The purpose of the sedimentation process is to remove suspended solids (particles) that are denser (heavier) than water and to reduce then load on the filters. 1 Factors affecting particle settling: 2 1. Particle size and distribution 2. Shape of particles 3. Density of particles 4. Temperature (viscosity and density) of water 5. Electrical charge on particles 6. Dissolved substances in water 7. Flocculation characteristics of the suspended material 8. Environmental characteristics (such as wind effects) 9. Sedimentation basin hydraulics and design characteristics (such as inlet condition and shape of basin) The shape of particles also influences particle settling. Smooth circular particles will settle faster than irregular particles with ragged edges. 3 Solids-contact units Also known as: 4 1. Solids-contact clarifiers 2. Upflow clarifiers 3. Reactivators 4. Precipitators Sludge produced by the solids-contact unit is recycled through the process, acting as a coagulant aid; increases the efficiency of the coagulation, flocculation and sedimentation processes. 4 Advantages: 1. Capital maintenance costs are greatly reduced, because all 3 processes are in the same tank. 2. The ability to regulate the volume of slurry (sludge blanket), which is needed to cope with certain problems. 4
use the chemical dosages. undisturbed storage of the flocculated water for a sufficient period of time (3 hrs. the operator can increase the amount of slurry available during the good periods of the day and remove it during periods when the coagulation process is not functioning well. changes in density influence the particle-settling rate. It is most unstable during rapid changes in the flow rate. Settling zone – The settling zone is the largest portion of the sedimentation basin. 7 Once algal activities have been determined to be causing the problem (readily checked by pH and DO (dissolved oxygen)). Sludge zone – The sludge zone is located at the bottom of the sedimentation basin and is a temporary storage for the settled particles. is their instability during rapid changes in flow. or more). This zone provides calm. to permit effective settling of the suspended particles in the water being treated. Changes in the water temperature will cause changes in density of the water. 12 3. It
. 4 2. 5 The most serious limitation of solids-contact units. Sensitive to severe changes in the turbidity of incoming raw water. 4 For most solids-contact units. be prepared to reduce flows if problems develops. 11 2. turbidity level and temperature. 5 3. 6 Sedimentation basins Sedimentation basins can be divided into four zones: 1. 5 4. Operation of the single-unit processes requires a higher level of operator knowledge and skill. Inlet zone – The inlet zone to the sedimentation basin should provide a smooth transition from the flocculation basin and should distribute the flocculated water uniformly over the entire cross section of the basin. which gives the lowest turbidity within a five-minute settling period.Disadvantages: 1. 7 Adjusting chemicals and chemical feed rates is the major means by which operators can control water treatment processes. 4 When water temperature decreases. after stopping the jar tester.
High tolerance to shock loading (water quality changes) b. Rectangular – These basins are popular for the following reasons: 15 a. 14 Types of sedimentation basins 1. Together they provide a high ratio of effective settling surface are per unit volume of water. Where site area is limited. Predictable performance c. Minimal short-circuiting 2. 3. function in the same manner as tube settlers. 8 Parallel plate or tilted plate settlers. Designed to conserve land area. 17 These are more likely to experience short-circuiting and particle settling problems.
. have also been installed in circular basins. 8 High-rate settlers are useful: 8 1. 8 Water enters each tube and is directed upwards. 2.
4. Outlet zone – The basin outlet should provide a smooth transition from the sedimentation basin to the settled water conduit or channel. High-rate settlers High-rate or tube settlers were developed to increase the settling efficiency of conventional rectangular sedimentation basins. the whole operation may have to be shut down. can also control the water level in the basin. One of the major problems with square basins is sludge removal from the corners. Double-deck – An adaptation of a rectangular basin. it’s weight further compresses the sludge below it. Low maintenance e.is also used to allow for compression settling of the sludge. Circular & square – Often referred to as “clarifiers. as sludge settles onto the zone. Cost effectiveness d. In packaged type water treatment units. 16 Essentially one stacked on top of another. Each tube serves as a shallow settling basin. Unpopular due to higher operating and maintenance costs. Sludge removal equipment must operate on both decks and if one breaks down.
To prevent interference with the settling process (such as resuspension due to scouring). Traveling bridges Alum / Alkalinity Ratio For every mg/L of alum added. To prevent excessive reduction in the cross-sectional area of the basin (reduction of detention time). In large-scale plants. 9 Sludge that accumulates on the bottom of a sedimentation basin must be periodically removed for the following reasons: 10 1. over 50% of the floc will settle out in the first third of the basin length. 2. To increase the capacity of existing sedimentation basins. In smaller plants with low solids loading. High winds can have an adverse effect on the settlers. Drag-chain & flights 3. sludge is removed with the aid of mechanical equipment. 0.45 mg/L of bicarbonate alkalinity is required to complete the chemical reaction. Mechanical rakes 2. 2:1 (1 alum to ½ bicarbonate alkalinity) 6
. 10 Mechanical devices used for sludge removal: 10 1.3. If sludge is to be pumped. 9 In gravity flow sludge removal systems. manual removal may be more cost-effective. To prevent the sludge from becoming septic or providing an environment for the growth of microorganisms that can create taste and odor problems. the solids concentration should be limited to 3%. 3. solids concentration as high as 10% can be readily transported. 8 Sludge In horizontal-flow sedimentation basins preceded by coagulation and flocculation.
17 Nonpoint source – Runoff or discharge from a field or similar source. liquid or dissolved substance on the surface or interface zone of another material. 16 Launders – Sedimentation basin and filter discharge channels. 16 Adsorption – The gathering of a gas. 17 Septic – Condition produced by bacteria when all oxygen supplies are depleted. the deposits and water turn black. the bottom deposits produce hydrogen sulfide. give off foul odors and the water has a greatly increased chlorine demand. by molecular or chemical action. color. consisting of overflow weir plates (in sedimentation basins) and conveying troughs. 17 Shock load – Arrival at a water treatment plant of raw water containing unusual amounts of algae. suspended solids. colloidal matter. turbidity or other pollutants. 17 Point source – Discharge from the end of a pipe. 17
. If severe.Definitions: Absorption – Taking in or soaking up of one substance into the body of another.
5. I.Footnotes: 1. 5. 5. 180. 5. 152 17.23 8.240 6. 5. 5. 5. I.I. 173. 155.202 14. 173-76.250 10. 166. 5. 5. I. 5.241 7. 5.214 9.201 13.211 16. 5. 172.251 11.I.240 5. 160.10 3. 5.200 12. I. 164. 5. 158-59. I. I. I.11 4.I.I.I.I. I. 155. 153
. I.I.I.00 2.203 15. 159. 180. 160. 176. 5. 159.