in the Rhone Countries New Constitution: Directory and Consols. Prussia makes Peace of Bale (Basel). which had before been three years in Revolt. proceeding by softer methods than that of continued insurrection. April ^th Spain. Jeuiiesse Doree j balls in flesh-coloured drawers." Jacobins Club assaulted by mob shut up. thirds of the Convention to be reelected. ends." which lasts some eight months. Law of Maximum abolished. "hussars can take ships. and miscellaneous Discontented. — . 1795- Stadtholder quits Wo\\?Lnd." Year 3. 1795). April 1st. till almost Madrid come in view). Last of the Insurrections ("13 Vendemiaire. October ijth " whole in a ruinous condition. revolt against it: Insurrection of Vendemiaire. masters of Spanish bulwarks (DuDuke of York and Dutch Stadtholder shot). Famine of the lower classes. in English ships. quelled by Napoleon. Duke of York gone home Pichegru and 70. both times in vain. Reaction against Robespierre Nation a Committee of Mercy. On which. Sansculottism rises twice in Insurrection. Jafiuary i()th. Year 4. Anarchic Government. January ^tJt. October z^th." " Companies of the Sun.— CHRONOLOGICAL SUMMARY gommier : 397 enter Cologne. Insurrection of Germinal (" 12 Germinal.000 overrun Holland. ends by "two blank cannon-shot" from Pichegru. December 2i\th. Objections to that clause. Section Lepelletier. October 6th. Two{July. the Second attempt of Sansculottism to recover power (" i Prairial. and rapidly thereafter. A-pril — October. Insurrection of Prairial." Jl/ay 20th) Deputy Feraud massacred: issues in the Disarming and Finishing of Sansculottism." as defined here. N'oi'ciiiber \oili-\itJi. lands at Quiberon. Effervescence of luxury. 1795." : . is hereby kindled into a " Second " less important " Revolt of La Vendee. frost so hard. .August). Armies everywhere successful Catalogue of Victories and Conquests hung up in the Convention Hall. . Reactionary " Companies of Jesus. and is blown to pieces {July i^th-2oth): La Vendee. 1795). glad to get across to England: Spanish Cities "opening to the petard" (Rosas first. . " The Revolution. Peace of Bale a three months later.

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419) 443-) the overthrow of the French monarchy (August loth. ii. after all. Yet it may be desirable to point out here the following facts (i) Pitt's despatches and private letters prove how sincere was his desire to preserve peace. of Lord Auckinto him many mistakes . He it with our Government until remained on fairly cordial terms was found that he had dealings . collapse of French influence chiefly as an opportunity for effecting some very desirable economies in our public service and even after the September massacres our Government stated its wish that France should recover from anarchy and not be drawn into a war of conquest. chap. when public opinion in England was becoming more and more restive at the sight of the anarchy in France and the rapid progress of French arms in Belgium. pp.: . the mission of the French Ambassador Chauvelin naturally came to an end . APPENDIX I THE CAUSES OF THE WAR BETWEEN GREAT BRITAIN AND FRANCE CARLYLE'S led dislike of everything pertaining to diplomacy but none is more serious than his hasty assumption (bk. (2) On in an unofficial capacity." vol.. 1792). Through the year 1792. ii. viii. but he was allowed to remain in London land. which the vivid Gallic imagination has with equal prodigality and persistence assigned to him.) that England declared war on France on some flimsy pretext about the His affectation of surprise at finding out that. England did not declare war. is proved not only by his spoken and written words. will have shown the careful reader how untrustworthy the narrative is on this subject. (See " Corresp. but by the fact that he considerably reduced the British In fact.. he then viewed the forces in the Budget of 1792. ad Jin. That he cherished none of the hypocritical designs against France. Pitt maintained the strict neutrality which he had observed during the year 1 791. River Scheldt.

. which the support of the liberating armies. as well as Savoy and Nice) to adopt free institutions (of a French type) and to furnish funds for This decree.000 and 27. expressed his regret at the friction. and our army and navy were raised to the modest totals of 17. and subjected the liberated lands to special Commissioners from Paris. the control of which in its lower part had been by numerous treaties (above all by the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1 788) assigned to Holland. These two aggressive actions led to] a remonstrance from the British Foreign Minister. and this explains their wish to save the life of Louis. legalised spoliation. Maret. Maret tried to explain away the decrees of November igth as the work of a few "exaltes" in the Convention. (5) The Girondins saw how fatal a war with England would be. and French warships sailed up to Antwerp. and this decree practically annexed them to France." vol. the Emperor the possession of the Austrian Netherlands . was thrown open to all nations . 300. Lord Grenville. and we now know that on December 7th the French Executive Council decided to fortify Antwerp (" Proces-verbaux du Conseil Executif. and his willingness to treat " cordially and with confidence " any duly accredited agent. ed. Neither that decree nor that of November i6th was. rescinded . aroused general disgust. By the decree of November igth the French Convention proclaimed its willingness to help any people that might seek to overthrow its Government so as to gain freedom. (4) On December 15th the Convention passed a decree ordering the conquered territories (Belgium. As late as November 6th our Government had assured that of Holland that both States ought to observe neutrality . it even made an effort to mediate between France and Prussia and Austria. pp. 295. however.. were also known to be abetting a scheme for seizing the Tower of London. the lands on the left bank of the Rhine. By the former the navigation of the River Scheldt. (3) The decrees passed by the French Convention on November i6th and 19th further complicated the situation. The agents of Lebrun. In the course of the month our militia was called out.000 men respectively. On December 2nd Pitt had an interview with the French diplomatic agent.400 APPENDIX I with our malcontent clubs. the French Foreign Minister. and put an end to all hope of compromise between the Revolution and England in 1790 had guaranteed to the European Powers. by M. i. Aulard).

who concludes: " La force des choses precipitait ces deux peuples dans une lutte qui mettait en jeu leurs conditions memes d'existence " . urged on by fanaticism and by a belief in the weakness of England and Holland. 2 vols.] Ill. The Convention unanimously declared war against Eng- land and Holland on February ist... forced on the execution. -v.) (6) Some efforts at conciliation were made on both sides but. arrived. or loose its hold on Belgium. Fr. Marsh." vol. partly in order to enlarge the area of war and of their revolutionary propaganda." by H. CAUSES OF ANGLO-FRENCH WAR 401 But the Jacobins. iii. George III. . pp . nothing could be done for the present. on ingly inevitable on territorial grounds. Pitt declared his wish to treat with France.'s initiative. As. also Sybel. vol. [See " The History of the Politicks of Great Britain and France (i 791-1793).. and the report which Chauvelin made when he arrived in Paris decided the Convention for war.. ii. Maret (afterwards Due de Bassano). 268. and Dumouriez at once invaded Dutch territory. (See Sorel. vol. as the Convention would not revoke its decree about the Scheldt. Grenville sent Chauvelin his passports but when another French agent. The execution of Louis only precipitated a war that was seemOn January 24th. however.. p. Lebrun had given him no instructions. iii. Sorel. 1793. 1800. " L'Europe et la Rev.. iii. chaps. no progress was made.

. The Months are as follows Vendemiaire Brumaire Frimaire . II THE REPUBLICAN CALENDAR fully explain the intricacies In ordinary years it consisted of twelve months of thirty days each. Oct. 18. so on to : An XIV. Feb. 20. began Sept.. Messidor Thermidor Fructidor . 17- Aug. Thus An 5> >J I -'' began Sept. Ventose Germinal Floreal Prairial Feb. 21 April 20 May 20 „ „ „ „ . )> 5) 22.. 18. 23. 22 :o Nivose Pluviose Oct. 16.APPENDIX note on page 214 does not THE of the Republican Calendar.. 1800 . 20 „ „ . June 19 July 19 n „ „ July 18.. 21 Dec. Jan. April 19. 20. 20. Sept. 18 Sept.. 19. Nov. 1792. X And „ 1801. May June Aug. 19 Mar. the end to complete the year. Add five (in leap years six) " Sansculottides " or " Jours complementaires. Dec. and five days were added at ten days.. Mar.. )> )) ''' IV 179317941795{see beloiv). the month being divided into three " decades " of This made 360 days. 19. And An IX „ so on to An VIII. 21 Jan. 21. In leap year it was necessary to add six to bring the calendar into coincidence with the solar year.. 22 Nov." .

22. will have to be reduced by otte. An XIII (Feb. 23. owing to the intercalation of Feb. though reckoned from Sept. An XIV (Dec. and An IX and succeeding years began on Sept. except only in the next leap year between Ventose 9.— THE REPUBLICAN CALENDAR far as 403 In 1796 (leap year) the numbers in the table of months. 1805). . will have to be increased by one. 28 Sept. 1804). 1800). 23. The new computation. 26. Consequently in the above table of months the numbers of all days from Vendemiaire i. 1805 (An XIV). Hence An VIII ended on Sept. so concerns all dates between Feb. 1793 (An II). An XII. when the two Revolutionary aberrations happen to neutralise each other. though 1800 is not one in the Gregorian Calendar. The matter is further complicated by the fact that the republicans reckoned An VIII as a leap year. which is not compensated for until the end of the repub- lican year. 23. 28 and Sept. inclusive. 22. 31. It ceased after December 31. and Vendemiaire i. An IX (Sept. 29. was not introduced until Nov. to Nivose 10. 22. 1792.

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iii. 57. 119. rising against Avignon. grievances 97 . 172. Ankarstrom. Huruge. 229-238. to be disbanded. memorial to King. seized." drama. 278. . . at " ChitTonne " association. i. 88-95. See St. iii. "Annales Patriotiques. ii. 10. 214. name of Na . Assembly. . at in favour." 278. 57- Aristocrats. 259. past and future services. hired. Anglas. ii. black cockades. Applauders. 32. desertions to the people. Captain d'. 287 . ways of." Carra's proposal to publish. 52.. guillotine at. 121-123. erection of. d'. 293-295. INDEX Abbaye sacres. ii. Aintrigues. i. Duchesse d'. i. See An- Aries. 288. 26. Father. in 1792. 69 petition and scene at. Anarchy. at number 9 . 269 fourteen armies on foot. Marquis. Argonne forest. Aiguillon. 202 " Ami-du-Roi. lentz. i. 264. search for. First white cockades. iii. iii. undisciplined . publication iii.. 287. Constituent. it is. 57-66 in want. . her father. 298 iii. i. 349-351. 97> io7> 1 12. iii. 290-292 . 57 . campaign of 1792. . King of Sweden shot by. Antraigues. dinner to the Regiment de Flandre. of. 220. guillotined. ii. 269. Arms. Anglomania. 241. i. 17 . and mutinous. Amiral. 90 . bodyguards at Versailles increased. emigrant at Cob- 270. 35-42. d'. traigues. i. ii. 37 . I14-I15. keeps racing stud. September Mas- 30. i. 212 . guillotined. of. 3 . manufacture 275. Dumouriez iii. 1794. Army. 249. prevented from leaving Paris. 363. account of. 214 . shoots at Herbois. 90. 266-270 . ii. iii. what iii. M. riot caused by. ii." publication 278. Arras. Count d'. Artois. Age of paper. i. Advocates. America. . 226-227 christening at. scarcity of. See also Guards. 3 death of Louis XV. Angouleme. Grande. account of. of. 373. France aids. of. French. Acceptation. parts from 125-127. in Legislative Assembly. 311 . 138. 238 . rising at. and Brunswick 24. " Ami-du-Peuple. iii. at. 66 revolutionary. 16. iii. by LouisX VI. 289ii. condition in ii. i. d'. i. . 223. 256. of. . ii. 250-255 . i. in Paris. revolt of the people against. ii. " Ami des Lois. 256. Prison. 317. i. 281 292 . 90. 297. seizes d'Espremenil and Monsabert. Adam. 16. iii. 309-310. 138 . Altar of the Fatherland in Champ. Boissy of Prairial. iii. Collenot de. Angermont. in States-General procession. officers in French army. 171 officered by aristocrats. Duke d'. i. 12. i. President. . fled. Agoust. iii. . de-Mars. i. 94-95 Nanci military executions. 4 Quiberon.

" origin of. . benches occupied by women. 271. . named the Constituent Assembly. 152 on emigration law. . . iii. 246 . Anacharsis Clootz. 306 ." i.. 63 . defeated at Jemappes. at in in mournon state of army. 277. Attorneys. 283 question of veto. done. ii. forgery of Royalists. . 232 inmemcompetency of. 299 and demonstration of 20th June. Assembly. 16 . 235 guards leave for arming of popula. 243 Book of the Law. 45. 311 . Aubriot. 97. 160 on escape of King. smoked out. 351. 320 . 255-256. 280 reprimands King's ministers. . 278 . 247 Avignon rising. Champ-de-Mars.. 56. 99. . Auch. 17. desertion of members. 13-14. High Court at . in Legislative Assembly. 346-348. 337 . uses of riots to. thanks Bouille. renews National oath. dissolves itself. the King visits. 34. 77 ing for Franklin. Right and Left take the oath on the side. on finances. requested to fix price of bread and meat. . at King's capture. 67 . 304 i. on the clergy. repulsed at Watigny. 191-192 Tennis Court. raises . 256-258 . . Augeard. 254. iii. 118. Lafayette at Bar of. 4o6 tional INDEX Assembly changed to. 317-318. " Astraea redux. i. 246. i. 94. . work done by. v. 15-16 . 156. "Assignats. 241. 139 Hotel Castries. harangued by Lafayette. 264 decrees vetoed. . 325 . and Baiser de Lamourette. de337 . 338-354. i. 337 . 278-279 . 251 . sends commissioners to Nanci. scenes in. removal to Paris. Lafayette's military movements. . 299 . 8. adjourns. ii. tion of towns. lo-ii. . 7 . 321 . 357 . duelling amongst mem120. 239-241 bers of. 105-106 on Nanci affair. money. 282-283 J P^y of members. 235-236. ii. 251 . ii. hears of revolts. Sieur. 323 . . 69-70. release of Swiss of Chateau-Vieux. Aubry. 1 18. National. 235 . 260 . . 258-261 . making the Constitution. 81 Assembly. what it has . ii. 197 Permanent Session. brayed glass. composition of. . 191 occupies scene in Tennis Court. q. Orleans. 315 decrees re-election of staff" of National Guards. Austria. Right and Left side. on patriotic gifts. . 313 . implicated in plot. Sieur. 43 . completes Constitution. . 67. 259 ii. . and Federation. September massacres. eldest of men. deputation of women to. Louis's visit to. refuses to sign oath in Tennis Court. 192 Third Estate determine on decrees itself. . Martin d'. 282. 293 . 257 . . Legislative. 47 . First French Parliament chosen. 63 . 279. Cabinet resigns. 217 deputation to King on siege of Bastille. 96- . 283 . 309-311 . Paris riding hall. 229. 283 insurrection of women announced to. 330 absolves Lafayette. 251-252. Lille besieged by. 282 . ii. declaration of the rights of man and the citizen. 241-245 . return to Paris. August the Tenth. 118 locked out of Salle des Menus. and attack on the bers. ii. name taken by Third Estate. . . 10. ii. 21-22. at Jales. . Louis asks for advice. P"rance declares war against. Colonel. 143. ii. 350 cree of Suspension. decree for banishment of priests. . 320. 236 217. decision that no deputy be Minister. dissolved. . . lo-ii . 296 assembling of National Volunteers. 317. number of decrees passed by. 141-142. refuses to treat of peace. 241 . evils of. 141 on flight of King's aunts.. 194. after capture of King. hired applauders. 245-246 deputation to Louis XVL. .. declares country to be in 317 danger.

56-57 . i. siege of. Abbe. 84 . at Cabarus' soirees. Barras. 303 sends to Marseilles for troops. 304 . 407 Bourdeaux. 40. lawsuit. General. 100. 345346. in Champ-deMars. 286. and the Six Hundred Marseillese. meaning of. 333 . Bardy. guillotined. editor. 72 at Petition for Dedecline of. 232 233- shoots himself. 313-314. Federation. as pure patriot. . 352 accuses Robesvention. . imprisoned. in Champde-Mars. i. at King's trial. Josephine. INDEX Austrian Committee at Tuileries. 168 . 218. liis thirty volumes. 348. at Lille. 357. 125. 205. as spies. Linguet's book on. ii. ii. one of the " Triumvirate. iii. 21-22. conciliates the Queen. attack on the Club of the Friends of the Monarchic Constitution. . on the 285. . Lyons. massacred. iii. . 260. Bailie. 108 . account of. 225 . duel with Cazales. Bale. 50-60 . 221 and Reign of Terror. i. 380. dinner-party plot. Bastille. 70. sneers at Legislative Assembly. astronomer. 284 . . Baker.. iii. 243 . 20 Roland's opinion of. iii. plan of. . made Mayor of Paris. ii. 91. 188 190. 24. 187. 66. 250-252 . . 37. on risingagainst Tyrants. iii. 245 . riot in. escorts the King from Varennes. 220becomes Constitutional. i. Barbaroux. Bartholomew Massacre. 48. 194. ii. . will arrested. involuntary epigram. 149 at fall of Girondins. of guillotine. 187 . position. 249-250 . ii. dance on ruins of. 234 account of. 357. 278 . ii.. Barnave. ii. 177. 319 meets Marseillese. ii. 223 . 235 n. Peter. iii. i. . 247. Barentin. appointed Commandant of Forces. i. 219. . 6667. . 237 . charged with treason. guillotined. 7. notice ol. massacre at. 325-326 283 ban- 273 iii. iii. used i. d'. advocate. annexation of. i. 246-247. 227 in prison. . . reckless. 47 . 221 . 49-50 . President of National Assembly. account of. Beauharnais. conquerors left out of Federation of Champ-de-Mars. 346-348. throws up his commission. iii. iii. retreat to Autichamp. . 256 . 245-246. and renewal of National Oath. f^aul-Franfois. 55 refused a hearing in pierre. 86 National Convention. iii. destruction 246-247 . at trial of guilloMarie-Antoinette. 135. 1S5. . pomp kept up by. 137. 82. 189not demit. 305 procession entering Paris. Ikigands of. 42 n. iii. the. Jacobin. 244 . account of. delay in ii. retires to Grenoble. 124 . ii. Bachaumont. . . 219. i. 226 tined cruelly. Balloons invented. in Legislative AssendDly. 241 . 188. and Charlotte Corday. . Barber. 356." Baboeuf insurrection. 139. and farewell of. 12 . 273. 239 . Beam. iii. . imprisoned. iii. Bakers' shops. Bazaire. Keeper of Seals. summoned by Lariviere. 72 . hanged. 104 . Bailly. 257 on the map of France. 34. and Marat. See Bazire. 222 of. 281. reception of the King at Barrier of Passy. 250-255. 240. 291 . judging Foulon. . Baiser de Lamourette. 64 . 340 seals up Parliamentary paperrooms. ii. ii. peacemaker. 154. i. . . 170. 376. named Commandant's-Cloak. iii. Avignon. standing in tail at. emigrant. 266. Mme. Bazire. 332 Tenth of in National ConAugust. 274 and insurrection of meets the royal women. Anacreon ished. at Grenoble. and Barrere. Beauharnais. iii. Balls. 247. . Peace of. 227 . Beaumarchais. " Break-of-Day " Journal.

iii. i. 199-203. 217. Bill-stickers in Paris. i. ii. 230 . Controller incapacity 95> 96. 355 . 152. effigy burnt. 44 . dismissal. ii. 35. 131- 224. 362. Paris. sailors revolt. Brissot. formed. naturalised. edits "Moniteur. 16. . quells 85-87 mutineers. Bedouin. guillotined. in Notables. 201. Bouille. 149 . Breton deputation sent to Bastille. atMirabeau's aids King's flight. Marquis de. stitutional Guard. Bethune. i. attempt to establish a Cercle Social. march Nanci intrepidity . iii. Brest. 22. fear of 1792. and hanged. 76 . 6. Beurnonville." i. of. Black Breeches. 133. General. plans Brissac. 94- 98 arrests Paris Parle- 303-309Blanchelande. Beaumont. Brienne. 215. 134 . 196. 100. 220. 18 . commands Con- . 19. Bastille. 116. i. . ii. 130. and Constitutional Guards disbanded. Birmingham riot. 263 granted a pardon. scarcity of. burnt. friend of Blacks. 221. 261 . and Jansenists. i. priests hanged at. edicts by. Anti-pro- 42 of of. 15-16 . ii. Jeremy. 223. Blood. future career.. ii. 142. 202-203. 160. manner of ushering. 15. 171 King. Biron. 211 . 195-196. 235 . i. 97 on Nanci. procession of. Brigands. soldiers refuse to fire. .. de. Bretons. cannonades Nanci. flees to father. at Soissons." 71 from Holland. Bread. ii. uncertainty of. 112." 128. 156 . 15 . volunteers of. 98. Mirabeau silences. on French finance. dismissed and provided for. ii. ii. i. iii. notice of. in 1791. iii. 280. release of Swiss Chateau-Vieux. Breton Club. . 155 «. i. death of. asleep at Varennes. 113-114. Book of the La w. . Aubin. iii. flight of. iii. becomes the Jacobins' Club. orders arms flight of funeral. Bonchamps. i. 185 . 287 . Finance. 42. 284 in Jacobins' Club. and National Assembly. 4o8 his INDEX "Manage de . care of etiquette. deputations to Brienne. General. at siege of the 13. Home Secretary. account 97 . ii. accused in Convention. 357 ii. Beaurepaire. . i. Bed of Justice. of Breteuil. Besenval. . shoots himself. 265. Commander. 148. i. 129130. 210. 273 request for price to be fixed. secret scheme. ii. Comte de. 216218. at Surinam. 206. Archbishop. 366. 239 . Duke de. Lomenie i. 107. 271. arrested and sent to Cobourg. at Bellevue. guillotined. . ii. 116. i. . Junior. ii. awaits orders from Versailles. 39. flight of. the new. Boyer-Fonfrede. Billaud-Varennes in Municipality. 244-245. successive loan ment. 124. . Brienne. leaves Paris. illness of. Bonnemere. seized. 277. 210. 144. 315 for Girondins. of. ii. 90-91 . Figaro. the oath taken on in Legislative Assembly. iii. Breze. baths of. 320 poisoning of. Berline. 20. 260. . mutiny of troops. Baron. arrested Bourdeaux. i. General. 97. iii. head of fifty Spadassinicides. notice of. 12. iii. ii. ii. 57. state of. riot at. riots. Berthier. 124 invitation to "thinkers. ii. 295-297 Federes arrive in Paris. 130. iii. Bosoche. 330 . Bentham. 215-216. 87 . in riot of Rue St. Berthier.-Antoine. testant. 185-186. 169-170. Bouille. 152 . 247. in Paris. 124.loi scheme. ii. banished. 91 . 268. iii. at Versailles. at Hotel des Invalides. haranguing at the Abbaye. figure at his bedside. ii. 245-246. i. 116. origin of. Boyer. War Minister. i. 331. War Minister. m Pans. Burgh of. in La Vendee War.

207 . 359- °f' 345i. Calonne. iii. See Napoleon. iii. 293. 79-81 . 314. policy towards P'rance. iii. iii. priests banished from. 266. arrested and sent to Cobourg. ii. ii. . i. at . Financier. 219 . house at Caen demolished. ii. at Arof gonne. ii. 83. Brittany. iii. Brunswick. imprisoned. 84. ii. 269. . 270 . besieged by brigands of Avignon. stabbed at Versailles. 93. 142. Girondins at. iii. . dismissed. flight of." i. 202-203. 86 . account of. 140-141 . Matteo. 245 . . 82. defined. on August the Tenth. retreat to Bourdeaux. ii. at bay. ii. dances in Convention. 242 activity in sembly. 168. . Caen. M.. M. . 278 . in command of troops. 68-69. Bully -killers or Spadassins. Buttafuoco. and diamond necklace. App. de. Duke. Cartaux. 124.. and King. 279. Catherine of Russia. Duke de. iii. proposes to publish an " Annales Patriotiques. soirees 250 . INDEX account of. ii. 155ii. public speaking at. Nantes. iii. in 55. 270. duel with Lameth. 326. ^ Camp of Jales. Cabarus. ii. 201 . 15-16. ii. guillotined. 31 n. no. and insurrection of women. 139. accused of high treason. ii. Campan. Cabanis. 243. decorates Necker's residence. 250-252. 244 arrested. de. 279 . i. tion. 201 . iii. 247. General. ii. chari. 409 AsTripro- and 189trial of. 230 . i. 146. ii. General. Carmagnole. 267. . 323 arrested. 125 . 283 . guillotined. at d'Orleans' execution. ii. 254 . »• 355- Mme. 316-317 pelted.. ii. 146. Broglie. war. Buonaparte.. Hippolyte. emigrant at Campan. . ii. at 55 . his difficulties. 67 . Mme. Carra. Castries. 149-150. ii. i. i. 68 prophecy about the Bastille. emigrant at Coblentz. and Duke Orleans. in National Convention. Sieur. 358 71. M. 208-209. . acter of. Brunout. 21 . archivist. 287 short-sighted hooted posals. 234Ca-ira. Republican. 88-96 . in office. Cafe de Foy. 57 Buflfon. i. 205. Carrier. 328. opposed to Plenary Court. 249. 44. National Conven. in Jacobins' bune. i. Candeille. 191-193. Buzot. and Tallien. Cathelineau. 315 . See Jales. revolt in La Vendee. 213-215. Carpentras. physician to Mirabeau. Senhora. 128. 70-73. account of. 24 in National Convention. in National Con- II . a Revolutionist. in prison. Balsamo. Cagliostro. i. ii. Carnot. charged by Lambesc. and proclamation. 28«. plan of siege of Toulon. 265. 290. retreats. ii. the Book of the ii. 232. 323 . 225 190. vention. 169-170. Cant. Napoleon's letter to. disturbances in. searches Robespierre's pocket. 238 . 55 . Calendar. arrested. . against Girondins. iii. iii. plots for flight of Camus. i. Cardine. 184. iii. Coblentz. iii. on the Revolution. Burke. 254. 258 guillotined. 64. death of.. on plots for flight of the King. iii. march on France. at siege of Toulon. 207 . iii. iii. 80 . origin of. Marshal. 207 . Law. iii. Mdlle. Brunei. 86 . failure of. suavity and genius of. Bust-procession. Cambon. 325-326 iii. Verdun. 189-190 . Goddess of Reason. Memoirs of. 243 . Calvados. . busy. 270. iii. 402-403 .

enlisting in. 267. helps Louis's flight. ii. duel with Barnave. 244 summoned by Lariviere. 215. 248 .4IO INDEX iii. iii. 353-. iii. . 292 guillotined. editor. 2 account of. in French Revolu- tion. Chateaux. re- 306. Lord. 76 . i. ii. 23 . Duke de. 3 . Elysees. ii. ii. Revolution. 18 . chemist. i. at siege of the Bastille. and Mile. 226. Chemists. iii. predicts ' ' French iii. 107. Charette. iii. 5. i. at. nevvFederation(i792). at. at King's trial. 52. iii. i. 200 body dug up. death of. ii. in Paris. Cercle Social. ii. 308. 34. Achille de. 194 . 7. the. 287 266. Charles. Chatelet. 60 . . 295-297. released from Brest galleys..'' ii. iii. slaughter of prisoners 13) 155 by. Colonel Duke de. Chantilly. Chateauroux. 200. " Diable Amoureux. Joseph. 200203. iii. 222 on Feast of Reason." at Aries. The- 1791. Duke. contents of. roigne. 113 . Chatillon. Champ-de-Mars. Cazotte. 32. 17. 90. August. 115. ii. Federation. 196. 295 . 186-187. in Constituent Assembly. festivities in. Louison. Marquis de. 285. account of trial of sold > Charenton. 34 . Chatelet Prison. 332. 145 executed. sacred. mobbed.. . scene described. serves writs on Danton and Marat. 263. ii. . " Hymn to Lib- iii. Royalist. has to quit England. 172. iii. . iii. 139. ii. Chateau-Vieux. ii. grain riot at. Abbe de. i. 13. 292 saved by his daughter. iii. Marseillese Chevaliers of the Poniard. 62. ii. Palace becomes a prison. Paris. Chamfort. " Chiffonne. 337 . . inventions of. 275. steel furnace at. notice of. Choiseul. 72. 313-314. Chapelier. imprisoned. . emigrant at Coblentz. at Varennes. account of. 107 cree inviting to revolt. i. 252. Champs 82. i. Chateaubriands. against kings. . iii. ii. 108-109. Chenier. 322 . in London. Choiseul. 201 on Suspects. guillotined. preparation for. speaks to the King.Swiss of. recommends Republic. i. ii. iii. . burning of. iii. . Duchesse de." by Louvet. 118. at Lyons. 309.226. at naval battle off Ushant. 313-314Chalier. 7 . Jacobin. Chapt-Rastignac. 259 . 225. Cavaignac. Chartres. Chenier. . Charles L. seized. Chappe's Telegraph. enters Avignon. pathetic. Charleville boxes. 273. Chevalier de Faublas. 158. . mas- 36. i. Marquis. 308. . funeral oration on Mirabeau. i. erty. iii. Choisi. in September. of the Romance tive. suicide of. 168 . daily demands Constitution. 58. Champagneux. ii. 71. ii. ii- . signs Decheance petition. insurrection Chaumette. ii. 133Cerutti. balloon ascent. 270. 26. 38. ii. 214. 265 arrested. felons shot or Chabot. " ii. Cazales. Chesterfield. 8 in Com- Chambon. Cholat. iii. General. Convention Representa278. iii. riot. funeral service for the slain at Nanci. ii. hanged. 237 . Dr. 254. 198. iii. Townhall. iii. dismissed. Chatelet. 256. iii.. 59-60. revolt in La Vendee. opened by Fauchet. at Mayor of trial. Chauvelin. Chartres. at La Force. i. 5. Mistress of Louis XV. seized and sent back. Chepy. 89 King's de. signs. 94. 210. Chabray. iii.. 69 . 213-214. in Legislative Assembly. i. mittee of 1792. Andre.

. 92-95 new. busy. guillotined. 263 . revolutionary. of 1793. confiscation of lands. J. in the Champ-de-Mars. 342 . . con- fiscation of lands. for. shattered. 225 arrest and death of. 275. 1 1 and philosophy. Kings.184. i. iii. 27. . ii. 10. ii. Luxembourg. 270-271 of defence. 361-366. iii. 299. French.. iii. . . Coigny. 185. 1 82. 210. Municipal. ii. . 247 163 revolutionary. Prince de. Committees. i. 133 account of. . . 42 . . de. for Paris. Baron de. 170-171. Judge. of 164. 12. Sieyes making. lo-ii . disappears. i. 157. two kinds of. See Herbois. iii. Clubs. wine merchant. ii. 357-361 278 to be accepted of the people. 4. iii. active and passive. Clootz. 43. Claviere. spiritual guidance. 133. . 10. Commissioners of Convention. iii. 13-14 . 194. ii. "Moniteur" edited by. 214 . i. 20. a sinecurist. 288. August loth. Duke de. Clery. 67-68. Constitution. 28-29 at Jacobins' Club. last rise of Sansculottism. strength derived from. on nullity of . in States-General. 238. ii. . 38. . 187. " Compte lishes. Rendu. 125. 160. sections. M. 274. demand . Clermont." 55. i. decree of banishment. i. ar358 suicide of. 242 prepares address. Council General iii. ii. surrendered. i. 38. 309310. iii. 179. 14. accused of high treason. . Coblentz. old. . Prussians near. edits " Moniteur. 42.. iii. Club of the Friends of the Monarchic Constitution. conciliators of orders. ii. at Federation of 40 Champ-de-Mars. nature of. 208 black. See Clerfait. Rousseau. emigrants 270-273. 87. iii. valet. 332. 309-310. 258. iii. See also names of various. rescue of Swiss. Clerfait. 184. " Club des Monarchiens. Commune. 293. 183. 162-164. 374-375.. Clergy. 279. zz" Contrat Social i- " of J. . civil constitution of the clergy. dead but galvanised. Conde. 160 coadjutor of Fauchet. . 252-254. Citizens. 379Constitution. 236 burst in pieces. ii. 229-234. 209 «. 209. 343-345- Convention. Cockades. Conde. who is to make it? i. ii. green worn by the people. Meeker pubrising in. 292. Clovis. 89 . 63 in National Convention. Universal Republic of. in 1 790. Condorcet. 63. like 24S. 290. i. Clairfait. end of. ^- 54at. Clemence. Collot d lierbois. 285-286. 189-190 26 . Comtat 249. will not march. Venaissin. at death of Louis XV. of the. 55 . 143 . French. civil constitution of. 48-49. ii. . of. in Paris. Clubbism. 76. 22. Finance Minrecalled. Anacharsis. 187 . delivers Henriot. 13-14. 13. presented by MarieAntoinette at Versailles. flight of. iii. INDEX Church. account ister. 296. in campaign of 1792. on death of Louis. religion. newspaper . as Finance Minister. white. town. 79 on Robespierje.1 1 powers of. 290 iii. account of. 175 . flight of King through. 90. . 293-295. 262. Marquis. Coffinhal. 150. 208. 19. join Third Estate. rested. ii. 76-77 leading questions for. 353. levolutionar)'. of public salvation. on "Committee of the Con283 stitution. 61 n." ii. i. ii. Cobourg and Dumouriez. 193. 160-161. ii. . 411 i." ii. ii. completed. National."• 33Civil war. Clugny.

373of. iii. . at in Netherlands after Jemappes. Chevalier de. 294. 157. 32 . Corn laws. called " Mirabeau of the Sansculottes. 117-122 . ^5. removes to Tuileries. at Varennes. iii. i. Mentz taken by. iii. 130. ii. Cuissa massacred at La Force. Girondins. . 280. General. 209. finishes. Corny. on state of the army.131 . i. denounces the King. charac- question in Jacobins. 360-361 . 287 . account of. 36-37. 223-224 . wax figures of. 116. at Lyons. deliers District. 197-198 stabs Marat. 169-170 . deputies elected. 205. . 4i: ii. 272-273 on confiscation of property. 92 overwhelmed with questions. 198. iii. 273. Ethys de. Corbeil ^93- Boat. his son guillotined. 254 . 331 . retreats. tined. Dampierre. iio112. 336. constituted. i. "^^ . ." 241 . goes to Hotel des Invalides. . 194. Cussy. 184. 127 42 Hebert States-General proces161-162 president of Cor. troops. 184-190 . 83 . i. journey to Paris. 194-195. 313 to be butchered. Crussol. guillo- 308. in municipality. Comte S-. Scotch and French. denunciation Corday. ii. Charlotte. . . 153 . determined iii. permits September massacres. at Clermont. 357 54-55 . 208-209. de. 67 . fall of 177. on the Marseillese Rue . 247. 220. origin 24 n. besieged. 162 . iii. flight rennes. 9798. 164 .-Antoine. guard for. 79. served with writ. 347-348. 55 . in National Convention. 326. decree on jDJots. recruitment in Paris. in Cordeliers Section. iii. enters Avignon. 78-80 teristics of. i. "Committee constitution makof Con- stitution" appointed. 109-110. 189 . ii. 358. Council of Ancients and Five Hun- dred. flight. 54. Plenary. of. becomes Minister for Justice. 125. . at riot in St. 83 . sion. pierre. . forced labour on roads. Louis XV. " faire peur et de I'audace. iii. 193- General. Dampmartin. takes presents. guillotined. 208. Court. 280 . 27 . . in . 274. 284. to Va- 199. decrees of March and April. in Cordeliers' Club. i. Cordeliers District. account of. Covenant. 116." 26. 67 ing. blamed. 284 . 374. Goddess of Reason. Danton president of. iii. 214-215. Curtius. 290. King's trial. 337 . of. 113. 61. 248 Carmagnole. Danton. 196 executed. iii. on. 16 .. 153 193 . at ii. search for arms decree. 205-207. 202. Captain. i. fall of Girondins. Dandoins. Damiens. i. Dandies. 114. resignation of Ministry. arrested with poniard. 39. Corvee. attempted suicide. killed. 47 elected Councillor. at Feast of Etre Supreme. 292. deputies arrested by Dumouriez. 24 . report on crimes of Louis. 75 . 263 . powers of. 227 . Court. ii. 244 National Convention. 51 . wounded by. . 335 . . 42 and renewal of National oath. invite to revolt. 1793. ii. measures in 1794. 320. Custine. representatives. Danton president of. 325 end of Robes. arrested. iii. ii. . INDEX 280 . Cordeliers' Club. 330-333. Turgot's. M. ii. Couthon. retreat to Bourdeaux. i. and Jacobins. 252 his 81-83 > 01^ September massacres. . 265 cowed. . Captain. ^- Damas. retro- spect 379-. 316. 6. in. Marchioness iii. in Jacobins' Club. 156-157 . 67 . arrested and examined. activity. de.

ii. 131 . . 239. 4 26 iii. 28-29. sent to Orleans. feats of. General. . Death. i. and Louis XV. in National Conon plots. ii. ii. term explained. 279 .. 120. account of. . 329. 2. massacred by his troops. Pleader for Louis. 218. Diamond Necklace Sous. iii. ii. 413 294 295 . 42 Tribune. Douai Parlement i. goes to the help of the King. 293 . commissioner sent to Dumouriez. at King's trial. 334- killed by Marseillese. his widow guillotined. i. 289-292. i. . in Legislative Assembly. no. Directorate. notice of. Commandant. Dubuisson. 68-69. 206205 207 pursues the King.. ii. massacre of. guillotined. retires from Committee of Public Salvation. prisoner in Vincennes. III.. his Law of Forty ridicules Law of the Suspect. Deshuttes. 158. i. i i II. at siege of invades Spain. 300-301 304-305Dauphine. iii. member of Committee of Public Safety. ii. Theobald. Commisaside discords. Desilles. charges mob. INDE 97 urges Robespierre to speak. 216. in Cor- 242. cape. : Dragonnades. painter. Dodd. 34-35 . iii. iii. ii. 211. 254. imprisoned at Nanci. 294- 100. Duels amongst members of National Assembly. in Jacobins' Club.. General. 25 . Doppet. Dr. . 139 . 51. editor. Deane. flight of. 284. France divided into. spread of. origin of Reign of Terror. on question . 300 . 192. at King's trial. Cornelius. purged out of Jacobins. 204discovers King's flight. 241. advocates declaring war. 164 . American plenipotentiary France. trial of. 181vention. iii. 234 attempt to estrians. i. guillotined. ii. Dame. Camille. ii. of the veto. Duhamel. 161. trial. Despair. 55 182. Jean B. iii. iii. 215. and Paris Municipality. 109. 304-305 . Dinners to the Regiment de Flandre. 314 . 289. 270. on Louis XV. ii. iii. i. Dubois-Crance. reflections on. in Nanci. . 301 . to 22. Duchalel. account of. suggests Committee of Mercy deliers' . Assembly. 243- in Legislative ii. 121. 212-213 captured by Auswarded. Desmoulins. drink hemlock with Robespierre. ii. baptism day of. . breaks with Girondins. ii. i. 139. 295 . 173-176 . 331. 124. Captain. account of. Dillon. iii. sioner sent to Dumouriez. 280. . . 115. De Pauw. 298-299 . Dumouriez. 156. 8-9 . 301 guillotined. registers edicts. Denoue. . i.. at siege of Toulon. 306. 20 witty and bright. 207-210 recapture of King. David. 328. ii. affair. Toulon. retires to Arcis. Deslons. iii. . bombards Lyons. 278. i. on Bunker Hill. 56 works by. 207-208 . 298. Dumas. Captain. 271 . . i. at French races. 283-284 on Mirabeau. . Drouet. 287 . . 220 . embourg. Dumont. ii. . General. at Caen. 162 . Delessarts. Democracy. liberated. calls the people to arms. 161 . Dugommier. 118. 109. Diderot. 134. 9. Deseze. 167. 149-150. Ducos. iii. i. Dubarry. 115. 58. 68 w. peacemaker. arrested. . appeal to lay . offers to of. ii. 26 i. Mayor of the palace to Louis XV. 300 . 294 and Robespierre. arin Luxrested. 380-381. . Departments. 272 suspected. as 278-279 nicknames for Marat. executions by the Prevot . 254 .

130. Princess. stormed. 141. Estaing. in National Convention. interferes in iii. 226. Dutertre. Estate. plot to carry off the King. ii. ii. seizes Argonne forest. 96 . 338 flight to Varennes. Duranthon. . Adrien. at trial of Marie-Antoinette. Count d'. Paris. 159. i. formed. 199. 273 guil. 23-24 . at siege iii. 167. 200. at Royal produces Session. accused by Marat in Paris. 180-187 j becomes National .16 1 . 137. 49. 120-123 Constituent Assembly. 175 . captured. retreats. i65 retreat with Prussians. i. declares war on PVance. 317 . 57 . court-banker. 125. 89-90. 216.414 i. 148. activity of. ii. . arrested. 308. 128. 293 resigns. Dusaulx. 275 respondence. transaci. 55- 284. 113. discovers Brienne's plot. 163. Duke de. in ofhce. iii. 270-273 . what it is in 1788. 238 . 152 discontented. 96-97 . double representation. hears of King's in La Vendee. in France. announces himself atheist. Etoile. 127 . 247 . 277- Edgeworth. . 213. INDEX 4 . in Luxembourg. confesses Louis. ii. 287-288 . ii. the First. i. 173 of. Espremenil. Fanaticism. i. ii. . iii. Captain. . i. 219-221 . Emigrants. in Paris Parlement. Estate. 293. 182 flight. ii. parting scene with the King. 279 . ii. iii. and Charlotte Corday. 155. at execution of Louis. August the Tenth. i. at 259 . comiii. 258to style of foreign cor- 205. 301. return to Paris. 109. Elie." 260 . 1 trial of Louis. Pre. beginning of Federation at. Enraged Club. ii. notice of. 259 flight from Paris. laws against. guillotined. England. 198. 21 . the watches at Versailles. Famine. 137. 346. 161 defeated. refuses to join Liickner. 265-272 Santerre's . Jacob. 307-308. account 197 . iii. iii. 131 . Fourth. iii. Abbe. 399-401. Emigration. iii. 43 . as pure patriot. i. joins the Austrians. Eglantine. Girondin. 61 74 . papers sealed. . 193. of the . 192 .1792. 55 . 225 .. 207. 75 victory of Jemappes. 160. in Brittany. 197 . 324 . . i. Elizabeth. Duras. summoned by Narbonne . one of the "Triumvirate. goes to Paris. 168. 8 . Second. Duportail. iii. mander-in-chief. i. 138. 213. Durosoy. 180 . iii. on taking of Bastille. iii. tions with Beaumarchais. 361 . draws sword in Convention. 10. 137. Duport. crucifix in Parlement.' Educational measures in 1794. 117 arrest in turncoat. 73-74. i. 153. guillotined. takes Toulon. causes of war with France. . settles lotined. and flight of the King to Metz. . 187. Duvernier. suspected. in Paris Parlement. remedies. Famars. ii. Abbe. the siege of . placards of. of. in 1788. i. Minister of Justice. i. in office. triumph of. assists in New Calendar. 14 . the Bastille. 337. ii. Dupont. 149. 125 . his army. spokesman of Paris Parlement in Lally case. 1787. M. where it leads. causeof riots. in 1789. 102. in Paris. 149. i. ineffectual harangues in street-courts. 195 . Assembly. schemes of. will demit. 25. camp of. 113. iii. 301 . Third. as judge in the Grand Hall.171. Fauchet. Grand . 96. Editors. . d'. 317. council of war. Fabre d'. 277. iii. . law reformer. inertia. goes to Netherlands. iii. 186. in 1789. Duperret. 116. at Coblentz. 188 279. what it was in 1614. Electoral Club. 233. 289 n. 161 .

i. 76-84 . 54-59 . attack on the Left. lo-ii. of. ii. building a Constitution for. 153154- 198 232. 81 his Cercle Social. Extreme-Unction dayof. official. 242-243. 363- Fersen. Formula. 8 . ii. 312. 90. wars and preparations . 15S . 53. 143-145Federation. Count. at Royal Session. 248. iii. 399-401. prisons in 1793. iii. 20. iio. Flanders Regiment. 81. ii. Cafe de. 76 . 107. roused. Chevalier. ii. brokers. French attempt to take. 75 . at Lyons. . siege of the Bastille. iii. i. 316 . Feasts. 17- Fouche. hanged. Mme. 116. Feraud. 52 . 204. relics of. the new (1792). 31 1. Freteau. Foulon. 95. abolished. France. America. Forster. 241 strips off his insignia. trial of. aids in King s flight. ceremonies at Champ-deMars. Austrian. 56. ii. II . ni. 78 nickname of. 128-129. Fronsac. ii. 264-269 . state of. . Federalism. Feudalism. 295-297 . comes to Paris. arrested. prisoned. 14on accession of Louis XVI. condition under Louis XV. 298. 57 . to im- mourning for. 251-252. See Tinville. imof 232. 313-315. 65 69 . 299-300 . Flanders. iii.. 51 Freedom. 227 . ii. I . 210 . strength of. 49. . 17 32. 337. i. gration. 230 . Fournier. 277 . 10. 314316 . iii. of Pikes. how prove. 224. 226 . 239 . i. „. 225 205 at death . ii. 293. 186-192. ii. 287. i. and French soldier at Mentz. See Cabarus. effect on. . 1792. Fouquier-Tinville. 255-256. 177. iii." 132 pretended funeral betrayed and hanged. 284. . 324-325 . of Reason. Manage de. Duke de. famine in 1773. 108 " The people may eat grass. 58. 274. . curses his day.. bad state of. INDEX Bastille. 71 Finances. decay of kingship in. 279. 20-21. M. i. 323-325 . 60 . "4P'reys. Feuillans Club. the one purport of man. 260 the Second Emi337 . Fontenai. 307 . of. general enlisting. schemes for regenerating. executed. Fran9ois the Baker. Freron. 76. and massacred there.. bitterness of. See National Volunteers. 39. 11. 317-318. 415 Fleury. guillotined. 26 . 18.. Favras. 3^4- spellbound. 327. Faussigny. terror in. 34 . 77. i. iii. appointed Mayor. Fourqueux. death . Fleuriot. guillotined. 286 attempt to put down Jacobins. iii. 133. consecrates the funeral haTricolor Flag. arrested. i. feast proposed. i. extinguished. . of Champ-de-Mars. of the Supreme Being.1. Franklin. Joly de. 380. 210212 . iii. 19-21 . spread of movement. Plesselles. ii. .. 42. for. i. preparation for. i. 362. question on liberty of opinion in Convention. declared to be in danger. 106-107. in Paris. 197. 322-323. . ii. ii. 281 . i. communes of. iii. in National Convention. 241 . member of Legislative Assembly. since the Revolution. 130. 258. ii. account of. Feuillantism. arrival at Versailles. essential to Man. . iii. 131. i. " Figaro. 109. ambassador to France. Girondins charged with. division into departments. 76. deputies to. 274 opens rangue on Franklin. Paris Provost. i. 1787. ii. ii. ii. in National Guards. . the Jew iii. . of fall ot the Bastille. ii. Federes. Foy. iii. . 21. liberated. 138. aids Anglomania. bad repute of. at Louis XV. 26 and Orleans prisoners. Minister of Finance. flight of. 216. iii.

112. and Philippe d'Orleans. Major-General. . account of. i. Gondran. . 36. 194-195. Gaudet. i.. 30.. Game. 223. death at Maubeuge. Grenadiers. his house broken into. i. '> iii. 67 on Kingship. dispersed. accused.in Legislative Assembly. restriction of preservation. Grand Pre. iii. 189-190. 232. retreat of eleven. 225. Gregoire. iii. ii. iii. Goethe. farmer. iii. 352. ii. 186. 116. account of. 347-348.357Gibraltar. 175 supported by departments. guillotined. i. iii. Grain. informer. salt monopoly. Commission of twelve. 269. 174 in National Convention. 299. 189. i. of 53. ished. 136 re143 federalism of. replaces Narbonne. at siege of Mentz. Revolutionary. formula of. . insurrection against and fall of. jubilee procession to shrine of. iii. as royal messenger. renounces religion. iii. .1 1 1. 365. ii. and Beaumarchais' lawsuit. ii. Gobel. 331- . . 187. Mauconseil demands arrest of. 304 and insurrection and Louis's . 117-122. women. 306. at siege of the Bastille. . Commissioner to La Ven- 263. 263. 270 Danton flight to . INDEX 15 . 55 158-159 hides in Rennes. . 105. Goezman. trial of. Genlis. price to be fixed. death of Mirabeau. 169. 300-301. and and Mountain. of. 158. 140Pitt.. pleads for Swiss. 208. abol- 202-203 trial of. 214. Girondins. 364 . 189-190. i. meaning of word. Commission broken. wars of. 90-91 . arrested. commits German. 147-148. 304-306 save the Bodyguards. 258. Gouvion. 143-145 buked by Marat. i795> iii. 173-176 accuse Marat. 63 in Prussian retreat. Gensonne. arrested. 6061. Gamain. 4i6 Gabelle. 94 at fall of Girondins. 294. iii. iii. Gorsas. . ii. XVL 258 . retires to England. 86 . 205 . 70-73 . Germinal Twelfth. 139 . . . 298. 184-190. Mme. plots against. Georges-Cadoudal. Garat. 258. Dumouriez at. 99. patriotic. . Commissioner to La Vendee. on King's trial. escape to Switzerland. 46 theories of. Louis takes lessons from. 263 171 arrested. . 331. . iii. iii. Judge-Reporter. 289-290 . 132. Grave. dee. Gilt Youth. locksmith. Goupil. Jacobins' opposition to. 90-91. . 289. . ii. 203. will not denounce . Goguelat. . on. Sieur. 12. iii. i. 203 . Maurepas's. 1 10. iii. riots. 47 bad state of. 200-203 ^t Varennes. . Germany. on extreme left. Government. Glaciere 253- Tower at Avignon. Georget. 177. Captain. ii. returns to Brittany. 230. guillotined. 225. i. 188 . assists Louis's flight. Goujon. 292 guillotined. suicide. at Theot's. ii. 159-160. St. origin of term. notice of. 242 . killed by the mob. Dom. ii. Varennes. . 242 Ministry of 1792. Cure. 168. i. iii.353 i"^ National Convention. Chevalier de. saves the Bodyguards. at Argonne. ii. compensation for Princes. 230 last supper of. 148149. First of April. . y:>. 133. 100-103 . 201. i. ii. . besieged. 122. flies to Bordeaux. 8 maiidement 2i\. . Gifts. 159 break with Danton. 274. 178180 . deputation to Lafayette. i. iii. i. ii. Genevieve. to be an Archbishop. notice Gerle. 191 -193 . 55. iii. 272. Gerard. 316. journalist. iii. 298-299 . 231 Gallois. ii. Engineer. Minister of Justice. 183 . 258. opposed to Robespierre. religion. . i.

Herman. 233 . Lafayette made General of. and the insurrection trial of Danton. 210. 357 at Surinam. 332 . General of National Guard. Guards. 242 282-283 thinks of leaving Paris. 334. and insurrection of 169-170. sailles. tille. of women. editor of " Pere Duchesne. at siege of the Bastille. on taxing of sugar. notice of. ii. 55. harangues at. 227 at Girondins' trial. karstrom. 220. loi. dominant in . French. National and Body. ii. 331-333Guards. at Tuileries. from window. seizure of arms in. women. . iii. 217 Hope. . 231 arrested. Hall of Menus. 129. increased at Veri. 155 changes in. iii. 1 50 . 335 . i. . guillotined. 311 253 bullied at Jacobins. 203 pacifies La Vendee. 236-237 stormed by women. 296 . 187. 247. at battle of Hond216 schooten. National. invented. 285 petition against Camp of National Volunteers. banished. ii. ii. i. Hailstorm. Swiss. for National Convention. 204. 320.Saint-Thomas. Guards. guillotined. iii. Ilerbois. deputed to Champ-de-Mars. . in. battle of. on surnames. Petition of. signs petition. i. arrested. i. 189-190. shot by AnGuadet. i. 214. . France. Guards.. 303. iii. Guillorne. in action. dismissal of. cross-questions Ministers. 237 . trial. . widow of. Sergeant Lazare. 340. . ii. . 227 quickens Revolutionary Tribunal. 88. 335- Guards. lotined. in Legislative Assembly. 148 . i. 184. 94. 310. i. outlawed. . . iii. Constitutional. in Palais Royal. 279. 328 President of Convention at Robespierre's accused in Convention." ii. 299. 279 guillotined. 417 number of sufferers Gustavus of Sweden. in Jacobins' Club. iii.. 124-125. 67 at Lyons. Guards. Sieur. Hoche. Henault. I'etreats from Toulon. fall on Lambesc. fire Henriot. E . . Collot d'. 287 . 231. . 196. 287 fight at Versailles. 226. iii. 44. Hood. riot at. Guillotin. Hassenfratz. and Man. Convention. iii. i. 299-300 ill-treatment of patriots by. 280-281. I. routed Hebert. 368. notice of. Filles. i. ii. 366. tion of staff ordered. Houchard. 269. Guards. 230. Body. Dr. . 97. i. 261 . invaded by Prussia. 143. Grievances. at Tuileries Tenth of August. 333-334. Secret Association formed by. . 108. general against Prussia. 106. 170. 156. prepares for Louis's visit to the Assembly. i. Admiral. 232-233. 10 . i. 332 . Departmental. Guillotine. . i. ii. 335-336 rescued. 317. disbanded. 306. Scotch and French at Reveillon riot. INDEX Grenoble. 2324 . . 188. 333 355 . . President. 210 join the mob. iii. guil. 314-316. in National . summoned by French Parlement. ii. H6tel-de-Ville. account of. 143. 141-142 at Vincennes. 333. occupies Toulon. after taking of Basi. Hondschooten. unsuccessful. iii. 182. 256. established. called out to defend Hotel Castries. iii. General. 39. i. ii.Antoinette's trial. attempt to murder. ii. 144. 206-207. 291. 353-354. Versailles. 233. 281 Holland. 63 at Nanci. 150. 208. at Marie. iii. 224. . July 13. Hotel des Invalides. 328-333 hoist the tricolor. i. in War Office. 45 . 352. ii. by Marseillese. 236-237 298 Louis in. iii. . . arrested. . ii. . guillotined. 337. 1788. . refuse to fire. . 300 re-elec. 241 by. Guards. 347-354 massacre of. 45-46. 84. . Guards. pursues the King. 152-153. 153.

notice of. . in Legislative Assembly. i. Jones. 292 mobbed Huns. ii. iii. Baroness de. Huguenin. Max. on equality. 19 n. victory off"Ushant. and Pereyra. Dumouriez. plot for flight of Jay. primi- . on demolition of Paris. iii. Prince. 333. d'Aiguillon. ii. 8. and suspended. 359. 187. Kings. equipped for America. Inisdal. to suppress. Paul. 1792. i. . i. upholds Robespierre. . deputation Assembly. Couthon's question . 57 member of Legislative Assembly. i. 33-37. 286. 41. against 3. 41 . 254-255. 283 . beats Villaret-Joyeuse. and the Virgin. 303 . repels Austria. iii. decline of. 312mules. i. 304-309. 1792. 252-254 capture. last Sansculottic. 124 . i. ii. naturalist. Jean. Howe. Kellermann. iii. ii. 192. recalled. camp Ideals. death of. 296 . i. 279. realised. accounts of. sacked by mob. daughters sends at Nanci. Dumouriez's victory at. guillotined. August. 184-190. prosperity of. Paris against Girondins. Lazarus. 10. 377 . . Carpentras. described. King. 1 1 . 338-354 . iii. at siege of Bastille. Kingship. magnetic vellum to Legislative 209. ii. 375. Jourdan. . de- scription of. ii. 34. i. . 6. ii. Chevalier. Invalides. Attila's. 231. Divine right tive. 166 to . 213. Jancourt. tulien. ii. i. 98 dins. iii. 39 . 343- 250. Jean ii. I29-I30> I34Jubilees. . 286. General. 96-97. 292. 218 . of. sacred right of. at Versailles. welcome Mar- Central Committee of Feder<^s. August the Tenth. 259-261 . . 285: Kaunitz. 331. 281-341 most sacred of duties. Isnard. in. 1792. 328. Sieur 51. ii. 294 selves. 292-293 Lafayette's letter Lafayette's attempt against. . . members purging them- 20th June. 349. . guillotined. d'. House of St. 328-329 . 323. Hozier. germ of. 25. 132-133. . 162and National Convention. II. 183 . 295. i. 26 denounces the Jacobins. . of Baboeuf.. at siege of the Bastille. of. 146. ii. long arm of. 286 rouge. Mirabeau's female bookseller. 191. . not to be trusted. . beheads corpses. besieges rising at 250-252 flight and Avignon. . Admiral. ii. 120. of women. 276. Korff. Jemappes. Klopstock. Saint- Domingo in. 243. 161 313. iii. Jeunesse Doree. deputies to Versailles. in flight to Varennes. 4i8 INDEX the iii. accusation i. 307 . 228. at Valmy. 250 . ii. ii. Claude. in Paris. i- 52of. iii. 273. Knox. Comte d'. 3. 311 seillese. Jansenists. . 150. 277-279 ii. 241 on Ministers. 225. Insurrections. will demit. Journals. Jacobins' Society. 282 328 355 Jales. hunted down. June Twentieth. Keppel. Royalists at. sends Commissioners 332 . 282. ii. iii. i. 12-14. . John. iii. i. suppressed at Nanci. Jokei (jockey). 347-348. 161 revolutionary Committees and tribunals. in governing Committee. 102 . 304 . 272 290. i. La Chalotais. 64. 57. 361-363. Jourdan. 5 1 . ." 286. 380. ii. Hulin. growth of. hall described. 286 "Lords of the Articles. 120. on King's opposition to Girontrial. 102 of. in Paris. iii. Club described. Dame le. i. in dealer Coupe-tete." 67. 27 . 15 . extinguishes adopt the bonnet Feuillans. 187 . Jacob. iii. " eldest of men.

i. 161 . 93 . Keeper of Seals.. . and Mirabeau. Lamarche. President notice of. Triumvirate. at Feuillans' Club. posed by. Baudin de. iii. guillotined. ii. See Tollendal. imprisoned. Lamotte. attempt to send King and Queen to Rouen. in London. Charles. ii- 3I3-3I4tithe. M. 132. guillotined. Lamoignon. 199 266 at La Force. of Guards at Tuileries. 13 . 209. 19 mas." of the pure Patriot. abolition of de-Mars. 240 " 260 as i. 235 . . i. Lanjuinais. 92. 172 of Feuillant Directory. 314. 72. Countess de. i. 300. arrested. prison plot-informer. door-keeper of Jacobins' Lariviere. 3 . . 18. accuses Danton. notice of. 42. 285 and insurrection of women. J uge-de-Paix. 40 . flies to Holland. 203 . iii. 141-142 King's atsaves Vincennes. . at flight from Tuileries. 173- . Princesse de. Lagrange. >i. 82 escape of. bust of. . . friend of Marie-Antoinette's. falls in battle. Club with Louis PhiHppe. La Vendee War. i. in prison. . account of. ii. 180. command ii. Cloud. . guillotined. 280. 33. 41- La Rochefoucault. arrested. Lavergne.141 one Legislative Assembly. iii. made General of National Guard. 189-190. assists in New Calendar. flies to Holland. 237 . 304. in Legislative Assembly. 109. . Lambesc. Lacroix. 274 and refuses stipends the Veto. Lamotte. ii. 68 in the Salpetriere. 154 tempted visit to St. Laflotte. 15. 237. Lafayette. 179180. 4. Intendant. on Duke of Orleans. i. 196 unpopularity. Count. 247 . . 234 284 . iii.INDEX La Chenaye. ii. ii. 189 after escape amnesty proof King. 18. iii. Laperouse. 334. Alexandre de. massacred at La Force. . " Lanterne. . 317. on abolition . . 343- . Girondin. in rescue 243 245 . 138. 365. during siege of the Bastille. 243. iii. Abbe. . 307. 363. de. Laclos. attempt to take Austrian against JacobinFlanders. resigns. ii. iii. in iii. pomp kept up by. " Deliberations " by. 360. flies to Bourdeaux. i. . military moveabsolved by Legislaments. 40 . 36 . 42 on 66 in Champcorrespondence Marat wishes . 352. 8889. 360ture. Jacobin. Lamourette. Lameth. Lameth. 251. 303. ii. tries to demands Lameth. Lasource. Prince. 53 . on i. dismissal. 194. . flight intrigues of. . to England. 298 ism. in Legislative Assembly. origin of Baiser de Lamourette. ii. . Lamballe. 244 . 112 " Memoires" . charges mob. Lamourettes. La Marck. 37. clothes torn. Lais. iii. 93 . sneers at de Castries. notice of. . in Legislative Assembly. killed at Gisors. 31 5 n. Necklace. iii. 77 with Bouille. erected. 66. 137 . . Due de. 130 fend Hotel Castries. 311-312. 49. ii. ii. 244. 2 on character of Louis XVI. 419 . . 53Laporte. . 187-188 iii. by. Commissioner sent to Dumouriez. 304. voyage of. iii. 284 and emoluments. 10. 172-173. ii. Lally Tollendal. 134. i. . and Diamond effigy burnt. . . President. iii. of titles. 87 called out to deto gibbet. 213. 243-245. titles. and death of. 7 . 243. 323 kisses Marie-Antoinette's hand. iii. 140. Sieur. i. Lafarge. burnt. throws up his Commission. 7 duel with Duke Jacobin. Larochejaquelin. . . Theodore. in Notables. answer to Dame sacred. Foulon from the people." I^oulon and Berthier hanged at. ii. 337 361 and Mirabeau. recalled. iii. 116.

163 . 189-190. Lataille. . 235. Prince their doom. ii. forger of assignats. 259 ii. Leopold. 15. Marquis de. Regiment 314. iii. Abbe. 279. 118-119. 250. Latour du Pin. Legendre. ii. ." 3°9Law. rested. 12. guillotined. 16 . 64 . See Maton de la Varenne. 100. iii. Mirabeau's female bookseller. i. announces tille. Lepellelier. Dame. in 55 . 58 . 291-292 . ii. Assembly. . of forty sous. defence of the Bastille. arrested. La Vendee. 36. in Convention.. at National Convention. ii. 222 invited to surrender. 278 . . 328. 219. 232-233 women attempt to hang. 44 . ii. 113. proobjects to send- de Flandre. arrested. i. Abbe. 364Le Jay. Blanc. in demonstration of 20tli June. i. i. in First Parliament. Lavergne. Jerome. . Lebrun. Levasseur. Lavoisier. ii. Versailles. ii. declaration of Pilnitz. massacred. i. in National Convention. ar- L'Escuyer. rewarded. iii. ii. See Vendee. Lawyers. death of. de. fall of the Basto Louis XVI. La Varenne. philosophism on. iii. chemist. 307 in National Convention. 60. at Strasburg. surrenders Longvvi. meets ents. attempts to justify husband. ii. ii. 227 . 368-369. 187 . 268. 231. i. locks out Jacobins. 308.357) 364 . M. 303. i. in . 360. Lebas. Emperor of Austria. 218. Lebon. shot at Veriii. at Hondschooten. guillotined. 32S . Lies. Lettres de Cachet and Parlement of Paris. 271 . 338 n. at Danton's accused. 231. Lautrec and Lameth. ii. women insurg- 172. escorts the King from Varennes. cession. Lazouski. iii. on meeting of troops at Nanci. 21 1 flees with wife. 178. ofi"ers ii. cant a double and insurrection of women. of. 360. iii.. iii. their influence on the Revolution. 300 . 375-379Leroi. iii. L'Heritier. . Levy in Mass. ii. 232. landlord at Varennes. sailles. at i.. death of. and Marat. i. of. iii. 22. 50. . 173 . 234. iii. de. 220. . iii. 223. 140. i". Book of the. Augeard's interview with. Lenfant. patriot. pleads for Danton. iii. killed at Avignon. Duke Lechapelier. iii. trial of. 222 . Latour-Maubourg. notice of. iii. names himself " Dix Aout. i. 17. and Protestant Edict. Le Boniface. 3T7-319 on fight with Bodyi^uards at power Ligne. 292. iii. ing for States-General 161 . 299-300. 335 in Convention in Prairial. revolt in Vendemiaire. guillo- Liancourt. use of the terms. 1718 n. 34. iii. iii. ii. 331. 105 unpopularity . tined. Dame. 241. distributes gunpowder. 244 arrested. Lecointre. 289 . 420 INDEX Legislative 174. 189-190. Liberty. number of in Tiers Etat. 252-253. martial in Paris. 304 . ii. threatened by National Guards. to be extinguished. Launay. Arras. . fall of Girondins. 274 . 248. and Orleans prisoners. trial. 55 at Lefevre. 13. 245 . iio-iii. Lepelletier Section.. See Saint-Fargeau. 170 . ii. Lavergne. deputy. Leonard-Bourdon. 56 Convention representative. 14. 220. 212 and equality. 300. challenged at dinner to Regiment de Flandre. statue of. on Danton.

. a cobbler. surrender 13. 22- 23 on ministerial capacity. . 262. iii. escorted from the Luxembourg to the Tuileries. Lille city. i illness. 69-70 Dumouriez tries to secure. Lorraine. 309 . Louis XV. of his 239 valets. 334of. 232. iii. 324 . 301-302. 181. 143 . 66-67 notice 160 . in residence at Tuileries. plans for flight of. 231 . goes to the Assembly. . flight. Longwi. Livery of servants. restorer of French liberty. and Notables. origin of surname.. 96. 177 . guillotined. 265. 159. 4 . 39 . 363-367 what to do with. 188circular to amletter to Assem- 11. . 176. io8no. Louis XVI. Federation. execution of. 162. 310. question to be solved. 56-57. 3 . 5. ii. 1792. 14. INDEX Rouget de. composes the Marseillese. . . 313 . 155. 1787. 316 at new Federation. Louis Philippe. 156 in States-General procession. . 320. . deputation to from Legislative Assembly. and Linguet. ii. ii. accepts Constitution. i. 33 not a 28 . last levee of. 97. 334-341 ii. 170. lished " Bastille Devoilee. good measures of. 421 . gives sanction to Civil Constitution of the Clergy. ii. religious man. L'Etat c'est moi. 72. 4 . Loiserolles. 82. de. 45. iii. i. as locksmith. return to Paris. 17 n.. the Dauphin. Louis XIV. speech at States-General meeting. fear of death.. in87) 92-95 dictment of. ii. 2. life at the Tuileries. 55. posed flight to Metz. 293 . 356 sent to the Temple prison. 170 w.. 349-350 . oppressed condition of. 281. 157. and Mirabeau. . 15 . on his accession. 186 l^ly. visits Assembly. proParis. and siege of the Bastille. of. Jacobin door-keeper. bassadors. Loan. Losme. Cloud stopped. . 11. 326-327 . abolished. death and burial of. 125. proposes declaration of war. 117122. visits pursuits 35 difficulties . 236 . 263 . 19 . 127-129. begins governing. demonstration of the 20th June. iii. pursues Louvois with tongs. the veto. by. in Assembly. ." . 107109 Locksmith Gamain informs against. 217. pubof. 319 and insurrection of women. ii. 287. . 193) 199-21 1 . receives States . captured at Varennes. successive. iii. petition "Decheance" to be for pronounced. death of. i. trial. 66. Lille. goes to Paris. 28. 77 . 219221 . . 304-309 sympathy with after 20th June. 2-6 . 246 . 144. ii. familiarity petitions for 109 . 108. King of the French. 321. 17-28 last 6. 105-106. 235 assurance to Paris. fugitives from. 322 and Brunswick's proclamation. 33 of. . 4 . wounded by Damiens. 5 . 91-92 . 194 . 216. 315 . 313. reinstated. 359-360 . iio-iii death of. . 185. 42 at . Mirabeau's plans for. in Temple. Temple. i. 103-105 makes his will. 212 . condemned. 3 put in charge of . 336 Tenth of August. Federes and the Queen. . feeds Paris.General deputies. . flight of aunts. siege of. 75 state of in 1790. ii. . weakness of character. 114. 229. no hunting. 25 . 14. 264 . 126. petition for forfeiture. iii. 339. 335 . Louis XII. 231 . 283-284. i. holds Royal Session. 63. in the 358 n. daughters. parting scenes. . . 310 . 127.. 5-6. i. Louis. journey to St. temper and of government. irascible. i. hooted in Parlement.. death of. aud Federation feast. 92 . in National Assembly. 229. interview with Petion. Limousin peasants. General. i. ii. . 152 . i. . . «. 179-180. 224 death n. his 195 . interview with Lafayette. 45. 151 . . 308. 75 .

145-146. 178 at fall of Girondins. ii. 217 at. 277-278 schemes for regenerating France. 249. 247. 34. 268. i. i. 198-199." i. 221 . iii. 343. August the Tenth. 277 . Deputy. 233 . the. mob attacks prison. 205. guillotined. ii. one of four generals. goes to Switzerland. i. solicits for Louis. 44 in National Convention. 115. 27 signs Circular. iii. 330 pulls tocsin bell. 345 in Committee of Townhall. Maille. Maillebois. 86. executions by Electoral Committee. 55. signs Decheance . ii.. iii. . 1792. horseleech to d'Artois. ii. Malseigne. 248. his " Sentinelles. 320 . 312-313. 422 Valmy. 257. massacred at La Force. 168. in King's Council. n. ii. . sembly in. illness of. ii. 299-320 sent to Paris with decree concerning grains. ii." ii. i. i. Salle de. 189-190. 5758. 35 . 121 . 261 . 206 . Chalier (Jacobin) executed at. iii. Adam. at Coblentz. bombardment and explosions captured. 161 . Maignet. 67 . 338. Camp-Marshal. arrested. Magnetic vellum. notice of. 19-21 . iii. . 250 . . 270. Louis XVL escorted to Tuileries from. no. ii. Malesherbes. edits " RevoUitions de Paris. 171 . Mallet du Pan. . efflorescence 346. 270. triumphant acquittal. 247. Sieur. August. 189. . . 106-109. . 360. Brunswick on heights Liickner. 340 in governing Committee. La. Manuel. Lune. iii. 1792. 267 . 241. ii. 200. Malouet. . on trial of Louis. Marshal. 197. Commander of Guards. sent to Nanci. 51. 226 . 338 . de. 345- Lyons. implicated in plot. ii. 263. becomes a of. burns Bedouin Burgh. 39-40- 354-355 . haranguing at La Force. 175-176. rights and mights of. iii. . 287 suspended from civic functions. in Municipality. 8586 questions Dumouriez. 74 illness. at trial of MarieAntoinette. 153 . 170. honoured and dishonoured. Macon. 55 expects to be murdered. teaches mathematics. at siege of the Bastille. petition. company of. . ii. . Jemappes. 97 . . ii. 225 .. 115. loo-ioi . 49 . 251 . 32 truth and humour in. notice of. 7. iii. on taxing of sugar. heads insurrection of women. in National Convention. 219 . iii. disorder in. writ served on. recalled. 251 massacres at. 109-110. of. 57 . 196. August. Mandat. at. ii. Mailhe. in September massacres. concealed in cellars. in National Convention. at King's trial. Deputy to Paris. 317. 72. iii. guillotined. iii. 228 . 147 . M. at Tuileries. and Robespierre. stabbed. defends Louis. 243. INDEX 66 . 8-9 advises slaughter of aristocrats. retreat to Bourdeaux. 136 and Girondins. Loustalot. 31. 195. Constituent As- Lux. on death of Charlotte Corday. 168 . notice of. 55. with Dumouriez. . Maillard. 158 arrested. 168. ii. . Louvet. 258. 71. iii. 8. de. on sufferings of people. . 160. August. 152 . escape of. count of. Usher. 1 19 in prison. liberated. 226. 104 . death of. 1792. . ii. 34 warnings by. . his " Chevalier de Faublas." i. Jean-Paul. iii. 64-66. iii. 260. Luxembourg. 343-344Manege. military movements. 129130. forges prison. iii. Mailly. Marat. iii. 288 . at Orange. guillotined. 98. 2S4 in Jacobins' Club. Man. 308. at his sister. federation movement. M. i. 17. guillotined. appeal against violence. Luxury. ac.

" Marseillese. 270. . August the Tenth. made 72. Metz. 220-221 . ii. at Charenton. in Legislative Assembly. Minister. seized. i. 36 . 334-335 . . on nobility. Versailles. . described by Goethe. 376. . September. emigrant. 250. courage of. iii. . . raised by the mayors. 60. the Lady. in National Convention. delegates to Paris. and Federates. 308 . Marseilles. 3. Cardinal. Chancellor. plans flight. Abbe. 212 . . 346. 321 becomes national. 125-127 . i. Menus. return to Paris. acter of. irascible. Maupeou. 337 dogmatic. Mentz. 35 . 207-208.. . notice of. surrender of. Meda. . 74. Mercier. ii. 49-52 . explained. parting scene with King. i. ii. September. proposed flight of the King . 4748 of Orleans prisoners. . 268 «. 290-291 . Maury. Camp of. sent to the Temple prison. 188-193. General. 19 . Menon. 200 . Maurepas. 46 September. Hymn of the. . iii. i. six hundred troops march from. 267.36 n. government Flandre. iii. dinner to. 348 behaviour as captive. at Coblentz. appeal to her friends. 120 on the Feast of Reason. 7. 347-355.General. iii. 5 . iii. Menads. atheist. summoned by Lariviere. ii. i. townsmen take arms. iii. i. Memmay of Quincey. 249 at Lyons. Mauconseil. 163-164. 74and Mira75 . taken to the Conciergerie. . writes to Coblentz. captured. Mesmer. Councillors exiled by advice of." iii. 47 . taken by French. ii. alleged figure which spoke to Besenval. 153. under Louis XV. Marechaussees. efifigy in Champ-de-Mars. 3. on quitting Vienna. ii. " Metra the Newsman. 50 . Meillan. 75. 112. 329-330 . 174 characteristics of. iii. 237 . number slain in. 270. corpse's hand. iii. Marseillese. 138. Merlin of Thionville. death of. 296-300. 37. 226 . 319 for Girondins. Maton de la Varennes. 243-244. 201 guillotine at. arrested. his "Law of the Suspect. iii. 313-314. i. banquet to rustics. 3. applauded. Thomas. charof. " Mariage de Figaro. flight. i. 328. . 335. 281 . . Meillar. petition for deposition of King. i. INDEX Marechal. defence of her apartments 325 at Versailles. 150. 270. 333-334 August the Tenth. and Robespierre's death. Massacres. 228-229. 199-211. at Nantes. Merlin of Douai. iii." ii. 10 at battle of Jemappes. 351. 185. in September massacre. 263 . 330 shows herself on balcony at Versailles. Merlin. 4 . 147-148. 259 seized and sent back. . 224 trial of. 423 Marechale. 251. 263-264 129 at dinner to the Regiment de . 176. Maulde. 55 . 213iii. 332-333 rout the Filles St-. in demonstration of 20th June. 47 of former times. M. Martial Law." 36-38. ii. on States. the. 228 . 338 . 71- Marie-Antoinette.. See Law. 156. 46 . d'Artois explains crisis to. . on King's trial. Section. 170 n. 128. 96-97. guillotined. 219-221 and Barnave. 221. Diamond Necklace affair. 359-360 . . 222. i. Metayer System. . goes to Paris.. i. 30-48 . Calendar by. griefs of. iii. on forfeiture of King. unpopularity of. 46 . 332 . 144 iDeau. i. 145. Dr. as conciliator. in National Assembly. iii. at Mentz. ii. Prime i." composed by Rouget de Lille. in Paris. i. 208. 18 his " Resurrection." by Beauniarchais. at the Tuileries. splendour of. . 224 . 358 . Hall of.

Militia. insurrec- Miomandre de Sainte-Marie. i. 185 father's death. federation movement at. invents balloons. 2 defends insight of. 211. 156 . i. Goeslard of Paris Parlement. becomes Minister. Meiy. . lippe Egalite. attempts to send King and Queen to Rouen. 336. i. 264 . . . assists in New 278 . 171 Assembly. 261 . expelled by Noblesse of Provence. Tonneau. 157. tion of women. a 358 . newspaper by. 289. 64 . i. notice of. Montgolfier. the King to. 172 character of. i. retreats. . iii. idea of. . 34 34 on disat Jacobins' Club. connection with Philippe d'Orleans. of Ease. 283-284 women.. 8 . i. iii. General. 75. 146 is Deputy for Aix. Intendant at Rennes. i. . 168-170 funeral of. guillotined. 136. 260261 . 274. . . . . Monsabert. in . emigration law. Dr. Mery. 168 burial-places of. 94 isolation of. Montmartre. 55. i. ii. mutiny of troops carry oft' ii. aristocracy of the. ii. bookseller. 173 sword. journal of. his female bookseller. j sacred. i. 26 . 296-333. 283 . 91 . 83 . Montelimart. at. 218-219 195 on the visit to the Bastille. French de. Miromenil. i. 246 deficit. suppressed. ii. 363. 319 . iii. kill game. 8-9 courage of. Millennium. de. ii. . French army. 291 . War Secretary. i." publication diurnal editions. . 352 in massacres at La Force. 242 . 198 . 166 death last appearance in of. 87 . jiublished 160. Marquis. death of. . 66. ii. Savoy taken by. . account of. Monarchy. 147. iii. Mobs. dismissal of. 272 . mathematician. on probable career of. 265-266.175Mirabeau the younger. 354. i. . ii. i. i. 424 to. Moore. 358 on death of Phi. ii. 134. 152. Mirabeau. 218-219 i'. 89. Marine Minister. 117 . packs Galleries. in hiding. of. Tenth of August. ii. 137 duels of. i. on the state of France in 1775. 336 . . arrest 120-128. 17. relief works at. on the Royal Captives. . to be enrolled. 104 his remains turned out of Pantheon. . 8 on right Veto. 147-148. 34. plans for Louis XVI. 35 . saleable? 10. 97 . Count. 9 source of income. Moleville. the Notables. describes the last levee. de. 259 . . . ii. condition of peasantry from. 155. treason charge. warned by Talleyrand. plot to iii. prison. yet works. his newspaper silences Breze. . 175. Miranda. 86 proposes disbandment of n. comes to Paris. bust broken. Bailli (uncle). Moreau de St. 147 . Montgaillard. breaks his i. &eSt. iii. placard journals. . iii. iii. 289. of. 296. 317 . King to declare war. iii.4°! death of. 163-167. on tannery of human skins. 173-174 363-367 . . Montesquiou. INDEX 287. Mirabeau. ii. 304. . General. President i. 213. iii. . Mirabeau.. fence at Versailles. iii- 33- Moranda. his wife Goddess of Reason. 137. 85 groaned at in Assembly. iii. Keeper of Seals. 59- . 33. Bertrand de. 139 interview with Marie-Antoinette. ii. 372. 175. . 107 and Mirabeau. 18. 283 and the question of insurrection of Veto. fame of. 11. Montmorin. 268 . . Parisian. fall of French. 367 mas. ii. in Constituent Assembly. . Mont d'Or. 164-165 sickens. iii. arrested. Calendar. 40 cords in French Government. "Moniteur. Monge. Money-bag. 329-330 rewarded. Meudon Tannery. Momoro. i. nicknamed of . 9-10. plausible answers to Assembly. 1792.

and insurrection of women. Motier. Needham (Nesham). 68. 425 studying Napoleon by. at. 265 11. 277. 102. . sent to Paris. ii. i. state of. 14 leaves France. 363.106. Louis XV. . 197 at. supplanted. pamphlet Morellet. Night of Spurs. iii. 277-279. Hannah. Nerwinden. loses influence. new. Sicard. iii. sword. under Louis XV. invades Spain. join Third Estate. confessor XV. 134. a pedant. Mountain. given a " civic ance. 263. benefices threatened. put out of law. opinion of himself. in red nightcaps. in Legislative Asand Gironsembly. the. 120. 243. Narbonne. receives news of King's massacres at. replaced Mme. account of. 54 . battle of. 278. furlough in Corsica. women. See Lafayette. 75. 333. 147-149 bune Extraordinare. iii. 282. emigrant. ii. revolt. Moton. mutinous state of troops. 127 . Midler. 187-188. 52 . i. Diamond. imprisoned. from \\ig-makers. 341342. 82. 119. 299-302 .. 314-316. and Mirabeau. ii. ii. 163. ii. 31. 265 . 174-175. dismissed. on Due d'Orleans. . proposed camp of twenty thousand. de escapes. 16. 129. 33 . on. raising of loan. National Volunteers. Abbe. 1 60-161. Bouille's attack. 41. . refuses Brienne. . 30. 376-379. . of de. ii. 26. 207. deserts the National Assembly. interference between Three Orders. i. recalled. returning from Bale. Necklace. iii. 1 13. . watchmaker. Mayor of Lyons. 377. Buonaparte. ii. Nobles.. . Nievre-Chol. Ii. i. 11-3. of. Louis de. deputation from. Naigeon. ii. 85. Moudon. iii.Statue of." ii. 341-342. Netherlands. revolt. constitution of. i. . ii. resistance to Bouille. petition i. 14. and insurrection to Louis ii. disciple of Diderot. Adjutant. lOi. 106. Nemours. 97. . Navy. 209. no- 168. 305-309 . effects escape made War of Mesdames. 131. i. in Vendemiaire _ _ . . rots. i. 376 Vendemiaire . iii. 274-275 by de Grave. 119-120. Nesham. i. decrees the Tripoints. iii. demonstration of 20th June. 140-143. INDEX More. General. 315." i. Nantes. ii. ii. at Grenoble. mihtary executions. in France. 145- 169 . 55 . ii. iii. 140. 27 71. mathematics. reconvokes Notables. 244 vulnerable dins. 19. Sieur. iii. 271. 198. Nanci. i. 151 . arriving in Paris. dismissed. 272 . 163. 208. flight. occupied by French. 124. 309 returns with acceptance from the King. 254 Cabarus soirees. 304. . recalled. iii. 345-346 made Commandant. Mounier. iii. Secretary to "Notables. Abbe Moucheton. Muscadins. 358-359 . 27. organised. Newspapers. 129-130. 160. Dupont de. wax bust carried in procession.. 93 Tenth of August. iii. 249 priests drowned 258 Noyades 258 prisoners from. 337. Murat. President. . . 173-174. account solicits money. 33-37. . 347-348. 27. Minister. 15. Staal 17- secretes. 321. ii. Assembly Commissioners at. 352 145 under General Cartaux. Danton accused. deputation of mutineers to Bouille. tice of. Municipality of Paris. ii. revolt at. 238. Dupcrret draws a sword. saves 30. 289 . 107-111. 201 at I-a at siege of Toulon. Controller-General of Fini. Necker. . Admiral. Nature. 21 1. new. M. iii. 116.

at Nantes. 426 Notables. 215. claims " Rights of Man. 298. renewed. d'. renounces iii. 30-31. ii. 259-260. Osselin. iii. . 1789. 295-297 . solicits for Louis. Due d'. recommends Republic. 334341 . volunteers of. ment from. 262-263. 6 . reconvoked. 260. 8 20. renews National 35 Oath. Paine. Orthodoxy and Heterodoxy. . at death of Louis XV. Genlis. billstickers. 27. 57 . i. CEil-de-Boeuf. condemned. 211. in Notables. ii. 144. 20-21. at Hotel des Invalides. 183. 58-59 . ii. rally Oge. 114. . arrested. Philippe (Egalite). public speaking at. in Luxembourg. . 1789. patriotic gifts. at Champ de Mars. 84 92 . . Napoleon's estrange- Pantheon. i. in governing Committee. ign. Parens. October Fifth. Mayor. 138. 307. 42. question of the Veto. of the Tennis Court.. . by police. Cure. ii. 172. 118. iii. ii. 237 . 196 naturalised. first occupant of. 282-283 . 109-110. 275 . 154. arrested. Anglomania of. liberated. 279. 137 treasonable speculation by..Royal garden destroyed. 283-284 .t King's trial. shunned in England. Due d'. release of Swiss of ChateauVieux. escape to Switzerland. 273 . Louis XVL visits. Noyades. outside King's of. General.. . sion. enlist- 296-333 . 278 prisoners massacred at Versailles. 141. «. 207-208. 33-37. 49-52. 127. 241 guillotined. 145 n. Bailly made Mayor.the King enters. patrols in. Convention. 26. ii. preparation of Champde-Mars. 122. 84 dismissed. 58. ii. 1S3. 56 . confidant of Danton. i. Controller of Finance. in National . ii.149. 87-88. 247. ii. his uncle. 30. Feuillans Club dines at. i. iii. 334Palais-Royal. ii. 258. 47 . 293 escapes guillotine. 69 . . demand for arms. Paris. 264. 317 . 239 5 scarcity of bread. 119." ii. 3. wealth and debauchery. 221. interview with the King. bust carried in proces- 208 in Constituent Assembly.. Swiss. Deputy. on Nanci affair. Oath. 1787. hall i. 28. 47 fayette's. iii. 222. . 57) 97 and at King's execution. ii. 337-338. . 84 at Royal Session. guillotined. 78 ." 79 in Luxembourg. ii. no. Orleans. raising of militia. 16 . 168. i. re-election of staff ordered. municipal constitution. Pan. 32. convocation of. Pamela. Palais . 193. 172. awaits events in Paris. Pache. apartments. Paoli. Minister of War. religion. Mile. dismissed. Quarteroon. on " Committee of the Constitution. in Paris. by Duke de Chartres. 197 . i. insurrection of women. Mallet du. 96. 1792. . 172 joins Third Estate. 129-130. 9 . 114. wax . 212 . 58-59. account of. 242-243Ormesson. . 147 . assembled February. members of. Girondins. iii. 263. 33 journals. "Deliberations" isin States-General prosued. 287. Panis. Orleans. changes made in. INDEX 82. i. 265 in National Convention. ii. foreigners flock to. 284-286 . . making of municipal constitution. Orleans. on States-General. adopted by Mme. Orleans. . connection with Mirabeau. 1787. Paper. 284. insulted at Court. High Court at. iii. and Beaumarchais. i. Petition against the Veto. Princesse d'. 26 . iii. siege of the Bastille. 140. 77. clearing election of representatives. iii. iii. origin of city. 134. i. age of. . LaNational. Guards. . 138 cession.

132. iii.12. names on house doors. functions. rebellious. manufacture of by the people. of Douai. in Legislative Assembly. 357. . alone registers i. i. 284 . 26 missioner sent to Dumouriez. 120. statues torn 341 . . iii. 161 . Pilnitz. " l-'arlement Maupeou. 310. May. 349 in state of . 108-111. 97. the Temple Prison. 312-313 322 . influence on Revolution. 148. built. on the Veto. Paris. tional . baptism of. brightened up. 305-309 . i. . 30. ii. 72. 1794." by St. Sieur. suspended from . Royal session. 144. statues erected. 335 . iii. abolished. 219 . escape. 116. . 284 against Camp of National Volunteers. . "fraternal supper" in. 357358 . INDEX ^792. friend of Danton. 1793. 212. . Provincial. enlisting. 156-157. 70 disappointing. Blondes. scene in. . notice of. 175 . ii. 98 . 42 destroys religion. Guillotin. iii. 158 against the Mountain. exiled. 359-360 entrenched. 269. 335 . 17. 123. • 71. Mayor of Paris. what it has done with the Church. 300. reinstated. 368. adhere to Paris. 95. 284 . firmness of. i. as pure patriot. 1795. 98 ar. magnetic vellum to tame. 134-135. Phelippeaux. Convention. i. 124. Payan. 137 . . ii. . i. ii. 74 on registeri. 339 escorts King and . 124. . purged out of Jacobins. 129 iii. Patriotic gifts. iii. abolished. 324-325. Jeunesse Doree. 39 . account of. King's forwelcomes Mar335 seillese. i. no. ./. Parlements. lOO-lOl. 369- . 67 declines mayorship. iii. 105. ii. Convention at. 299. III . loi . Dutchii. 104 rested. stationed by Lafayette. Pichegru. 26 49. death of. 235 . assassinates Leiii. 51. 168 . signs Circular. Queen 3 . . reinstated. iii. . in National Convention. pelletier Saint-Fargeau. yields. General. ii. . 299-300 for King's forfeiture. to . 96. Pierre. 12. re-established. 294. iii. ii. 33 ing Edicts. i. 375. i. enrolled." . 293 arrested. 12. iii. purged out of Jacobins. account of. 288. 126. origin of. 338-354 municipality supplanted. 376. popular. Paris. escorts the King from Varennes. Oath and Declaration of. 248. 55 President of Na359-360 . Petion-National-Pique. Petit-Jean. i. Guardsman. 29. . 344-348. of grievances. how of. French. in London. on forfeiture of King. 102 . 234. ii. civic ^siege. Patrols. 1 1 5. Petion. petition for feiture. 124. 243.342 King and Queen sent to 358 prison. returns. 119. Philosophism. iii. 284-286. at Troyes. . 280 . ii. Parlement of Paris. prisons in 1793. editor of. 184-190. 121-122. Feasts of. retreat to Bordeaux. . loi. Patriots of Eighty-nine. Pikes. Agent-National. 7 . down. 103 nature of corrupt. 237 . municipality in red nightcaps. ComPereyra.. 11. 44. 123 . Commander of Paris. remonstrates at Versailles. " Pere Duchesne. 297. ii^g> 427 iii. demonstration of 20th of June. 272 . patriotic. Peltier. 17. 205." Parlement Edicts. 332 at Tuileries August the Tenth. 210. of washerwomen. Pastorets. deputations to Versailles. August the Tenth. 89 and his violin. disbecomes unmissal of. 282-283. 220-221 at close of Assembly. Philosophes. . 219. and September massacres. Petitions. ii. 300. summons Dr. treating with Conde. 76. ii. Pen-uques. " Paul et Virginie. 307. iii. 136 . . 162 insurrection against Girondins. ii.

and 217. Vieux. Polignac. 297 . 217Lamentations. 3542 . ii. Polignac. iii. Fritz of. ii. '^t 192. 158-159. state of. 68-69. 179 . Duke de. Quiberon. Abbe. iii. iii. 336 . Precy. against Girondins. of 1792. Prieur. i. Dumouriez's. 139 . 322. 292. 144. Pompignan." iii. 178. de. of Fav- 17 . first of. 279 . debarkation at. iii. I43> ISOPlots. Priests. 247. suspected of plotting. . 428 Pin. can marry in France. of Louis to trial. ii. ii. Placard journals. 248 . St. ii. Queret-Demery. Convention. 97. See Latour du Pin. 238 . 303-309 . dissident. ii. Etienne. burnt by mob. 181-182. sion of Twelve. i. 278 «. i. Bastille prisoner. iii. Prisons. 155. ii. France. Girondin General. Plaints and grievances. 278-280 decree for banishment of. 57-66 retreat of army. . 273. 1793. and 76 . ii. i. III. flight of. 183. ordered to return to France. 55 . . 287 . 278 alties Quacks. 167 . Provence Noblesse. 173. flight of. 27. . elected to National Convention. 293. 264. Commissioner sent to Dumouriez. inflexible. prison. Pompadour. 7. Raynal. dei. Duchess de. 297 .. iii. Prophecy and prodigies. Latour du. in Commis- Caen prison. 319-320. Prairial. of the Black Breeches. 157. 207. pen- 234. massacred. effigy burnt. i.. unforgivable. 30 drowned at Nantes. in hiding. 292. banishment of from Calvados. . full August. naturalised. 161. Mme. iii. 211. tion. . 28 1 71. in Paris and iii. ii. of Louis to Paris. 315 . fustigated. 208 . withdraws from National Assembly. 181. royalist Procession of States-General Deputies. iii. 352353- Rabaut. ii. emancipation of. 5 and French Revolu- 352. 364. reformer. 18 . Comte. 218. 32-34. 199. i. 295. 36. war against. declared the enemy of mankind. on non-juring. peace with. Bishop. in 193. in Terror. 251. 280 Peace of Bale. number of. Provence. Proly. 360. . scribed. massacres of prisoners. . 351352Pius VI. expel Mirabeau. Cavaignac. siege of Lyons. guillotined. writ of. Placards. and Mirabeau. 271 . Queues. Prudhomme. i. letter to the Constituent Asseml)ly. 31-32. 158 . 315 . Protestants. in National iii. invades Holland. of Necker's and d'Orleans' busts. 353- ii. i. 168. 106 France declares campaign 293 . Priestley. 1792. 319-322 . 219-221. . ii. 136. four hundred at anchor. 6768 . 18 n. 202-203 . 114. Favras an agent of. 70-73 repelled at Weissembourg. Chateau. of emigrants at Coblentz. Courts of Wild-Justice in. cartels and twelve bullies from Switzerland. i. INDEX and Girondins. Puisaye. 56. 268 . 307.. i. Philosophe. i. Price-Stanhope. 154. 361. . Dr. Book of 218 . nonjurant. 34 . 352. hanged at Bourdeaux. iii. 5. arrested. ras and others. 107 at New Feast of Pikes. iii. 107. Quiberon. by Pitt (?). 142 his " Crimes of the Revolution. Desmoulins on. Comte de. li. iii. polemical. 260. at bakers' shops. sent to Paris. on Prussia. for King's flight. 6 . 277. iii. 35-36. 299 . on Swiss of ChateauPitt. Lyons. 293. 146. 189-190. 50. i. i. 258 . resignation. ii. 338-341 ii. editor. i. the Spadassins.

at close of Assembly. 141. a Reign of Terror. bequeathed Avignon to Pope. 197-198. 1795. . . i. 201. on King's trial. . King. 1789. Rene. 249. Rennes. proposed Consolidation of. anticipations after King's flight. 133. i. 54. 268 iii. 210. Maximilien. nature of. 132-139 . 88 . 89 Paris at " Theatre de la Nation. Remy. riot in. 171 . 19S. iii. . . 204 retreat in Paris to Bourdeaux. Richelieu. iii. 86 returns to Marseilles. end . 272 . 237. 277. Government doings in. helps King's flight. ii. declaration of. 55 accused by Girondins." 264. iii. 10 . 287-288 and Paris Municipality. 266-267 . iii. 362 of Germinal. 40. 336 guillotined. 311-312. of. 248-254. 151. 317. 202-203 on account of bloodbaths. 330. 231 Mme. ii. 35. 315. loo-ioi . See Tardivet du Repaire. classes prosperous in. 86. Riots. Reole. . Jacobin. 234 . in Governing Committee. general. . causes of. Girondin. 135. Rue St. 235 at Arras. 379- in National Convention. ii. Rheims. 235 . 1794. 257. 219. 105.-Antoine. incorruptible. . and French Revolution. 256 in National Convention. . guillotined. i. 237. .. 275-176 insurrection of women. 77 . 119. . Chief Priest of the Jacobins. Representative. ii. 144. 284 . death of. Renault. Hereditary. Cornet. i. at death of Louis XV. in Constituent Assembly. . iii. ii. iii. . 264-269. at Aries. on death of Gironon Roland. Clootz's Universal. first years of. iii. 8 ii. 265 at Strasburg. 256 . 402-403. ^ new. 49. iii. elected Public Accuser. 337. 213-215. . established. 278. 375-379Riouffe. i. 89 . 260. 226. dins. 1792. 14th. like Saturn. 141. Cecile. Montgolfier balloon launched from house of. 144. 243. Girondin idea of. 150. . ii. 153 Birmingham. iii. grain. 24 state of army in. Chatelet recommends. 160 triumphs. Bethune at." 114. . iii. Renwick. 209. Sieur. accused. iii. 264 . in Paris. wishes to assassinate Robespierre. Robespierre. . massacred. 331 . 142-143 . Representation. 159- Grenoble. 70. Beam and September 5 . 357. at trial of Marie. ii. double. . 20. i. i. 163. 205 prison. ii. Augustine. Rebecqui. massacre at. last of the Cameronians. effect on the King's death. 313. accuses 55 Robespierre. 125 Paris. August. one and indivisible. i." ii. Condorcet on. . Republic. 429 "Revolutions de Paris. 271 . bread. 1750. . 145 drowned. 68. 167-168 . tour of inspection.Antoinette. uses of to National Assembly. account of. 154. Tardivet du. his " statif of genius. .. i. . Paris. its Riquetti family. progress from 17901791. 359 iii. Religion. 296-333 . " sold and not paid. Girondin. 361366. 136-137. of Thermidor. SaintAntoineat Vincennes. of Tiers Etat. 196. 27 . Reveillon. Reding. 262-269. accused by Louvet. iii. 125-128. INDEX Reason. at siege of the Bastille. 346-348. Robespierre. 162. thrown from window. Repaire. "Revolutions of Paris and Brabant. ii. 140. and European Powers. 21-22 attack on the Hotel Castries. abolished. 59 house beset and destroyed. 311 -31 2. Rivarol. iii. 154. 1788." edited by Camille Desmoulins. 138." edited by Loustalot. i. i. i. Feast of. Resson. Rights of Man and the Citizen. i. 16. 124. 357 of Prairial. May. of Vendemiaire. 349-353Republican Calendar. Revolution.

195-196. Royalists. Dumouriez 167. 269 . Madame. Rossignol. accused by Viard. at Jales. Roland. Ronsin. 157 . Saint-Antoine. 114. accused in Convention. the Baker. at Royal Session. 106. Roche-Aymon. guillotined. arrested. in Townhall. M. iii. 44. 243 trial of. August the Tenth. 324-325 . 63. accused. Ruamps. fails in Convention. no. pursues the King. men. of. 200. See La Rochefoucault. 21. lianged. 246. sentence on. iii. . 244 guillotined. 196. his Calendar. Royalty. Rosiere. 358 . 55 in Caen prison. 315. King to. Rochefoucault. iii. Saint-Amanddes Boues. 190 in 143-144 n. paper in Rodney." iii. Clubs. prison. 139. . Minis. ii. 58 . 213 . 183. Ruhl. . takes President's chair in Convention. to be assassinated. 144." 273. 235 m. 333 . 339. 291 his troops. cide. at. 1787. i. 35 n. i. Jean Bon. 109. ii. 339. . Russia. Jean Jacques. Parlemen- Roederer. 129. Paris. commits sui- 249. Romme. Cardinal. Thuriot de la. ii. . burial-place of. Syndic. 364 . at. . at Paris. 27. demonstration of 20th of June. 118. 234. iii. ii. 68. at Feast of the Supreme Being. . essential to Revolution. ii. 365. iii. Francois. 318. 249. iii. insurrection of woi. iii. 298 . applauded at Jacobins. and Diamond Necklace. at Brest. 19. 45 . 335 attempted suicide. 142 . . ii. 60 account of. resigns. at Nanci. 37 . sets fire to La Vendee. 88-89. abolished. editor of " Ami du Roi. " i. efiigy burnt. demolished." 301 recalled. 216.430 INDEX Romoeuf. 197 . Roux. ter of the Interior. ii. he keeps apart. 301 . 104 accused by Viard. 52. opposes Couthon. 207. 115. 42-43 . iii. 293. arrested.. notice of. policy of Catherine. 313-315 . M. account iii. at Tuileries. 298. 358 and September massacres. taire. flight. 298 leaves the army. ii. 324 plans of. ii. Ville de Paris" taken by. and Spadassins. 104. and Reign of Terror. 172 statue decreed to. i. 299. 87-88 finds the Iron Press. Roland. signs of. misgivings. 155. Grand Almoner of Louis XV. . 364 . a Feuillant. General. 249 . . . to the . 290 " Letter King.. on . in September massacres. Roussiere. 227 . ii. suicide of. 338 . 193 . notice of at Lyons. See Thuriot de la Rosiere. and Danton. arrested. Rohan. Royou. Sabatier de Cabre. 305 . 68. Rouen. 146. i. 296. of Revolutionary Army. iii. guillotined. 274 n. 313-314. 244 . 290-291 . in National Convention. plots for flight of King. after King's 58 . . ii. . " Contrat Social " of. . 323. 305 . Sahara desert. outlawed. Deputy. 333. accused.. 348. on Federes' Ammunition. 270-273. . plot ii. . new 115. 326-327 328 . and Pache. 330331 . tries to start a Routledge. 364 . ii. preparations at Cob"lentz. letter to the King. on Nanci affair. 317. 337-338. 365. 276 . 269. 4. Saint-Andre. . shoots himself. one of four generals. ii. 199. to carry the Rochambeau. on federalism of the Girondins. 312. ii. 343-345 "• 49. tempt to take Austrian Flanders. iii. 336. as wife of Minister of the Interior. Rousseau. " Histoire 237. 244-245. liberated.

163-166 . 153 . how it lives. Cloud. 158. on abolition of titles. mutiny ii.72. Louis prohibited from.-Antoine disarmed. Bastille. the five. in prison. ii. ii. 1 14. ii. Saint-Denis. Ste. iii. 336. 367 . St. 339-340. 213. 123 . Sansculottides. 284. sacked by the mob. 233. 305 . 18. 290 . 119. 305-308. i. Saint-Fargeau. 277. death of. digging for. alarms at. in New Calendar. 153. the harangues royal de. 306. 155. on Revolution. 207 St. i. Tenth of August. nature and uses of. . ii. 2. demonstration of Saint. . death of. . Pierre's "Paul siege at Virginie. 313. ii. Germain. 178-180. imprisoned. Townhall. petition against the Veto. military Marquis. 340 seillese. ii. fall of. iii. ii. pedant. attack "• 259- 431 . 276. 130. purchase of. 155. de. Mayor hanged. 21. iii. of. 212. 332 . 227 . 332 Commander of Guards. . 281. Savardin. Louis' Church. Saltpetre. St. 366 soul of. French nation and. 279. Sieur Bonne. insurrection in. 161. . 107 89-90 . in National Convention." 297. Salut Publique. meets Marseillese. St. meets Marseillese. in National at King's Convention. 331. at Nanci. i. women. Procureur of Varennes. Lepelletier." 328. iii. 259-261. Pope's effigy burnt. on King's trial. 56 . still alive. 36-37 .. in demonstration of 20th June. and hanging of Foulon and Berthier. at siege of the 330. 328. iii. at of Toulon. 274 280 . 243-245 . in demonstration of 20th June. 97. at at King's trial. and insurrec- 314. 249-251 . at Vincennes. takes the King to 75- Saint-Huruge. iii. 39-41. ii. 105 . i. . 284. lii. procession. 35-36 .Mery. 57 trial. ii. Lazarus. 126 La Vendee. at work. at States-General procession. 128 «. routed by Maret 334. 305. 204Prussians at. disarmed. at Versailles. States-General procession from. Salm regiment. iii. 66 . rewarded. Saint-Just.Marceau. funeral . Saint-Domingo. M. laws proposed by. House of. Menehould. 148 . 365. Caen. 63.. account of Louis s execution. St. in Committee Room of "Salut. i. Saint-Elienne du Mont. 78 54 Revolutionary Committees and Tribunal." i. 17. consummated. 17. 15. demonstration of 20th June. i. by Louis XVI. growth of. Salicetti. 275. 255Salles. 213. of. on King's trial. Deputy. i. 305-309. Sanson. See Committees. Jourgniac de. 192. account of massacres at La Force. Sansculottism. 147. i. 368Paris. 132. 370. ii. at repels Prussians. iii. i. ii. iii. 235. 234 «. report. demonstration of 20th June. . Meard. at Savonnieres. at the Palais- Royal. interview between Marie-Antoinette and Mirabeau. treason. 345.. excused. at . 221. 234 . 20th June. proposes remedies for famine./. . arrested. last rise of. 358 362-366 . . ii. implicated in plot. his . 365. 341. tion of M.INDEX on Vincennes. sent to King's execution. Saint. St. i. his "agony" at the Abbaye. at Versailles. iii. . 71. guillotined. Sausse. Sansculotte. Strasburg. Cure at Hotel des Invalides. St. Moreau i. "in white hat. murmurs 240 . 312 . 22. iii. Santerre. 162-164. i. 305-309 a fact. iii. Brewer. epithet applied to indigent Patriotism. flight ii. riot Vincennes. 2S3 .

shot in La Vendee. and the Hotel des Invalides. in insurrection against Girondins. 379Sillery-Genlis. Chaumetle. 151. topheavy. 139. 84 n. making new Constitution. 280 seized. guillotined. ii. 221. signs circular. Sevres Potteries. examined. at States-General procession. iii. Commissioners of Convention at. 344. La Vendee war. in prison. i. 52-53. 18 Moton saves. and New Feast of Pikes. saved by his daughter. guillotined. Seigneurs. deputies to. becomes National Assembly. account of. of. 337- See Genlis. . 296. 352. . 156-157. account of massacres at the Abbaye. 11 . guillotined. 1792. . Cordwainer. 339. 136. 158-159. and 180. 142. 299. . at Versailles. 49. 79 . in Paris. interferes in trial of Louis. 46-47. Strikes. . ii. ii. cannon used at siege of the Bastille. . camp to be formed at. 128. Suffren. iii. at F"ederation of . King of. 281 . August the . ii. their club and de. 310. . pamphlets of. Simoneau. 45 . Suspect. . iii. Sergent. and seizure of arms at Hotel des Invalides. iii. intrigues for Narbonne. fraternal. 209. 155 Strasburg. States-General. Stofflet. in Paris.. 17. 259 . 7 ." iii. proposed camp of National Volunteers. ii. 220. 170-171. : Tenth. Sorbonne. 218 . 1 88 . Servan. 157." 79. Peace of Bale.. invaded by France. pleads with Manuel. 274. Sugar. Sulleau. Sechelles. twin i. Sentimentalism. 8. 132 how to constitute. iii. . 198. . Mayor of Etampes. 290. taken by Montesquiou. riots at. Night of. Paris. 353. iii. September massacres. in Governing Committee. Royalist. 341. 160. opening of. 140-155 one or three orders in. ii.39Sieyes. death of. on Third Estate. i. ii. ii. Renault on. scarcity of. becomes War Minister. 266-270. Spurs. 259-261. revolt of the against. 271 . Sections. Committees 179. Champ-deChamp-de-Mars. i. on " Committee of the Constitution." ii. 258. Abbe. 30-42. i. 107. iii. at King's trial. 38. iii. Stanhope and Price. Mme. Constitution-builder. 211. 140 election of. Supper. iii. Sicard. 177-178. ii. Septemberers. Lamotte's " Memoires " burnt at. declares war on France. 317. secretes Narbonne. Staal. i. people i. 314-315. iii. 184. 27. poisoning of bread at. of. decay of. 294 . 114. iii. Surnames. ii. 273 massacred. and Lafayette. Law of the. Admiral. Seignorial dues. Dame de. iii. 1 on the Federation. 244. ii. 131. iii. 225. M. 2IO and Statue of Nature. Herault de. 352. 108 meeting announced. 374. 18 . Sedan Municipals. 432 Savoy. Suard. 143 . 280. i. Abbe. 30. 93 promise to convoke. " Spadassins. 119. 65 in 72 in National Convention. impartial. ii. Mars. iii. 260 . Societe Fraternelle. Simon. hats on or off? 178. 252. i. de. 330Solecisms. i. Procession of Deputies. Soissons. festival for. 375. makes terms. the. i. i. 278 . 38. of Paris. 13. abolished. i. 64. i. i. 265. on " Com- mittee of the Constitution. Sombreuil. in . Siam. 360. nicknamed Agate. sister to Cant. ./. 292. iii. 280. 222 . 30 . Mme. ii. 304-305. 56 .75- INDEX iii. first mooted. ii. son 34. Stael. iii. Spain. 13.

. ii. in Jacobin tri- 10. Cockade. 66. Thomas Arthur i. 8. at Champmaster of. 337. in. 8 . 281. Clermont. ii. guillotined. 191-193. i. insane. 163 226 . . father. notice of. shot by Ankarstrom. Theatins Church. July 27 and 28. editor account of. iii- 32- Symbolism. 307. Girondin. Ninth and Tenth. at Austrian Versailles. Terray. in 312 . 180. in France. Roland. 308. Titles. i. treason charge. Thermidor. 323-324 . law reformer. Tallien. INDEX Suspicion. 284. Lally. on the Duke of Orleans. 235. 40 Attorney-General for Tribunal Revolutionnaire. surrenders. 33- revolt. 331 arrested. . 317. notice 337- 58. 301-304. 323. set up by Chappe." 273 in Comin Municipality. Theot. ii. 109. Tennis Court. keeps her carriage. ac249-250 cuses Robespierre. 131 in London. 234. mittee of Townhall. iii./. 295-297 . Tinvilie . 1794. ii. "Temple of Concord. iii. abolished. Bishop. trial of Marie-Antoinette. declines King's defence. 175 . 219 . iii. iii. 1 02 crowned with Taxes. 217 . 330-338. 24. iii. 79-80 bune. F . ill-treated by women patriots. i. rede-Mars. for death of. ii. Talleyrand-Perigord. Thionville. at Jacobins' Club. ii. his soiree. 230 brutal at trial of Mme. 166. 294. Tonnere. tramples on Black Tollendal. 154. 369. Talma. King of. 235 . Tome. i.. ii. pleads of. 359. accusation of Robespierre. i. ii. 237. leaves England for America. iii. . 244. 201. granted to Dissid- Reign of. 368 effect on France. defends the Queen's apartments. 60. iii. of Chateau-Vieux. 353-354 prisoners at La Force. iii. massacre of. . 181. iii. 4. 23 Ami des Citoyens. 353. deserts i. iii. Thouvenot and Dumouriez. iii. 149 . ^L. on Robespierre. Tassin. Swiss. iii. Telegraph. deserts the National Assembly. notice of. 338 number guillotined in. to assist Marie- Antoinette. ascending. civic crown.Fouquier. trial of Danton. necessity of. prison. . guillotined. i. actor. ended. blessing at Champ-de-Mars. Catherine. in National Convenand Senhora Cabarus. Guards. 258 ii. dissolute financier. . ii. the Tennis-Court Session. Tardivet du Repaire." at Lyons. Thouret. 287 . consummation Sweden. National Assembly. August the Tenth. rife in 1793. man's noblest possessions. 102 . at trial of Girondins. 269. in insurrection of women> 301 . ents. 329-330 Marie-Antoinette's thanks to. 127. advocate. of prisoners by. . ii. 1792. iii. . 339> 344 . his batches and prison plots. occupied by English. club of. i. 358 n. 330 slaughter . 65. 360.. Symbols. at Tuileries. 256 Jacobins 254 . Toulon. 320. 14. . 180. 284 August. ii. Target. siege of. of human skins. . Bishop of Autun. Theroigne. . . interview with de Launay at Bastille. 289. 1789. 172 . tion. 244 . 74Tannery. 223 in Legislative Assembly. 64 warded. i. improvements in. Mile. II. 55 suspect. i. iii. ii. iii. . i. dissolves Assembly. 315-316. . released from Brest galleys. ii. of " . 433 148- Terror. excommunicated. . besieged. of. . 104 . requests abolition of clerical costumes. 160. 285. ^47- Thuriot de la Rosiere. 31 . . iii. ii. Abbe. 186 . 237 .

iii. See Maton. action at. de. 155. insults to. Controller of France. Prussians occupy. Marquis de. 109. 104. trial of. at. 242 . 338- vessel. . 143. 251. trian Committee at. eloquence of. 13. 103. 87. rennes. 275. '• 74-75 Vergniaud. assert liberty. sewn by women. iii. 157. 22. 231. Louis escorted to. . 223. march of insurgent women to. . defends King. i. 4th. 177. Varenne. 329 . 7-8. . 355. Tricolor. guillotined. 2-6 . 252. 230. banished. 154. 210. from the Luxembourg. in Legislative Assembly. liber- ated. Na- tional Convention remove to. 243 . October at. procession. death of. Valadi. flight Tourzel. demon- stration of 20th of June. dead body guillotined. arrested. arrested. iii. 329. Varigny. 288-292 . sentences passed by. 6 . de. in Mirabeau's ii. 121. 183 . 211-216. Turgot. in Constitution National. sinking of. 304-309. Vadier. 219. stabs himself. Prussians take. the National Assembly 217. on night of June 21. 182. Marquis. 39 . Verdun. iii. i. ii. Queen's Reader. massacre of. Tricoteuses. Valmy. iii. notice of. in 1792. iii. a Caravansera. Vergennes. funeral 172. Varlet. death of. i. extended. 242 on fate of Anti-National Kings. in procession of King from Varennes. Tournay. 308 . 170 n. Valaze. account of. 21 . of to the 224. Prime Minister. 235 . 189-190. 352. i. iii. in fall of Girondins. i. i. iii. i. 337. 209. Vermond. iii. officer in Gardes Franfaises. at siege Bastille. iii. Commissioners sent to. Verbs. ii.. i. 232. XVL Vendemiaire. Town representatives. 282-283. Ministry of. Louis. ii. United States. i. . state of. 122. 289-292 . Ushant. decreed by the Mountain. in residence Louis i. Va- 192 . escapes by back window. war in. tickets of entry. 209 . sea fight off. Lambesc's charge on mob. Treaty of Bale. Tyrants. Valenciennes. Baron. aided by Francis. 147 . Varennes. Mayor of. 434 INDEX Vaison. 185. irregular. La. trial of. iii. 1791. 52. hoisted by the Bodyguards. Vaublanc. 316. 276. Dame ii. ii. dismissal of. Vendee. 51. Trenck. 212. 333-334 . ii. Tuileries. embassy to Louis XVL. 233. plot to carry off the 376-379-. ii. M. ii. 163 . rising against. 51. on trial of Louis. tions of. 5 119. 64-66. buried alive. 114. Dumouriez tries to secure. 48 . America. in Legislative Assembly. 33 Corn laws of. iii. i. i. . iii. surrendered. 1795. iii." iii. 8-9 . 98 holds night meetings. 155. besieged. 19. 48 n. Toulongeon. iii. 150 . 230. 22. to be besieged. . iii. ii. 352. iii. Abbe de. 258. dinner to the Regiment de Flandre. Marseillese chase Filles Saint-Thomas to. state of the Court. . 136. disappearance of. Councillors. of Paris. iii. 357 at King's trial. i. at Versailles. Versailles. Trombones. " Apostle of Liberty. " Vengeur " 354 . 152 . Tronchet. 331. iii. 304 demonstration of 20th June. 220. 2627 . Thirteenth. 193 . motion for suspension of oraLegislative Assembly. August the Tenth. 87. 14. 266 . Revolutionnaire. in Paris.. 160. La. appointed for Town Paris. 352-353. 334. ii. 357. Aus- King. advocate. pacified. Tribunal Extraordinaire.

283-284 . castle to be repaired. patriotic gift from. i. Victim Balls. Viard. spy. 247. iii. Roland and petition of. France. Villaret-Joyeuse. of 3. key of Bastille sent 346. 246. ii. iii. and escorts Paris battalions. Duke de. 12. i. in August loth. declared by France. 296. against European powers. guillotined. CHANCERY LANE. ii. guillotined. Villedeuil. ii. 172. Villequier. War. iii. M. Vincennes. . iii. off the Watigny. Women. 300 . at Tuileries. at. beaten by Howe. campaign of. twenty 316. 5766 . . 135 iSo. W'impfen. . 360. iii. LONDON. 282 iii. 294. Herault and Heroines. 242. i. 12 . iii. condition ii. . iii. 153 . ii. Vincent. 312-333 fight of people with the deserted Bodyguards. 328-333 Jacobin depuby Royalty.. CHISWICK PRESS PRINTED BY CHARLES WHITTINGHAM AND TOOKS COURT. : CO. 1794. milliners. . selling Volunteers. 150 massacred at. on the Six Hundred Marseillese troops. 435 insurgent women . ii. and Royalism. 192 . 211. 282. 340 in National Guard. Arthur. i. Washington. Warville. 155. out of Jacobins. iii. Weissembourg. 296deputation to Legislative . 134to. Civil. 299-302 National. proposed camp of thousand. 325 Royalty to Paris. Voltaire. Juryman. 202. 49-52Veto. insurrection of. 19 iii. 281 . Westermann. . Saint-Antoine's attack on. 333 Assembly. i. Weber. 291 . ii. accuses wife. 1792. two kinds of.. battle of. ii. 48-49 burial-places of. . INDEX 301-31 1 . . arriving in Paris. iii. Young. i. 278. 278-280. 301-302. 280. iii. ii. 320. . . ii. iii. 269 on . nickname of Brissot. 279. 293 131. i. 347 guillotined. Vilate. Villaumes.153-155of War Office. question of. . 314- Megaeras. 335 Orleans prisoners ties at. 186-187. . Washerwomen. lines of. 268 arrested. groceries. . 115. ii. ii. Queen's foster-brother. 158. . visit to Paris. i.359. purged . plot to carry King. emigrates. iii. patriotic gifte from. iii. 90. ii. iii. Girondin General. de.

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