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lathe are schematically shown in Fig. 4.6.3. Here also, the stylus moves along the template profile to replicate it on the job. In mechanical system (Fig. 4.6.2) the heavy cutting force is transmitted at the tip of the stylus, which causes vibration, large friction and faster wear and tear. Such problems are almost absent in hydraulic copying, where the stylus works simply as a valve – spool against a light spring and is not affected by the cutting force. Hydraulic copying attachment is costlier than the mechanical type but works much smoothly and accurately. The cutting tool is rigidly fixed on the cross slide which also acts as a valve – cum – cylinder as shown. So long the stylus remains on a straight edge parallel to the lathe bed, the cylinder does not move transversely and the tool causes straight turning. As soon as the stylus starts moving along a slope or profile, i.e., in cross feed direction the ports open and the cylinder starts moving accordingly against the piston fixed on the saddle. Again the movement of the cylinder i.e., the slide holding the tool, by same amount travelled by the stylus, and closes the ports. Repeating of such quick incremental movements of the tool, Äx and Äy result in the profile with little surface roughness.
Adaptive Control System:
Hydraulic Amplifier: .
Schematic View Spool Valve Up .
The reference input is the required output .e. ﬂap control in aircrafts 4. antenna rotator systems 2.rudder control in ships 3. one where the actuator is a dc motor. cruise control We shall only consider the dc electromechanical servo. Other actuators are possible such as hydraulic actuator and Pneumatic actuators. idle speed control of motor vehicle 6. i. A typical schematic representation of the dc servomechanism is shown in the ﬁgure below: .Positional controllers include 1. Speed controllers include 5.Spool Valve Down Positional Servomechanism -Closed loop control whose output is some mechanical position or velocity set by a reference input .
Scrub Radius: Scrub radius is also known as steering offset. and the point where the steering-axis center-line contacts the road surface. It is the distance between 2 imaginary points on the road surface . and scrub geometry.the point of center contact between the road surface and the tire. .
on any type of drive.positive or negative . scrub radius is positive. During braking. but this time. positive scrub radius will cause the vehicle to veer towards the side with the greater effort. Positive scrub radius causes toe-in. If one half of the brake system fails. then the vehicle will tend to pull up in a straight line. then the scrub radius is zero. If they intersect below the road surface. it is important that the offset is not changed if wheels are being replaced.• • • If these two points intersect at the center of the tire. Changing the rim offset changes the scrub radius. and also the predictability of the vehicle handling. If they intersect above the road surface. the front wheels again tend to move back. On a rear-wheel-drive vehicle with positive scrub radius. the opposite occurs. vehicles with a diagonal-split brake system have negative scrub radius built into the steering geometry. The effect of scrub radius . when the vehicle is in motion. This would cause the wheels to toe-out. If it has negative scrub radius. if braking effort is greater on one side of the vehicle than the other. This is why. Negative scrub radius will cause the vehicle to veer away from the side of greatest effort. How much it veers depends on the size of the scrub radius.is to provide a turning moment which attempts to turn the wheel away from the central position. they toe-in. . at the road surface. scrub radius is negative. and negative causes toe-out. Since the offset of the wheel rim determines where the centerline of the tire meets the road surface. On front-wheel-drive vehicles. if brakes should fail. the vehicle’s forward motion and the friction between the tire and the road causes a force which tends to move the front wheels back.
Driven (steel) plate: It is ring shaped and made of steel and sometime of aluminum. Mostly steel plates are used in clutch assembly due to their . It has teethes on the outside surfaces. It is coated with the same material as you see in brake pad (shoe). These teethes fix on the cuto uts between clutch hub tangs (gaps). It has teethes on inside surfaces. It is a wear and tear part of clutch assembly. The friction plate surfaces interface between the clutch basket tangs (gaps) and pressure plate. This teethes are fix on the cut outs of clutch hub. The surfaces of steel or aluminum plate interfaces between pressure plate and clutch hub.Clutch Plates Type: Drive (friction) plate: The friction plate is ring shaped and coated with fiber.
The aluminum plates are used in Moto GP due to their lighter weight. Gear Box .durability. Pressure Plate: It is the moving part of the clutch assembly which works against clutch spring tension. It releases the clamping action on the clutch plates when the clutch lever is engaged. These plates are worn out very fast compare to steel plate.
The suspension system usually features driver-variable ride height. which then powers the brakes. In this way the resulting system does not possess any eigen frequencies and associated dynamic instabilities. a leveling functionality is implemented. dynamic and high-capacity suspension that offers superior ride quality. By adjusting the filled fluid volume within the cylinder. .Hydro pneumatic Suspension: The purpose of this system is to provide a sensitive. A nitrogen reservoir with variable volume yields a spring with non-linear force-deflection characteristics. The actuation of the nitrogen spring reservoir is performed through an incompressible hydraulic fluid inside a suspension cylinder. suspension and power steering. It can also power any number of features such as the clutch. to provide extra clearance in rough terrain. This system uses a belt or camshaft driven pump from the engine to pressurise a special hydraulic fluid. The nitrogen gas within the suspension sphere is separated from the hydraulic oil through a rubber membrane. which need to be suppressed through extensive damping in conventional suspension systems. turning headlamps and even power windows.
typically by adding layers of complexity to an ordinary steel spring mechanical system. the bottom connects to the car's hydraulic fluid circuit. Pressure flows from the hydraulic circuit to the suspension cylinders. The latest incarnation features a simplified single pump-accumulator sphere combination. This part of the circuit is at between 150 and 180 bars. fixed at the 'equator' inside. When the car is too low. Auto manufacturers are still trying to catch up with the combination of features offered by this 1954 suspension system. Ride height correction (self levelling) is achieved by height corrector valves connected to the anti-roll bar. Height correctors act with some delay in order not to correct regular suspension movements. prioritised via a security valve. It is the simplest damper and one of the most efficient. one per wheel and one main accumulator as well as a dedicated brake accumulator on some models. LHM has to squeeze back and forth through this valve which causes resistance and controls the suspension movements. the car is loaded). etc. so is the braking power.g. The rear brakes are powered from the rear suspension circuit. there may be as many as ten spheres. separating top and bottom. Suspension works by means of a piston forcing LHM into the sphere. up to 75 bar.There have been many improvements to this system over the years. five or six in all. When the car is too high (e. powered by the engine. open to the bottom. compacting the nitrogen in the upper part of the sphere. Spheres consist of a hollow metal ball. front and rear. including variable ride firmness (Hydractive) and active control of body roll (Citroën Activa). The high pressure pump. damping is provided by a two-way 'leaf valve' in the opening of the sphere. and depending on type of vehicle. gear selector. It powers the front brakes first. The top is filled with nitrogen at high pressure. acting as pressure sink as well as suspension elements. after unloading) fluid is returned to the system reservoir via low-pressure return lines. can power the steering.. pressurizing the bottom part of the spheres and suspension cylinders. Because the pressure there is proportional to the load. pressurizes the hydraulic fluid (LHM) and an accumulator sphere maintains a reserve of hydraulic power. the height corrector valve opens to allow more fluid into the suspension cylinder (e. At the heart of the system. with a flexible desmopan rubber membrane. clutch. .g. On later cars fitted with Hydractive or Activa suspension. are the so called spheres.
Rubber suspension Rubber can be used as the suspension medium as well as for mountings and pivots. light and compact. which gives out almost as much energy a s i t r e c e i v e s . and w i l l a b s o r b s o m e o f t h e e n e r g y p a s s e d t o i t . The rubber spring is also commonly used on LGVs and t r a i l e r s . Its main advantage is that for s m a l l w h e e l m o v e m e n t s t h e r i d e i s f a i r l y s o f t b u t i t becomes harder as wheel movement increases. . u n l i k e a coil spring. It has the advantage of being small. A r u b b e r s u s p e n s i o n u n i t is shown in Fig.
Clutch Troubleshooting Brakes Troubleshooting .
Gear Box .
Final Drive: .
Dashboard Items: Items located on the dashboard at first included the steering wheel and the instrument cluster. and indicators such as gearshift position. or fascia) is a control panel placed in front of the driver of an automobile. low tire pressure and faults in the airbag (SRS) system. instrument panel. seat belt warning light. parking-brake-engagement warning light  and an enginemalfunction light. tachometer. The instrument cluster pictured to the right contains gauges such as a speedometer. lighting controls. odometer and fuel gauge. A glove compartment is commonly located on the passenger's . housing instrumentation and controls for operation of the vehicle. The top of a dashboard may contain vents for the heating and air conditioning system and speakers for an audio system.LPG Dashboard Instruments A dashboard (also called dash. low oil pressure. The word originally applied to a barrier of wood or leather fixed at the front of a horsedrawn carriage or sleigh to protect the driver from mud or other debris "dashed" (thrown) up by the wheels and horses' hooves. There may also be indicators for low fuel. Heating and ventilation controls and vents. audio equipment and automotive navigation systems are also mounted on the dashboard.
In the early and mid 1990s. but in a far less complex display. Straith. . airbags became a common feature of steering wheels and dashboards. There may also be an ashtray and a cigarette lighter which can provide a power outlet for other low-voltage appliances Padding and safety Padded dashboards were advocated in the 1940s by car safety pioneer Claire L. particularly for a convertible. One of the safety enhancements of the 1970s was the widespread adoption of padded dashboards. Many vehicles have warning lights instead of voltmeters or oil pressure gauges in their dashboard instrument clusters. Sunlight could cause a bright glare on the chrome. The ammeter was the gauge of choice for monitoring the state of the charging system until the 1970s. while the surface is commonly either polyvinyl chloride (PVC) or leather in the case of luxury models. but this has faded from practice. The padding is commonly polyurethane foam. which could be less readable. but was often thought to be more stylish. Fashion In Instrumentation In the 1940s through the 1960s. some manufacturers used instruments with digital readouts to make their cars appear more up to date. American car manufacturers and their imitators designed unusually-shaped instruments on a dashboard laden with chrome and transparent plastic. Later it was replaced by the voltmeter. Some cars use a head-up display to project the speed of the car onto the windscreen in imitation of fighter aircraft. Manufacturers such as BMW and Mercedes-Benz have included fuel-economy gauges in some instrument clusters.side. With the coming of the LED in consumer electronics. showing fuel mileage in real time.
and often this is the only room that is kept cool. Evaporative cooler units and systems are extremely quiet during their operation . No more restless nights. dry or humid summer months can be a difficult task if your home is hot and bothered. especially if there is a noisy refrigerative cooling unit buzzing in their ear all night long. . Refrigerative airconditioners or coolers can remove the moitsure from the air you breath in your home. There is no big bulky unit inside your home. and no more waking to sneezing and dryness! Refrigerative cooling units must be placed in a particular location or room in your home. Evaporative cooling is a ducted system. your family will no longer have to cram themselves into one room to keep cool . cool and fresh breeze. cool air to every room in the house that is fitted with a duct. Refrigerative airconditioning or cooling has far higher carbon dioxide emissions than an evaporative cooling system. you are saving money. hanging off a wall . By selecting an evaporative airconditioning system. Sleeping and resting during the hot. In those horrible heat waves. moist and clean and will not harm you or your family in any way.meaning that you receive fresh.the air is fresh. Children and adults will not sleep at their best when in hot conditions. evaporative cooling is the way to go. cool air to your lungs whilst sleeping soundly. Evaporative cooling systems are ideal for anyone. that delivers the fresh. and irritated skin. any age and any condition .Evaporative Cooling VS Refrigerative Cooling Continued If you are someone particularly concerned about the environment. as well as the loss of indoor plants from lack of moisture.simply a small overhead duct that blows a nice.they can go to their bedrooms or other locations to take part in regular daily activities. staying healthy and saving the environment. This can lead to dry eyes and noses.
000 TMUs is equivalent to 1 hour. it was recently updated to include modern administrative tasks and renamed. and MaxiMOST for longer (more than several minutes). To calculate this. The most commonly used form of MOST is BasicMOST. Another variation of MOST is known as AdminMOST. non-repetitive operations.MOST: Maynard Operation Sequence Technique (MOST) is a predetermined motion time system that is used primarily in industrial settings to set the standard time in which a worker should perform a task. where 100. better known as MTM. and each is assigned a numerical time value in units known as time measurement units. Two other variations were released in 1980. while MiniMOST uses individual TMUs and MaxiMOST uses hundreds of TMUs. and the result is the standard time. a task is broken down into individual motion elements. It is much easier to use form of the older and now less common Methods Time Measurement technique. . repetitive cycles. which was released in Sweden in 1972 and in the United States in 1974. This allows for a variety of applications—MiniMOST is commonly used for short (less than about a minute). called MiniMOST and MaxiMOST. BasicMOST is in the position between them. Originally developed and released under the name ClericalMOST in the 1970s. It is on the same level of focus as BasicMOST. All the motion element times are then added together and any allowances are added. or TMUs. The difference between the three is their level of focus—the motions recorded in BasicMOST are on the level of tens of TMUs. and can be used accurately for operations ranging from less than a minute to about ten minutes.
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