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1. A student checks the diameter of a ball bearing to verify the manufacturer s value. He records the following values: 5.1 mm, 5.0 mm, 5.0 mm

(i) the average value should be recorded as A 5.0 mm B 5.03 mm C 5.033 mm D 5.1 mm

(ii) The manufacturer s value for the diameter is 5.4 mm. This suggests A B C D the student carrying out these measurements made random errors the equipment used had a systematic error the student needed to take more measurements with the same piece of equipment the equipment was not able to read better than 0.1 mm

2. A voltmeter is specified as being accurate to within 2%. The reading on the voltmeter is 3.50 V. The maximum voltage represented by this reading is A 3. 3.52 V B 3.57 V C 3.70 V D 7.00 V

A student wishes to design an experiment to compare the viscosity of two different types of engine oil. He only needs to decide which oil is more viscous. He does not need to measure their viscosities. (a) Describe a simple experiment to achieve this aim. (b) State one variable you would have to keep constant in order to make this a fair test. (c) Suggest why it would be better to use the oil of lower viscosity to lubricate engines in vehicles used in a polar expedition.


A student needs to determine the thickness of a coin. Describe an accurate method of achieving this. A student wishes to investigate how the speed of a wave along a slinky spring varies with the tension in the spring. She stretches the spring over a fixed distance. She then flicks the spring to produce a wave pulse and times how long the pulse takes to travel from one end to the other. She also measures the tension in the spring with a spring balance.


The student then increases the tension by reducing the number of coils of the slinky spring in the same fixed distance and repeats her measurements. She continues to repeat this procedure until she has several different sets of results of tension and timing for the wave. (a) State how the student will calculate the speed of the wave from her results. (b) State two improvements you could make to increase the accuracy of the time measurements. (c) The equation relating speed of a wave with tension is = T

where is the mass per unit length of the spring. Even when the students measurements are very accurate, she finds that a graph of against T is not a straight line. Explain why the experiment as described cannot be used to confirm the expected relationship between speed of wave and tension. 6. A student wishes to investigate how the electrical resistance of a thermistor changes with temperature. The diagram shows the symbol for a thermistor. (a) A student begins to draw a circuit diagram which could be used to determine the resistance of the thermistor. A (i) Complete this diagram.

(ii) State the measurements that you would take and show how you would use them to determine the resistance. (b) (i) Draw a labelled diagram of the apparatus you would use to vary and measure the temperature of the thermistor. (ii) Describe one safety precaution you would take when using this apparatus. (c) State one application for a circuit which includes a thermistor. 7. A student investigates skateboarding down a slope. She times how long it takes her to skateboard between two lines on a sloping pavement. She varies the distance between the two lines and records her results in a table.
Distance s / m 2 4 9 11 Time t / s 2.32 4.23 8.22 9.53

The student read that the equation which might relate to the motion of the skateboard is 1 s = ut + at 2 (a) Criticise her set of measurements. 2 (b) Plot a graph of s/t against t. Use the extra column in the table for your values of s/t. (c) Use the equation to show that this graph should produce a straight line. (d) Use your graph to calculate a and u. 8. (a) A student is asked to determine the density of a wooden metre rule. He is provided with vernier callipers, which measure to a precision of 0.01 cm an electronic balance which measures to a precision of 0.1 g. The student records his measurements as follows: Length of rule Thickness of rule l=1m t = 6.1 mm Width of rule Mass of rule w = 2.54 cm M = 127.4 g

(i) Comment critically on these measurements. (ii) Use this data to determine a value for the density of the rule. (b) An aluminium cooking foil manufacturer states that the thickness of the foil is 15 m. You have a micrometer which can read to a precision of 0.01 mm. (i) Describe how you would try to find an accurate value for the thickness of a sheet of the foil. (ii) Estimate the percentage uncertainty of your value. 9 (a) A mass of 200 g is suspended from the bottom end of a vertical spring. Draw a diagram of the arrangement you would use to determine the extension x of the spring. You should indicate precisely how you determined the extension x. (b) In such an experiment, the 200 g mass produces an extension of 214 mm. For the arrangement you have drawn above, estimate the percentage uncertainty in this extension. (c) The 200 g mass is given a small vertical displacement and 20 oscillations are timed with a stopwatch. The table shows the results obtained.
20T/s 18.66 20T/s 18.62 Mean T/s 0.932

(i) Estimate the percentage uncertainty in the value for the period T

(ii) Use the data and the equation

T2 to determine a value for the gravitational field strength g. (iii) Comment on this value for g in the context of the experimental uncertainties. 10. The force F acting on a length l of wire carrying a current I in a magnetic field of flux density B is given by F = BIlsin The diagram shows an arrangement for investigating this relationship. For clarity, the clamps supporting the rigid wire have been omitted.
Rigid wire

4 x


U-shaped magnet

(a) Add to the diagram to show (i) precisely the length l that you would need to measure (ii) that the angle is 90 in this arrangement. (b) State what measurements you would need to take to determine the force F acting on the wire when there is a current I in the wire, and how you would use these measurements to calculate F. (c) The table shows data obtained from this arrangement. I/A F/ mN 1.0 18.6 1.5 27.3 2.0 35.7 2.5 44.1 3.0 52.3 . (ii) Discuss the extent to which your graph confirms that F ex I. 3.5 60.5


Instructions 1 2 250 ml beaker filled to within approximately1 cm from the top with dry sand. Table tennis ball.

You are to plan an investigation of how the diameter of a crater formed in soft sand by a polystyrene sphere is dependent on the impact velocity of the sphere. You are then to analyse a set of data from such an experiment. You may use the sphere and sand provided to observe the crater formation, but you are not required to take any measurements. In addition to the apparatus provided, you may assume that a metre rule, a pair of dividers, a set square and a stand and clamp would be available. (a) (i) Which quantity would you vary in order to vary the impact velocity of the sphere? Draw a diagram of your experimental arrangement. Indicate any measurements to be taken on the diagram. Explain how the impact velocity could be found from your measurements. (ii) State an assumption which you have to make to determine the impact velocity. How might this assumption affect the range of velocities which you use? (iii) The diameter d of the crater is expected to be related to the impact velocity by an equation of the form d = kn where k and n are constants. Describe briefly how you would investigate this relationship experimentally. Your description should include an indication of the graph you would plot to investigate the equation. 81. You are to plan an investigation into the relationship between the intensity of the light passing through a pair of polaroid filters and the angle between their planes of polarisation. You are then to analyse a set of data from such an experiment. (a) You have been provided with a pair of polaroid filters to observe what happens when one filter is rotated with respect to the other, but you are not required to take any measurements. The following additional apparatus would be available:

Describe, with the aid of diagrams, how you would measure the angle through which one filter had been turned with respect to the other. State a suitable starting angle between the planes of polarisation of the two filters. Explain how you would determine when the planes are at this angle from your resistance readings. (b) The intensity I of light passing through the two polaroids is thought to be related to the angle between their planes of polarisation by an equation of the form I = k(cos )n where k and n are constants. Write this equation in a suitable format which can be used to plot a linear graph. 103. You are to plan an investigation of how the resistive property of an a.c. circuit, called its impedance, depends on the frequency of the a. c. supply. You are then to analyse a set of data from such an experiment. (a) (i) In a preliminary experiment a 47 resistor, a capacitor of nominal value 47 F and a laboratory power supply are connected in series, using the a.c. terminals of the power supply. An ammeter is used to measure the current I in the circuit and a voltmeter is used to measure the potential difference V across the resistor-capacitor combination. Draw a circuit diagram of this arrangement. When the p.d. was 1.49 V the current was found to be 17.0 mA. What value does this give for the impedance Z where Z = V /I? (ii) For this circuit Z2 = 1 4 C 2 f
2 2

+ R2

where f = frequency of a.c. supply = 50 Hz R = value of the resistor C = value of the capacitor Calculate the theoretical value of Z given by the formula. (iii) Describe briefly how you would investigate the equation in part (ii) experimentally for different values of f. Your description should state any changes you would need to make to the apparatus and should explain why a graph of Z2 against 1/f2 should be plotted.


Use your graph to determine an experimental value for the capacitance of the capacitor.

105. A current-carrying conductor is situated in a magnetic field. Describe how you could demonstrate that the magnitude of the force on the conductor is directly proportional to the magnitude of the current in it. You may wish to include a diagram in your answer. You may be awarded a mark for the clarity of your answer.

141. You are to plan an experiment to determine the half life of protactinium-234. You are then to analyse a set of data from such an experiment. (a) (i) In a protactinium generator protactinium-234, which is a beta-minus emitter, is dissolved in a solvent which forms a layer in a bottle as shown below:

Layer containing decaying protactinium

Add to the diagram to show the arrangement you would use to measure the count rate from the protactinium-234. (ii) (iii) (iv) Describe how you would measure the background count at the start of your experiment and how you would make allowance for it. Describe the readings you would take to determine the half life of the protactinium-234, which is thought to be of the order of one minute. For radioactive decay, the count rate A after a time t is given by A = A0et where and A0 = count rate at t = 0 = decay constant

Explain why a graph of lnA against t should be a straight line. (b) The following data were obtained in such an investigation: Background count = 27 min1
t/s 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Count rate/min1 527 447 367 300 262 216 183

Use the columns provided for your processed data, and then plot a suitable graph on the grid below to test whether the decay follows the expected pattern.


Use your graph to find a value for the decay constant Hence determine a value for the half life of the protactinium-234.

144. You are to plan an investigation of how the current in a capacitor varies with time when it is discharged through a resistor. You are then to analyse a set of data from such an experiment. (a) (i) You are provided with the following apparatus: (nominal) 1.5 V cell microammeter two-way switch connecting leads stopwatch

capacitor 10 k resistor

Complete the diagram to show the circuit you would set up to charge the capacitor and then to measure the current as the capacitor discharges through the 10 k resistor.

(ii) (iii)

Describe how you would determine how the current I in the capacitor varied with the time t of discharge. It is suggested that I = Ioeat and a = a constant

where Io = current at t = 0

Explain why a graph of ln I against t would be a straight line if the relationship were true. Estimate the value of Io expected in this experiment. Show how you arrived at your answer.
t/s 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 I/A 121.5 97.5 79.0 63.4 51.4 41.7 33.1


Use your graph to find a value for

Hence calculate a value for the capacitance C of the capacitor, given that a= 1 CR where R = 10 k.