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# Transform Data into Knowledge

SPSS

Ijaz Hussain Bajwa 2065-FMS/BBA/F07

Graduate School of Business (IIUI), Islamabad

09

Transform Data into Knowledge 2 SPSS

Contents:

1. Context 2. Introduction to SPSS Data View Variable View Values Measures Steps for Scatter Matrix Steps to Add Fit Line Steps for Correlation Matrix Steps for Split File 3. Putting Data into One Variable Quantitative Verbal 4. Combined Scatter Matrix 5. Combined Correlation Matrix 6. Scatter Matrix Results Interpretations 7. Correlation Results Interpretations 8. Arrangement of data in different classes 9. Improvement CGPA Inter-percentage

Transform Data into Knowledge 3 SPSS

Context:

The objective of this assignment is to transform data into an effective form of information. Or we can also say that transforming data into knowledge or transform data into that shape from where we can get understanding and information. For the analysis and learning purposes we had taken data from the batch of BBA-16 (Both A and B) of Graduate Schools of Business at International Islamic University, Islamabad and there are only male students. We took there CGPA, Intermediate percentage, medium of instruction in metric , intermediate institution, accounting1, accounting 2, cost accounting, English1, English 2 and oral communication. At first, we entered the following data i.e. CGPA, Intermediate percentage, medium of instruction in metric , intermediate institution, accounting1, accounting 2, cost accounting, English1, English 2 and oral communication in Variable View by giving them appropriate value label dialogue box. After the entrance and description of data in the variable view, we make a scatter matrix of the following variables so that we can compare the dependency of each variable with that of the other variable. From the scatter matrix we can analyze whether the variables entered are positively correlated or negatively correlated which we can see from matrix drawn. The scatter matrix follows the correlation matrix in which we have to report and interpret the results of validity coefficients so that we can have a clearer view of our data. After having all this done, we will move towards the inspection of the results and interpretation of all six variable we use in our data i.e. CGPA, Intermediate percentage, medium of instruction in metric , intermediate institution, accounting1, accounting 2, cost accounting, English1, English 2 and oral communication, also Quantitative and Verbal.

Transform Data into Knowledge 4 SPSS

Introduction to SPSS

Whenever we open the SPSS software we arrive at the Data Editor. In the bottom left hand side we have two views

1. Data View:

Columns = variable (questions, items q1, q2.) Rows= Cases/ Respondents. 2. Variable View: Columns = Description of the variable Rows = No. of Variables We will avoid entering the data directly in the data view rather it is more preferable to first give the name and the other features of the variable going into the variable view. Label is very important in the variable view. In the numeric area we entre the grey button and a dialogue box will appear. The description of the variable is given in the label. Label = Variable Description It is meant for out put. Label utilization is in the output. But is very important that not use too long statements because it may become a hurdle when we plot the graphs.

Values:

Values are used when we have categorical or Ordinal Data. First variables are to be entered in the Variable View and then we go for the Data entry in Data View.

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**To View the Variable Attributes or Descriptions:
**

In the menu bar Utilities In tool bar Icons Variables

variable labels (red tag)

Measures:

In the measures we have three scales Nominal, Ordinal and Scale. SPSS treats Interval and Rational as Scale. Scale = {Interval, Ratio}

**For SCATTER MATRIX:
**

Menu bar appears Graph Matrix Scatter Scatter / Dot Dialogue Box Define (click)

**To Add FIT Line:
**

Double click the scatter matrix Chart Editor add fit line total a dialogue box appear

**For Correlation Matrix:
**

Menu Bar Bivariate institute) Analyze Correlation Bivariate correlation dialogue box appears Entre the variable (CGPA, inter-percentage, MOIM, InterClick OK

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If we click the SPSS then at first this type of file will appear

Data View

Data View:

The above page of SPSS (Version 17) shows the data view in data editor. When ever we open SPSS we come in the data editor. In the bottom left hand side we have two options Data view and Variable view. We never entre the data directly in the data view. In the data view we information regarding our variables like in this data we will entre CGPA, Interpercentage, MOIM, etc.

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Columns = variable (questions, items q1, q2.) Rows= Cases/ Respondents.

Variable View

VARIABLE VIEW:

The following page of SPSS shows the Variable view in Data editor. It is preferable to first give the name and other feathers of the variable going into the variable view. In the “Name” column entre the variables. In the “Type” column entre numeric type. Adjust the “Width” and “Decimals” according to your data. Label is very important in the variable view. The description of a variable is given in the label. Label = Variable Description

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It is meant for out put. Label utilization is in the output. In graphs is shows the output.

Type:

Character String

From the above, we can see. If we click the type there come the different options like numeric, comma, dot, scientific notation, date, dollar and string. We select String because Names are string. And also width is shown in the bar that how many characters a name should have. Also the other type likes Numeric for other variable because these are represented as numeric numbers. As the given below which is used for the CGPA.

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VALUES:

We use values when we have a data which is of Categorical or Ordinal nature. For example Medium of instruction in metric

We add value “0” for “Urdu” and like wise this we add other values. And in this dialogue there is value label of CGPA, where we label as under

1= “F” 2= “C” 3= “C+” 4= “B” 5= “B+” 6= “A”

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MEASUREMENT:

A. B. C. D. E. CGPA : SCALE INTER-PERCENTAGE : SCALE MOIM : NOMINAL INSTITUTION : NOMILAL GRADES : SCALE

**Putting Data into One Variable (Combining Variables):
**

We group the Variables in order to analyze the combined effect of grades in similar course i.e. Quantitative and Verbal. We combine these variables into one variable by taking the mean of the selected variables. In our study, we group the Accounting courses into one variable (QNT) and English courses into another (Verbal).

Act 2

Act1 Cost Act

Eng 2

Eng 1 Oral com

QNT

VERBAL

This is how we combine different variable, detail of this given further.

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DATA VIEW:

Now, we will add the data in the data view form of Data Editor of SPSS. The most important thing to remember when we add data is that we put the data according to the labels which we defined in the variable view form. And data entry neither should nor contradicts with the variable form of data.

For example if a person scores A grade in Act 1 we will put 6 instead of A. because we already label it. 1= “F” 2= “C” 3= “C+” 4= “B” 5= “B+” 6= “A”

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Now, we will put one kind of variable into one variable. This is the process of finding this out

Compute variable

Transform

**Putting data into one variable
**

1.Transform

4.Target Variable

2.Compute

3.Compute variable dialuge box appear

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The practical shape is as under

Compute Variable

All

Mean

Arrow Sign

In the function group option click “ALL” and in the function and special variable click “Mean”. Press the “Upward” arrow sign in the Numeric expression dialogue box. Write the following expression. Mean (Act1, Act2, Act3) Take the curser after the comma and delete the (?) sign and then press OK.

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QNT and Verbal will appear on the Data view of the data editor screen.

Verbal

Mean

The verbal will appear like this. The procedure is same as followed for the QNT computations.

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QNT

Verbal

After the previous steps the following two columns will appear on the SPSS page or on the Data View page.

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Now we will draw the combined scatter matrix of the following matrix through the followings method. The six variable to be used in the scatter matrix are CGPA, Inter=percentage, MOIM, Institution, QNT and Verbal.

To draw SCATTER MATRIX we use

followings steps

Scatter Dot

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For the scatter matrix the cyclic process is as

Menu bar

Define (Click)

Graph

Matrix Scatter

Legecy Dialuge

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In the scatter / Dot dialogue box click the Matrix scatter and then click define

Scatter Matrix

Define

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Then there will open a define box, where we define the Variable as shown below

CGPA MOIM Inter-Perct Institution QNT Verbal

Matrix Variable

When the scatter/ dot dialogue box appears on the data editor area click the Matrix Scatter and click; the define a rough scatter will appear on the screen. In the scatter matrix dialogue box the six variables are entered into the matrix variables except the “NAME”.

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A Rough Scatter Matrix appears on the Screen.

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**To add FIT LINE:
**

1. 2. 3. 4. Double click the scatter matrix Chart editor Add fit line total A dialogue box will appear

Auto Fit Line

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Now we can study the relationship between all six variables

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To help the study the variable we can open “Utilities” box And then click the “Variable” to know the variable and there “labels” used in this study. For example if we see below screen “Grades of Financial Accounting 1” has followings; Measurement level= Ordinal Value label; 1= “F” 2= “C” 3= “C+” 4= “B” 5= “B+” 6= “A”

And it also helps us to find any relation between these variables.

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Now we shall write

REPORTING RESULTS and interpretation of

Combined Scatter Matrix.

Correlation between medium of instruction up to metric and CGPA.

Reporting Results:

MOIM Positive Correlation CGPA

Interpretation:

As medium of instruction goes from Urdu medium to English medium, the CGPA of students increases. The students whose medium of instruction is English, they perform better than the students whose medium of instruction is Urdu.

Correlation between intermediate percentage and CGPA.

Reporting Results:

Inter Pct Slightly Positive Correlation CGPA

Interpretation:

As Intermediate percentage of students increases, the CGPA of students also increases. The students whose percentage is good in intermediate their CGPA is also good.

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Correlation between institution from which inter done and CGPA.

Reporting Results:

Institution of inter Slightly Negative Correlation CGPA

Interpretation:

As institution of intermediate of students changes from public to private, the performance of students also have a bad impact on CGPA.

Correlation between QNT and CGPA.

Reporting Results:

QNT Positive Correlation CGPA

Interpretation:

Those students who get good grades in QNT, there CGPA is also good as compare to other students. So there is positive correlation between QNT and CGPA.

Correlation between Verbal and CGPA.

Reporting Results:

Verbal Positive Correlation CGPA

Interpretation:

Those students who get good grades in Verbal, their CGPA is also good as compare to other students. So there is positive correlation between Verbal and CGPA. QNT affects CGPA more than Verbal.

Transform Data into Knowledge 26 SPSS

CORRELATION

Analyze Correlate Bivariate

This is the procedure how to find out the correlation of the data and find the result and give the interpretations.

Transform Data into Knowledge 27 SPSS

Bivariate Correlation: means the correlation between two variables Test of Significance: significance means the chances of error in the results. Or the probability of commuting an error.

Bivariate Correlatio n

Variables

Test of Significance

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THE CORRELATIONS

RESULTS ARE GIVEN ABOVE

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Now we shall explain the

Reporting Results and Interpretation of Correlation Matrix.

Reporting Results:

Ry2(43) = 0.237 ; p >.05

Interpretation:

As p>.05, so we accept H0 . So the result are not statistically significant at 5% level of significance the sample data do not support the alternative hypothesis (HA ). In other words we can say that the sample results do not hold good for the population. We can not generalize the results of sample for the whole population. We can also say that population correlation coefficient is not significantly from zero.

Reporting Results:

Ry3(43) = 0.086 ; p >.05

Interpretation:

As p>.05, so we accept H0 . So the result are not statistically significant at 5% level of significance the sample data do not support the alternative hypothesis (HA ). In other words we can say that the sample results do not hold good for the population. We can not generalize the results of sample for the whole population. We can also say that population correlation coefficient is not significantly from zero.

Transform Data into Knowledge 30 SPSS

Reporting Results:

Ry3(43) = -0.058; p >.05

Interpretation:

As p>.05, so we accept H0 . So the result are not statistically significant at 5% level of significance the sample data do not support the alternative hypothesis (HA ). In other words we can say that the sample results do not hold good for the population. We can not generalize the results of sample for the whole population. We can also say that population correlation coefficient is not significantly from zero.

Reporting Results:

Ry3(43) = 0.532; p <.01

Interpretation:

As p<.01, so we reject H0 . So the result are statistically significant at 5% level of significance the sample data support the alternative hypothesis (HA ). In other words we can say that the sample results hold good for the population. We can generalize the results of sample for the whole population. We can also say that population correlation coefficient is significantly from zero.

Transform Data into Knowledge 31 SPSS

Reporting Results:

Ry3(43) = 0.440; p <.01

Interpretation:

As p<.01, so we reject H0 . So the result are statistically significant at 5% level of significance the sample data support the alternative hypothesis (HA ). In other words we can say that the sample results hold good for the population. We can generalize the results of sample for the whole population. We can also say that population correlation coefficient is significantly from zero.

Transform Data into Knowledge 32 SPSS

To

**Arrange the Data
**

Data

in a particular order

Short Classes

Followings are the steps 1. Go to data menu 2. Click the Short classes 3. Select the class of choice 4. Click ascending or descending order 5. Press “ OK”

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Class (ascending or descending)

Short by e.g. Name

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The new arrangement can be seen in below picture The arrangement is with respect to Names and in Ascending Order.

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**IMPROVEMENT in CGPA and Inter-percentage:
**

Standardization is the method we use for the find of improvement between two different variables which are measured on different scales. Following are the steps for this 1. Go to Analyze menu 2. Go to descriptive statistics 3. Click the descriptive 4. Select the variable to whom we want to standardize 5. Results would appear on the data view as well as on the output view. 6. Go to transform menu 7. Select compute variable 8. Select the “CGPA-Inter percentage” 9. Improvement will appear at the DATA VIEW

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Always click this if you want to save the Z-results

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This is result at the output view of SPSS when we do the above process. Next process is the Z-intercepts which appear at the Data View in the Data Editor form of SPSS. The

Z scores are as

Transform Data into Knowledge 38 SPSS

Go to Transform Menu:

Compute Variable

The next procedure will be that where we compute our Z scores of the variable of which we want to see the improvement.

Improvemen t

Z CGPA- Z Interpect

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Now the improvement column will appear at the data view file

This is the procedure for finding out the improvement or difference between two different kinds of variables whose measurements are also taken in on different scales.

Transform Data into Knowledge 40 SPSS

Remarks: