U X .


.aauoH aaaviA^Ai a ao >i:'1V!>iod mahh ^ .

B. MILLET COMPANY BOSTON AND TOKYO . BRINKLEY ILLUSTRATED Volume V J.y ^ A (DririTtal ^tvit^ JAPAN Its History Arts and Literature BY CAPTAIN F.

I Copyright. B.5 . London. Millet Co. Entered at Stationers' Hall. England OS V. igo2 By J.

i CHAPTER Japan's Foreign Politics 11 28 CHAPTER Steps of Progress III 77 CHAPTER Creed and Caste IV 108 CHAPTER V Religion and Rites 142 CHAPTER Superstitions VI 190 Appendix 249 .CONTENTS CHAPTER I Page Financial and Economical Conditions ....


80 . 96 . . .. People of Yedo Beginning of Nineteenth Century 32 A Japanese Cemetery (or 48 . 224 Lunch Stand in a Public Park 240 .. .. 144 160 176 192 A Fair Student Group of Children Wooden Bridge at Iwakuni 208 Bronze Gate and Tomb...ILLUSTRATIONS Page Rear Corner of a Japanese House Frontispiece Raking a Rice Field . Yara Gero) of Satsuma at End of Seventeenth Century 64 Carpenters Work Threshing Grain Norimono and Kaga Washing Kimonos Kiyomizu Temple. Kyoto Weighing Tea . i6 . Tokyo ...112 128 . . .. .. Shiba Park.


. The story of that achievement may well occupy attention for a moment. V. But by skilful management her statesmen rescued her from embarrassment and falsified all sinister forecasts. at the time of the Restora- tion in 1867. It has been shown that in Tokugawa days the land throughout the Empire was regarded as State property. but. and parcelled out into numerous the feudatories holding it in trust and being to empowered derive certain revenue from or less it.JAPAN ITS HISTORY ARTS AND LITERATURE Chapter I FINANCIAL AND ECONOMICAL CONDITIONS FINANCIAL prominent a affairs naturally occupied place in career. indeed. her condiuneasiness and elicited tion caused much from on-lookers many predictions of disaster. The standard of taxation varied more in different districts. the most generally recognised prinVOL. fiefs. At one Japan's modern time.

of which the market value then all was 24. exacted.000.000 yen on the ruling lowest calculation. and taking the case of rice only.000.JAPAN was that four-tenths of the gross produce went into the hands of the tax-collector and sixThis rule applied to the tenths to the farmer.000. the data are that the total yield of that crop in 1867 was 154. obtained for comparing the burdens of the people Thus much premised. the assessments for other kinds of produce being levied. the farmers' portion being is 144. the central treasury receiving only what- 2 . since they do not admit of arithmetical statement for the purposes of a general review.000 bushels. approximately. partly in money and partly in manufactured goods. a basis in ante-Meiji and in post-Meiji days.000. They continued to be devoted to the support of the feudatories. these factors of uncertain dimensions. the central treasury was of course empty.000 pounds sterling. ciple rice crop only.000. to the payment of the sajjiwai. and to defraying the expenses of local administration. and the funds hitherto employed governmental purposes in the fiefs did not at once begin to flow into the coffers of the State. and tradesmen were subjected to moneNeglecting tary levies as official necessity arose. at rates often of a Forced labour also was very arbitrary nature. and it follows that the grain tax alone represented 96.000. or 240. When Throne for the administration reverted to the in 1867.000 yen.

on abdicating. um- brella notes. ribbon notes. though they placed the treasury in command of some limited sources of revenue. lathe-article notes. and at the moment of the mediatisation of the fiefs. each kind being limited to the confines of the issuing fief. hand over to the sovereign either the con- of his treasury or the control of the lands his revenues. and must in every case have become valueless when the fiefs ceased . on through an interminable list. Paper money had direction of national affairs saw known to the people since the middle of the seventeenth century. varieties of notes were circulating in the various districts. Many of these notes had served a useful purpose in tradal transactions. rice notes. but those issued officially and so the circulation of by the feudal chiefs had in some cases ceased to have any purchasing power.FINANCIAL CONDITIONS ever small fraction remained after these various outlays. no less than sixteen been hundred and ninety-four gold notes. This was not a novelty in Japan. had also the effect of augtents from which he derived menting its liabilities. The Shogun himself did not. He contended that funds for the government of the nation as a whole should be levied from the people at large. The little band of men who had assumed no exit the from the dilemma except an issue of paper money. Matters were further complicated by the fact that the impecunious Ministry had to engage in campaigns which. cash notes. There were silver notes.

But there was no continuity of policy. and the new Government sought to relieve its conscience and preserve its moral prestige by pretending that the object of the issue was to encourage wealth-earning enterprise. : The political leaders of the time appreciated that it. The Governsometimes of ment resorted at par to arbitrary measures. its great severity. The people appraised these euphemisms at their true worth. to force notes into circulation with silver. . and that the notes would be lent to the fiefs for the purpose of promoting commerce and industry. The first duty of a centralised. but instead of proceeding to discharge they saw themselves compelled by stress of circumstances to adopt the very device which. Then ensued a brief but sharp struggle between rulers and ruled. In December the authorities officially recognised a depreciation of twenty per cent in the following April they withdrew the recogni. destroyed credit. they were released. 4 . pro- gressive administration should have been to reto substitute uniform and form the currency for these unsecured exchange of sound media tokens. duty. which hampered trade. had produced It was an irksome necessity. and the new notes fell to a discount of fifty per cent. men were imprisoned for discounting paper tokens the next. and opposed barriers to commercial intercourse between neighbouring provinces and districts. One day.JAPAN to exist. such bad results. in the hands of the feudal chiefs.

a system. the notes circulated freely throughout the whole Empire at par with silver. A postal of an army and a navy had been laid. though the issues of fiduciary paper aggregated nearly 60. The building of The foundations railways had been commenced. so that within five years. and an educational system had a The construction of roads.000 jk^«. and that only onetenth of their total had been appropriated for the support of the territorial nobles.000.000. and proclaimed the equality of specie and Now they promised to redeem the notes then they shortened the period and again they postponed it indefinitely.000 yen.FINANCIAL CONDITIONS tion paper. Nothing spite is more notable than the fact that. It is true that by this epoch the revenues of all the fiefs had become available for the service of the State. system. had been vigorously undertaken. about one-half of their former total. a prison system. had been exchanged for treasury notes. the Government's financial credit gradually acquired strength. the been organised. police telegraph system. the lighting and buoying of the coast. improvement of harbours. de- this bewilderment and vacillation. in thirteen years to live. . A mercantile marine had been created. the fiefs. . a small premium. at one time. as will presently be shown. found the public income too The paper money of small for the expenditures. But the Central having diminished the taxes to Government. amounting to 25. and even commanded.

it became evident that these superficial devices must be abandoned. and eighteen paper yen could be purchased with ten silver coins of the same denomination.000 yen in specie. or about one-nineteenth of its total note issues. Fitful efforts had been made to strengthen the specie value by purchasing quantities of it an operation which inured chiefly to the benefit of speculators on 'change. living far beyond its income. fourteen years after the Restoration.000 ^^. until. and no prospect of a return to hard-money payments could be discerned by the public. its value depreciated. The Government indeed was not without a sense of its responsibilities.000. On the other hand.000. notes to the face value of 150.z had been put into circulation. in 1881. Many industrial official enterprises as had been started under similar projects auspices object- and large sums in aid of had been lent to private persons. and large sums totalling 23.000 _y£'« had been devoted to the promotion of various industries in the hope that their products would go to swell the list of exports and thus draw gold and silver into the country. the treasury held only 8. But. and in proportion as the volume lessons for the people.JAPAN Public works had been inaugurated on a considerable scale. had unavoidable recourse to further issues of fiat paper.000. in 1881. Thus the Government. of the latter exceeded the actual currency requirements of the time. — — 6 . and of the fiat paper from time to time.

its There were.000 yen in face value. charges from the treasury to the local communes by suspending all grants in aid of provincial pub. in order to amass a specie reserve. also. tosufficiently achieved. accumulation of a specie reserve. reduction of the volume of fiduciary notes in circulation. The means chosen were simple. 7 . secondly. Then. Had the Government entered the market openly lic works and private enterprises. an annual surplus of revenue. The latter was a delicate and difficult operation. and by a moderate increase of the tax on alcohol. totalling 7. was secured. and. it was resolved that all officially conducted industrial and agricultural since their purpose of inworks should be sold struction and example seemed now to have been and that the proceeds. — — as a seller of its own fiduciary notes for specie.000. ample reasons to doubt whether any available stores of precious metal remained in the country. the credit of the country would be seriously injured. credit must have suffered. By applying the pruning-knife boldly to administrative expenditures by transferring certain that unless a . should be used for purchasing gold and silver.000 yen. The Government therefore determined to shape its policy in acordance with two distinct ends. gether with various securities held by the treasury and aggregating 26. This was employed in reducing the volume of the notes in circulation.500.FINANCIAL CONDITIONS sound programme were adopted and steadily pursued. first.

and the organisation of a great central bank the present Bank of Japan as well as of a secondary bank the present Specie Bank of Yohohama. money to producers and manufacturers engaged in the export trade.000 yen worth of gold and silver coins between that date and 1 88 1.000. their : — — — depreciation had fallen to three per cent. the cheap money had steadily driven out the_dear. the customs returns showed that a great part of this metallic currency had flowed out of the country.000. founded in 1871. the latter to finance the business of exportation. the specie thus obtained should be handed over to the treasury. had struck 80.000 yen. and although the Government mint at Osaka. The outcome of these various arrangements was that.000. on condition that when their goods were sold abroad. Under these circumstances — Japanese financiers decided that only one course the treasury must play the part of naoffered The State must advance paper tional banker. the former to conduct transactions with native producers and manufacturers. and the metallic reserve of the treasury had increased to 45. This programme required the establishment of Consulates in the chief marts of the Occident. and be8 . ^^ volume of fiduciary notes had been reduced to 119.JAPAN In obedience to elementary economical laws. The resumption of specie payments was then announced. when the policy here described was inaugurated.000 yen. by the middle of 1885.

Now. produce wide-spread suffering. an accomplished fact. nor can be denied that the statesmen who directed Japan's finances at that critical time showed clear insight. however. to carry the curother devils. the above facts it constitute a fine economical feat. others. porters' bills on Europe and America at rates that and while some dedefied ordinary competition clared that she was plainly without any under. and courageous energy." rency of a nation from a discount of 9 fifty or sixty . averring that she could not possibly extricate herself from the slough of an inflated and largely depreciated fiat currency without recourse to European capital.FINANCIAL CONDITIONS came. in the autumn of that year. good organising capacity. and. predicted that her heroic method of dealing with the problem would paralyse industry. While these events were in progress. Many onlooking strangers were prepared each with an infallible nostrum of his own. in short. interrupt trade. the rejection of which convinced him of Japan's hopeless stupidity. they elicited a great deal of adverse criticism from Europeans and Americans. bring about the advent of the proverbial " seven Undoubtedly. she was charged with robbing her own people because she bought their goods at home with paper money and sold them abroad for specie again. Viewed by the light of results. she was accused of an official conspiracy to ruin the foreign local banks because she purchased ex. standing of her own doings.

placed in England in 1868 and paid off in 1889. must have been on a sterling basis.000.750. The example of Egypt showed what kind of fate might ov ertake a semi-independent State falling States before the latter Western restore Japan's judicial and tariff * See Appendix.000. A nine per cent loan. accounts. it Had she borrowed abroad. and cost altogether 1 1. But it may be here stated. made in 1872 and paid off in 1897. for Twice.750. was a financial enterprise violent 1 The gentler exand daring almost to rashness. a point which will be explained by and by. she would have had to charge debt in rapidly appreciating gold. expedient of rean loan pedient of a foreign would cently proved efficacy in Italy's case have commende'd itself to the majority of economists. in round figures and a seven per cent loan.000.000 to 1 9. 10 .JAPAN per cent to par in the course of four years. and cost 36.000.000. once for all. P^^~ duced 10.-^ ^^^ foreign money market was practi- — — cally closed to Japan. that until her adoption of gold monometallism in 1897. the cost of the when produced 4.000 yen.000.750. but London she came to cast up her accommodation stood out in deterrent proportions. reducing its volume at the same time from 1 50. note i.000. These considerations were supplemented by a strong . she had recourse small sums. indeed. Receiving to dis- a fixed sum her in silver. aversion to incurring pecuniary obligations to had consented to autonomy.

^ the foundation of Japan's national debt. when the fiefs were surrendered to the sovereign.250. it was decided to provide for the feudal nobles and the samurai generally by the payment of lump sums in commutation. fourteen years later.500. Having undertaken to re-organise the success. nothing succeeds Powers.000 yen were made. It is advisable at this point to examine the ques- tion of the national debt incurred by Japan since the unification of the Empire. they restored its value to par and resumed specie payments in the brief space of four Oriental years. was that bonds having a total face value of 191. and then. and ready-money payments aggreThis was gating 21. As already stated. note 2. The result of this transaction.FINANCIAL CONDITIONS into the clutches of foreign bond-holders. administration of an empire. Indeed. and to inaugurate a vast programme of reform. grappling boldly with the problem of this inflated and heavily depreciated currency. or by handing to them public bonds the interest on which should constitute a source of income. Japan did not wish to fetter herself with foreign debts while struggling to emerge from the rank of After all. Japanese financiers made a signal like success. they met the difficulty of an empty treasury by issuing fiat notes. the details of which need not be set forth. these public bonds may be said to have repre^ See Appendix.000 yen were issued. II .

000 were paid with interest-bearing bonds.000.000 jk^« incurred on account of the only serious rebellion that marked the passage from the old to the new the Satsuma revolt of 1877. being the whole national debt of Japan during the first twentyeight years of her new era under Imperial — administration.500.000^ in connection with the fiat currency. 13.000. of which total 135. there results a total of 305.500. also to take over the debts amounting to 41.500. There remains to be considered the second epoch. The above liabilities statements sufficiently explain the incurred by the country during what first epoch of her modern financial history.000 yen^ of which 21.000 yen for naval construction.000 were added to the national debt.000 yen. the remainder being defrayed with accumulations of surplus revenue. with a part of the indemnity * See Appendix. dating from the war with China.?.000. note 3.000. a loan of 15. called the may be which occurred The direct in 1894— 1895.000 yen (completely repaid by the yen 1897).000 ^y^. the remainder with ready money. The Government had of the fiefs. 12 .JAPAN sen ted the bulk of the State's liabilities during the first twenty-five years of the Meiji period.000 ^f« for public works.000. loans regime of 33. and 14.000. expenditures on account of the war aggregated 200. If to the above figures be added two foreign loans aggregating 16.000.

000. . surpluses of annual revenue and other assets. and the war strength.000 yen. furnished 300. telegraphs.000 in aid of industrial and agricultural banks.000. and so forth the whole programme thus involving an outlay 90.000. The expenditures for these unproductive purposes.000. with a peace establishment of 145. note 5. 268.000.000 for railways. consisted of six divisions and the Imperial Guards the peace establishment being 70.000 ^ See Appendix. dockyards. and it was decided that the remaining 204. and with voluntary contribuIn the immediate tions from patriotic persons. and 314. and the navy to sixty-seven ships ^ (besides eleven torpedo-destroyers and one hundred and fifteen torpedo boats) with an aggregate displacement of 258.000 for riparian improvements ^ 20.000.000 yeriy — namely. as well as for coast on.000. and telephones.000. number of divisions to twelve. 13 .000.000.000 and a war strength of 560. came to so fortifications. and the total of the productive — — expenditures 1 included 20. at the time of the war.000 tons. sequel of the war.000. note 4. To meet this large figure.000 jd'w. . 20.000 tons. The navy comexclusive of twentyprised thirty-three vessels public works.FINANCIAL CONDITIONS received from China. ' See Appendix. six representing a displacement torpedo boats It was resolved to raise the of 63. the large Government elaborated a programme of armaments' expansion and The army.000. in the 1 programme was — of 504. the Chinese indemnity.

Japan's national indebtedness will reach its maximum. raising four per cent and Evidently a 90. The Government. The burden of taxation is small. and will thenceforward diminish steadily. especially compared with the career of vigorous progress upon which the country has embarked.000 yen is raised by direct taxes. with trifling exceptions In practice.000 yen. ing present these ^ : — See Appendix. it was found impossible to obtain money at home without paying a high — rate of interest.^ It remains to consider briefly the annual revenues and expenditures of the State. had recourse to the a loan of 100.000 yen at selling the \oo-yen bonds at further loan must be obtained abroad. Only I 20. H . that is to say.JAPAN — should be obtained by domestic loans. The sources are to 1899. accordarrangements. however. namely. and the manner of their growth during recent years.000. London market in therefore. note 6. 575. for money commands such a high price in the domestic market that the State cannot afford to use home capital.000. the programme to be carried completely into operation by the year 1905. something less than three yen (six shillings) per head of population.000. in the year 1903. This somewhat wearisome array of figures may be concluded by noting that.

but in a short time the country may look forward to finding itself with a substantial annual balance on the right side.000 jK^. and to forget altogether not only that the Treasury is every year 15 .ooo. the ordinary expenditures aggregate 164.000 yen.FINANCIAL CONDITIONS Million yen Land tax tax 46^ 51^ 6 55 3 Income Business tax Sake (rice wine) tax Soy (fish sauce) tax Miscellaneous Taxes 4 120 Total A further sum of 8i.000. telegraphs. and forests) 46 Stamp ^ ^3^ 51^ 81 Miscellaneous Total On the other hand.z. an impression prevails in Europe and America that Japan's financial condition is not sound. undertakings duties (railways. At present this surplus is absorbed for extraordinary and terminable enterprises forming part of the post-bellum programme described above. People seem to be influenced solely by the fact that her expenditure has grown with striking rapidity. In spite of the conclusive evidence furnished by figures such as the above.ooo^^. Thus there is a surplus of 37. namely Customs and tonnage dues State — is obtained Million yen ^SM posts.z : by indirect taxation.000. to- bacco monopoly.

JAPAN applying large surpluses of ordinary revenue to carry out enterprises which have nothing to do with the usual routine of administration. that at the time of the mediatisation of the fiefs the people were paying a sum of at least 96.000 yen in the form of a grain tax alone. the State.500.500. nor had they any it. all the land in the Empire being the property of the State. cannot justly be regarded as a tax in the ordinary acceptation of the term. and that the burden of taxation is becoming inPerhaps the simplest way of dealing tolerable. is further habitually alleged that Japan's revenue has been unduly increased during recent years. Up to the time of the mediatisation of the fiefs.000. namely. with that allegation is to quote the statement made by way of preface to this review.000. its tenants could not dispose of it at will.000 yen only 46. namely. for the land was then declared the absolute property of its tenants. the only condition attached being perennial liability to pay as compensation to the original owner. an annual sum equal to about one and one- right of possession in 16 . whereas the corresponding impost (land tax) amounts now to Besides. That distinction became still more emphatic after the fall of feudalism. the State will find itself It with an income greatly exceeding its outlays. The sum they paid in kind to their rulers consequently represented a rent for use of the land rather than a tax. this 46. but also that when these post-bellum undertakings are brought to a conclusion.

ajar-i :i'ji>i a o>ii>iA>i jm ..

in of theiiefs the I st »ne. but also ^akings reatly e ily aller are find itself utlays. its the tenants CO '^e . incrc-n . lor had they any a urn they paid in Ay represented rVtnn a tax.om Statt original o\v il to about only conto pay as H% the one\ .OOO ^^AKIxNG A RICE ac FIELIS^jj. rS fiv ^^ecoming in^ dealing statement cvifw. namely.000. I^OO. 96. i\t vears.J ' revenue to nothing to do ry ot adm on. dinary lie of the in m El land vState. roth.000 whereas the to j/fW ta\) amounts now 46. That Mc . after the en declared ui j^ lu lui perennia ' e x. It revenue .

fourth per cent of the market value of the land. In short, the farmers entered into absolute possession of the fields they

had hitherto cultivated as and in return for being transformed into owners they were required to pay a rent assessed on a basis of eighty years' purchase. An agriculturist in England or America would certainly think himself singularly fortunate if a farm were declared his property without any condition



except the yearly payment of a rent not even amounting to one-fourth of that usually charged for the mere privilege of tenancy. It would scarcely occur to him to claim that such a rent should be considered as including his taxes. Yet that is the case with the Japanese farmer. He pays no tax whatever unless his very petty rent can be held to be partly a tax. It is true that he

with all his countrymen; but the income tax in Japan is so graduated that the lower classes are scarcely sensible of its incidence, and at any rate the total sum collected under that heading from a nation of 44,000,000 is only 550,000 pounds, or an average of three pennies per head.^ But an inquiry

liable for


tax in


limited to the case of the agricultural population does not satisfactorily account for the fact that

whereas the ordinary revenue of the State was 78,000,000 yen ten years ago (1891), it is now 201,000,000, having increased to the startling extent of two hundred and eighty -six per cent in

See Appendix, note 7.



Before inferring, however, from these figures that the burdens of the people have increased to a corresponding degree, it must be noted, in the first place, that the revenue includes an important item quite independent of taxation, namely, receipts from Government en-

one decade.


and properties


railways, posts, tele;

graphs, telephones, factories, forests, etc.)

an item

grows with the country's prosthis source ten years ago was S,^oOjOOO yen ; to-day it is 46,500,000. In considering the revenue derived from taxes, profits of such a nature must be omitted, and if that correction be applied, the revenue for i 890—1 891 becomes ()6, 2 ^0,000 yen, and that for 1 901 — 1902


The income from


reduced to 154,500,000.

Further, to correctly

estimate the weight of the people's
it is


necessary to exclude the taxes on sake and tobacco, as well as the customs dues, for the two

former need not be paid by any person desiring to avoid them, and the customs are an indirect impost scarcely felt by buyers of imported goods. The sake tax produced only 1 5,000,000 yen ten years ago to-day it produces 55,000,000, the tobacco tax produced nearly 2,000,000 in 1890189 1, and is now included in the receipts from Government industries and the corresponding figures for customs dues are 4,000,000 and
; ;





receipts also being omitted,

— —

the miscellaneous
results that



revenue raised by taxation at present


yen against 48,250,000 in 1 890-1 891, the increase being nearly sixty per cent. Such figures cannot be said to indicate any excessive addition to the burden of taxation, even if the arithmetic alone be considered. It is necessary to look beyond the arithmetic, however, and to observe that there has been a large development of national wealth and a large appreciation of the prices of commodities during the past ten years. In 1891 the j^^;z was worth three shillings three pence, whereas it is now worth only two shillings. Thus, reduced to sterling, the taxes ten years ago were 7,900,000 pounds, whereas now they are Of course it may be said that Japan 7,830,000. has nothing to do with sterling values, the yen being simply a yen to her people, and not so many shillings and pence. But the price of Japanese labour and the prices of the commodities it produces have appreciated even more sharply than gold has appreciated during the past ten years. The labour that earned only twenty-four sen in 1 89 1 can easily earn more than thirty-nine sen today, and of course it is proportionately easier for the producing classes to pay their taxes at present. In fact, the tax-payer is much more favourably circumstanced now than he was ten years ago. People
receiving fixed salaries, as administrative and judicial officials,

persons engaged in education,


have had no increase of income to compensate


for increased taxation or for the sharp appre-

ciation of prices.

But such persons form

a small

All the other classes are earning more and possess much larger property. On the other hand, their taxes have not undergone any proportionate increase, and instead of saying that the nation is embarrassed by the payfraction of the nation.



has to


to the State, the truth



pays relatively less than it Looking at the figures from another point of
did ten years ago.




admit that




required in order that

nation of 43,500,000 inhabitants, which maintains an army of half a million men and a

of 258,000 tons, may pay of some 16,000,000 pounds



a cost




feat presents itself in a scarcely credible light to

Occidental statesmen. Again, observing that the annual expense of maintaining the army and navy is only 55,000,000 yen, whereas the tax on sake (rice wine) alone yields 55,000,000, and noting that this tax which falls on a luxury grew from 4,000,000 yen in 1891 to 55,000,000 in 1900, it seems plain that if the country has greatly increased its armaments, there has been found, at the same time, a compensatory source of revenue which does not add seriously to the burdens of the people at large.

Another factor which has operated injuriously is that her politicians, by assaults upon the budget in the Diet and by clamto Japan's credit

ouring for a reduction of the land tax as well as of official salaries, greatly misled the foreign 20

. fowls..000 8. of buildings of household furniture and utensils of catde. and preyed upon by a number of overpaid officials whom the Diet was seeking to Acceptdeprive of their excessive emoluments. The wealth of Japan is a subject which has not yet been investigated so thoroughly that an altogether trustworthy statement can be made. ing the estimates made by the Japanese themselves. that the world ultimately learned to think of Japan as a country crushed by a weight of taxation which the were vainly struggling to lighten.FINANCIAL CONDITIONS That this outcry was merely a convenweapon for attacking the Cabinet and courting favour with the constituencies. was amply public. forest. 3. ient proved in the sequel. etc of railways of mercantile marine of merchandise silver bullion .600 1. The following figures are the closest approxiembarrassed State. horses.. But they had sustained the clamour so vigorously and incessantly during session after session of the Diet. Europe and America regarded Japan as an people's representatives of recognising the abundance and elasticity of her resources.273 Miscellaneous Total 21 . instead mations possible at present: Value Value Value Value Value Value Value — Millions of Yenf of lands (agricvdtural. etc. building.) . when these same agitators voted to increase the land tax and to augment official salaries.100 550 60 250 33 Gold and and coins 43° 250 2.

With regard to the income derived by Japan from her capital. does not exceed 441. Comparing this record with American statistics.. and fisheries . speaking roughly. it appears that whereas there are 3. there is in Japan only one owner of fifty thousand pounds for every hundred thousand 22 . land. however.828 persons in the United States credited with possessing at least two hundred thousand pounds. that the number of men possessing property valued at fifty thousand pounds sterling and upwards. Millions of Yen.JAPAN be observed that this sum is approximately one-tenth of the accumulated capital of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and IreThat is what might have been expected. for. become possible to form a Careful investigations now show. has only recently trustworthy estimate. money is ten times as valuable in Japan as in England.. or in other words one for every twenty thousand inhabitants. for example. forestry. the following figures are deduced from the best statistics: It will — Products of agriculture. Produce of mines Manufactured articles Land transport earnings Water transport earnings House rent Profits on foreign trade Banking profits Profits on business 750 30 400 90 15 28 25 27 98 1*463 Total Concerning the distribution of wealth it in Japan.

000 sterling Holland. is to the whole the ratio of her auriferous area figure than that extent of her territory is a larger gold-mines being scatfor any other country. America in another respect Japan differs from few Japanese amass great foralso. duced and Calculations indicate that between 1620 worth of the 1766 about 15. All classes of the people in viously so favourable. tered all over the Empire from The trouble is that metallurgical art is very im- perfectly developed. many doubts have been expressed by European At present her annual writers. at least an equal quantity resources Rapid development of the country's is still and Meiji era. of the population. Various restrictions have from enterhitherto debarred Western enterprise lack themselves ing this field. 23 . if not knowledge. and American output of the yellow metal a small produced not quite two tons. with metal were exported to China and of silver. of above. namely. and the Japanese apply the latest capital. contribution to the total of 470 tons Nevertheless throughout the world. are nouveaux riches. former times remains in the country. that Of the 441 Persons spoken tunes in a lifetime. her north to south. to Very little of the gold pro> scientific methods. has taken place during the The conditions were never pretakin? place. not more than sixty question Reference may be made here to the about which of Japan's gold-mining capacity.FINANCIAL CONDITIONS The contrast is very striking.000.

000. the people are guaranteed against oppression or extortion on the part of their rulers. her situation should be more favourable. But so long as her currency was on a silver basis. — — ^ See Appendix. and 79.000. notes and their capitals aggregate 49. and European capitalists would not lend in terms of silver. note 8.000. is want of capital. Recourse to cheap foreign capital would be the natural exit from the dilemma.000 consist of convertible the deposits in the banks total 33. A comprehensive idea of the growth that has been encouraged by these circumstances may be obtained from the table on pages 26 and 27.000.^ Under Japan's great difficulty capital actually . Now that she has adopted the gold standard. where the statistical facts are tabulated for intervals of every five years. in round numbers. and a full measure of personal freedom is enjoyed.000. the volume of circulating media is only 25.500.000. 24 .JAPAN are now equal in exists the sight for life of the law. Japan hesitated to contract gold debts. On the other hand. of which amount 22.000. such circumstances the rate of interest is necessarily high it averages about twelve per cent throughout the Empire and many profitable enterprises remain undeveloped. per- fect security and property. Europe and America.000.000 pounds sterling.000 more are pledged though not yet paid up. The engaged in public and private enterprises is 60.

have not yet acquired confidence in her integrity.FINANCIAL CONDITIONS however. or ceased to regard her as a terra incog- opening for foreign capital vainly offers in the field of indusRecent returns issued by sixtytrial enterprise. nita. eight joint stock companies show that they paid an average annual dividend of sixteen and onehalf per cent. and in the meanwhile a great 25 . and it is not to be doubted that still better results could be attained were foreign business experience and cheap capital available.



criminal law to enjoy. in short. when they visit or reside in non-Christian Oriental lands. the question at issue being always adjudicated by a tribunal of the defendant's nationality but in criminal cases jurisdiction is wholly reserved. In pursuance of that principle the various Powers having treaties with Oriental nations establish Consular Courts within the . ONE . should be exempted from the penalties and procedure prescribed by the latter's that they should continue. even within the territories of such countries. latter's borders. It has always been considered expedient that the subjects and citizens of Occidental Christian countries. the removal of disabilities which had excluded her from the comity of Western States. . In civil cases a division of jurisdiction is effected. and the jurisdiction exercised by called " extra-territorial " to dis28 these Courts is .Chapter II JAPAN'S FOREIGN POLITICS of the most memorable incidents of Japan's modern career was her recovery of judicial autonomy in other words. the privilege of being arraigned before tribunals of their own nationality and tried by judges of their own race.

tribunals.^ This embassy sailed in 187 1. . The by system was applied to Japan's case. and no sooner had the administration been restored to the Emperor than an embassy was despatched to Europe and America with the object of inducing Occidental Governments to revise the treaties in the sense of abolishing consular jurisdiction and changing the tariff so as to enable Japan to obtain a larger revenue from customs duties.JAPAN'S FOREIGN POLITICS tinguish it from the jurisdiction exercised native. 29 . in It had been similarly applied in the six1858. or territorial. It had a specific right to raise the question. note 9. in the days of her first foreign in- and just as it had then been one cause of the Dutch traders' imprisonment within the narrow limits of the island of Deshima at Nagasaki. The Japanese negotercourse . in the nineteenth century. as a matter of course. for the treaties con- tained a provision declaring * them to be subject to See Appendix. tiators in Yedo this raised no objection to the ment of system in the treaties. embodiBut it was one of the features most vehemently condemned by the conservative statesmen and politicians in Koyto. teenth century. it necessitated the confinement of the foreign residents in settlements grouped around the sites of their consular courts for plain principles of prudence forbade that these residents should have free access to provincial districts far remote from the only tribunals competent to control them. so.

on the other hand. found that the defendant in the case would also be the judge. Under any circumstances. sometimes. the dual functions of consul and judge could not be discharged by the same official without anomaly.JAPAN revision in that year. It must be confessed. notably England and the United States. A few of the Great Powers. It would be an 30 . the treaty States were content to delegate consumerchants. As a matter of course. character of Japan's laws nor the methods of her judicial procedure were such as to warrant foreign Governments in entrusting to her care the lives and properties of their subjects and citizens. required to adjudicate in a magisterial Thus it happened. who not only lacked legal training of any kind. The conditions originally neces-- sitating consular jurisdiction had not undergone Neither the any change justifying its abolition. the embassy failed. organised competent tribunals and appointed expert judicial But a majority of officials to preside over them. that the consular courts themselves were not beyond reproach. but were themselves engaged in the commercial transactions upon which they lar duties to might at any moment be capacity. for the role of consul compelled him to act as advocate in the initiatory stages of complications about which his role of judge might ultimately require him to deliver an impartial ruling. that a Japanese subject desiring to invoke the aid of the law against a foreigner who seemed to have wronged him.

they determined from the effort first should be spared to qualify for the that no exercise of a right which is among the fundamental attributes of every sovereign State. After twelve years devoted. excerpting the best fea- European jurisprudence and adapting them They also to the conditions and usages of Japan. factorily. to these great works. Nevertheless. to educate a judiciary competures of tent to administer the new codes. the recasting of their laws and the reorof their law courts would have ganisation occupied a prominent place in the programme of general reform suggested by contact with but the " extra-territothe Western world . perts they set themselves to elaborate codes of criminal and civil law. stances. that the course of consular jurisdiction in Japan was disfigured by manyabuses. and took steps. On and the whole the system if it worked satis- hurt the feelings of patriotic Japanese. rial " question certainly stirred them to special With the aid of foreign exlegislative efforts. remodelled their law courts. the Under any circumright of judicial autonomy. slower but not less earnest. with partial success. however. it also saved them from innumerable complications into which they would have blundered inevitably had they been entrusted with a jurisdiction which they were not prepared to exercise satisfactorily. Japan. renewed her request for the abolition of consular jurisdic31 . in 1883.JAPAN'S FOREIGN POLITICS error to suppose.

should be subject to her laws and judicable by her law courts as foreigners found within the borders of every sovereign State in the Occident are subject to its laws and judicable by its tribunals of justice. From the first it had been the habit of Occidental peoples to upbraid Japan on account of the barriers opposed by her to full and free international intercourse. without distinction of nationality. Never before had an Oriental State sought such recognition. Only the outlines of the story can be sketched here. and she was now able to claim that the barriers were no longer created by her intention or maintained by her desire. travel. and there was extreme reluctance on the part of Western Powers to try the unprecedented experiment of entrusting the lives and properties of their subjects and citizens to the keeping of a " pagan " people. and residence in her realm. but that they existed because of a system which theoretically proclaimed her unfitness for free association with Western nations and practically made it impossible for her to throw open her territories completely for the ingress of strangers.JAPAN tion. and she supplemented her application by promising that its favourable reception should be followed by complete opening of the country and removal of all restrictions hitherto imposed on foreign trade. She asked that all foreigners within her borders. A large volume might be filled with the details of the negotiations that followed Japan's proposal. though several 32 .

^' ^1 lo ct. cs ro + in vO . :3 O o u.c a c nl v ^ u H i V . [j_ r^ 00 o o — CN "C o 1> ^ ij • ^ 2 w -S w E o a -a E c « ^ i vi 5S T o o 0) a !«J T3 I — 5 •S « lO c ^ E 2 — O M O m o w < " p I. ><U C 1- ID 'P to v C O . f- -^-2? C ^ > a.


But they saw. A struggle thus ensued between foreign distrust on the one side a struggle and Japanese aspirations on the other. They saw. and that. as tyros experimenting with alien systems. respect entertained by a nation for own reposes in their adminis- direct proportion to the efforts it has expended upon the development of the former and the education of the latter. since it supplies a key to much which would otherwise be and the confidence trators are in it inexplicable. the Japanese might be betrayed into many errors. that the legal and judicial reforms effected by Japan had been crowded into an extraordinarily brief period. — ^2 . There is one page of the history that calls for special notice. and on the equally intelligible and reasonable ground that he wanted convincing — VOL.3 JAPAN'S FOREIGN POLITICS of its incidents do as its much credit to Japan's patience and tact as finale does to the justice and HberaUty of Occidental Governments. For whereas often developing painful phases. also. v. had rendered worthy of trust and reverence. the case for the foreign resident stood solid and rational so long as it rested on the basis of his proper attachment to the laws and the judiciary which the efforts of his nationals. its The laws. that such a system could not be per- manently imposed on a country where the conditions justifying it had nominally disappeared. through long generations. Foreigners residing in Japan naturally clung to consular juris- diction as a privilege of inestimable value. indeed.

and practical instincts forbade anything on trust where security of person and property was concerned. had not his attitude been disfigured by local to take journalists. no little resentment and indigna34 . in effect. would have stood out a wholesomely conservative and justly cautious figure. in order to justify his conserva- tism. opponents of Japan's claims. but also to demonstrate her radical unworthiness of any trust whatever. its gist is The lasted eleven years. but contained in this brief statement. It is another thing to condemn it without trial as radically and necessarily deficient in such qualifications. latter The by was. and to depict her under aspects so deterrent that submission to her jurisdiction assumed struggle the character of a catastrophe. him who. It is one thing to hesitate before entering a new house until its habitable qualifications have been ascertained. affection for his The foreign resident. and.JAPAN proofs of Japan's competence to discharge her novel functions with discretion and impartiality before submitting himself to her jurisdiction. allowed themselves to be betrayed into the constant role of blackening Japan's character and suggesting harshly prejudiced interpretations of her acts and motives. whose own systems was measured by whose the struggle their evolution had cost. the line often taken the noisiest of course. it ceased to be a solid and rational case when its champions undertook. not merely to exaggerate the risks of trusting Japan implicitly.

they had no direct interest in its solution. Japanese officialdom had the matter entirely in its own hands and might have settled it on any basis. not to be again resumed until a considerable interval had elapsed. however liberal to foreigners. and growing constantly more impatient of the humiliation to which their country was internationally condemned. and the negotiations were interrupted in consequence. with exceptions so rare as to establish the rule. chafing against the obvious antipathies of their foreign critics. were sometimes prompted which became new their critics. 35 . at the outset of the discussion. perhaps because. reached the verge of conclusion. It would be erroneous to suppose that responsibility for the singularly protracted character of the negotiations for revision rested entirely on the More than once an agreement had foreign side. partly incited by political in- trigues. without provoking. foreign tourists and publicists discussed the problem liberally and fairly. rebelled vehemently against the guarandemanded of Japan. unlike the foreign communities resident in Japan. when Japanese public tees opinion. This point is easily understood by recalling that whereas.JAPAN'S FOREIGN POLITICS tion were aroused on the side of the Japanese. who. Throughout this struggle the Government and citizens of the United States always showed conspicuous sympathy with Japanese aspirations. and it of resentment weapons in the hands of to displays should also be recorded that.

and had ultimately to hand over their nationals to Japanese jurisdiction virtually on trust. undertook that. with the study of inter- national law. there gradually grew up among the people. and with the organisation of political parties. the issue might have been comparatively satisfactory to foreigners. with journalistic development. on her side. when Great Britain agreed that after an interval of five years. But by asking too much and haggling too long. the only condition imposed being that the new Japanese codes of law some of which had not yet emerged from the hands of the compilers must have been in operation for a period of at least one year before the abolition of British Consular jurisdiction. Japanese tribunals should assume jurisdiction over all British subjects within the confines of Japan. simultaneously with the recovery — — 36 . to endorse Had foreign any irksome concessions. 1899. a strong sense of what an independent and thus the longer the negotiations were protracted. Japan. Western statesmen lost their opportunity of obtaining any substantial guarantees. The end was reached in 1894.JAPAN for the moment at all events. ending in July. seriously hostile criticism on the part of the nation. the growth of that sentidiplomacy recognised ment and been content to take moderate advantage of the Japanese negotiators' mood. pari passu. the keener became the popular scrutiny to which they were subjected and the greater the general reluctance State has a right to expect.

it was arranged the land. the whole country should be thrown open. and residence of foreigners should be removed throughout the length and breadth of As to tariff autonomy. and that in the interval a greatly increased scale of import duties should be applied. The initiative came from her with special grace. for the system and all its irksome consequences had been imposed on Japan originally by a combination of Powers with England in the van. make any In Japan's eyes. resolutely refused to concession. the United States dictated the terms of the first treaty providing for But from a very early consular jurisdiction. alone had newspaper organs to ventilate their grievances.JAPAN'S FOREIGN POLITICS of her judicial autonomy. headed by England. thereseemed to be the one conservatism fore. British serious obstacle to her international enfranchisement. As a matter of historical sequence. that Japan should recover it after a period of twelve years. whose preponderating substantial interest entitled her to the place of leader. and exhibited indifference to all a Briton's proverbial the suavities and courtesies of that count for so speech and method much in 37 . period the Washington ^Government showed its willingness to remove all limitations of Japan's sovereignty. and all limitations upon the trade. travel. and since the British residents in the Settlements far outnumbered all other nationalities. Thus Great Britain took the lead in releasing Japan from the fetters of the old system. whereas Europe.

each set of negotiators sought to improve either the terms or the terminology of the treaties already concluded. Others were swayed by racial prejudice. Some were honestly apprehensive as to the issue of the experiment. howBritain and America. A few had fallen into an incurable habit of grumbling. last of the revised treaties was rati- voices of protest against revision continued to be vehemently raised by a large section of the foreign community in the Settlements.JAPAN disarming resentment. and that the tariff arrangements for the different countries required elabthat orate discussion. for where a captious and aggrieved disposition exists. that neither reluctance to make the neces- sary concessions nor want of sympathy with The explanation is Japan caused the delay. ever. Nearly five years were required to bring the other Occidental Powers into line with Great It should be stated. It seemed as though the inauguration of the new system would find the foreign community in a mood which must greatly diminish the chances of a happy result. oppor. pure and simple. that it for the popularity of her subjects in the was certainly fortunate Far East finally to set a liberal England saw her way example. Until the fied. or found their account in professing to champion so-called " foreign interests " and all were naturally reluctant to forfeit the immunity from taxation hitherto enjoyed. 38 .

Thus the great change was effected under 39 . and promote its The Premier and now other Ministers of State issued instructions to the effect that the re- devolved on the Government. main- tain the character of the nation. An Imperial rescript declared in striking steps. and the duty on the people. on their side. the sound common-sense of the European and American business-man asThe foreign residents let it be seen serted itself. of enabling foreigners to reside confidently and contentedly in every part Even the chief Buddhist prelates of the country. favourable demeanour underwent a change. unequivocal terms that it was the sovereign's tunities to discover causes of complaint policy and desire to abolish all distinctions befully tween natives and foreigners. sponsibility addressed to the priests and parishioners in their dioceses injunctions pointing out that freedom of conscience being now guaranteed by the Constitution. took some tion. and must enjoy the same rights and privileges. and that no obstacles would be willingly placed by them in the path of Japanese jurisdicThe Japanese. men professing alien creeds must be treated as courteously as the disciples of Buddhism. So soon as it became evident that the old system was hopelessly doomed. prestige. and that by his people carrying out the friendly purpose of the treaties would best consult his wishes.JAPAN'S FOREIGN POLITICS cannot But at the eleventh hour this unbe wanting. that they intended to bow cheerfully to the inevitable.

it is have been successful thus far. and considers that he practises praiseworthy self-denial when he pays to Japanese laws or their guardians even a moiety of the deference that he would intuitively render under like circumstances in a Western country. and that all the sinister predictions once so freelv uttered about the vindictive advantage which the Japanese would certainly 40 . have not been anese have made some mistakes. that the measure of tolerance which foreigners are prepared to display is sufficient for the working of the novel system. Administration can never achieve more than a success of sufferance when the ruled stand upon a plane higher than that conceded to the rulers. But it has been shown. at all events. have Western Christians passed under the jurisdiction of This unprecedented act of Oriental " pagans. and the mere novelty of the experiment predisposes the conservative foreigner to be hypercritical of its working. since the crown of civilisation was placed upon the head of the Occident. approaches the contemplation of all their acts with a spirit of condemnation or condescension. It is a hard but a true saying that the average European or American looks down upon the Japanese people. altogether The Japtrue. Never before.JAPAN circumstances of happy augury. absent. Its results Difficulties." trust on the part of Occidental Governments did not signify a corresponding access of confidence on the part of Occidental subjects and citizens.

the inhabitants of Riukiu being Chinese subjects. her war with China in 1894— 1895 ^^^ perhaps even more important than her recovery of judicial and tariff economy. were baseless. Japan applied to China for 873. and. given to the Middle Kingdom. for its rulers held not only that their territory had been invaded when Japan's forces landed in Formosa. and by a singular coincidence the former event happened at such a time as materially to reinforce the influence of the latter. and security of life and property as fully as though they were living in their respective fatherlands. freedom from official interference. Friction between the two empires in I commenced Riukiuan junk having been barbarously treated by the inhabitants of northern Formosa. From the point of view of Japan's position among the nations. The latter point. failing to obtain it. the crew of a redress. of Formosa. personal and religious liberty. however. but also that her assumption of protective responsibilities with regard Riukiu Islands was a direct infringement of Chinese sovereignty. was not raised by the to the They confined their restatesmen in Peking. took the law Double offence was thus into her own hands.JAPAN'S FOREIGN POLITICS take of their newly acquired power. when. Foreigners residing in Japan now enjoy immunity of domicile. and invasion the monstrances to they finally agreed to recoup Japan's expenses provided that she withdrew her troops from that 41 .

But the fact is that Japan entertained no misgivings as to the validity of her title. constructively admitted her right to protect them. Had Japan needed any confirmation of her title to the ownership of Riukiu. she regarded as a token of vassalage the presents periodically carried to her Court from neighbouring States. having been conquered by Satsuma. since the Chinese Government. which thenceforth became " Okinawa Prefecture. China entered an objection. had for centuries been regarded as an appanage of that fief.JAPAN island. she classed those oiferings as insignificant interchanges of neighbourly courtesy. as there arose any question of discharging a suzerain's duties. however. and she was doubtless perfectly sincere in the contention. She claimed that Riukiu had always been a tributary of the Middle Kingdom. It was true that Riukiu had followed 42 . by agreeing to indemnify her outlays incurred in protecting Riukiuans. So long as her own advan- tage could be promoted." the former ruler of the islands being pensioned after the manner of the other feudatories. interpretation of tribute did not to a But China's seem reducible working theory. So soon. The Riukiu Islands. she might have derived it from this incident. 1876 the Tokyo Government did not hesitate to extend the newly organised administrative system to Riukiu. and the language and customs of their inhabitants showed unmistakable traces of Therefore in Japanese affinities.

pleading that he had no authority to conclude an compromise. But it was also true that Riukiu had been subdued by Satsuma without China's stretching out a hand to help her that for two centuries the islands had been included in the Satsuma fief. signature the Chinese plenipotentiary drew back. Each empire asserted whereas Japan put hers into practice. visiting the East. of Japan's superior title to its protect the islanders. and the plenipotentiaries agreed that the islands should be divided. China the southern. just as Japan herself had done. towards the petty States on her frontiers had been to utilise them as buffers for softening the shock of foreign contact. but China con- Things remained fined herself to remonstrances. and that China had recently made a practical acknowledgment . A agreement without previously referring it to cer- Japan. been flouted. when General Grant. withdrew from the discussion had and retained the islands. claims positively. in that state until 1880. though with less regularity. This incident illustrated China's methods and From time immemorial her policy their results. China's share in them being reduced to a grievance.JAPAN'S FOREIGN POLITICS the custom of despatching gift-bearing envoys to China from time to time. suggested the advisability of a conference met in Peking. that her relations with them should 43 . while contriving. taking the northern But on the eve of group. sensible that she tain other dignitaries. at the same time. Japan.

Tonquin. and from the fiction of dependence on China and independence towards all other countries. The aggressive impulses of the outside world were to be checked by an unproclaimed under- standing that the territories of these States partook of the inviolability of the Middle Kingdom while the States. Korea was suffered to conclude with Japan a treaty of which the 44 .JAPAN involve no inconvenient responsibilities to herself. Annam. itself. the cradle of the dynasty now ruling China. and would have given easy access to Manchuria. depending of their acts. But they never could persuade themselves to modify the indirect methods sanctioned by tradition. Instead of boldly declaring the peninsula a dependency of the Middle Kingdom. however. one by one. sentiment and prestige. in 1877. Therefore the Peking statesmen endeavoured to preserve the old-time relations with the little kingdom. With regard to Korea. they sought to keep up the romance of ultimate dependency and intermediate sovereignty. but quickly failed to endure the test of modern Occidental practicality. China proved more tenacious. Siam. Thus. on their side. must never expect their Suzerain to bear the consequences This arrangement. The posof session the peninsula by a foreign Power would have threatened the maritime route to the Gulf of Pechili. from the circle of buffers. and Burmah were withdrawn. retained its largely on validity in the atmosphere of Oriental seclusion.

she found herself negotiating with a dependency of China. did not intend that mitted. in all questions connected with her numerous settlers there. and a system of steady though covert interference in Korea's domestic and forarticle declared her *' eign was inaugurated. and with officials who took their orders from the Chinese Representative. in all ditions. affairs suffered chiefly complications that arose out of her comparatively large trade with the peninsula. Great Britain (1883). Korea should exercise the independence thus A Chinese Resident conventionally recognised. and that by degrees her — — No single instance. indignation was roused. by these anomalous conJapan In all her dealings with Korea. constituted a national protest.JAPAN'S FOREIGN POLITICS first an independent State enjoying the same rights as Japan. and other Powers treaties in which her independence was constructively adChina. for strong interground indeed. but the Japanese people gradu45 . however. pitulate the occasions upon which Japan was made sensible of the discrimination thus exercised It is enough to say that such occaagainst her. China had long entertained a rooted apprehension of Japanan apprehension ese aggression in the peninsula and that distrust not unwarranted by history by her agents exerted tinged all the influence Much space would be required to recathere." and subsequently to make with the United States (1882). sions were numerous. was placed in Soul.

thirty years . thwarted. it has to be remembered that for the previous China had treated Japan as a contemptible deserter from the Oriental standard. striking evidence of the wisdom of her prefer- ence for Western each nation there had been smouldering a sentiment of umbrage which could scarcely fail to be translated into hostile action sooner or later. The functions of the judiciary and of the executive alike came to be discharged by bribery only. rulers of the little State lost all sense of national responsibility selfish and gave unrestrained sway to ambition. and had regarded her progressive efforts with while Japan. and humiliated by China's interference in the peninsular kingdom's affairs. To appreciate the bitterness of such conditions. Even more serious were the consequences of Chinese interference when considered from the The point of view of Korean administration. thought whatever was taken for the welfare of the people or for the development of the country's resources. In the breast of became progressive. began 46 . Taxes were imposed in No proportion to the greed of local officials. on her openly disdainful aversion more to furnish some and more chafed had side. unless either Japan reverted to conservatism or China civilisation.JAPAN ally acquired a consciousness of being perpetually baffled. among the lower. insurrections. Family interests predominated over those of the State. Among the upper classes faction struggles.

find at any moment occasions. was to possess a passport to office and an indemnity against the consequences of abuse of power. On two when China's namely in 1882 and armed intervention was of the Bin to suppress employed in the interests 47 . she could not suffer the little kingdom to drift into a condition of such administrative incompetence and national debility that a strong aggressor might 1884. They effected nothing except to recall to the world's recollection the miserable condition into which the peninsula aid had fallen. to which the Queen belonged. familyinfluence overshadowing everything. while the people at large fell into the apathetic condition of men that possess neither the blessing of security of property nor the incentive of national ambition.JAPAN'S FOREIGN POLITICS to be more and more frequent. however flagrant. of these Bin family learned to base its tenure of power on ability to conciliate the Middle Kingdom and on readiness to obey Chinese dictation. To be a member of the Bin family. From time to time sibility the advocates of progress or the victims of oppression rose in arms. a pretext for inter- ference. Personal respon- was unknown among officials. deeply concerned Her own in se- preserving Korea from the grasp of Western Powers. Chinese thus military was always furnished emeutes. As a matter of State policy the Korean problem readily for the suppression and the caused curity much being anxiety to Japan.

During the interval immediately preceding these events. For in 1882 her right to maintain troops in Soul for the protection of her legation was admitted. but in the consequent negotiations she acquired conventional titles that touched the core of China's alleged suzerainty. regarding Japan as the fountain of progressive tendencies. the partisans of the victors. notice of the measure being given by the Chinese Government to the Japanese Representative in Peking. attacked and destroyed her legation in Soul and compelled its inmates to fly from the city. Japan had been rendered acutely 48 . The appeal elicited a prompt response. appeal to China's aid. Japan behaved with forbearance at these crises.500 Chinese troops embarked at Tientsin. according to treaty. and the insurgents proving themselves superior to the ill-disciplined. the Bin family had recourse to its familiar expedient. On the 6th of July. the two empires being thus placed on an equal military footing with regard to the peninsular kingdom. on the southwest coast. and in 1885 she concluded with China a convention by which each Power pledged itself not to send troops to Korea without notifying the other. and were transported to the peninsula. where they went into camp at Ya-shan. In the spring of 1894 a serious insurrection broke out in Korea.JAPAN movements of reform. 2. illequipped troops of the Government.

w /MaxaMSD aaaviA'iAi a .

and in vvvvi |jiv:uged itself . 'jntain of progressive estroyed her legation artisans iniates to fly from with forbearance at consequent negotiations titles that touched the ] jzerainty.of the victors..:„u^. For m 1882 ronns in Soul for the proas admitted.^ convention not to send notifying the other.. . >laced on an equal a ' • China peninsular A JAPANESE CEMETERY.

I«t^ Pt T^- w^ .


sensible of China's arbitrary

and unfriendly


ference in the peninsula.

efforts of the Japanese Government to obtain redress for unlawful and ruinous tradal prohibitions issued by the Korean Authorities, had been thwarted by the action of the Chinese Resident in Soul and

Twice the

once an ultimatum addressed from Tokyo to the Korean Government in the sequel of long and vexatious delay, had elicited from the Viceroy Li in Tientsin an insolent threat of Chinese armed opposition. Still more strikingly provocative of national indignation was China's procedure with regard to the murder of Kim Ok-kyun, the leader of progress in Korea, who had been for some years a refugee in Japan. Inveigled from Japan to China by fellow countrymen sent from Soul to assassinate him, Kim was shot in a Japanese hotel in Shanghai, and China, instead of punishing the murderer, conveyed him, together with the corpse of his victim, in a warship of her own to Korea, the assassin to be publicly honoured, the body to be savagely mutilated. When, therefore, the insurrection of 1894 in Korea induced the Bin family again to
the Tokyo Government concluded that, in the interests of Japan's security and of civilisation in the Orient, steps must be taken to put an end finally to the barbarous corruption and misrule which

China's armed


rendered Korea a scene of constant disturbance,
offered incessant invitations to foreign aggression,



and checked the country's capacity to maintain its own independence. Japan did not claim for herself any rights or interests in the peninsula She superior to those possessed there by China. was always ready to work hand in hand with the Middle Kingdom in inaugurating and carrying But there was not the out a system of reform. remotest probability that China, whose face had been contemptuously set against all the progressive measures adopted by Japan during the preceding twenty-five years, would join in forcing a neighbouring kingdom the very reforms she herself despised and abhorred, were her cooperation invited through ordinary diplomatic channels only. It was necessary to contrive a situation which would not only furnish clear proof of Japan's resolution, but also enable her to pursue her programme independently of China's endorsement, should the latter be finally unobtainable. She therefore met China's notice of a despatch of troops with a corresponding notice of her own, and the month of July, 1894, found a Chinese force assembled at Ya-shan and a Japanese force occupying positions in the neighbourhood of Soul. China's motive for sending troops was nominally to quell the Tonghak insurrection, but really to reaffirm her own domination in the peninsula and to reseat in the administrative saddle men under whose guidance the country was losing all capacity for independence. Japan's motive was to secure a position such as would



enable her to

upon the



treatment of Korea's malady. Up to this point the two empires were strictly within their conventional rights. Each was entitled by treaty to send troops to the peninsula, provided that notice was given to the other. But China, in giving notice, described Korea as her " tributary State," thus thrusting into the forefront of the discussion a contention which Japan, from conciliatory motives, would have kept out of sight. Once formally advanced, In however, the claim had to be challenged. the treaty of amity and commerce concluded many years previously between Japan and Korea,

two high contracting




same national status. to possess the a Power which for could agree that not Japan two decades she had acknowledged and treated as her equal, should be openly classed as a tribShe protested, utary of the Middle Kingdom. but the Chinese statesmen took no notice of her protest. They continued to apply the disputed appellation to Korea, and they further asserted their assumption of sovereignty in the peninsula by seeking to set limits to the number of troops sent by Japan, as well as to the sphere of their employment. Japan then proposed that the two empires should unite their efforts for the suppresdeclared

Korea and for the subsequent improvement of that kingdom's adsion of the disturbances

ministration, the latter purpose to be pursued by

the despatch of a joint commission of investigation. That was an important stage in the disIt rested then with China to avert all pute. danger of war by joining hands with Japan for the regeneration of a nation in whose prosperity

and independence the two empires were equally Ready But she refused everything. interested. at all times to interfere by force of arms between the Korean people and the dominant political faction, she declined to interfere in any way for Ready at all times to the promotion of reform.


into submission to a

corrupt and demoralising administration, she refused to aid in rescuing

from the



enervation entailed by the sway of such an oli-

garchy. She even expressed superciliously insulting surprise that Japan, while asserting Korea's independence, should suggest the idea of peremptorily

reforming its administration. In short, for Chinese purposes the Peking statesmen openly declared Korea a " tributary " of the Middle
of its independence but for Japanese purposes they insisted that it must be held independent, and that Japan must abide strictly by her assertion of its independence. The Tokyo Cabinet now declared their resolve not to withdraw the Japanese troops without " some understanding that would guarantee the future peace, order, and good government of Korea," and since China still declined to come to such an underassertion

Kingdom, and denied Japan's


standing, Japan undertook single-handed.


work of reform

Chinese Representative in Soul threw the whole weight of his influence into the scale Still nothagainst the success of these reforms. ing immediately occurred to drive the two empires The finally determining into open warfare. cause of rupture was in itself a belligerent


China's troops, as already stated, had been sent originally for the purpose of quelling the Tonghak rebellion. But the rebellion having died of inanition before the landing of the troops, their Neverservices were not required or employed. China kept theless they were not withdrawn.


in the peninsula, her

declared reason for

doing so being the presence of a Japanese miliThus, throughout the subsequent tary force. negotiations, the Chinese forces lay in an entrenched camp at Ya-shan while the Japanese ocThe trend of events did not impart cupied Soul. any character of direct mutual hostility to these But when it became evident that little armies. all hope of friendly co-operation between the two empires must be abandoned, and when Japan, single-handed, had embarked upon her scheme of regenerating Korea, not only did the continued
presence of a Chinese military force in the peninsula assume special significance, but any attempt on China's part to send reinforcements could

b€ canstrued in one


only, namely, as an un-


equivocal declaration of resolve to oppose Japan's proceedings by force of arms. Seeing, then, that

China was preparing to send reinforcements, Japan warned the Peking Government of the construction she must place upon any act of the kind. Nevertheless China not only despatched troops by sea to strengthen the camp at Ya-shan, but also sent an army overland across Korea's It was at this stage that an northern frontier. Three Chinese men-ofact of war occurred. war, convoying a transport with 1,200 men, encountered and iired on three Japanese cruisers. One of the Chinese ships was taken another was so shattered that she had to be beached and abandoned the third escaped in a dilapidated condition, and the transport, refusing to surrender, was This happened on July 25th, and an open sunk. declaration of war was made by each Empire six
; ;

days later.


narrative set

down above

represents the

chapter only of a history having


a quarter

of a century





Japan applied herself


break away from

Oriental traditions, and to snap from her limbs the fetters of Eastern conservatism, it was inevi-

widening gulf should gradually grow between herself and China, the inveterate representative of those traditions and that conservatism. Thus the struggle that occurred in 1894 was rather a contest between Japanese progress and Chinese stagnation than a iight to determine
table that a


the Government and political parties had reached such an acute stage that even a foreign war might — — Some publihave been welcome as a diversion. and Riukiu. But from this synopsis of reasons it would be unjust to omit the state of Japan's domestic affairs Unquestionably the friction between in 1894. forced war upon her neighbour in order to escape Others deny strena worse alternative at home. as usual. uously that the rupture was influenced in any reThe spect by Japan's domestic embarrassments. security without any departure from guarantee old-fashioned methods. cists have attached overwhelming importance to They insist that Japan that phase of the story. Japan would probably have been more S5 . whether Japan should be suffered to act as the Eastern propagandist ot Western progress. or whether her efforts in that cause should be held in check by Chinese conservatism.JAPAN'S FOREIGN POLITICS China's suzerainty or Korean independence. and by the same processes of capricious protection which had failed so signally in the cases of Annam. Burmah. truth. The issue really at stake was Siam. Tonquin. To secure Korea's immunity from foreign espeaggression was of capital imporcially Russian tance to both empires. Japan believed that such security could be attained by introducing into the peninsula the civilisation which had contributed so signally to the development of her own strength China thought that she eould and resources. seems to lie between the two extremes.

The war itself was a succession of triumphs for Four days after the first naval encounter. whereas the Japanese had only single-shooters. Chinese assembled a force of seventeen thousand men and made full preparations for a decisive They had ample leisure. Moreand otherwise strengthen their position. she sent from Soul a column of troops who attacked the Chinese entrenched at Ya-shan and Many of the routed them without difficulty. the advantages possessed by the defence ought to have been wellnigh insuperable yet a day's fighting suf. mount Krupp guns. Under such circumstances. converged upon Pyongyang. one moving due north from Soul. and historically interesting as the place where a Japanese army of invasion had been defeated by Chinese and Korean troops at There the the close of the sixteenth century. and the ground offered little cover for an attacking force.JAPAN unwilling to break the peace if the state of her own household had been more tranquil. escape to their effected fugitives town on the Tadong River. the assailants' cas- amounting to less than seven hundred and the defenders losmg six thousand in killed and ualties 56 . A period of contest. and that interval was utilised by the Chinese to throw up parapets. cilities for offering excellent fa- defence. a Pyong-yang. Japan. they were armed with repeating rifles. the other striking west from Yuen-san. over. forty days elapsed before the Japanese columns. ficed to carry all the positions.

since a successful blow struck there must Hishave put an end to the Korean campaign. It was a brilliant victory. Fourteen Chinese warships and six torpedoprelude of another boats were returning to home ports after con- voying a fleet of transports to the Yalu. tory had already demonstrated that fact.Chinese. the very day after the battle at Pyong-yang. for on two occasions in former ages attempts made by Japan to conquer the peninsula were rendered abortive by the superior maritime strength of On land her soldiers the Koreans and Chinese. China's naval force would certainly have been directed against Japan's maritime communications. proved invincible. when they encountered eleven Japanese men-of-war cruising in the Yellow Sea. Hitherto the Chinese had sedulously avoided a contest at sea.JAPAN'S FOREIGN POLITICS wounded. For. . but her sea-route being severed. she had to abandon the enterprise in each case. The. which forms the northern boundary of Korea. a great naval fight took place near the mouth of the Yalu River. whereas the most powerful vessels on the Japanese side were belted cruisers In the hands of an of only four thousand tons. Their fleet was the stronger. however. admiral appreciating the value of sea power. on September 17th. 57 failed to read history. and it proved to be the equally consoicuous success at sea. since it included two armoured line-of-battle ships of over seven thousand tons' displacement.

Port Arthur. were sunk. . and three of the largest vesfallen. Japan could now strike at Talien. naval stations on the Liao-tung and Shantung peninsulas. Admiral Ting. and when not using them for that purpose. were armed with the best modern weapons and enjoyed the reputation of being almost impregnable. It had lasted seven and a their 5S . Everything goes would have avoided the battle to show that they off the Yalu had choice been possible. the vigour of the Japanese pursuit being greatly impaired by the presence of torpedoboats in the retreating squadron. and the remainder escaped to Wei-haiwei.JAPAN They employed their war-vessels as convoys only. the remaining four ships and five gunboats surrendered. hid them in port. they fought bravely. The Yalu victory opened the over-sea route to China. and brave commander. built after plans pre- pared by European experts. where powerful permanent fortifications. though when forced to Four of their ships fight. They fell before the assaults of the Japanese troops as easily as the comparatively rude fortifications at Pyong-yang had only resistance of a stubborn character was made by the Chinese fleet at Weihai-wei but after the whole squadron of torpedocraft had been destroyed or captured as they attempted to escape. committed suicide. This ended the war. and one by shot and shell. The sels had been sunk at their moorings by Japanese torpedoes. and Wei-hai-wei.

Prime Minister and S9 . carried The fourth Talien and Port Arthur by assault. fighting several — ciently indicate the inefficiency of the Chinese The deaths from disease aggregated fighting. hwan. won the battle of Pyong- yang.JAPAN'S FOREIGN POLITICS half months.005 figures which sufiikilled and 4. seized where it joined hands with the second column. and Li Ching-fong. and moved towards Mukden via Feng- minor engagements and conducting the greater part of its operations amid The second column deep snow in midwinter. during which time Japan put into the field five columns. and. to discuss terms of peace with Japan. the latter being represented by Marquis Ito and Count Mutsu.922 wounded. The fifth crossed from Port Arthur to Wei-haiIn all these operawei and captured the latter. tung Peninsula. whence it advanced to the capture of Newchwang The third landed on the Liaoand Yingkow. Viceroy of Chili and Senior Grand Secretary of State. and marching through southern Manchuria. aggregating about i 20. having Peninsula. moved up the Liao-tung Kaiping. and the total monetary expenditure was twenty million pounds sterling. northward from Soul.000 One of these columns marched of all arms. diverged westward from the Yalu. The Chinese Government sent Li Hung-chang. reached Haicheng. advanced against Yingkow.866. tions the total Japanese casualties were 1. advanced to the Yalu. and turning southward. 16. forced its way into Manchuria.

and provided for the conclusion of a treaty of commerce and amity between the two empires. and presented a joint note to the Tokyo Government. .000 taels provided for the occupation of Wei-hai-wei by Japan pending payment of the indemnity secured some additional commercial privileges. — — Orient. treaty was signed at Shimonoseki on the 17th of April. as well as the islands of Formosa and pledged China to pay an inthe Pescadores demnity of 2. . The recommendation was couched in the usual terms of diplomatic courtesy. recommending that the territories ceded to Japan on the mainland of China should not be permanently occupied. via Fenghwan. based on the lines of China's treaties with Occidental Powers. and Yingkow. and subsequently ratified by the sovereigns It declared the absolute of the two empires.000. than three of the Great European Powers Russia. No sooner did this agreement receive ratification at the hands of the sovereigns of Japan and China. A ceded to Japan the part independence of Korea of Manchuria lying south of a line drawn from the mouth of the river Anping to the mouth of the Liao. Germany.JAPAN Minister of State for Foreign Affairs. respectively. Haicheng. but every60 . and France stepped forward. as the opening of four new places to foreign trade and the right of foreigners to engage in manufacturing enterprises in China. as such a proceeding would be detrimental to the lasting peace of the : .

and recognising that the counsel offered by the European States was prompted by the same sentiment. " yielded to the dictates of magnanimity and accepted the advice of the three Powers. the ownership of Manchuria. The day that saw the resolve was quickly taken." The Japanese were shocked by this incident. consumed her supplies of warlike material. ExJapan found herself compelled to comply. But Germany. which had drained her treasury. not directly interested in West. 6i It was not known . avowing his unalterable devotion to the cause of peace. and it was also natural that France in the East should remain true to her alliance with Russia in the . seemed to have joined in robbing the latter of the fruits of her victory simply for the sake of establishing some shadowy title to Russia's good-will. hausted by the Chinese campaign. and by profession a warm friend of Japan. They could understand the motives influencing for it was evidently natural Russia and France that the former should desire to exclude warlike and progressive people like the Japanese from territories contiguous to her borders.JAPAN'S FOREIGN POLITICS thing indicated that its signatories were prepared to enforce their advice by an appeal to arms. publication of the ratified treaty saw also the issue of an Imperial rescript in which the Mikado. and kept her squadrons constantly at sea for eight months. she had no residue Pier of strength to oppose such a coalition.

many and held it a sacred duty to prevent Japan from gaining a position which might enable her to immense military machine out of the countless millions of the Chinese nation. construct an much of the resentment friendliness in the Manchurian provoked by his unaffair was softened by the mirth his chimera excited. When His Majesty's mood came to be understood. could not The fail bitterness to be of that deprivation accentuated by a doubt 62 . But the main reason sia. qualify for a nation in the eyes of They saw intercourse that their coun- try's peaceful progress and her successful efforts to equal with Western States had attracted little consideration compared with the victories of her arms. and France in robbing Japan of the fruits of her victory. raising the army to a fighting strength of over half a million men and more than doubling the navy.JAPAN until a later period that the Emperor of Ger- entertained profound apprehensions about an irruption of Oriental hordes into the Occident. and expelling her from the position she had won in Manchuria by force of arms. One of the results of this war was to suggest to the Japanese a new estimate of the attributes that win respect for Europe and America. Probably that discovery had much to do with a large scheme of military and naval expansion that they undertook in the sequel of the war. for this great develop- ment of belligerent force was the action of RusGermany.

unarmed and uninsured. the preservation of China's integrity. although the relations between the two empires three years after the three parade of concern for . and Japan had no choice but to conclude that the motive of their arbitrary interference was to prevent her own aggrandisement rather than to avert her To secure herself enemy's dismemberment. averred that alone among the civilised nations of the world she might have confided in the forbearance of other States and pursued the even But tenor of her way. This act of spoliation was efi^ected by Germany without giving any sort of warning to China.JAPAN'S FOREIGN POLITICS whether any one of the three Powers sincerely entertained the purpose they avowedly sought to promote. and to support the dignity of her newly won Power in the Orient. namely. against a possible repetition of such humiliations. she Many onlookers her armaments. Nothing in their records indicated that the interests of an Oriental State had ever been an object of solicitude to them. she did not derive any such conviction either from her own experience or from her observation of international usages. and it must be admitted that her misgivings found curiously quick and position as the leading expanded signal justification in subsequent events. Germany seized Kiao-chow and asserted her claim to a hinterland embracing the greater part of Shantung province. For little more than Powers' ostentatious China's integrity.

Japanese is alone in question. Japan saw those territories appropriated by the Thus within 64 ." but no one. laboured under as to the true nature any manner of delusion the transaction. Russia annexed the Liao-tung peninsula. least of all Russia or Germany. and retained the territory in permanence irrespective of China's willingness to fulfil all ordiThis record has nary obligations of reparation. observed by civiUsed nations is to prefer a claim first. namely. and that impression was that the sanctions and vetoes of international law constitute no sort of protection for an Oriental are resorted to. nothing to do with the morality of Germany's The impression produced upon the policy. so as to give the other side an opportunity of satisfying it peacefully before extreme measures But Germany helped herself to territory at once without preferring any claim. of four years of her expulsion from territories belonging to her by right of conquest. The procedure in each case was euphemistically termed "leasing. pretext. State against Occidental aggression. that a The ostensible Shantung mob had mur- dered two sessed might have possome semblance of validity had Kiao-chow German missionaries. In the immediate sequel of Germany's absorption of Shantung.JAPAN were peaceful and amicable. been occupied as security for satisfaction in the nature of an indemnity and the punishment of Even in that case the routine the murderers.

VARA (OR GERO) OF A SATSUMA (END OF SEVENTEENTH CENTURY). . to Samurai supposed be wholly careless of life.


For between Korea and Japan not only does the sea of Japan narrow to a breadth of one hundred and twenty miles. was now shown for aggrandisement to have been anxiety lest by leaving her in possession their own opportunities might be curtailed. Japan. almost within sight of their shores. is essential. VOL. V. 5 They know S^ . but also the Japanese island of Tsushima lies in the middle. or at any rate of a portion of its southern coast. To a Power holding Vladivostock and Liao-tung the possession of Korea. What chiefly troubled them was that by Russia's occupation of the Liao-tung peninsula a danger hitherto remote had become imminent. is competent to sever at any moment the maritime communications between Vladivostock and Liao-tung. therefore. But to have been openly flouted caused comlittle concern to the Japanese. but is perpetusion. an intolerable prospect to They cannot consent to Japanese nation. and immediately opposite to Tsushima on the Korean coast is the Japanese settlement of Fusan. outposts of an empire enormously powerful governed by an irresistible impulse of expanis command well that Russia's growth is not controlled from St. unless Russia can secure in Korea such a position as will paratively give her at least equal But Russia in Korea the see the and of the narrows. planted. w^hich had formed their pretext for expelling Japan. Solicitude for the preservation of China's integrity. Petersburg.JAPAN'S FOREIGN POLITICS very Powers that had expelled her.

they fought in 1894 to secure its independence. incomparably larger than those are Korea in ests of Russia. and is one of the finest sites in China for a naval station. their material intertwenty years ago. and history shows that if any Power has a title to shape its fate.JAPAN ally promoted by " the man at the front. the world looked to see Japan convert her provisional occupation of Wei-hai-wei into permanent tenure by way of rejoinder to Russia's action. 66 . and the subsequently concluded treaty of peace contained a provision that the place should remain in Japanese possession pending China's payment of an indemnity of 200. It is easy to comprehend. Japan occupied Wei-hai-wei. It was the Chinese there that troops and ships had made their last stand in the war of 1894—1895." and that Korea would not be the terminus of her advance to-day any more than Geok Tepe was Besides. the peninsula promises to be a prosperous settlement for their surplus population.000 taels. which lies on the Shantung coast opposite to Liao-tung. The last instalment of the indemnity having been handed over uneasiness shortly after Russia's appropriation of Liao-tung. therefore. and how greatly their conviction was strengthened that among the Powers of Europe England alone had a sincere disposition to refrain from territorial aggression When these events occurred. that Power is Japan.000. in the Far East. how profound was the felt by the Tokyo statesmen when they saw Russia seated in Liao-tung.

seeing its terri- piece by piece. She evacuated the place in Great Britain's favour. and resulted in a situation of extreme peril for the foreign communities in Tientsin and Peking. assumed. and whose troops were believed to be qualified for which were beleaguered by such a task. took steps to promote the organisation of volunteer associations in the provinces adjacent to the capital. Knowing now with But Japan hesitated. It does not belong to the scope of this history to describe the processes by which a movement.JAPAN'S FOREIGN POLITICS But Japan preferred to have England planted at Wei-hai-wei. promptitude to save the legations in a crowd of Chinese soldiers and insurgents enormously more numerous than the little band of defenders. which. There did not indeed appear to be any possibility of despatching a European or American force with sufficient Peking. spread to the metropolitan province of Chili. Meanwhile the Chinese Court. in the summer of 1900. whose proximity to the scene of disturbance enabled her to intervene expeditiously. Hence the eyes of the world turned towards Japan. possibly legiti- mate in official inception. and recognising that a chief source of danger lay in the tories filched it from apathy of its own subjects. breaking out in Shantung. thus giving a further and unequivocal indication of her political tendency. the development of distrust and what suspicion 67 . the character of an anti-foreign rebellion.

on the one hand. from seeming to grasp at an opportunity for armed display. not to the prowess of the victors. she shrank. and aware that she had been admitted to the comity of Western nations on sufferance. Fighting side by side with European and American soldiers and under the eyes of competent military critics. and subsequently in the relief of Peking. which had to be approached in the fierce heat of a Chinese midsummer under most trying conditions.JAPAN her resources and the growth of her militarystrength were regarded by some European peoples. There could no longer be any doubt about her military capacity. Their success in the war of 1 894-1 895 had been largely discounted by foreign critics. but to the total helplessness of the vanquished. and who denied that any inference might be drawn as to the quality of Japanese fighting material for the purposes of a struggle with Western troops.^ But the Campaign of 1900 in Chili furnished an unequivocal test. on the other. the Japanese acquitted themselves in such a manner as to establish a high military reputation. until Not Europe to Chili. 68 . who attributed it. where they acted a fine part. first in the storming of Tientsin. from the solecism of obtrusiveness in the society and America made it quite plain that they needed and desired her aid did she send twenty thousand men of strangers. and since also in the subsequent negotiations she uniformly ef^ See Appendix. note lo. and.

many Europeans. if plain truth be told. but not Racial prejudice has not been softened by the touch of time. while any display of impatient self-assertion on his part is attributed to inbred Himself maintaining an hatred of Occidentals. especially those residing in accuse the to Japanese of harbouring antiJapan. an inferior being. and his persistent attempts to reverse provoke resentment rather than approval. the anti-Japanese prejudice displayed by the foreign communi- fully laid aside their traditional incomparably more profound and demonstrative than any anti-foreign prejudice that can be detected among the Japanese. subordinating her own interests to the important object of maintaining the cooperative union of Western Powers. Something of this is an aftermath of the resident foreigner's long struggle to retain the privilege courts of being judged by his own law and exempted from taxation. The there are exceptions of course — general attitude is one of con- temptuous tolerance or frank antipathy.JAPAN'S FOREIGN POLITICS faced herself. that verdict 6s . all. foreign sentiments and to upbraid them with not having aliens. Nothing Japanese meets with approval among foreigners ties themselves is — residing in the settlements. It is customary with a great it Much of was dispelled. But racial prejudice is The Japanese is counted in the main responsible. doubtless. much of the suspicion with which she had been regarded in Europe ought to have been dispelled. dislike of But.

gradually learning to see these things as they really are. have come to understand that many of the qualities which they are denounced for not displaying find no place in the Additional light conduct of their denouncers. and by the legislation of Australia and America for excluding 70 . and there is the generous appreciation of onlookers from a distance who see Japan's progress in its true proporSuch object-lessons do much to mitigate tions. mood habitually displayed by the harsher the But the balance is foreigner within the gates. Roman Catholic and Protestant. or unkind criticism. There is. who labour perpetually for the welfare of their . There is the open-handed benevolence with which the foreign resident responds to every appeal for aid when calamity overtakes the Japthere is the noble devotion of the misanese sionaries. and the Japanese. the foreigner roundly accuses the Japanese people of conceit. and living carefully apart from them. beof disdainful side largely on the nevolent condescension. charges them with exclusiveness and unsociability. It is not conceivable that any community of aliens living in an Occidental country under similar circumstances would find the people equally tolerant and good-humoured. Japanese brothers and sisters. by the antisubject the has been reflected on Semitic sentiment in Europe. superiority. of course.JAPAN attitude of ineffable superiority. another side to the account.

committed some There were excruel excesses at Port Arthur. Chinese complication in 1900 was sugDuring the war gestive in another respect also. moreover. however. 71 . by finding the endurance beyond exasperated bones of two of their comrades who had been roasted to death by the Chinese. a section of the Japanese army. The men had been tenuating circumstances. . refused to take these circumA veritable shout of indigstances into account. critics. the civilian inhabitants of Port Arthur whom the Japanese slew were Foreign believed to be soldiers in disguise. wrote as though the newspapers nation was raised Japanese. and the remnants of others who had been shockingly mutilated.JAPAN'S FOREIGN POLITICS immigrants of Japanese or Chinese nationality. and altogether were it seemed as though Europe and America called civilised. in 1894— 1895. permanently forfeiting their title to be . The had re-established their affinity with Oriental barbarians this one incident of a war conducted on all other occasions with marked humanity and unvarying respect for the best principles of international morality. It was against similar exclusiveness on Japan's part that the Powers of the West inveighed when they required her to open her gates. was magnified into a heinous act of savagery. and the contrast between their preaching then and their practice subsequently cannot but strike Eastern nations. invading the Liao-tung peninsula. and.

then. refrained studiously from all acts of rapine. Now. The world. and sought to exterminate their enemies instead of subduing them. remembering their tortured and mutilated comrades. but also the Germans. and with the one exception of Port Arthur were nowhere guilty of sacrificing life needlessly. though they made no complaint. At all events. given no quarter under any circumstances. were probably a little bewildered by this experience. if the Japanese had killed all the wounded Chinese. forgot for a short a time how of cities . had elapsed since the sacking was deemed a legitimate perquisite of European armies. they treated the wounded with the utmost kindness. however. as it was known to them by tradition. But one of the earliest incidents of the Chinese complication in 1 900 was a shocking massacre at Blagovestchensk by the Russians. said very little. on the contrary. Remembering. they concluded that under no provocation would Western soldiers be betrayed into retaliating on a merciless enemy. 72 . It had been thrown into a tumult of palpitating horror when Japanese soldiers. an act of savagery which threw Port Arthur totally into the shade and in Chili the Japanese themselves saw not only the Cossacks. But. follow the principle of " no quarter " with terrible fidelity. they would only have followed the usages of war. and how only fourteen years separated Port Arthur from Geok Tepe. the Japanese.JAPAN shocked into hysterical horror.

and France in 1895 such a menace to the security of China and : 73 . erately reverted to medieval fashions of warfare. Germany. and when Germany pretended that an agreement made by her with England concerning the integrity of the Chinese Empire could not be construed as applying to Manchuria. documentary obtain although Russia failed to sanction for her occupation. she remained in occupation none the less. and no one. There could be no mistaking the import of this con" one law for me. by Japan Manchuria of the tenure of a portion had seemed to Russia. in preventing a would have virtually blind-eyed. though Manchuria is as integral a portion of the Chinese Empire as Prussia is of the German. helpless and But added that huge territory to Russia. Japan was able to congratulate herself on having been mainly instrumental convention by which China. least of all a person conversant with her historical respect for engagements. was the measure of public condemnation. a feeble remonstrance. could be so sanguine as to suppose that her disavowal of permanent occupation would Thus. whereas ever be translated into evacuation. followed by discreet silence. another for thee " was trast to be the governing principle of the Occident's attitude towards Japan.JAPAN'S FOREIGN POLITICS moment to show mercy to a savage enemy but when the troops of great Occidental States dehb. The climax of the drama was reached when Russia planted her foot in Manchuria.

if faithfully observed. or to jeopardise the tranquillity of the Orient . seemed to France an arrangement that she could conscientiously support and seemed to . She need only step across the self in ness. she deliberately instigated Afghanistan to make war upon England. and strategically essential to the security of her position in the Far East. Similarly at one time she had a convention with Great Britain placing Afghanistan entirely outside the sphere of Russian influence. Korea has now become the Afghanistan of the Far East. the appropriation of the whole of Manchuria by Russia in 1 900 did not seem to Germany to affect the integrity of China in any way. Russia has thus extended her dominion to the very boundaries of Korea. with this difference that whereas Afghanistan suggests itself to Russia merely as a weapon for harassing England in Asia in order to force her hand in Europe. in a time of peace.JAPAN to the peace of the East. Yalu River and she will find her- a country inviting aggression by helplesspromising to repay it by ample resources. Korea presents itself to her as a possession which would round off her newly acquired empire in the Far 74 . to menace her security. would prevent her from exercising in Korea any influence baleful to Japanese interests. Yet. that they saw themselves under the painful duty of expelling Japan. Russia an act not at all inconsistent with her pre- vious attitude towards Japan. She has conventions with Japan which.

the United States of America. America found has she instance pathetic. time whether Great Britain's growth might not yet be attended by catastrophes to Far-Eastern But being now fully persuaded that the nations. which even the absorption of Hawaii and the Philippines has not shaken. and England into very close relations. and she cherishes a firm conviction. It may be added that Japan 75 has not lost . and to avert its partition among States which discriminate commercially against other nations. She doubted at one used not to be so cordial. she sees in England a Power with which she would willingly clasp hands in any all common emergency.JAPAN'S FOREIGN POLITICS East. If in the past her aggressive progress had shown any symptom of finality. unique aim of British policy in China is to keep the markets of that Empire open on equal terms to all the world. the situation now created would be less perilous. Another important result of the Chinese complication has been to bring Japan. that territorial aggression will never disfigure American policy Towards England her feelings in the Orient. and appreciative. secure the sea route between Vladivostock and Liao-tung. Japan has always regarded the United In every States with exceptionally friendly eyes. symconsiderate. and consummate her long-cherished ambition by giving her full access to southern oceans. or if Japan's vital interests and hereditary inclination suffered her to abandon Korea to its fate.

have been sending youths to Japan to study mihtary and naval sciences. If events do not move too fast. 76 . the Viceroys of central China. law.' and during the complications of 1 900-1 901 the Government in Tokyo. commerce and industry. and useful books are translated into the Chinese language and widely circulated. was able to exercise wholesome influence on There is also the counsels of the Chinese Court. acting through these viceroys. ^ See Appendix. medicine. note ii. or at least to make some contribution to her own preservation.JAPAN hope of China's resurrection from the grave of Ever since the war of conservative stagnation. 1894— 1895. China may possibly develop strength to cope with them. Chang Chih-tung and Liu Kun-yi. a powerfully supported Japanese society under whose auspices schools have been opened at several places in China.

11. reading. attendance at these schools increases. without loss of time. But the statesmen of the Restoration saw that the nation could not be left to equip itself with machinery for studying the arts and sciences of the new civilisation. Year by year the In 1898. and never seem to have considered that any duty devolved on them to provide for the instruction of any section of the people except the samurai. the rudiments of technical ONE of the most work. and education was deEvery child on attainclared to be compulsory. The former rulers of Japan paid comparatively little attention to this matter. and saw further that if there was to be any radical progress the people must be compelled to extend their knowledge beyond the Chinese classics. writing. an extensive system of schools was organised. and poetry. where during a four years* course instruction is given in morals.Chapter III STEPS OF PROGRESS important reforms effected by the Meiji Government was in the field of education. ing the age of six must now attend a Common Elementary School. . Thus. arithmetic. gymnastics.

()d. The tax-payers' burden on this account is ^1. and exemption from payment the exception.322 public Common Elementary Schools. 6d.1 25. and the total annual cost of maintaining them is ^1. it was enacted that whereas the payment of tuition fees had hitherto been the rule. per month.062.91.966. hereafter exemption should be the rule and payment the exception. and costs the child's parents js. yearly the average numexpense of each school is ^65 ber of students 154. to which the child's parents contribute ij-. and it thus appears that the four years' course of elementary education given to a Japanese child costs the tax-payer 22J.. must be defrayed out of the proceeds of local taxation.469. 78 . and the average annual cost per child Ss. and of the latter only 53-73There are 26. elementary education will be virtually free. The expense to parents will be still less in future.42 per cent attend school.715. income from school property. These Elementary Schools form part of the communal system.418 children received education out of a total of 7. bd. 4. and such portion of their expenses as is not covered by tuition fees.. 1900.150. The desire for instruction is keener among boys than among girls: of the former.JAPAN the latest year for which statistics are pubHshed.446. 82. for by an Ordinance issued in August. yearly. In short. the percentage of school-goers being 68. and miscellaneous sources. Hence the average . or i^y^d.

or for adThe mission to higher educational institutions. 19 . history.735) of the Common Elementary Schools have a section where. The time devoted is to these special courses two. Many (4. after graduating at a Common its Eleit mentary School. with 5. or industry (sewing in the For the same purpose there exist case of girls). drawing. where training given for practical pursuits. Five years are required to graduate. ordinary curriculum at a Common Middle School includes moral philosophy. English language. to which a child can gain admittance after passing out of a Common Elementary School. a special supplementary course of study may be pursued in agriculture. or four years. on the average. per month for each child. in accordance with local rethe main course . chemistry. If a child. In general the Kindergartens are connected with Elementary Schools or with Normal Schools. and the cost to month. into is a Common Middle School. according to the degree of proficiency contemthe parents is 6d. passes desires to extend education. also.000 infants. and the Japanese language. three. per plated. geography. and from the fourth year the student may take up a special technical course as well as or. 1 an attendance of 1 pay 3^. natural philosophy. subsequently to the completion of the regular curriculum. natural history. whose parents 318 Higher Elementary Schools.STEPS OF PROGRESS There are. commerce. also 74 public Kindergartens. mathematics.

By following the course in a High School. The graduate of a Common Middle School can claim admittance. where he spends three years preparing to pass to a University.JAPAN quirements. a youth two of the three as 80 . of which sum student in a the tax-payers defray . or four years studying a special subject.^72o. without examination. A Common yearly. maintenance is ^^207. and his course represents a local tax of ^14 be seen.061 teachers and 49. as law. its education has cost the public j[i^ lys. Thus each school requires an average outlay of ^^1. or medicine. engineering. being an average of 244 students to each school. Middle School five years* It will I 5J-. and i The total annual cost of teacher to 24 students. 6d. The Middle School in number is 169.684 students. Not only does the graduation certificate carry considerable weight as a general qualification. that its when a child has completed four years in a Elementary School and five years in a Middle School. technical subjects may be taught conjointly with the regular curriculum throughout The law provides that there the whole time. to a High School. with 2. but it Common Common also entitles a young man to volunteer for one year's service with the colours.226. 166. thus escaping have to serve years he would an ordinary recruit. costs the State £2 igs. therefore. Great inducements offer to attend a Common Middle School. must be at least one Common actual each Prefecture.

iHTM3^HA3 .> rA^Oir TA 2.• /i^..

of CARPENTERS AT WORK. ar's i year. omin .atai ani chooi 226. inary recri: .



sericulture. 6d. art (pictorial and applied). mechanics. 13 students. applied chemistry. —6 81 . There are six High Schools with a total attendance of 4. reeling silk. commerce. aquatic productions. each of these schools has 67 students and 6 teachers. High-School certificate of graduation entitles its holder to enter a University without examinai or to every A and qualifies him for all public posts. electrical engineering. or brewing. and various branches of industry. per student. and the instructors obtains exemption number 351. and Technical Schools (74).STEPS OF PROGRESS from conscription until the age of twenty-eight." where courses of not less than six months and not more than four years may be taken in dyeing and weaving. veterinary science. pottery. where instruction is given in agriculture. metal work. navigation. and the expense to the student is about 2s. In addition to the schools already enumerated. The tax-payers contribute £^55 yearly towards the support of each school. wood work. or J^y i ^s. sericulture.664 students. On the average. per month. when one year as a volunteer frees him from all service with the colours. V. which may be said to constitute the machinery of general education. There are also 1 7 apprentices' schools. and costs ^^520 annually. Normal Schools are maintained for the purVOL. lacquer. tobacco manufacture. there are Special Schools (6) tion. classed under the heading of" elementary. the making of artificial flowers. embroidery.

There are two Imperial in Universities. the former having ^^^ pupils. engineering.302 male students and 879 females. is the insufficiency of teachers' emoluments apparent. Hall where postgraduate courses are and it publishes a quarterly journal giving accounts of scientific researches which indicate versity not only large erudition but also original talent. difficulty is experienced in obtaining a full com- — Schools. number ture. and the salaries of forty-nine thousand range from ^11 to ^24. medicine.JAPAN pose of training teachers. Normal females. 171 Great with 7. the latter and there are 47 common Normal Schools. . The number required is ninety-five thousand. only fifty get as much as ^48 a year eleven thousand have less than .^io annually. — Its law. litera- science. is one in not yet colleges Tokyo and one fully organised. Kyoto. very small emoluments given for such Out of sixty-four thousand teachers now in elementary schools. employed that a common labourer now earns ^18 a year. — one There are two High for males. total to the service. approximately.463 students. the other for plement of teachers for elementary public schools. — it has a Uni- studied. All the figures given above are independent of private educational institutions. and the number actually available That is mainly due is only sixty-four thousand. and agriculture. six. Considering . The latter The former has 205 professors and instructors and 2. Of these there 82 .

but made by the people on this account comparatively insignificant. and the Government. effective sums for educational purposes has not yet become among private individuals in Voluntary contributions in aid of public schools aggregate about ^90. employing 5.000 annually. It seemed as though rising generation was destined to lose its physical stamina altogether.230 The is tendency of the system pursued by the State to discourage private education. 149.6oo. Further.346 teachers and having pupils. the disposition to present large widely Japan. gifted youths perished and others Happily foreign barely survived as invalids. took steps to encourage gymMarked nastics and athletics of every kind. be said yet cannot It improvement resulted. teachers assisted to correct this fatal tendency by example or advice. for unless a private school brings its curric- ulum into accord with that prescribed for public institutions. and to take for per- manent companions consumption. when the above system was introduced. and abandon themselves wholly to the task of acquiring the the efforts still are new knowledge the rapidly. vision. At first. appreciating the danger. students showed a dangerous inclination to neglect hygienic considerations altogether. Many on the threshold of promising careers. as well the other advantages attaching to State recognition.STEPS OF PROGRESS are i. impaired and stunted stature. 83 . its students are denied the valuable privilege of as exemption from conscription.

it has been shown that the people were not altogether strange to the uses of the newspaper. and he begins to think of developing thews as a business only If there second to that of acquiring knowledge. rowing. but the general feeling of the gentle. a sheet called the " reading for sale " (yomiuri) was hawked about the streets of Yedo by a vendor who cried his wares in the familiar European style 84 . it is on the part of girls. Yet even now adopt- ing the habit of walking to and from school. A very few courageous ladies run the gantlet of adverse criticism from their friends and of insulting epithets from boors in the streets. but he takes keenly to base-ball. for they are spurred by a hope that the that the Japanese youth possession of knowledge will raise them from the sex has position of inferiority to which the strong girls are condemned them. to tolerate cycling by women. where also they are encouraged to frequent the Public opinion playground and the gymnasium. self-effacing Japanese woman is that she must bow to all prejudices which affect her pleasures alone. is still too tyrannical. In describing the life of the cities during Tokugawa times. and lawn tennis. The rapid growth of journalism is another fact that forces itself on the attention of every one observing Japan's modern career. As early as the beginning of the seventeenth century.JAPAN shows anything Hke the absorbing avidity of the Anglo-Saxon for out-door games and sports. however. bicycling. is excessive application to study.

copies of administrative Neither ordinances. where he had lived since boyhood. was appearance. called Another more the "official intelligence" [go-sata-gakiV was compiled by the chief of the tea-cult in the Shbguns palace and sold privately. of these publications attained permanent vogue or suggested any expansion of the enterprise. It contained accounts of natural calamiconflagrations. As But yet. striking events. Its contents were taken chiefly from the archives of the Government Secretariat. The following year (1864) Joseph Hiko — a from the United States. and consisted of appointments and dismissals of officials. a to term become permanent movable types 85 in the language. inspired by the hope that if fuller knowledge of foreign countries were disseminated among the people. and notes on current events.STEPS OF PROGRESS uscript. He therefore made transla- tions of the Batavia News. ployed. This embryo journal was in manof later times. and other aristocratic sheet. and published them in the form of a journal printed from wood-blocks. ties. Fukuda Meiga. the policy of national exclusion might become distasteful. having been rescued from a sinking junk and carried to combined San Francisco by an American ship with two of his countrymen to publish a periodJapanese who had just returned — ical which they destined called shimbunshi (newspaper). were not em- that innovation followed quickly . fights. vendettas. Not until 1863 did a real newspaper make its Its publisher.

and the power of fining or imprisoning editors. whose ideas of press liberty were derived from European theories. on the . anti-progressive spirit of the conservative section of the nation. All discussion of religious questions. but mainly by a desire to embarrass the Governrr^ent. irresponsible editors who were influenced partly by honest faith in the value of free speech. incongruity of such a policy being quickly perceived. on the one hand. and during the stirring times at the fall of feudalism the demand after for news became so keen that one journal At first the tone another made its appearance. as well as that of suspending or suppressing a newspaper was vested in administrative officials without any recourse to courts of law. and printers. 86 .JAPAN on the establishment of English journals for the foreign community in Yokohama. would not readily submit to these restrictions. publishers. It might have been foreseen that the young journalists of Japan. and their influence seemed so pernicious that the Government prohibited their publication But the and treated the editors as malefactors. . of politics. and. the veto was revoked in 1869. A bitter struggle commenced between. and journalistic enterprise received official sanction within certain limitations. and of legal problems was interdicted a general injunction forbade the publication of matter prejudicial to public peace or good morals official permission had to be obtained before issuing a journal. of these sheets reflected the anti-foreign.

If there was occasional abuse of power on one side. there certainly were frequent abuses of privilege on the other. however arbitrary. and each sentence of imprisonment or fine pronounced against them brought a fresh access of popular sympathy. Devices. which prove veniently effective against themselves. rites The defunct sheets. whether it related to the nature of their food or 87 . took the part of the editors. often unscrupulous and sometimes ingenious. were borne in solemn procession to the temple of the Goddess of Mercy. The pub- of course. responsible officials who either believed that society was not yet ripe for the full enfranchisement of newspapers. parade. were employed by the editors to gain popularity or to bring the one occasion they in honour of journals that had been suppressed by Ministerial into ridicule. and ceremony aristocratic obsequies were observed. journalists and political agitators read all threnodies or burned in- cense. and to proper the pomp. when Government made its autocratic power felt in life. where Buddhist priests chanted litanies for the dead. placed in a coffin. or were unwilling to place in the hands of their threatened political to opponent incon- weapons lic. The story of this struggle for liberty reads strangely in the context of such a history as that of Japan under the the Tokugawa Shogunate. every sphere of daily and the people never thought of resisting any order. Government On organised imposing funeral order.STEPS OF PROGRESS other.

for journals daily more urgent. a newspaper suspended or suppressed. who shared the Government's opinion that to grant a larger measure of liberty would certainly encourage licence. A new law. The result has falsified all sinister forebodings. although scarcely a month passed that did not see an editor fined or irnprisoned. first the demand paper. the representatives of the press grew constantly more defiant. was published in 1871. session after session. despite the severity of the law. and against that reservation a majority of the Lower House voted. there were one hun- dred and ninety-two journals and periodicals with a total annual circulation of over eleven millions.JAPAN In the Meiji era. except in cases of lese-majesty. the other hand. took from the executive all power over journals. Already Government the had voluntarily made (1887) a great step in advance by divesting itself of the right to imprison or fine editors by executive order. on the fashion of their garments. and nothing now remains of the former arbitrary system. But it reserved the power of suppressing or suspending a newspaper. and in 1879. only to see the bill rejected by the Peers. No sooner did the Diet commence its sittings in 1891 than a bill was introduced for removing all restrictions upon freedom of speech. Mamichi the S/mnbun The (daily news). A much more moderate tone p'efVades the writings of the press 88 . Not until 1897 was this opposition overcome. passed by both Houses and confirmed by the Emperor.

000. The sovereign. His words are taken from sources so classical as to be intelligible Several only to the highly educated minority.000 copies. and these journals seem bent upon makquality The Others. never addresses the bulk of his subjects. ing her misfortune as painful as possible. and Their columns prefer classicism to circulation. of purposes taking a more rational view of the journalism. They sacrifice their audience to their erudition. official interference. whether he speaks by rescript or by edict. There has not yet been any real escape from the trammels of a tradition which assigned the crown of scholarship to whatever author drew most largely upon the resources of the Chinese language.STEPS OF PROGRESS entirely removed. intemperance such as in former times would have pro- since restrictions were voked to-day. aim with success at simplicity and 89 . are a sealed book to the whole of the lower middle classes and to the entire female population. is seldom displayed of journalistic writing in Japan is marred by extreme and pedantic classicism. and although there are now 829 journals and periodicals published throughout the Empire with a total annual circulation of 463. A pernicious example in this respect is set by the Imperial Court. Under any circumstances Japan labours under the terrible disadvantage of having a written language much more difficult to understand than her spoken language. of the newspapers affect a similar style.

the spirit of modern journalism. the inspiration drawn from Occidental text-books. the ideas trivial. Very low rates of subscription and almost prohibitorily high charges for advertising are chiefly to blame. and thus not only reach an extended of readers. but also are hastening incidentally of great reform. ^ The vicissitudes of the enterprise may be gathered from the facts that whereas 2. . and the alien character of the source hidden under a veneer of Chinese aphorisms. seldom diffuse. with few exceptions.465 ceased publishing. Apart from abolition of the ideographic script. often witty. succinct. the construction circle the advent involved. note 12. Twenty-five years ago. To-day. not even a lady.767 journals and periodicals were newly started between 1889 and 1894 (inclusive). no less than The largest circulation 2.JAPAN intelligibility. Yet. with remarkable aptitude. is No safe. this pedantic defect. the profession of journalism is not remunerative. at present recorded is about thirty thousand copies daily. they used to compile laborious essays. closely reasoned articles. the best Japanese editors have caught. and generally free from extravagance of thought or diction. 90 Villanous and See Appendix. the assimilation of the written and spoken languages. The one ^ flagrant blemish of Japanese journalism is recklessness in attacking private reputations. which will probably prelude that still greater desideratum. they write terse.

Public opinion does not help : 91 . .STEPS OF PROGRESS wholly without any attempt to investigate their truth. They recognise its political capabilities. It provides no efBut the law is also to blame. There are journals which actually boast of opening their columns for the publication of any tale anonyrecognise no responsibility except that of providing entertainment for their readers. means that the defendant must be hunted from court to court. and that after perhaps a year or eighteen months of weary proceedings. And a strange fact is that the victims of these slanders suffer in unremonstrating Newspaper editors are neither flogged nor cited before law courts. of course there are the blindness of journalists who fail to see exceptions several honourable that by taking continual advantage of the tolerance of contempt. silence. a very low place in the estimation of educated — — Japanese. and sometimes with full knowledge of their falsehood. but regard journalism on the whole as a low callits restraints ing. This patience is largely attributable to a conviction that contemptuous indifference is the most becoming demeanour in the presence of such unscrupulousness. They blackmail Sometimes the unique object sometimes the market for gossip is is alone considered. he escapes Stranger still is at last with a nominal penalty. baseless stories are circulated mously contributed. they are doing their best to become Already the press occupies really contemptible. Recourse to a tribunal of justice fective remedy.

which in first sight that this habit of mind may be the of traditional submissiveness to authority. The fact is that courtesy and philosophy A combine to dictate a show of indifference. are endured without open protest. People un- complainingly endure nalistic abuses.JAPAN are practically inoperative in Japan. whatever discomfort they may cause himself. show little respect result for officialdom. have no effective being paid by the public. Japanese finds it abhorrently rude to take querulous notice of a neighbour's habits or idiosynor inconvenience crasies. entirely subservient would not be mien on likely to adopt an The mood may be daily life. in local assemblies. sensisive. in the Diet. displays of long-suffering are not confined to the people's attitude towards those in power. many things besides jourThey endure vexatious slowness . other occasions. customs illustrate whose nation more there a was forcibly the old saying that what is everybody's It would seem at business is nobody's business. and no character seems to him less respectable than that of a fussy. they utter not a word of protest Europe or America would Never arouse a storm of indignant denunciation. Besides. should really be servants in the transaction of the public against abuses . Men who But that explanation is not sufficient. of administrative affairs they perception that public servants. or 92 . in the columns of the press and on the platform. noisy. obtru- noisome. observed in all the affairs of Nuisances of every description.

ment is mingled with both views. they are one and all thoroughly courProbably a subjective eleteous and serviceable. Men juniors are veritable Jacks in office. thority with which they are clothed by many foreigners. Yet at times these same policemen have been guilty of cruel roughness in apprehending foreign disturbers of the peace. be fairly stated in extenuation of any violence occasionally resorted to by the police is that they 3Z much What may is . however agreeable they may be as units of society. His natural tendency is to be urbane and helpful. different opinions have been expressed. According to some. always ready to abuse the little brief au- ing. but he resents the de~ haut-en-bas style of address adopted towards him . The Japanese official's demeanour depends on the manner in which he is approached. and there has followed the usually exaggerated outcry on the part of local foreign journalists whose sense of proportion marred by their spurious patriotism. the occupants of high positions are polite and obligtive person. and is a little annoyed by critiCertainly cisms generally founded on ignorance. w^hereas the according to others. As to the Japanese official. in no other part of the world is it possible to find police-constables who treat the public with more uniform civility.STEPS OF PROGRESS guided by such rules of conduct do not make vehement exponents of public opinion. and the conduct of the policeman is probably the least fallible criterion.

Such cases. disdains the notion of having Oriental hands laid on him. there is no country where a stranger can be more certain of freedom from unpleasant molestation of every kind than in Japan. If association with him has not improved the manners of the Japanese towards him. muscular. it be truly said that beyond the limits of the beyond the districts where his own masterful way has given umbrage or his own misunderstood famiUarity bred contempt. The big. however. Japanese officials are divided into four grades the first comprising those that receive their commissions direct from the Emperor and are entitled to report personally to him the second. however.JAPAN have to deal with very difficult conditions at the open ports. those that receive their commissions through the Minister of a Department and have the entree to the Palace on State occasions the third. foreign sailor. 94 . . : may . but not having the entree to the Palace and the fourth. those commissioned similarly to the second. those temporarily engaged and having the status of mere treaty ports. the responsibility must be at least divided. . He resists so efficiently that some of the native constables have become persuaded of the necessity of clubbing him at the first symptom of opposition. and finds it intolerable to be haled to prison by a diminutive Japanese. As for the average foreigner. On the whole. are exceptional. primed with liquor and craving for a fight. he finds everywhere civility and a sunny welcome.

whereas Undoubtthey now aggregate 18.587. each having two classes.587.208 9.010. First-class Second-class Third-class . Yen. the at present. 9S ." Admission to in the case official- dom is by examination.266 1. except of candi- dates possessing qualifications.082 26. certain duly attested educational The cials following table shows the number of offibelonging to the Central Government and their respective emoluments Total : — Total yearly- Officials. like a documents. Emoluments.STEPS OF PROGRESS employes.540 4.269 38.500 3.186. The place occupied by an the Emperor designation official is official in this list is as a recognition of merit.745.094. There is also another classification into nine ranks.962 1.462 4.710 269 {£^7) ten- There has been of late years a steady total dency towards increase in the number of Central- was the and only 45. Number.class Totals 259 4.348 yen.006 238 {£Z97) 68.296. Government officials. In several of edly the establishment is too large. against 68. Average yearly Emoluments. the State Departments the officials are so numerous that they serve merely to impede each other. Fourth. in prefixed to the name.z. In 1893.876 18.876 emoluments aggregated 10. Thus Sho-ni-i Koshaku .508.710 jk^. granted by and the title. Ito^ " First-grade Second Rank Marquis Ito " or 'Jusammi Danshakii Iivakura^ " Second-grade Third Rank Baron Iwakura.

JAPAN Such a state of affairs in the early years of the Meiji era was the Government for partially extenuated by the fact that had to find employment for many impecunious samurai^ victims of vicissitudes responsible. Osaka.734 districts {cho or son). 653 counties (gun). their conception of its perquisites proved to be still more elastic than that of their predecessors. lost all which they were not themselves validity But that excuse has abuse continues. Each prefecture (urban or rural). and Kyoto are called fu. each town and each district (urban or rural). strongly against it and yet the The party politicians inveighed during the epoch when every stick served them to beat the " clan " dog. according to the number of houses they contain. [keri). and the districts are divided into "urban" [cho] and "rural" [son). which has a special form of government) is divided into 47 prefectures ishi). For purposes of local administration the whole Empire (with the exception of Hokkaido. each county. The prefectures are named after their chief towns. the number of members being fixed in proportion to the population. But when they themselves arrived within reach of administrative power. has its local assembly._ The three metropolitan prefectures of Tokyo. There is no superior limit of number in the case of a preS6 . 48 towns and 14. is In the system of local administration full effect given to the principle of popular representation.

vlIAHO 0>IIIl(ia>IHl .

r '•'->. themselves responsible all ivjliticians .._.jcal admini«^tTation full effect •.^ . which is pecial form of ] -{c -it. divided into and tropolitan district!^ ' into f houses they contain. --."' p I if nr rpnrip-zp'r>tnt\nr. nil DC r > . and yet invj^hed "^t the ^* epoch when every clan " dog. But ^f local adininistration the whole w'itn tne except f Hokkaido. heir chieJ ^^nl of l.1.•)' years of the ited by employment ictim validity icissituclf .



in order from the highest. however. the superior limit and the inferior thirty for a county assembly the corresponding figures are forty and fifteen. while to be eligible for election to a prefectural assembly a yearly payment of three yen payment of direct national taxes to the of ten yen of direct national taxes is necessary to a county assembly. for town electors there are three classes differentiated by the following process On the list of rate-payers. two yen . the highest are checked off until their aggregate payments are equal to onethird of the total taxes. five yen. Thus. Next below them the persons whose aggregate payments represent the same fraction (one-third) of the total amount are checked off to form the second class. two yen. and all the remainder form the third class. These persons form the first class. eight. In towns and districts franchise-holders are further divided into classes wdth regard to their payment of local taxes. aggregate onehalf of the total. — 7 ^y . namely. district assembly. assemblies. thirty and is sixty . and for a district assembly. the districts there those whose pay- ments. Each class elects one-third of : the are members of assembly. For a town assembly. the remaining names on the list VOL. and to a town or . These bodies are all elective.STEPS OF PROGRESS fectural assembly. The prop- erty qualification for the franchise in the case of prefectural and county assemblies is an annual amount and in the case of town and district . In only two classes. V. but the inferior limit is thirty.

broadly. are not paid. ministers of religion. their for well as from persons unable to write names and the name of the candidate as own whom they vote. and it a device for is found to work satisfactorily as being property. with all questions of local and vote the yearly budthey pass the settled accounts they fix the to deal They discuss . This is called elects one-half of the members. that contracts for the execution of public works or the supply of articles to a local administration. from persons barristers from who. . from judicial officials. or member of a company. For prefectural and county assemblies the term is for town and district assemblies. four years years. is the chief function concluded. 98 . Members of assembly . The prefectural assemblies hold one session of thirty days yearly the county assemblies. conferring representative rights in proportion to The franchise is withheld from all local salaried officials. one session of not more than fourteen days the town and district assemblies have no fixed session they are summoned by the mayor or the head-man when their deliberations appear necessary. assist the people in affairs connected with law courts or official bureaux. and they con. not being by profession. of the gets . : tinue in session till their business is Speaking assemblies finance. six with the provision that one-half of the members must be elected every third year. the system of o-jinushi (large landowners). and from every individual.JAPAN Each class placed in the second class.

and has competence to suspend its session. should such a course seem necessary. that they should obtain the consent of the Minister of State for Home Affairs. . the governor with regard to prefectural assemblies are discharged by a " head-man " [gun-cho] in the case of county assemblies. The governor of a prefecture. STEPS OF PROGRESS local within a maximum limit which bears a certain ratio to the national taxes they make representations to the Minister of State for taxes ^ . . . Many of the functions performed by Affairs . etc. note 13. ^ This head-man See Appendix. 99 . . . and sometimes of the Minister of Finance also. opens it and closes it. or passing the normal limits of taxation before enacting new local regulations or changing the old before dealing with grants in aid made by the Central Treasury. they deal with the fixed property of the locality they raise loans and so on. Home . is invested with considerable power. . . however. . before disturbing any objects of scientific. or historical importance before contracting loans before imposing special taxes. It is necessary. artistic. He oversees the carrying out of all works undertaken at public expense he causes bills to be drafted for he is responsible for discussion by an assembly the administration of the funds and property of the prefecture he orders payments and signs receipts he directs the machinery for collecting taxes and fees he summons a prefectural assembly. who is appointed by the Central Administration..

the mayor of a town. He occupies towards a district assembly the same position that the county head-man holds towards a county assembly. opens and closes the county assembly he may require it to reconsider any of its financial decisions that seem improper. the assembly competent to Minister from the governor's county head-man may also take upon himself. any of the functions falling within the competence of the county assembly. who discharges general duties of superintendence and sanction. provided that he reports the fact to the assembly and seeks its sanction at the earliest possible opportunity. note 14.^ or the head-man of a county or district. he may rea salaried official appointed . Home The ^ See Appendix. explaining his reasons for doing so. and may. In each district also there is a head-man. in case of emergency. Over the governors stands the Minister of State for Home Affairs. but his post is always elective and generally non-salaried. has competence to elide any item of a local budget. The machinery of local administration is completed by councils of which the governor of a prefecture. appeal to the decision. fer the matter to the governor of the prefecture. order the dissolution of a local assembly. provided that steps are taken to elect and convene another within three months. is On the other hand. He convenes. 100 . with the Emperor's consent. and should the assembly adhere to its original view.JAPAN is by the Central Administration.

492 throughout the Empire. and has been found to work well. for the former give effect to the measures voted by the latter. and the first line that between Tokyo and Yokohama. take their place in case of emergency and con- by them. The general plan is Japanese. note 15.^ The work of railway building was commenced by the Meiji Government in 1869. and the details have much in common with the old-time blies — prefectural. namely. its organisa- tion could not be completed until the Treasury guaranteed eight per cent on the paid-up capital for fifteen years. lOI . county.STEPS OF PROGRESS is ex-officio president. partly elective. and when at length in i 888 orating the — company — the Nippon Tetsudo Kaisha (Japan Railway Company) — was projected. since the local assemsider questions submitted and district aggregate no less than 15. But private capitalists showed no inclination to engage in such enterprise. This system of local government has now been in operation for fifteen years. so ^ See Appendix. The councils may be said to stand in an executive position towards the local legislatures. town. a distance of eighteen miles was opened for traffic in 1 872. the assemblies. — organisation familiar to the people. but in elab- — a scheme considerable assistance was obtained from German experts. Progress was slow at first. partly and the councillors are nominated by the Central Government. constitutes a thorough method of political It education for the people.

000 (including debentures and loans).055 .034 jy^/z per mile. and that it has fallen to the lot of the State to undertake roads running through districts . etc.219.639 miles.833. leaving a net profit of 19. 1 87. proceeded more rapidly.000. and the working expenses to 18.272 yen. are connected with the Government lines.JAPAN 1888 the total length of lines in operation was only 318 miles.942 and 18. that present exceptional engineering difficulties. of which 833 miles had been constructed by the State and 2.806 miles total The by private companies.034 tons. in round numbers. of which 205 miles had been built by the Government and 1 1 3 by private enThenceforth the work of construction terprise. so that the average anthat in nual addition lines. 102 .820. The number of passengers and the quantity of goods carried over all the lines during 1899 were 102. or 84.286^^77 per mile. and that made State 40 miles.000 yen. length of lines open for traffic at the end of 1899 was 3. respectively the gross earnings amounted to 38. The difference in cost of construction is explained by the facts that portions of the State roads were built before experience had indicated cheap methods that extensive works for carriage building.217 yen. made to private lines until the close to of 1899 was 208 miles.1 15.000. or 66.. repairs of locomotives. The expenditure on account of State lines had been 70.386. and that on account of private lines. such districts being naturally avoided by private companies.

and the capital involved will aggregate 43 1 . involving an outlay of 114. a distance of 232 ^ miles. The Government has in hand a programme involving the construction of 1. the State undertook to build the central section (376 miles).000 railways.STEPS OF PROGRESS yen. — — yen. and the net profits averaged a little over seven and a half per cent of the invested capital. Thus the working expenses represented forty- nine per cent of the earnings.153 miles. a distance of 1.000. the former work. a distance of 163 5^ miles.830 miles. had for its basis a grand trunk line ex- tending the whole length of the main island from Aomori on the north to Shimonoseki on the south. as originally planned and subsequently carried out in great part. and a continuation of the same line throughout the length of the southern island of Kiushiu from Moji on the which lies on the opposite side of the north — strait Kagoshima on to Shimonoseki the south.500. Thus the roads actually in operation and those immediately projected total 5. the Japan Railway Company undertook the portion (457 miles) the Sanyo northward of Tokyo to Awomori from . as well as a line from Moji to Nagasaki. — 103 . The programme of railway construction. between Tokyo and Kobe [via Kyoto).000 ye?iy and the latter an outlay of 60.230 miles of new and private companies which number have obtained charters for building 103 in all 961 miles. Of this main road.500.000.

miles) southward of . much was taking place in England and India as to the relative advantages of the wide and narrow gauges. It not literally correct to say that this main is trunk line has been constructed as originally planned. respectively. The programme of construction is rendered sufficiently clear by a glance at the map. that the coast route was ultimately chosen. and the part of the Kiushiu Railway between Kumamoto and Kagoshima. Japan began to build railways. The first project was to carry the TokyoKy5t6 road through the interior of the island so as to secure it against enterprises on the part of a Such engineering difficulties maritime enemy. strategical considerations have not been allowed to govern its direction completely. The whole road is now in operation with the exception of two sections measuring 45 y^ miles and 89 ^ miles. presented themselves. The English advisers of the Japanese Government maintained discussion When 104 . namely. however. the part of the Sanyo Railway between Mitajiri and Shimonoseki. and so strongly did the arguments in favour of the metre-gauge appeal to the Indian Government that it adopted the latter in 1873. although some five thousand miles of wide-gauge roads had already been built. and though the line through the interior was subsequently undertaken.JAPAN Railway Company undertook the portion (320 Kyoto to Shimonoseki and the Kiushiu Railway Company undertook the lines in Kiushiu.

Nevertheless there is immunity from accidents and irregulariand seeing that the working expenses average 105 only 49 per cent of the gross earnings. the corresponding figure over the metre-gauge roads in India being 6 miles.) gauge was chosen. for though one was successfully built at the Kobe workshops under the superintendence of a British The did not continue. 6 in. any change now would be very similar views. both in building also with and managing their railroads. but the comfortable. The lines. too. The is Japan 1 18 average speed of passenger trains in miles an hour. : . are single. costly. and the bridge-piers have not been constructed for a double line. and the figure for English parliamentary trains. They construct and wagons. the cuttings. and there is now little reason to foresee any departure from the metre gauge. patterns. but not locomotives. for the most part only 250 miles of double track exist out of the 3. the culverts. but within a few years the Japanese were able foreign carriages to dispense aid altogether. not are carriages lines are well ballasted. from 19 to 28 miles.639 miles of road that have been built and as the embankments. and superintended the work of construction.STEPS OF PROGRESS and it resulted that the metre Some fitful efforts (3 ft. and the points and signal arrangeengineer. later made in years to change the system proved unsuccessful. the enterprise ments are of old tolerable ties. British engineers surveyed the routes for the first lines. whereas .

making a fleet of She 4.200 tons. though facilities and arrangements for the carriage of goods are still in a somewhat undeveloped condition.454 tons.221 (total registered tonnage. The growth of Japan's mercantile marine during the Meiji era must not be omitted from the In 1870 she story of her modern development. of foreign rig. a commercial fleet of 46 vessels. and to Europe. the Government having included in its postbellum programme a law granting liberal aid to ship-builders and ship-owners. to build iron vessels in her own She understands the work of condockyards. China. to British India. Japan is not yet able. possessed only 35 steamers.543 ships with a tonnage of 584. to Formosa. this development has taken place since the conclusion of the China-Japan war in 1 894-1 895. she is in a position to use her large army for over-sea purposes.952 tons. were: steamers. to services steamship to regular now has Vladivostock. 3. 269. a fine fleet of transMuch of ports being at all times procurable.322 (total registered tonnage. Moreover. and can turn out large steamers by im106 . however. it can scarcely be doubted that the management is tolerably efficient. having The figures for 1899 a tonnage of 17.168 tons). that is to say. 315. with 11 sailing vessels aggregating 2. 1. struction. to Australia.JAPAN the corresponding figure in England is ^^.032). their total registered tonnage being 15.498 tons. to Korea. and sailing vessels. to North America.

hitherto possessed an iron foundry capable of meeting the wants of her ship-builders. nor have her iron mines furnished a sufficient supply of good ore. and their it may be confidently predicted that before warships many years the Japanese will be able to build own and to manufacture their armaments. Both deficiencies are now on the point of being remedied. and arrangements having been made to supplement the home A factory supply of ore by recourse to China.STEPS OF PROGRESS But she has not porting materials from abroad. a large foundry having been erected at Wakamatsu in Kiushiu. for rolling steel plates is also in contemplation. 107 .

proposition. — all sentient things two supreme beings Izanagi and Izanami. the creation of light and the ration of seas genesis of all things. most lenient intelligence sometimes it surprises In the beginning of the most skeptical scrutiny. as recounted byMoses. lacking consistency. while the latter are dismissed with a note of exclamation. an io8 . The sequence of ideas that presided at the elaboration of the Japanese cosmogony is at once Sometimes it shocks the logical and illogical. as seems seemed to to But it is matter almost completely indescribable. the sepaand lands by word of command. nebulous. the outexists. — themselves are placed.Chapter IV CREED AND CASTE THE growth of worlds in space. semi-realistic of evolution. come of processes a series of semi-mystical. Ex nihilo nihil Jit it him an undeniable Moses also. make no smaller demand upon human credulity than do the cosmographical legends of Yet to the former centuries of primeval Japan. . Matter already With its origin the Japanese cosmographist does not attempt to deal. thought and cycles of discussion are devoted.

falling foam. be worthy of the great and he saw no occasion to explain a miracle by a miracle. also. even as he knew all to originators of things. world. be observed that the Japanese cosmographist did not rise to the idea of immaculate conception. These are divinities. among them. and void. own image. muddy this filmy thing.CREED AND CASTE unsubstantial. without form. travail. his celestial mother expiring to The creator follows her to the its undershades. but fails recover her from and. ^i evil 109 . it. rising small and solitary from the " blue waste of sea. Then the god of fire is — in brought forth. darkness brooding over the face of the deep. during which process many new deities are evolved. They beget the islands creatrix has nagi's spear. He found the process of procreation fashioned after their sufficiently inscrutable. but among them. among of pollution. At the outset the condition of the land born in the waste of waters is almost as that of the earth in the language of the Pentateuch. sufficiently miraculous. on his return. crystallise into of Japan It is to as well as a number of lesser divinities. and a legion chief spirits the Goddess of the Sun [Amaterasu]. them. floating. purifies himself by washing in the waves. To new the islands thus begotten a number of the the terrestrial deities descend. Drops of from the point of Iza- the first land." By that time the evolution of the creator and attained such a stage that they are capable of procreation.

no .JAPAN beings forbidden through all ages. . and dark the creation of land and its sepa sun called into existence aration from water . formed from chaos to cosmos. tracing the same story under other skies. formless. destined to torment and afflict human law higher than Izanagi to enemies. though they continue during centuries to struggle for power. She dispatches her nephew Ninigi to do the god's bidding. until Jimmu. completes their subjugation. The eating of the fruit bequeathed to the Christian world its legacy of sorrow and suffering and its awful The violation of a doctrine of original sin. spirits of evil gain sway which the epoch during in the newly created world. — void. It his own mandates condemned father of his children's become the be observed that the conception of and the birth of light are synchronised Thereafter ensues an in the Japanese system. and by him the terrestrial divinities are induced to surrender the sceptre. a world of indescribable matter. confusion and tumult will cleanliness increase. the first mortal descendant of Ninigi. until at last the creator delegates to the Goddess the task of restoring peace and order. con- Sun structed a not dissimilar version. still reverentially taught in the nurseries and churches of the Occident. but both constitute a part of the celestial cataclysm by which the earth is transOther pens. In this cosmogony the birth of fire precedes that of light.

the appearance of man upon to lighten ." or likenesses between the nomenclatures of the two. and his acquisition of dominion. the subjugation of the rebellious angels.CREED AND CASTE and vivify a long era of preparation. startling results are soon reached. Such speculations are beside the business of showing what the Japanese believed. note was taken of the possibility of briefly Touching translating Japan's semi-mythical traditions into a vulgar record of aggressive invasions and defensive struggles between the quest and the love of altar and hearth. . for if it is cosmogony be once conceded that the Japanese not indigenous but exotic. upon these topics in a previous chapter. conflicts lust of con- Interesting III . divided into six epochs by the inspired writers of the Old Testament. and how their beliefs influenced their lives. and if ingenuity applies itself to trace analogies between the outlines of Shinto and those of some continental " revelation. there is no more reason to suppose that they came to Japan without a religion than that they arrived there without a language. It has been further said by a learned sinologue that Amaterasu is identical with the Persian Mithras. the scene. A slightly increased upon the imaginative faculty might extend the line of Jimmu's ancestors to the city of Ur and the thirty-million-bricked temple of the Sun strain God . but of indefinite length in the Japanese cosmogony finally. It has been said that whoever the earliest invaders of the Far-Eastern islands were. .

Among that foreign observers it is commonly said destructive criticism has never been per- mitted to invade the cosmogonal realm in Japan ." as it came to be called when the presence of other creeds made Before passa distinctive appellation necessary. as . they enshrine also the germs of Japan's primitive religion. any doubts thrown upon the traditions by which that genealogy is There established would be counted treasonable. The celebrated scholar Arai Hakuseki published a work of strongly rationalistic tendencies in the beginning of the eighteenth century and some sixty years later. Shinto. Ichikawa Tatsumaro wrote a brochure containing many of the criticisms that have been given to the — — . note i6. is a large measure of truth in the supposition. world with such pean sinologues. If anti-Christian persecutions be excepted and these were altogether political men did not suffer any penalty for their opinions in Japan.JAPAN such interpretations prove to the historian. a word may be said as to how its supernatural elements presented themselves to the national mind. . that the basis of the national polity being the divine origin of the Emperor. ing to a brief examination of the creed. they must not be allowed to exclude other considbe for whatever secular facts may erations embodied in these ancient cosmographies.-^ ^ telling effect It by modern Eurowould not have been pos112 See Appendix. or " the Way of the Gods. but it is not the whole truth.

< o < Q I .


it to the faith of believers in the bases of Shinto^ may be words attributed by Byron " All that we know is. With regard. the blossoming of plants do and trees. The — not these things transcend hopelessly as the begetting of matter and the And if it be called irrational birth of the sun ? ^ human intelligence as See Appendix. be explained by ordinary theories. oppose the strong current of popular principle of the Mikado's divine descent opinion. through a sense of duty. to Athena's wisest son. are accounted miraBut if the age of the gods has passed away. 8 113 . involve the idea of acts which. the functions of the human body." writes Moin the summed up toori Norinaga. It is true that the traditions of the creation and of its divine directors. — 1 7." man with his limited intelligence. judged by the petty standards of human philosophy. suspension of the earth in space. " It is impossible for nothing can be known. as handed down from antiquity. the ripening of seeds and fruits. CREED AND CASTE sible for any critic to attack more ruthlessly the than Ichikawa attacked it. cles. note VOL. Yet he went unscathed nay more. the flight of birds and insects through the air. he and Arai received the high appreciation justly accorded to those who. none the less are we surrounded on all sides by inexplicable miracles..^ " to find out the principles which govern the acts of the gods " they " are not to . on the other hand. if they no longer work world-fashioning and heaven-unrolling wonders. V.

and of calculation." There would not be much difficulty in fitting foreign analogies to this suggestive framework of Japanese conceptions. " owing to the facts that it was begotten by the two gods Izanagi and Izanami. that it was the birthplace of the Sun Goddess. though Do we our eyes cannot discern their shapes ? odours sweet exist. neither can they be fath- may we things many is . note 1 8." says tory of revealed truth. and that it is ruled by her sublime descendants for ever and ever. though of the nature of heat and cold we know nothing ? The principles that animate the universe are beyond the power of analysis. What transcends those powers ^ lies beyond the potential range of thought. . 114 .JAPAN to believe in gods that are eyes. as long as the universe shall endure. All statements founded on pretended explanations of them are All that man can think out and to be rejected. ^ See Appendix. Hirata Atsutane. know is limited by the power of sight. invisible to human not answer that the existence of unquestioningly accepted. of feeling. there was an almost fierce assertion of Japan's claim to be the reposi" Our country. is infinitely superior to other countries. Side by side with an attitude so humble towards the mysteries of nature. omed by human intelligence. and that do we not know the wind blows over the sea that fire is hot and water cold. that and soft not know sounds that the air caresses our cheek.

and Ise. the the Christian era. if he pleases. This is the genuine and true tradition. were not constructed century before Very soon. unaltered and unmixed. for from the naiku and geku of the Mecca of Japan. or "god shelf. and the soldiers who to fought its Worship of originally these gods seems until the have been Shrines conducted in the open first air. from the sovereign and the princes surrounding the Throne to the nobles who discharged the services of the State battles. were the progenitors of the nation.CREED AND CASTE whose chief and head it is. children of the deities found no lack of set places to pray. even in the slightest degree. Its people are honest and upright of heart. Thus it possesses correct and true information with regard to the origin of the universe. however." Here again the reader. not given to useless theorising and falsehoods like other nations. to the miniature miyas that dotted the rice plains. with unsupported notions of individuals. it will be seen at once that ancestor-worship was the basis of Shinto. Kami-dana. information transmitted to us from the age of the gods. From what has thus far been written. can find in the Occident parallel examples of defiant faith based on an equallysmall grain of mustard seed. whether celestial — or terrestrial. The divinities." before which morning and evening prayers were every house had its 115 . thousands of shrines might be counted throughout the realm.

is essentially a family creed. as there is a deity of thunder . and the renovation of the buildings every twentieth year^ rouses the whole nation to a fervour of faith. not a merchant that his business can thrive. in truth. Its roots are entwined around the principle of the household's integrity and perpetuity. Nothing that concerns the welfare of the family or the peace and prosperity of the household is too small or too humble for apotheosis.JAPAN said with unfailing regularity and devoutness. as there is a divinity of the harvest there is a spirit of " the long-rope well. attract tens of thousands of devotees each spring. at least one visit to Ise during his lifetime. The . Many Western critics have alleged that Shinto is not a religion that it provides no system of morals. or honestly resolves to pay. Not a peasant believes that his farm can be productive. unless he pays. creed or cult. Shinto. there is a god of the saucepan. Shinto may certainly hold upon the annual pilgrimages to the Shrines of Ise. ^ See Appendix. where the Goddess of the Sun and the Goddess of Abundance are worshipped. and no household believes itself purged of sin unless its members clasp hands and bow heads regularly before the Ka?ni-dana. note 19. 116 . Nevertheless. and does not concern itself about a future state. has no ritual." as there is a spirit of physclaim to have established a strong heart of the people. There is a deity of the caldron in which the rice is boiled. . offers no ethical code.

or that of the superintendent of fisheries who fanned the flame. the deities. All the affairs — — . note 21. are similarly entrusted to the fostering care of As for rituals. formed an important part of the ceremonial. note 20. all national enterprises. to forefend the calamity of serpents' crawling under the calamity of birds' flying in the threshold through the smoke-holes in the roof and defiling the calamity of pillars' loosening and the food On the other hand. and descend to the utmost minutiae. details of ceremonial. they fill fifty volumes. the part taken by each functionary being carefully set forth.^ origin of some among the multitude of observ1 See Appendix.^ while at the same time setting forth the grounds for paying reverHowever obscure the ence to the deceased. deity or to the departed spirit just enrolled among the immortals. and the ritual used on the occasion enumerated the offerings. 117 . ical perfection.CREED AND CASTE of man are supposed to have a claim on the benevolent solicitude In the ritual for of these immortal guardians. ' See Appendix. invoking fortune on behalf of the Imperial Palace the ritual of dedication at the time of building the spirits of rice and of timber are besought. . to that of the priest-noble who recited the The presentation of oflTerings to the tutelary ritual. all great affairs of State. and rules for the guidance of priests and priestesses. from that of the chief cook who laid on the fire and set the rice-pot over it. with the utmost precision of practical detail. joints' creaking at night.

associated itself rituals shows that the main purpose of worship was by offerings to secure the bless- family in heaven. note 22.JAPAN ances prescribed by the sacred canon. from the all-father and the allmother to the shades of departed parents and relatives. The general conception was that of kindly spirits. acquired mischievous agent. seven rituals ^ one only is designed to avert the It does not appear to influence of evil spirits. But this tatari was confined to the generation responsible for its origin. have entered largely into the theory of the creed that enmities formed on this side of the grave continued to be active in the region beyond. Every human being possessed a rough spirit and a gentle spirit. and services of exorcism were prescribed to meet that emergency. The former. an analysis of the twenty-seven great ings of peace and plenty. The capacity to work injury after death was explained by a theory corresponding with the Occidental idea of the duality of man's nature. ready to extend useful tutelage to their mortal descendants. The disquieting contingency was there. indeed. acting independently of matter. The curse of a dying foe might be fulfilled by his spirit after death. and could even assume the shape of the sufferer or of the avenger for ^ the potentiality of a See Appendix. 118 . family on earth and orisons with the Among the whole twenty- The when stirred to intense activity by a sense of suffering or the passion of resentment.

these wicked spirits. and licensing a Satan to ply the trade of tempter and perverter. and dancing. ings. and even without the knowledge of the person exercising the telepathic influence. music. who " glittered like fireflies and were as disorderly as spring insects . The gentle spirit also. Born of the corruption contracted by Izanagi during his visit to the land of the shades. leaves. note 24. constituted an article of the faith. tree-stumps.CREED AND CASTE the purpose of tormenting the injurer or the necessarily enemy. 119 . terrestrial : was necessary to propitiate them with offerTheir doings did not. who gave voices to rocks. Nor were they confined to the rough spirit. Such phenomena were not . however. note 23.^ The permanent existence of evil gods. There never was any tendency to regard and it ^ See Appendix." ^ had been expelled from the region but not annihilated they continued to interfere mischievously in human affairs. It adopted the simpler theory that the malign demons were the outcome of a fault of creation. under strongly emotional circumstances. however. seriously perturb the even tenor of daily life. Shinto did not propound to its disciples the inscrutable problem of an omniscient. " ^ See Appendix. and the foam of the green sea. and all-merciful deity creating beings foredoomed to eternal torture. became capable of defying the restraints of time and space. omnipotent. preceded by the Hberation of the divine element from its mortal prison they might take place during life.

the go-hei and the torii. were set crowing to create the impression that even without the rising of the orb of day morn had dawned.^ where a gate is * See A'ppt'ntiix. nbite 25.JAPAN the world as a battlefield of as demons and angels. colof Light. being the special symbol of the Goddess not placed in shrines dedicated to local divinities (^iiji-gaf?ii). 120 . Barn-door fowls thus found a place among the offerings to the goddess through fact. nbtfe 26. In Shinto traditions it is associated with the eclipse of the Sun Goddess.^ was originally designed to typify a perch for birds. but it may generally be seen in its true role beside the little shrines of Inari." for the mirror. as its name indicates. was the belief of medieval Europe. cocks. to enter- victories In the shrines there were no images. the "spirit substitute" which the Goddess of Light gave to be to her descendants a representative of her presence in Often the place of the mirror is their midst. Outside the cave into which the goddess had retreated. is lected by the gods. taken by a pillow for the repose of the guardian deity or by some other "spirit substitute. The only object exposed to invite the adoration of the worshipper was a mirror. The latter. Its all time. Two objects are always openly associated with a Shinto shrine. or tain a Manichean belief in the frequent of evil spirits. » g^g Ap^rti'dix. and the torii typified the degradation in later ages to the rank of an error for which its shape is doubtless responsible.

as it has blown among all Before Shinto shrines one nations in all ages." and others more prosaically regard as an abnormal mood produced by concentrated attention and abeyance of the tices a repetition will. and in that character acquired powers of inspiration the exercise of which has been made the basis of a theory of esoteric Shinto} fine cloth that and offerings. the go-hei became. namely. The go-hei. takes the form of a wand supporting a pendant of paper zigzags. It represents the coarse cloth always appeared among the symbolising the concrete devotion of the worshipper and its abstract acceptance by the deity. wonderful and inscrutable to vulgar These " spirit-possessions " find their minds. an evidence of the favouring presence of the worshipped spirit. The aura epileptica blew in the old Japan and still blows in the new. prototype in the phrensy of the goddess that * Se'e A^'endix. 121 . unconscious cerebration. taking the form of a hypnotic trance with telepathic capabilities. From From what has already been said about the " rough spirit " and the " gentle spirit. from the days of Njal and his forspan to those of Charcot and second sight." the reader will not be surprised to find in Shinto pracof the phenomenon that has puzzled so many minds.CREED AND CASTE the peasant prays. or sacred offering. by an easily conceived transition. may constantly see examples of what some folks call '* mountain-moving faith. note 27.

Unless such a knowledge be carries ^ See Appendix. it may be pointed out that the intuitive system of morality receives its fullest recognition when If man derives ethical sanctions are not coded. the guardianship of the Gods was assured The all-creator even without praying for it. but illogical.JAPAN danced before the cave of the Sun Deity. that a knowledge of good and evil should be an integral part of the structure. the feet were kept steadfast in the path of If truth. contention often advanced is that Shinto has no code of morals and does not concern itself about a future state. and can scarcely be regarded as dis. upon these things. when he fashioned man. As to the former argument. note 28. the if first A principles of his duties from intuition he be so constituted that the notion of right with it a sense of obligation. and in the oracle-uttering mood of the Empress Jingo. then a schedule of rules and regulations for the direction of every-day conduct becomes not only superfluous That was the moral basis of Shinto. as was and is the case in Europe sometimes it appears to be capable of exciting a nervous ecstasy during which the body becomes It is unnecessary to dwell insensible to pain.^ took care. 122 . They have their counterpart everywhere. Sometimes this idea that the spirits of the deified may be induced to obey the summons of their earthly relatives is played with by mercenary charlatans. • tinctive of Shinto.

along with your breath. origin and to the gods of earthly origin the petitions which I present every day. that they may hear with the sharp-earedness of the forth-galloping colt. and he will burn with a desire to emulate them. note 30. the plain of high heaven deign to bless me by correcting the unwilling faults which. uniform obedience to the dictates of conscience brought It is true that the rule did not always its reward. The gods are not to be importuned with prolix prayers. The former suggests itself only when the latter Show a man a record of noble deeds is absent. To have acquired the conviction that there is no ethical system to be learned and practised. note zg. precept is far inferior to example. ^ See Appendix. or asked The to condone crimes knowingly committed. man becomes inferior to the animals. I have committed by blowing off and clearing away the calamities which evil gods might inflict. seen and heard by you. actually performed. with awe. all of which have a guiding instinct. and by repeating to the gods of heavenly : . For the rest. petitions of humanity are wafted by the wind to " I say. Apart from the satisfaction of well-doing. is to have acquired the method of acting as the gods act.CREED AND CASTE assumed." ^ Such was the morning prayer to the Spirit of the Wind. whereas a statement of the principles of courage and loyalty will leave him comparatively unmoved. by causing me to live long ^ like the hard and lasting rock. 1 See Appendix. 123 .

indeed. deities bestow blessings and happiness on him that practises virtue as effectually as though they Gods " ^ And even appeared before us bearing treasures. recompense. and cultivate the conscience implanted in you. and longevity. The God of the Sea." ^ But if virtue might be expected to bring some recompense in this world. note 31. good fortune. and their descendants prosper. The "August Creator" descended to it in search of his spouse after her demise in travail of fire. "The was assured to wrong-doers. An under-world did. cause the " Spirits of Crookedness " were occasionally able to defy the " Spirits of Benevolence.'* But.JAPAN the evil sometimes prospered while the That was begood experienced misfortunes. note 32. the hatred of the " Invisible hold . Pay no attention to the praise or blame of fellowmen. on the whole. and that will prevent you from doing wrong. find a place in the system. Make a vow to the God that rules over the Unseen. learn to stand in awe of the Unseen. nor did hope of reward beyond the grave constitute a dominant incentive to well-doing. virtuous do not obtain material if the they enjoy exemption from disease. If you desire to practise true virtue. but act so that you need not be ashamed before the Gods of the Unseen. weary of banish^ See Appendix. and thus you will never wander from the Way. fear of eternal punishment did not reinforce the prompting of conscience. ^ gee Appendix. 124 .

Those that passed the portals a more potential. after death.CREED AND CASTE plains. But this under-world was ment from the heavenly to his gone not connected with any idea of merciless tortures inflicted on the damned through endless ages. 125 . and with strength to follow their judgment so tenaciously as to qualify for fellowAt the ship with the denizens of high heaven. a life. all were sure of to be joined apotheosis. The finite was not followed by an infinite aftermath of misery. would fain have mother beneath the earth. waiting by those they had preceded. large. but men were themselves endowed with capacity for distinguishing between good and evil.^ The issue of human enterprises. were considered of distribution to be under the control of the tutelary deities. read nor offerings piled up to victims of annihila- — tion. according to others. just as it necessarily included the concepRituals were not tion of the soul's immortality. one obtained higher place than another in the divine hierarchy. the moon. according to some. and though. note 33. the depths of the ocean. The efficacy of the "Sacred Jewel" consisted in holding back the believer from the road to the region of the dead. the ancestral spirits. the fortune's favours. It was simply the place of darkness. ^ See Appendix. Within every man was something of the god. The worship of the beloved and revered dead precluded all idea of their condemnation to everlasting torment. a deathless still lived.

-^ this creed inculcated of the lustrations that preceded every sacred rite of the shrinking from every source of pollution and contamination of the simplicity of every ceremonial apparatus. Excessive dread of contamination led to violations of a far higher duty the sick were not duly tended. ^ See Appendix. But sins might be expiated or forgiven.JAPAN same time error was theoretically avoidable and should therefore have been practically unpardonable. The sovereign occupied the position of the cele- nation's high-priest. . and not inculcated by the rituals or ceremonials of the creed. of the unvaried rusticity observed in the architecture of the shrines. Every family also kept within the Kanii-dana an amulet consisting of pieces of the sacred wand used at these festivals. 126 . Twice annually he brated the great festival of general purification by which the people were purged of offences and pollutions and saved from consequent calamities. Charity was a virtue scarcely suggested by the Shinto cosmogony. unornamented purity of the timber used in their construction. and the maimed or diseased were often thrust out to die. Kindness to animals received isolated recognition. Of the cleanliness that much might be written . note 34. note 35. and of the unsculptured. : ^ See Appendix.^ but "the . the possession of the token being supposed to ward off the effects of evildoing. Indeed this phase of Shinto had a dehumanising influence.

followed carriages containing some of the 127 Em- . espefrom the with which it cially girl child patriarchal system of the Chinese. dug holes for the corner posts. cut in the trees to be felled for priestess was the central figure in the timber. In China a being disqualified to conduct ancestral worship. are those of selecting the guests or frequenters of the Emperor's abode. took the axe and princes. Among the attributes assigned to the former. however. . and functionaries from indulging their independent inclinations. councillors. At the foundation and construction of sacred buildings. in addition to her prime functions. and the value attached to female virtue distinguish Shinto from other Oriental cults or creeds. .. great Ceremony of Purification at the Kasuga made the first A temple a young girl cleaned the shrine women and girls on horseback moved in the procession after the sacrificial vessels and chests of offerings . is often confounded. young virgins cleared and levelled the ground. CREED AND CASTE golden rule" was not written between the of any prayer or any legend. In Shinto the principal objects of national adoration. of correcting and softening of keeping the male discontent and unruliness of preventing and female attendants in order . are the Sun Goddess and the Goddess of Food. lines The part assigned to woman. her birth is counted a misfortune and the preservation of her life a burden. the deities worshipped at the grand shrines of Ise.

women alone were admitted to the Imperial presence. the sovereign was surrounded by a number of females. and down to the reign of the present Emperor's immediate predecessor. times. and the birth of three maidens from the fragments of the " Impetuous Male Deity's " sword was held to prove From the earliest the purity of his intentions. honour of the gods of each locality. priest-princess that the Emperor Sujin entrusted the sacred mirror and sword after a divine revelation that they must no longer be kept in his own palace . turbulent agent of nature. from the company of the gods. that 128 .JAPAN peror's female attendants. the ladder by which spirits When Susano-o. but rather as an ether filling the space between earth and sky. had It was to a devoured one of her seven sisters. it was by her niece. among the eight tutelary deities of the Mikado. expelled ascended to heaven. repaired to earth. in accordance with the belief that. one represented the female influence surrounding the Throne and imparting a gentle smoothness to the ruler's relations with the ruled. year by year. . Even the wind was under the control of a female deity as well as a male for to the disciples of Shinto the wind did not present itself as a fierce. legendary or historical. The high rank accorded to woman in the pository of the insignia. his first exploit was to save a maiden from an eight-headed dragon which. the subsequent de- the site of the Ise danced in priestesses Virgin shrine was chosen.

.e.Ja baaflBaO vld^i^oior'.eod r. .80M0MI>I .rrerms. faeo. ai .gninoii S3V£2 Esaociq su T < ^ii^ .lQ ozmaAW ai tl br« b. noqn bedo.ertA . art.r>b Ot au^ arfJ n..

. wind was well as a the control of a female deity as for to the disciples of Shinto the not present itself as a fierce. from the company of the gods. After thfeWarmfeht is Wa&igQ*! cleansed it is VtifeFdfi. the ladder by which spirits When Susano-o. year by year. priest-princess that the Emperor Sujin entrusted the sacred mirror and sword after a divine revelation that they must no longer be Icept in his own palace it was by her niece. the sovereign was surrounded by a number of females. but rather as an ether filling the idcr wind did agent of space be- earth and sky. one represented the female influence surrounding the Throne and imparting a gentle smoothness to the ruler's relations with the ruled. times. in accordance with the belief among the eight tutelary deities of the Mikado. the subsequent depository of th^^ASHi??^K^too^e site of the Ise .it . had It was to a devoured one of her seven sisters. legendary or historical. The high rank accorded to woman in the 128 . imperial presence.1 \ P A M iLven the laie ii attendants. his first exploit was to save a maiden from an eight-headed dragon which. expelled to heaven. and down to the reign of the present Emperor's immediate predecessor. turbulent . repaired to earth. ana the birth of three maidens from the fragments of the ** Impetuous Male Deity's " sword was held to prove From the earliest the purity of his intentions.eirfljpo'n u fboslrd atia'p'iacd^^>€^»n HAry- nonour of the gSW^^%rdi'W<5uiicy. women alone were admitted to the that.



moreover. There is no warlanguage. The maidens engaged in the service of the gods must preserve their chastity during the period of ministration. no merit attached to celibacy.CREED AND CASTE the important functions assigned to her. made her his second wife. became the father of many children by other women. by a display of pity to an animal. quitted the priesthood. But v^hile the beauty Shinto system. and the value attaching to virginal purity. of virginity was recognised. may pos- be quoted as the prototype of the practice. less situation. are thus amply proved. V. son of the chief terrestrial deity. disappeared. however. —9 I 20 . Neither do we find any direct or indirect inculcation of the principle of On the contrary. no obstacle stood in the marriage. and with his hands crossed behind his back in token of abdicated and killed submission. the chief of the when. and. trod on the edge of his boat so as to overturn it. that the example of sibly The — the deity had any influence in establishing the VOL. himself. but after they had way of their monogamy. in simpler rant for assuming. indeed. One incident. when he decided to abandon his right of succession in favour of the delegates of heaven. Shinto traditions offer no distinct precedent for a custom characteristic of the educated Japanese in all ages the custom of resorting to suicide as an honourable exit from a humiliating or hopeterrestrial deities . he had won the hand of a princess for whose love he was his brothers' rival.

or because he regarded the grave as a When existence became an inplace of rest. also. except in so far as it taught that death was only ^ See Appendix. tolerable punishment. whereas the history of the Japanese people does not show that escape from life ever pre- sented itself seriously to cultured minds as euthanasia. and. Japan never had a Hegesias. Doubtless. and it was a common habit of lovers. a means of eluding the pangs of disease or preventing the dotage of age. the victim of destitution or cruelty sometimes chose the last road to freedom. 130 . But the influence of Shinto in this matter does not appear to have been appreciable.^ during the long centuries of warfare described in previous chapters. as in Rome before the time of Domitian. when A all hope of union in life had disappeared. suicide secured a political offender against an ignominious fate and the confiscation of his goods. it should also have tended to impart to death the character of emancipation from the body's thraldom. a certain indifference to death must have been educated by the constant necessity of inflicting it. note 36.JAPAN Japanese habit of anticipating surrender by suiIf a creed which divests death of all tercide. to die in each other's arms. man did not abandon Seneca or a life because he counted the loss a blessing or a boon. rors by representing it as a prelude to apotheosis ought to have helped to make suicide easy. so in Japan before the Meiji era (1867).

Confucianism. much It has already been shown that plausible grounds exist for attributing the bases of Japanese mythology to Chinese traditions. and it becomes necessary to look very closely before finally distin- Thus guishing the indigenous from the exotic. as well as their script. a system of ethics widely embraced by the educated classes in Japan. On merely Chinese methods of systemisation. has been credited with supplying some of the central ideas of Shinto^ and the theory is superficially plausible. any attempt to differentiate native from alien is hampered by the constant difficulty of discerning whether the things adopted were actually Chinese systems or sources. Here the question presents itself whether Shinfo apotheosis . and the posthumous names of prehistoric Mikados to foreign the other hand. But there had existed in China for before the days of Confucius a belief in iji centuries a supreme . should be regarded as a creed indigenous to Japan or as an importation from abroad. That certainly was often the case with the Japanese.CREED AND CASTE a passage from the visible world to the invisible region of revered spirits. A man taught to write after he reaches adult years is not unlikely to take the rules of literary composition and even the terminology of his teachers. Japan owed China in early days that the borrowing of a creed would not have greatly increased the debt or seriously shocked any patriotic inso to stinct. though the thoughts he sets down may be his own.

He did — not. He did not even commit himself to an admission that sentient existence might be continued after death. and. would here an analogy. he declined to predicate anything about the world beyond the grave. As to a future state.JAPAN power and in the existence of some special channel of communication between that power and the ruler of the State. as is frequently supposed. institute the wor: ship of ancestors it had existed in China for centuries before his time. have set aside the Shinto cosmogony as something wholly beyond the range of rational speculation. however. Life was a mystery in his eyes death equally inscrutable. He did not even di- rectly inculcate the propriety of such a practice. but he limited his moral horizon to things visible and temporal. while respecting spiritual beings. that was the Chinese sage's definition of wisdom. In the vague possibilities of . and his recorded conduct could not possibly be reconciled with the Shinto faith in the direction of nature's courses and of human fortunes by a hierarchy of deities. That man should devote himself earnestly to the duties due to men. He recognised the power of an impersonal heaven. should keep aloof from them. the Emperor of Japan and the Sun Goddess finds Confucius. numbers and diagrams he vainly sought an explanation of the verse. phenomena of the physical uniand the sole outcome of his cosmical 132 . so that the latter acted as The relation between mediator for his subjects.

then in those of their descendants.CREED AND CASTE was a discovery that if the span of his permitted fifty years' uninterrupted groping among the pages of the Book of Changes [Tih King). The similarities and dissimilarities of the two systems are here alluded to. because from the time of Japan's first acquaintance with Chinese literature. Confucianism won for itself a firm place in the minds of her educated . however. but also. in short. The rule of life for men in all their relations was to be found heaven had conferred on within themselves every human being a moral sense. he might hope to reach the truth. at the same time. woman in the Shinto cosmogony and the Shinto ceremonials. and persuaded that the recompense of their acts would be found. sideration for woman and her chivalrous treatment should be catalogued among the promptings With the high place assigned to of conscience. if not in their own fortunes. while. compliance with which would keep him always in the right He did not recognise. that conpath. thoughtless of a hereafter. not simply for the sake of establishing the independence of Shinto. he would have been absolutely unConfucianism. and mainly. studies life : sage lived as units of their families. It is thus easy to see how greatly Confucian- ism differed from Shinto. both had much in common. In one important respect his philosophy corresponded with Shinto : it was inductive. Faithful followers of the Chinese secularism. was pure sympathetic.

their education. father and son. linked together by the principle of righteous and — . husband and wife. a disgraceful death as a departure from it which canon secured implicit obedience from the Japanese in every age. Shinto. and compensating defects. friend and friend. aim of administration should be the material good of the people the second. innate goodness of human belief in the found nature.JAPAN classes. bracing the heart. It came to her strengthened and supplein mented by the genius of Mencius. It taught that the first propriety. and defined death in the discharge of duty as compliance with that ordination. It bade men regard suffering and misfortune as Heaven's instruments for stimulating the mind. damental virtues. righteousness. It defined society as a compound of five relationships. offered a system of morals avowedly based on inductive sanctions yet evidently enTo a prodorsed by the lessons of experience. — — — 134 . as elaborated by mind. . providing no moral code and relying solely on the promptings of conscience for ethical guidance. It indicated divine ordination in human affairs. and wisdom. sovereign and subject. was too dinary much of an abstraction to satisfy the or- Confucianism. it added plain expositions of the four funbenevolence. a precept to which the Japanese owed much of their stoicism in adversity and their cheerfulness in poverty. and respects it some supplied an evident want. elder brother and the first four younger brother. Mencius.

by the mutual desire of promoting virtue.CREED AND CASTE benevolent rule on the one side. have subscribed such a doctrine in its naked out. actruler's family and ing purely with a view to the public weal subordisome these. regicide. The people were the most important element in the Chinese Sage's conception of a nation. it laid down an axiom which never obtained open endorsement in Japan. though limited obedience. failing either of Mencius did not nate " instrument of heaven. the latter's boldly formulated. Confucius and Mencius alike held that the Throne is an institution of heaven. . or open violence . For that philosopher laid down that the task of removing an unworthy ruler should be undertaken. by thirdly. . that the claim of " divine right " ceases to be valid unless it inures to the people's good. by a member of the secondly. Side by side with these and other equally noble bases of ethics. but which any reader following the historical retrospect contained in previous chapters must have again and again detected underlying the conduct of prominent actors upon the political stage. ^3S . by a high minister. first. lines. namely. but what the former's teaching only implied. and righteous and sincere submission on the other the last. Yet in practice it received constant. If the sovereign's rule were injurious to them. and the methods of obedience show striking conformity with the sequence of Mencius' prescriptions." the inculcate sedition. he must No Japanese in any epoch would be dethroned.

or feudal chief. however lowly his origin or humble superior. his station.JAPAN standard to be raised was not of rebellion. the immortality of the soul. is repeatedly seen that. his own — Practical illustrations of this characteristic are to to be tics. minister after minister. it Japan's " " divine right was uniformly recognised in theory. its It has beorigin but in Chinese philosophy ? ^ of the nation. then. did not scruple to contrive the compulsory retirement of sovereign. subordinate after subordinate. note 37. found in the as of ancient. Whence. 136 . lacks the conviction that he carries a natural mandate to redress wrong in a and that the method of redress depends upon *' choice." the coordinates of loyal obedience. the cosmogony and the providence of the gods. Shogun. in philosophy only. * See Appendix. field of modern Japanese poli- seen that Japan received from China a Her religion was her own. while the annals. that his own elevation to the place of the deposed ruler would make for the good of Shinto educated no such tendency. provided that his failure in " be compensated by strength of submission " sincerity. or being honestly forced by circumstances to believe. crystallised in the ethics come Scarcely a Japanese. prince after prince. It is so far as concerned a future state. Buddhism did not educate it. the people. easily persuading himself. but of In turning over the pages of righteousness.

connection existed between the religious creed of the nation and the castes into which society was divided. aliens who. namely. such of the aboriginal inhabitants as fell under the sway of the invaders. Japanese commentators are disposed to interpret Bambetsu in its literal sense." to which the sovereign and princes of the blood belonged. that inasmuch as the last and ultimately domi- nant body of Japanese immigrants found a part of the islands already under the sway of men who were not of the aboriginal race and whose 137 . There is also a plausible theory — . or " imperial tribe. or " divine tribe. . were finally naturalised in Japan. or immigrated thither afterwards from Korea and China.CREED AND CASTE If the reader asks why to Chinese philosophy imported into Japan here attributed that did not attend its propagandism in the land of its origin. the tribe including all direct descendants of the deities the Kwobetsu." consisting of the foreign elements of the population. first. the Shimbetsu. The difference indicated by these terms is not clearly explicable. and secondly. is apparent from the nomenclature of these castes. as indicating." composed of all remote descendants from the heavenly stock and the Ba)nbetsu. the only answer is that the same seed results are may produce That a dissimilar fruit in different soils. in other words. having either attached themselves to the Japanese proper during the latter's passage across the Asiatic continent to the Far-Eastern isles. or " foreign tribe. that is to say.

performed religious rites on behalf of the nation's Immediately following him in order welfare. originally within ancient nomenclature. to Susa-no-o himself. marvel the line of these 138 patriarchal families . no doubt exists. . head of all stood the who. and Imbe representing the Kwobetsu. the precincts of the Palace only and afterwards — — by occasional visits to the principal shrine. while their There lower orders were classed as Ba??2betsu. The to one of the principal councillors attached to the grandchild of the Sun Goddess when he descended to assume the Imbe to the deity that the rule of Japan held the mirror and the go-hei before the cave on the immemorial occasion of the Sun Goddess' self-effacement the Mononobe.JAPAN fighting qualities figures commanded respect. Suberagi of the Mikado. The chiefs of the two great tribes. The heads of these houses possessed the right of disposing of the lives and properties of members. however. division. Into whatever cloud-land of myth and . were priests as well as rulers. the Shimbetsu and the At the Kwobetsu. and the same right devolved upon the heads of the various branches into households became divided which the as original Nakatomi traced their lineage time elapsed. of dignity came the great families of Nakatomi. the principal were ad- among these prior immigrants mitted to the ranks of the Kwobetsu. questions will these appears to be little hope that As to the main lines of be fully elucidated. Mononobe.

an epoch at which administrative functions began to interest them more than sacerdotal that they were subsequently separated into the Five Governing Families (Go-Sekke) that up to the centralisation of the administration in 1868. for from some Kwobetsu or SJmnbetsu family all the holders of hereditary titles in modern times can trace their descent. Sh'mtb. their title to divine origin has received the assent of all generations of Japanese. At the other end of the scale stood the Bajubetsu.^ Of such materials is the Japanese nobility of to-day composed. one of them being the celebrated Count Katsu. belonged to that the Mononobe family has the Fujiwara . and the links that connect their pedigrees with the present prosaic era become visible in the facts that a branch of the Nakatomi changed their name to Fujiwara. and the regent during his minority.-^ in the seventh century.CREED AND CASTE ascends. . who played such a conspicuous part in the Restoration of 1867. note 39. note 38. great or small. and the serf [semjnin)y who were immeasurably removed from the patrician and excluded from association with him in this life or beyond the grave. . ^ See Appendix. and that no hereditary Shinto official [Kanmisht) of this Meiji era entertains or admits any doubt of his ancestors' consanguinity with some deity. the nominal primeminister of every sovereign after he came of age. including the {/lemin) 1 commoner See Appendix. eight representatives among the present nobility. .

what Some of them.JAPAN indeed. if the place of the commoner in the hierarchy of the hereafter is to be regulated by his station in the society of the present. though lacking codified tenets. At any rate. was essentially the creed of the upper They alone enjoyed the guardianship classes. Buddhism has no element of exclusiveness. the sej?imin. since they lacked the essential qualification of consanguinity with the deities. seems evident that all these commoners and it serfs stood originally outside the pale of the patrician creed. might consider that they belonged remotely to the congregation of Shinto worshippers but others were effectually excluded. of the celestial and terrestrial divinities from they claimed descent and to whose ranks they would be admitted after death. certainly tended in many cases to produce a high type of character and to nurture a happy faith in the posBut the heimin and sibilities of a future state. the commoners and the serfs. Looking at the sharp lines of caste cleavage that divided both hei?}iin and semmin from the patrician class. To a nation thus constituted Buddhism came in the second half of the sixth century. whom . It resembles that house of many mansions on which the hopes of the numerous multiple-minded sec140 . religion did they embrace ? especially the farmers and artisans. and they obeyed the inductive system of Shinto morality which. the life beyond the grave cannot have presented to him a very smiling aspect.

CREED AND CASTE humanity are fixed with equal assurance that each has found the truth. the student would find himself looking very closely at the genius of the Japanese people and the the changes at the guiding spirit of their civilisation. it becomes a In each vessel mirror of its interpreter's mind. by inviting eclecticism. is twenty-five times as large as the whole Christian Bible. one of which. and none assert that can confidently light of inspiration has shone. truth lies so profoundly buried. every tions of Christian searcher after the great verity may find materials to construct a creed according to the pattern of his own intellectual and emotional nature. that the faith attracts special interest. In its library of over two thousand sutras. translated into Chinese. It is here that an explanation may be found of the tranquil tolerance amid which the various sects of Buddhism have been evolved. of water drawn from the well where Buddhist for. It is here. 141 . a reflection may it be seen of the drawer's moral features. too. for upon him alone the none dare pre- tend to imagine that his researches have been exhaustive. and follows that were it possible to trace accurately developments received by Buddhism and it has undergone during the twelve hundred years of its active existence in Japan.

was very students . Shinto furnished no code nor formulated any commandment. so that salvation may not be reached until three immeasurable aeons have lapsed. These injunctions the disciple was asked to accept with unreasoning assurance. and for its goal. as first preached to the Japanese.^ of which it is enough to say standard of morality were they practised to the letter. that. WESTERN wont simple. but it refrained from any exposition of motives. a high would have been reached.Chapter V RELIGION AND RITES of Buddhism are to say that the rehgion has for its basis the unreality of everything. It issued a guiding canon of the utmost precision. ^ 142 . Buddhism pursued precisely the opposite plan. to the length of which every sin adds something. note 40. non-existence that it regards man's life on earth as a link in a continuous chain of probations. It prescribed five negative precepts and ten positive virtues. Such is not the Buddhism of Japan. The creed. Its method tallied exactly with that prescribed See Appendix.

note 41. his own salvation in the constituted his sole motive of conduct subsequent stage of enlightenment. that could be nothing moral precepts there was called a revelation to the members of the patrician caste. great majority of the new creed's disciples never and is it not easy passed beyond the first stage also to see that to the plebeian and proletariat classes. But in both was separated from him by an interval which his individual exertions could Is it not easy to conceive that the not bridge. . But the difference between the ardent practicality of the Japanese mind and the dreamy patience of Oriental dispositions in general. an ardent desire to save others stages alike salvation also. so an inquirer at the portals of Buddhism was first shown the letter of the law.^ he developed . and when he had learned how to obey. Just as the student of the foreign symbols began by mastering their sounds and shapes and was afterwards inducted into their meanings. quickly affected In its the reception accorded to the new creed.RELIGION AND RITES by teachers of the ideographic script which had then become the vehicle for transmitting all learning to Japan. banished beyond the range of Sliintd instincts and the pale of its privileges. nor did its immeasurably deferred hope ^ See Appendix. In the opening stage of discipline. received an explanation of the principles underlying it. this arithmetically precise and comfortably explicit doctrine of the Buddha offered a welcome moral refuge ? .

^ See Appendix. dhism received its first Japanese modification. it was essential that the disciple should free himself from worldly concerns and influences. attractively with their own prospect of certain admission after death to the ranks of the Even the plebeian wanted something more tangible than a heaven from which he was Thus Budseparated by an eternity of effort. To reach the knowledge which opened the gate to salvation. should stand aloof from work-a-day existence. found it admirable to worship the Buddha of " infinite light and life." and comfortable to think that the state of blessedness might be at- edge . ^ See Appendix. and that the ancient deities whom Japan worshipped were but manifestations Such adaptations quickly won of the Buddha. and should become Such absorbed in meditating on absolute truth. note 43. for Buddhism a strong title to popular regard. note 42. ^ See Appendix.JAPAN compare deities.^ He a programme repelled the average Japanese.^ It secured to the patrician his old privileges while extending them to the plebeian. note 44. But there remained in this new conception two deterrent elements. A sect arose/ preaching that beatitude meant knowlof the " Lotus Law " that the attainment of that knowledge ensured immediate entry into Buddhahood. 144 . should banish all sense of the beautiful. It ceased to be an alien creed and became a liberal expansion of the indigenous faith.

3J11^HT U^Ii/.OVI>{ ..OTOY>I . t-:V>a::::jr-:siar'^'f^ .

repelled the average |apa a He of .'' Such •1 programme id ik .iiia . "'^ ^^^'^o.-crtinr. hote 44.^Heir own prospect of ^o the ranks of the . should banish sense of the beautiful.-v . rhem to WPf^RmW"^^' elements. -v-. ne^»" m^.V anted something iyt. and that the ancient deities v\ orshipped were but manifestations Such adaptations quickly won strong title to popular regard. iedge •vhich opened tlv riai aLi^n." am.xv . ^^^ it xv.juid free himself influences.^ It secured to patrician his old privilep^es while extendine * .. A hing that beatitude meant knowlLotus Law " that the attainit knowledge ensured immediate entry aahood.ii from which he was of effort. note 42. i 3ut there remained in this deterrent T. g^g ^j. T44 . from stand worldly :\U)of concciit:. Thus Bud- :c> nrsi j apanese modification. w^as essen- that the ' . ^ that the state of bi ^ Appendix. should from work-a-day existence. and should become absorbed in meditating on absolute truth. to be an alien creed and became a liberal sion of the indigenous faith. Appendix. it admirable to worship the -d life..



each of ten precepts. easy to comprehend and not deterrently difficult to practise. The scope of this preeminent virtue was described with minutelv practical accuracy. The omnipresent spirit of truth became the centre of the " diamond world " of noumena and the source of organic life in the world of phenomena. obedience to the precepts of morality. but when he came to the fourth. At the head of all virtues stood a charity to which the Christian apostle's celebrated definition might aptly have been applied. and the duty of recomdoctrines that — mending VOL. the building of bridges. when he had to accept the necessity of — turning his back on the busy world and harmonising his faculties to a meditative career. its Its teachings lapsed into a vagueness. an intellectual and a moral. To reach to the realisation of the truth two ladders were revealed. the making of roads. Besides. the support of the church. Soon a new system was elaborated. the succouring of the poor. There were iaC . bewildered common intelligence. these lO same acts to others. the maintenance of one's parents. the nursing of the sick. the " Lotus Law " dealt in mysteries beyond comprehension. extended to a comprehensiveness. and the choice of a suitable house. the demand overtaxed his dolicity. V.RELIGION AND RITES tained by the work of a single life-span. He readily adjusted his feet to the first three steps of progress. — regulation of food and clothing. It included the digging of wells. two canons.

D. there an ethical system . But if such affinities with — — . by one of the greatest of Japanese religious Kobo down. that the followers of the there there is is a Nazarene might endorse band of interceding saints in heaven .^ This is Word. There a great presiding spirit .JAPAN noble precepts. • an eternity of happiness there is an everlasting law of retribution. not a state of absolute non-existence [nirvana). indeed. founded in 8i6 A. note 45. and the hereafter became. pleading continually for their ignorant and struggling brethren upon earth that they might attain to the same heights of perfect enlightenment and further . its So far as it has here set outlines might is easily been be adapted is to a partial picture of Christianity. so also do differences. bliss. All idea of abstention from the affairs of everyday life disappeared. the sect of the " True the sect of the Logos. Christianity exist. but several whose mission is to lead men to the knowledge of the truth. Daishi." teachers. " but the " infinite perception of a beatific vision a condition in which each of the saved formed one of a band of great intercessors. every infraction of the moral code entailing a commensurate penalty there are incarnations of the supreme being not one incarnation. and there was also an elaborate system of daily worship and prayer. the Shingon Sect. and in their 145 . is ^ There a belief in previous existences See Appendix.

The world had fallen upon such evil days that a cry of despair went up to Amida. Such was the doctrine of the Sect of the Pure Land [Jodo]. . a shape that three hundred and sixty years. but rather In this new system love was supplemented it. but still worship. a child of the " Pure Land. With this development of Buddhism the Japanese may be said to have remained content for in the presence of perpetual wars. and that in blind trust.).D. by which the devotee is kept entangled in the cycle of life and death there is prayer to the gods of the country. the Buddha of endless life and light. unknown . note 46. the Spirit Sect. Men were taught that works could not avail.^ in all ages antecedent to the Fifty years later. suit the mood of men millennium. latter See Appendix. and miseries. lay the only hope of salvation. spoliations. the creed took another shape. in a modified form indeed." namely. another sect was born. Salvation by faith was preached. the Shinto deities and there is worship of ancestors. comforting tenet that by simple trust in Amida during life admittance to his paradise might be 1 secured after death perfectly suited the dejected mood of the age. note 47. . founded by Honen Shonin ( 1 74 The A. and would.RELIGION AND RITES sins. reflected the conditions of the time. It attracted numerous disciples. Then. ' See Appendix. aided by the repetition of ceaseless formula. indeed.- The 1 did not supplant the former.

as a logical corollary. and. The priests themselves ceased to observe some of the vetoes that chiefly distinguished them from laymen. if desirable. in the heart of the saved.JAPAN added to trust.'* it pos. now sufficed to secure salvation and to keep the devotee's feet in the true path. but that the coming of the saviour was present and immediate that he took up his abode at once. essential to all forms of Buddhism. and faith in his willingness and power to save. — — — 148 . The disciple learned. There were other differences also. Grateful remembrance of the mercies of Amida. amulets. the doctrine that misfortune in this world has its root in some evil wrought in a previous state of existence. remained. They married. All in every rank and of every calling were entitled to entertain an equal hope of salvation. With its parent. The even during life. doctrine. ate meat. This " Spirit Sect " is the largest in Japan. and all such aids were interdicted. and. not that Amida waited until the hour of a man's death to conduct him to paradise. spells. to abandon his home and embrace celibacy. The devotee was no longer invited to become a priest. replaced the stole by the surcoat. but it received the adjunct that neither Amida nor any other Buddha might be invoked to interrupt the natural sequence of cause and effect. the " Pure Land Sect. They learned in the domestic circle those sympathies and appreciations that a celibate can never develop.

All phenomena. 149 .^ Among the last sects calling for notice here is sesses more than one-half of It is full the country. and has its being an omnipotent. were declared by him to cause. as do the corresponding tenets preached from Western pulpits. Its doctrines as to the origin of the world. the efficacy of prayer. but had nothing to say about he taught that the first link in the its origin. and omniscient deity. the prime and only great They showed to their disciples a chain of cause and effect. were only transient reflections. the immortality of the soul.^ one that has attracted considerable observation among Occidental students of Japanese Buddhism. and the resurrection of the body. in all time and space. original sin. moves. Sakyamuni and the rest. of whom all subsequent Buddhas. note 48. Nichiren thus reached the Christian conception of a god in whom everything lives. do not so greatly shock ordinary intelligence. one of the noblest and most picturesque figures among Japanese " saints. chain was the Buddha of original enlightenment. 1 See Appendix. ." RELIGION AND RITES all the temples in of vitality. omnipresent. note 49." The essential difference between the creed of Nichiren and the creeds of all his predecessors is that he preached a god. It is the sect of the " Flower of the Law [Hokke-shu)^ founded (1253 ^-i^-) by Nichiren (the Lotus of Light). or make such large demands on unreasoning credulity. the sphere of providential functions. * See Appendix. mental and material.

so full of evils to mortal vision. or noumenon to point out the way to Buddhahood to open the path of salvation above all. To know . tinctions observed by the ordinary man were had no foundation imaginary and misleading in fact. . to proclaim the identity of beautiful. — was true wisdom. note 50. identity where the vulgar saw variety. to convince the people that one and all of them might become Buddhas. 150 . that It . whether as a curious coincidence or as an outcome of the tendency of the time. In the eyes of the Buddha there was . which. had its origin in the thirteenth century and was therefore coeval with the establishment of military feudalism. — ^ See Appendix. . the underlying sameness of ceived.JAPAN have only subjective existence in the consciousThe differences and disness of the individual. The favourite creed of the latter was embodied in the dogmas of the Zen Sect. To the enlightened all worlds were equally " Hence. did not differ from paradise in the Buddha's sight. all things to under- stand the oneness of the perceiver and the per- followed that this world. this evil or phenomenal world with the glorious underlying reality. that was the mission of the sect of Nichiren. Such doctrines did not find much vogue among the military class. here and now." ^ The tenets of the sects thus far described may be said to represent the forms in which Buddhism appealed to the masses.

the Zen Sect won many followers among the Samurai. need not be elaborated here. essential to a soldier. which was the chief Its successful practice characteristic of the sect. for the interest of the Zen Sect centres on the part it took in developing the Japanese military its the colours that Buddhism took all were mind transmission through the Japanese Death ceased to be a passage to bright hues. The coneffect was shortened to a single link. and partly because. the Zen disciple was taught the duty of confession. having already been explained in connection with the Bushido. to The ascetic selflshness of the contemplative disciple was exchanged for a career The endless chain of cause and of active charity. and enlightened about the doctrine of Karma. who and sheer force of will subjects all his passions to the unique purpose of entering into Partly because the perfection of religious faith. Thus m mere non-existence and became the entrance actual beatitude. by carrying the disciple entirely beyond himself and his surroundings. such mental training helped to educate inflexibility of resolution. because when a man acknowledges his sins he may be said to have put them away from him. 151 . This subject. Then followed the process of contemplation [zazen). Having been of life demanded by emotions a mood like that of the ascetic. it rendered him indifferent to death or danger.RELIGION AND RITES instructed in the general problems and of salvation.

day affairs seem in need of the Buddha's divine influence. a place where the ashes of the worshipper himself will in the end be laid to rest. solemn and protracted acts of worship. If a man needs moral guidance.JAPAN ception of one supreme. political distinctions that yawned so widely be- tween the patrician and the plebeian. The Buddha and touch the people were identified. deposit of small coins up brief prayer when every. the Japanese. and whither his own friends and relatives will come to honour his memory when he too shall have received from the priests one of those beautiful and benevolent posthumous titles which they know so well how to choose. all-merciful being forced The gulf of social and itself into prominence. he goes to the temple and listens to a place for offering 152 . — The temple presents itself to him as a place where the mortuary tablets of his ancestors are guarded a place to be visited for the burning of incense at tombs and their adornment with flowers on . enter scarcely at all into the layman's existence. Religion does not overshadow the daily life of The gloomy fanatic is unknown. anniversaries of the deaths of near relatives a place for the occasional in an alms-chest. repentance in sackcloth and ashes. the these things terrors of an eternity of torture. and all the other unsightlinesses of the world. It is all essentially practical and easy-going. Confession of sins. became subjective eidola destined to disappear at the first of moral light.

His sermon is generally of the simplest.RELIGION AND RITES a sermon. and with the perplexities of Tarobei. the danseuse. He kneels before a small above the wide area of the matted nave. the rustic. and impressive. too remote. They are to him merely spectacular effects solemn. can never produce a Puritan or a Covenanter. If the devout watches them with awed mien. may be called the popular form of worship such a festival as can be seen at the in Japan fairs . peep in smilingly at the tonsured chaunters of litanies and reciters of sutras. . the maid of all work with the troubles of Detchi. sometimes every day. . Great ceremonies of worship may also be attended. but with these the ordinary individual has no intellectual sympathy. Japanese Buddhism. the little belles of the parish are guilty of no irreverence when they patter up the steps leading to the lofty hall of worship. and talks to the people dais raised a little on around him on the floor. and patter away again with just such faces of sunny unconcern as they might wear on their way home from a dancing-lesson. Its worlds of hungry demons and infernal beings are too unsubstantial. On set a days. Buddhism. one of the lectern priests preaches. splendid. It deals with the afsitting of common life with the small cares of Osandon. . but incomprehensible. — ^S3 . any lurid glare over the present. to throw The festival. indeed. It weaves no threads of solemnity or sanctimoniousness into the pattern of every-day life. the shop-boy with the woes of O-yuki.

that listen to the sermon be compared with the gay crowds that roam about the beautiful woods. and such frivolities. no effort to dissimulate the traits of which humanity can never divest itself is encouraged ^ See Appendix. jugglers. whose doctrine of the Flower of the Law has been It is a species of gala for the huge outlined above. note 51. Even at a religious festi- val. so that the people who happen to be praying within are virtually a part of the audience enjoying the penny-shows without. numbering some two hundred thoumultitude sand that throng thither during the two days If the tiny band of devout folks of the fete. It may be difficult for the reader to imagine the precincts of a Christian cathedral on a saint's day occupied by acrobats. namely. and frequent — — the various entertainments provided for their diversion by itinerant showmen. Yet such a ness to holiday conception of the Japanese scene is only partial must be supplemented by another strange feature. the ratio of holi- becomes very suggestive. while the business of prayer and preaching proceeds vigorously within the walls of the building. travelling menageries. as everywhere in Japan. Here. enjoy the enchanting landscapes and seascapes presenting themselves on every side.JAPAN Ikegami temple/ on the anniversary of Nichiren. that the temple-building stands open throughout the whole of one side. performing dogs. the practical sincerity of the national it character shovv^s itself. .

while they are excellently suited to the purposes of her performance. Let Religion does not them. too. prescribe austerity of manners or asceticism of life. but has nothing to do with the poising of one's body on some strands of plaited hemp. pound rice. then. of their shrines. enjoy themselves. a party of priests may be seen watching the maThey are noeuvres of some highly trained birds. gami fete has no such fancy. in another part of the spacious grounds. jaunty. The Buddhas are not shocked because a monkey turns summersaults under the eaves of their sanctuaries. and . audience. are even better qualified to divert atThere. ter may be very well in its way. wears garments which. or a rope-dancer balances in the shadow In this very rope-dancer. Europe a female gymnast dresses in flesh-coloured tights and seeks to place her womanhood in sugThe Japanese girl at the Ikegestive evidence. Therefore the Ikegami girl. saucy chaffinches as ever exhibited and to see them skip out themselves in public of their cages.RELIGION AND RITES or expected. ring bells. bow to their trainer and to the little . tention from the sex of the performer. too. Her business is The latrope-dancing. The great majority of the people come for the sake of the outing as much as to pay respect to the memory of the saint. not meretricious posing. count coins. who undertakes to exhibit skill in the science of equilibrium. the observer may see another instance of the spirit In of sincerity that presides at the festival.

and the rattling of cash against the bars of the moneychest. the patrician to the plebeian ? And if the philos- opher as is there as well as the bumpkin. literature. what proportion does the literate element bear to the illiterate. It amounts to asking what has been the influence of Buddhism upon Undoubtedly that the educated classes in Japan. numerous in features strongly attractive.JAPAN do the woodpecker business against every convenient post. not a bit its nearer to hell or farther from heaven because no hypocritical mien of sanctimoniousness. and the chattering of monkeys. a It brought its company a noble literature pregnant with philosophic thought presented to the mind in attractive guise. So the praying goes on. and the shouting of show- men. Undoubtedly the religion possessed. as the great. at the time of its advent. influence was once very powerful. It built for itself temples 156 . the motive of each how much of pastime is and how much of worship ? That is a great question. good- humoured multitude units have studied flows to and fro. a literature embodying everything that was profound and beautiful in Oriental speculation. and the perpetual rippling of laughter and the babble of cheery talk. But. the savant well as the servant. nor been trained to deceive their deity by putting a veneer of puritanism over the instincts which he has implanted in their breasts. is to conceive a new respect for bird intelligence. in such a crowd. and the burning of incense.

benevolence. subtle metaphysical suggestions that derived a semblance of profundity from their very strangeness. proficiency in the Chinese language 157 with posses- . intricate.RELIGION AND RITES the grandeur of whose architectural proportions and the gorgeousness of whose decoration surpassed Japanese conception. Its priests manifested a spirit of activity. easy to under- how gladly the feet of in many turned from wandering the trackless deserts of Shifito to march in the beaten paths and along the carefully Further. Buddhism was synonymous with . code or canons of dogma to narily rich in both. a faith is. extraordi- If there as we know to there stand is. the system constituted an addimechanism of new men from the It carried tional attraction. a mass of obscure. monasteries Proficiency in were the chief seats of learning. and self-denial that could not but impress a nation entirely strange to the spectacle of religious zeal. of magnificence from The minute the ignorance of their students. simplest and vaguest of creeds to the most complex and definite from a faith without ethical . It found a people devoting themselves to the study of Chinese literature with all the fervour that marks their descendants' excursions into the domain of Western learning. a tendency in the human mind it is pass from one extreme to another. and it presented to them a library of books within whose ideographic pages was enshrined a mine of speculative thought. the graded highways of Buddhism.

the stores of the Middle when we come to ask among men who vast in mediasval times contributed support or endow temples. whether from this array of secular and religious arguments the conclusion may be derived that the supernatural phases of Buddhism impressed themselves upon the hearts of the educated classes. indeed. some evidence of the fact would not have been furnished in the growth of a philosophical literature. Nothing survived beyond an instinctive belief in the immortality of the soul. religion. and sermons preached. the answer must be negative. came to be quietly ignored. On that the the contrary. and a traditional faith in a future world peopled by the shades of parents and relatives loved in 158 life and . and were ultimately relegated to the same place in the among much minds of educated men as ghost stories occupy in European or American thought to-day. There is practically no such plain literature. and repaired thither at set seasons to hear orisons chaunted. It is hard. made them the depositories of their ancestral tablets. the product of lay pens. But still more difficult is it to conceive that.JAPAN sion of the key to all Kingdom's learning. In short. had the sums to transcendental doctrines of Buddhism sunk deep into the national mind. to imagine a total lack of that kind of faith Yet. sutras read. as distinguished from morality. there are indications supernatural beliefs of Buddhist teachers gradually became the object of open or covert ridicule the learned.

. and upright of ethics. teen centuries worked steadily alleged authority of supernatural revelation. too. and in the pursuit of it no priestly guidance is If a Japanese be asked to considered necessary. to abstain . on the Oriental systems it buried. prop- wholly beyond the range of mortal Buddhism. owing to the note of feudalism sounds through its philosophy. honest. to pass into the oblivion lie where so many But through fourand powerfully to turn the mind of educated Japan from transcendental subtleties and religious mysticism to a conviction that the only true and rational creed is one which subjects the human faculties to no excessive strain. bright and comfortable garments with which ositions lying Japanese genius clothed it. RELIGION AND RITES reverenced after death. Much of the vogue so speedily attained and so steadily retained by Con- fucianism is doubtless due to the subordinate place assigned to supernatural religion in that system. in the comparatively intelligence. Confucianism. is the faith of the masses. and is destined. that in its turn. from meanness and forms to be prepared to sacrifice everything to country and that is the ideal of the cultured mind. has been found to be more or less out of harmony with the spirit of Occidental civilisation. faithful to friends and benefactors selfishness in all . king. to be to be guided by reason and not by passion . nor asks men to accept. an essentially work-a-day system To be moral. — 159 . but the scholar proposes to himself a simpler creed.

It . the artisan. cannot fail to note that nine-tenths of the congregation are white-haired. Hodge may be there. her dimples banished and her sweet head bowed as she mused over the ingwa. the indissoluble chain of causation. A visitor to a temple on the day of the sekkyo. here. the remainder consisting of children with a sparse admixture of adults. the farmer. He can follow the sermon. But these are the exceptions. the he will do so in the words — down As to the masses. Generally the worshipper carries with him wrinkles and snowy locks. the it shopkeeper. and a hope that since the affairs of the " fleeting world " have become to him as " dust before the wind. and the proletariat.JAPAN define the much-talked-of spirit set of Yamato. though said that may be also Buddhism is their creed. that had linked her to love troubles and a throbbing heart." he may by pious practices acquire a vested interest in the affairs of the world to come. who last evening sat beside her brazier. which has been duly advertised on a species of sign-board at the entrance of the enclosure. 1 60 . the day of the sermon. — Tamato da7nashii. it must be said that at sacred service as well as at festival time they do not take their faith very seriously. driven by the dread that some unsettled account stands between him and the heaven which ought to have averted the typhoon from his rice-field or the insect plague from his mulberry plantation and little O-setsu may be there.



itariat, tho'






sermon, wiiich


of children V

id tl

-ci\V EIGHING TEA. h Cav





^d the typhonn ^^ fffsn^ 1


little G-.^wt-m


at beside

her bra



aer swer'




the inc

aaiii Ox
J love troubles ar<




are the exceptioi



with him



hope that

tices acquirt;

ted interest


world to come.


can follow



plain, simple, adapted to the lowest

order of

intelligence, the even flow of its gentle precepts un-

impeded by any rocks of erudition nor deepening
to any profundities of transcendental philosophy.


old folks listen with comfortable reverence,

each pause in the preacher's eloquence eloquence sometimes of the highest order bow








Horen-ge-Kyb^ or whatever formula the sect prescribes, and then throw into the alms-chest an ofl^ering of cash. The parabled mite of the widow was a farthing. The cash of Japan is the fortieth part of a penny, and a worshipper that launches four of these

palms, devoutly

murmur Namu

coins into the

great chest has done

his duty nobly.



of these copper


as saisen.

prefix belongs to

They are them


The honoit

just as fully as


to the lordly vases of silver

and gold

lotus that

flank the altar


to the resplendent altar itself


broad face of rosy lacquer, its richly chased and heavily gilded mountings, its furniture of fine bronze and ancient celadon ; or to the magnificent shrine that glows with mellowed splendour But bein the sacred obscurity of the chancel. o-saisen^ o£ yond the sermon, beyond the throwing and the rolling of beads, what does the worshipThe siitra is there Nothing. per understand ?
the lotus law, engrossed in exquisite ideographs

upon an illuminated





But its texts are Japanese they


from the original Koran would convey to a cowboy. They are part of The priest is the the magnificent unknown. repository of whatever blessed knowledge they embody, the transmitter of their divine message And the priest himself understands to mankind.
as little as a verse


to lend spectacular effect to that part of his

he seats himself among his congregation to preach, he wears the simplest of robes, a white or sober-hued cassock and a black stole. But when he opens the sutras or recites the litany, his vestments are of brocade that would serve worthily to drape a throne, and might well betray the female units of his congregation into the sin of " lust of the eye " were not the precaution adopted of cutting the splendid fabric


into a multitude of fragments before fashioning Patchwork quilts are it into stole or cassock.

not used in Japan, and a girdle chequered with seams after the fashion of a chess-board would be So the house-wife and the a shocking solecism. admire these grand brocades to enabled are belle

without coveting them.







from the sermon

the latter a practical, plainly phrased adaptation of saving ethics to every-day the former, a mysterious, impressive, and affairs

enigmatical display, as far removed from munAt dane affinities as is the lotus throne itself. one of the great temples, in a hall of worship fifty feet high, four times as many long and three



broad, these services

may be



hall is absolutely without decoration, except in one spot where stand the shrine and the altar, a mass of glowing gold


The huge

and rich colours, mellowed by wide spaces on either
side to

which the daylight


to an


a circular enclosure at the a

outer end of

the nave

band of acolytes, chaunting

chaunters break the

from time



voices are pitched in octaves, and the

number of


time so

has continued

monotony of the cadence. When this for some moments, nine priests, robed, emerge slowly and solemnly from

the back

of the chancel, and kneel before an equal number of lecterns ranged in line on the left of the altar. Each priest carries a chaplet of beads, and on each lectern is a missal. Then the chaunt of the acolytes ceases, and the priest in the middle of the line opens the sutra and One by one his companions folreads aloud. low his example, until the nine voices blend in a

monotone, which,

in turn,


varied by the


device as that previously adopted by the acolytes. After an interval, another similar band pace

the chancel, and kneeling on the right of the altar, opposite the first comers, add their voices, in the same cumulative fashion, to Finally, the chiet the varying volume of sound. attended by an acolyte, priest himself emerges,


and kneels, facing the


at a




and lifts them at last to an ecstasy where reason ceases to discern that the components of the grand ceremony are nothing more than deftly interwoven fragments of a chaunted litany. the intonation of the reading priests grows more and more denly are accelerated.ders. taken up in turn and swelled to a rolling chaunt by the tones of the These alternations of intoning sufra-re2. words pour forth with bewildering this Then away its sudto a peal of resonance dies scarcely audible still murmur. the whole ceremony. until at last their volubility. awe-inspiring. and. a heart of glowing gold and soft colours in a vast sepulchre of shadow. the voice of the chief priest.JAPAN placed between the two rows of sutra-readers. as the fumes ascend denser and denser. gorgeous vestments. and an edifice of noble proportions. virtually It is constitute grave. echoes they are joined by comes to the average layman sooner or That he has reached it is plainly shown The sketchy act of worship that by his mien. and while trembling in the air. and then itself faints to a whisper. and massive in its simplicity. But that analytical consciousness certainly later. which by degrees absorbs them into its swelling note. He confines himself at first to burning incense. he uses as a passport to such ceremonials bears as little proportion to their magnificence as does the fee paid at the door of a theatre to the tumultuous moods of mirth or sadness produced 164 . It captivates the senses by degrees.

at the in the hovels of the poor. The function example he sets is one of indolence. or with hands of helpfulness Once only. in the perfunctory routine of colourless duty. either by intellectual culture or a life of conspicuous zeal and virtue. and probably unfortunate. He used to be the nation's schoolmaster as well as its scholar. to raise his religion to a place in the people's hearts. he has to intone a litany that has been ringing in his ears since childhood. The priest himself contributes little. The adult Jap- anese takes little interest in them. Nothing in which the mechanical element predominates can be permanently interesting. The State has stepped in and relieved him of the former the latter title he has long lost. great Bon festival. He is not to be rest. The Buddhist services appeal only to a narrow range of emotions and leave the intellect untouched. for the said for the soul of the departed. the priest finds — To be a fre- — . and always his figure looms on the horizon of the layman's life when incense has to be burned and prayer But. on occasions other than those dictated by reverence to the memory of a deceased relative or friend is to be regarded by one's neighbours as uncanny. he is without occupation. quent temple-goer out of season that is to say.RELIGION AND RITES by the spectacle within. unpractical. Now and then. when the spirits of the dead revisit the homes of the living. comfort at the bedof words with found waiting side of the dying. 165 .

In the spring of 1895 ^^® even moribund. It is not are published. and the work is lightened by its large reward. life in the faith still. and in the transport of whose huge timbers cables made of Hundreds of women's hair had been used. The advent of Christianity has galvanised Buddhism into new life. up to the beginning of the ninth century. it may be said that. interval of only four days. Shinto A special i^Shingi-kan) ceremonies .JAPAN But it is an himself busied with ministrations. propagandists are sent out periodicals Buddhism is not dead. temple on the construction of which been spent. thousands of believers had contributed money hundreds of and material for the building thousands of women and girls had shorn off their There is abundant tresses to weave these ropes. disciples of the Monto Sect assembled in Kyoto . established by each sect for the education of its priests . has resulted in making the sap circulate once There is a more through its withered limbs. The Western missionHis attack ary came to uproot the lotus plant. Shinto was the only officially recognised religion. though Buddhism enjoyed department so much of 166 favour. sort Schools have been of Buddhist revival. for during that brief space the major part of the year's income is collected. to open a eight million yen had . With regard to the relations between religion and the State in Japan.

Their hierarchs were appointed without reference to the secular authorities. the influence of Buddhism began to be felt. lyeyasu. the political status of the creed might have remained unaltered had not the advent of Christianity and the Government's crusade against it led the third Shogim. and practically autocratic within the domain of religious affairs. Its priesthood. the Shoguns rul- Yedo spared no pains to cement their relawith Buddhism by extending to it ample Yet. by all managed matters the and stood at appropriating the chief traditional features of its rival. however. Still the imported faith remained long without State recognition. which. not in open opposition. Uyeno. though growing in wealth and number. head of the public offices. a change took ing in tions Following the example of their great predecessor.RELIGION AND RITES connected with worship. and were not included in the roll of official ality grades. to conceive the necessity of establishing a certain measure of State Regulations were control over religious affairs. Under the Tokugawa Government place. then (early in the seventeenth century) issued 167 . and Nikko. gradually deprived the latter of individu- and therefore of power. From the establishment of the capital at Kyoto. enjoyed no official exemptions or privileges. monuments of that munificence grew up in the splendid mausolea at Shiba. but rather as an overshadowing and absorbing system. lyemitsu. even while striking patronage and support.

and twenty years' study was declared an essential preliminary to public preaching. .JAPAN should be promoted unless he had given evidence of erudition by passing an examithat no priest nation and unless he had led a life consistent Further. A novice had to be of approved ability and aptitude. to qualify for establishing a new or an indepen- dent temple. — questions. i68 . necesconsidered was borne on a temple register sary evidence of non-adherence to the alien creed. Buddhism further became at that epoch an openly recognised instrument in the To be State's campaign against Christianity. and though an abbot might pass over to a different sect. no man might remain in a monastery unless he spent his time in study and strictly observed the moral law a branch temple was required under all circumstances to obey the disputes instructions of its principal temple head of the among priests must be referred to the sect. . it was illegal for him to transfer his whole congregation without the sanction of his feudal chief or of the Yedo authoria veto sufficient in itself to prove how ties. a priest must have devoted at least thirty years to investigation of the doctrine he undertook to propagate. in order with the tenets he taught. and might thereafter be carried to Yedo on radical changes in the denomination of appeal a sect were forbidden. which also was forbidden to a priest if his conduct showed any lapse from strict morality. little importance the people attached to sectarian .

his obsect to a The which man of his visits to a servance of periodical rites. the State exercised little control. at the close of the eighteenth century. at a temple in Yamato. his habits as to keeping an image of Buddha in his house and praying morning and evening. In lieu of 169 a coffin the priests . however. enforce their own canons. the amount of his contributions for religious purposes. were carried to such fanatical excess that several people lost their reason and even their lives. and administer their own affairs. where the priests claimed procure for the faithful a painless They made good their admission to Nirvana. about the same time. supposed to be rewarded by a personal manifestation of the Buddha. Only when propa- gandism was associated with grossly mischievous practices did the law interfere. Thus. promise by placing the victim in a coffin and power to killing him with spear-thrusts delivered secretly from beneath during a loud clamour of chaunting and prayer.RELIGION AND RITES belonged. the regularity place of worship. a branch of the Spirit Sect fell under the displeasure of the authorities for constructing an edifice where long fasting and prayers. the priesthood retaining competence to elect their own prelates. Otherwise. concerning all these things the priests were expected to furnish before it — information. This tragedy ultimately assumed a more refined form. Another strange abuse occurred. and they thus acquired a distinctly official status in the eyes of the nation.

corrupted by prosperity. merit. but the general moral level of the Buddhist clergy fell to an exceedingly chancel.JAPAN a bronze vessel shaped like a lotusand the worshipper having been laid within the petals of this emblem of paradise. and wide erudition still upheld the best traditions of the creed. despite the rules spoken of above. self-indulgence violating the during austere the Tokugawa epoch. In almost every household an image of Buddha stood enshrined. If a priest won renown by zeal and devotion. sank into a state of ignorance and prepared flower. perverting his fame into an instrument of gain. and at morn 170 . Such extreme abuses were rare but in general. a crowd of sordid followers attached themselves to him. priests Many low It point. that these priestly abuses brought popular discredit on the faith. however. . his body was pierced by concealed blades. the priests. does not appear. motion High office of noble character. Abbots bought the privilege of calling their temple the repository of some nobleman's mortuary tablet in order that they might blazon his crest on the furniture and curtains of the lost all practical value. tenets of their faith and The tests of breaking their vows of celibacy. The middle and lower classes remained unshaken in their belief. profound piety. erudition prescribed by law as a preface to prowas purchased with money rather than earned by Prayers and ceremonials were sold.

however. and there were pilgrimages to the thirty-three shrines of Kwannon. its festivals. its duties to the dead. the eighty-eight of Daishi. or the twenty-one temples of Nichiren. though the former never exercised the same emotional influence as the latter. its pilgrimages.RELIGION AND RITES and eve prayers and the fumes of incense ascended thence to heaven. that its Shinto^ the ancient faith of the land. retained side place side by with Buddhism. or to the twelve Yakushi. the Buddhist prop- 171 . nor ever furnished an equally potent code of practical ethics. and its registers. its sermons. it and if each household had a Buddhist had also a Sh'mfo altar. to the six Jizo at all times. while. or the thirty Benzaiten. to the twenty-four sanctuaries of the Spirit Sect. Buddhism with its fetes. the twenty-five of the Pure Land. there stood also a shrine for supplications to the guardian deity {lJjiga?}jt)^ image. to those of the Seven Deities in spring and of the six Amidas in autumn. its ceremonials. in addition to these acts of daily worship. occupied as large a place in the daily life of the Japanese middle and lower orders as Christianity has ever occupied in the life of any Western nation. From the Nara as already stated. there were unfailing visits to temples to tell rosaries and place flowers in memory of the dead. It must be repeated. epoch when. In short. If in every district a temple stood for the worship of Buddha. or the thousand sacred places of the central provinces.

the two creeds became a duaHty {riyobu Shinto). culminating in the eighteenth century with Mabuchi. The effect of this importation of Chinese theories into the ancient faith of Japan was to call into existence a school of thinkers. This last revival. and Yamasaki Ansai — — promoted Kanetomo. the philosophy of the male and female principles. In the seventeenth century three scholars Hagiwara Ideguchi Yenka. and the Japanese nation presented the unique spectacle of a people paying homage to two systems of religion simultaneously. Ritualism was the distinguishing feature of this form oi Shinto. who endeavoured to purge Shinto from Buddhist and Confucian elements alike and to reestablish its connection with the beginnings of Japanese history. Yoshida Shingu (i 489-1 492) then sought to J^ popularise a cult which he called " pure Shinto but which was in reality indebted for many of its doctrines and ceremonies to the Tendai Sect of Buddhism. differed from that of 172 . fully analysed. is Their doctrine. and Hirata. Not until the fifteenth century was any serious attempt made to separate them again.JAPAN agandists grafted the indigenous faith upon the imported by recognising the Shinto deities to be incarnations of Buddha. when carefound to have been an attempt to refer the origin of Japanese theology to the philosophy of China. being based on the century's oldest annals and associated with its most revered traditions. Motoori. another renaissance.

and the Shinto of Yoshida. existed tion local deity. or household deity. and be condomestic shrine were addressed whichever deity presided over the worshipper's sphere of occupation or interest. since it furnished for every disciple the mechanical refuge of a thousand-times-iterated prayer. note 53. and with fortune-telling . a distincand its polytheism. ' See Appendix. with divination. From that point of view the Shinto of Yamasaki Ansai was preferable for the sake of its association with the Book of Changes. note 52. between the TJhusima-?io-Kami. and even their names forgotten.^ but men did not trouble themselves about such things so long as some tutelary power could 1 See Appendix. and from that of Yamasaki in that it totally eschewed the doctrine of the Tang and the Ting.RELIGION AND RITES Yoshida in that it dispensed with rituals and ceremonials. emotionless aspect. illiterate it It appealed essentially to the erudite section of the nation. daily devotions at the to But this difference ultimately ceased to sidered. whereas to the eyes of the presented a cold. or and the JJji-gami. supplying neither a formula of worship nor a doctrine that could be connected with the interests of daily life. In some cases the attributes of the ancient deities had become confused. and for the pilgrim a supplication to which he could attune his steps as mountain. . Shinto holds its place with the masses for the sake of its superstiOriginally.^ tions he ascended and descended a sacred Speaking broadly.

which means twenty-one days of unceasing prayer within a shrine the kankorty or pouring ice-cold water over the naked body in midwinter the hadashi-mairi. The Church was thus removed beyond the pale of the ordinary tribunals. . and brought under the pur- and who were 174 . for example. and when death or sickness visits a house. stands without worship. . or barefooted worship the hiyakudo-mairi. in turn. tion in modern times. whose duty was to administer the secular laws in all matters relating to religion. chosen from among the most influential nobles in the Empire.JAPAN be invoked on every occasion and for every purpose. But in general the pilgrimage is the greatest effort demanded of a Shinto or Buddhist believer. Perhaps the most intelligible way of differentiating the practical aspects of the two creeds is to say that the Shinto deities are invoked in connection with all the joys and successes of life. or hundred acts of devotion. the Shinto altar. the o-komori. the Buddha is worshipped in connection with its No light is kindled sorrows and bereavements^ nor any incense burned before the Hotoke at New Year's time or on other festive occasion. and so on. The Tokugawa Government added to the body politic a new class of officials called 'Jisha-bugyo. Neither religion can lay claim to State protec- — . It will readily be conceived that special rites have to be performed when petitions of great import are offered to heaven.

and was practically a resuscitation of the Shingi-kan already mentioned. were abolished. those of Buddhism ceased to be recognised by ofiicialdom the Buddhist temples were stripped of the greater part of their large estates. RELIGION AND RITES view of the highest powers in the State. whose authority had extended to Shinto and Buddhism alike. but still 175 . and since they necessarily lost at the same time the munificent patronage that had been extended to them by the feudal nobles. that the Meiji Government naturally identified itself with a creed of such political utility. until. The Jisha-biigyo. For Shinto to the rank of whereas the affairs of Shinto received direct superintendence from the new ofiice. a season of decadence and impovBut Buddhism had erishment overtook them. and in their stead was established the Shiiigi-sho. terially to reestablish the doctrine divinity. It is not to be doubted that the aim of the more radical reformers of the time was the ultimate suppression of Buddhism and the elevation of a State church. Steadily it reasserted its influence. But the scholastic movement in the eighteenth century for the revival of pure Sfmito assisted so ma- of the Throne's and thus to prepare the way for the Restoration in 1867. an office ranking lower than its predecessor. an ofiice which ranked above all the State departments. the Shingi-sho was replaced by the Kyobu-sho. in 1872. twined its roots too strongly round the hearts of the people to be overthrown by an ofiicial storm..

Japanese subjects shall enjoy freedom of religious belief. and an Imperial speech. every one of which contained words that left no doubt of the sovereign's rigid adherence to the Shinto. an Imperial oath in the Sanctuary of the Palace. " within limits not prejudicial to peace and order. and not antagonistic to their duties as subjects. the twenty. — * See Appendix. 176 . until (in 1884) the ranks and titles of the priests were abolished the various sects were declared perfectly free to choose their own superintendents and manage their own affairs. title ment's purpose of identifying the interests of Church and State gradually ceased to have practical force. From this office the priests of the two reHgions received equal recognition. and the same official Thenceforth the Govern(kyodo-shokii).JAPAN very high in the administrative organisation. stitution by which freedom of conscience was unequivocally granted to the people. and in the administrative organisation there remained only an insignificant Bureau of Shrines and Temples (Shajt-kyoku) to deal with questions from which the secular authority could not pruThe last tie that bound dently dissociate itself. seventh article of which declares that. remains the unique creed of Appended to the Conthe Imperial House. a preamble. note 54.^ the Church to the State was severed by the promulgation of the Constitution in 1889. were three documents." however.

TviaauTS HiAi / .

*' within limits not prejudicial to peace and order.JAPAN very higli in the administrative organisation.: a preamble. were three documents. sects were declared perfectly superintendents and free to choose their their own manage own affairs. last tie^tkat bound Church to the State was severed by the ^ proA FAIR STUDENT. uatii the Governidentifying the interests of gradually ceased to have practitles Thenceforth of the priests (in 1884) the ranks and were abolished the various . mulgation of the Constitution in 1 889. From title this office the priests of the two reHgions received equal recognition. Appended to the Constitution by which freedom of conscience was unequivocally granted to the people. and not antagonistic to their duties as subjects.^ The . andran Imperial speech. the twentyseventh article of which declares that. ment's purp^ ^ Church and tical force. and in the administrative organisation there remained only an insignificant Bureau of Shrines and Temples [Shaji-kyoku) to deal with questions from which the secular authority could not prudently dissociate itself. 176 . an Imperial oath in the Sanctuary of the Palace. Japanese subjects shall enjoy freedom of religious the belief" however. remains the unique creed of House. every one of which contained words that left no doubt of the sovereign's rigid adherence to the Shinto y the Imperial — ^ See Appendix) note 54. and the same official [kyodo-s/ioku).



." '* etc. by virtue of the glories of our ancestors. .RELIGION AND RITES patriarchal faith of Japan." and in the Imperial speech he says: "The Imperial founder of our house and our other Imperial ancestors. ascended to the throne of a lineal succession unbroken for ages eternal. and hoping to maintain the prosperity of the State in concert with our people and with their support. in consonance with a great policy coextensive with the heavens and with the earth. . we owe to the glorious spirits of the Imperial founder of our house and of our other Imperial ancestors. . bequeathed by the Imperial founder of our house and by our other Imperial ancestors. VOL. — 12 lyy . we hereby promulgate. That we have been so fortunate in our reign as to accomplish this work. : . : In the preamble His Majesty said " Having. V. de- siring to opment to the promote the w^elfare. the successor to the prosperous throne of our predecessors. These laws (the Constitution) contain only an exposition of grand precepts for the conduct of the government. laid the foundation of our empire upon a . by the help and support of the forefathers of our subjects. we shall maintain and secure from decline the ancient form of government. do humbly and solemnly swear to the Imperial founder of our house and to our Imperial ancestors that. . and to give develmoral and intellectual faculties of our subjects who have been favoured with the benevolent care and affectionate vigilance of our ancestors. in the Imperial oath he said We.

Mikado. their love of country.JAPAN basis which is to last for ever. though not more robust faith of the Emperor of Japan.'* no ambiguity here. looking back to the immortals as his progenitors. whose shrine is at Ise. indeed. and persuaded that his dynasty and empire have their protection and the protection of the successive Mikados now enrolled in the ranks of the gods. as well as the celestial and terrestrial deities." can scarcely claim an unqualified title to criticise the more comprehensive. The Em- peror worships the Sun Goddess. is due to the glorious virtues of our sacred Imperial ancestors and to the loyalty and bravery of our subjects. That this bril- liant achievement embellishes the annals of our country. The of language. On the first day of the first month the Shiho-hai is There nor. and their public spirit. any feebleness (four-quarter adoration) is celebrated. who listen with the calm born of long custom while their monarchs proclaim themselves king or emperor " by the grace of God. the Occident. believes that the past twenty-six centuries of his house's rule and his realm's integrity are an earnest of unbroken conPeople in tinuity awaiting both in the future." and who join to the echoes of their triumphal paeans a prayer for the abiding contenance of the " Lord of Hosts. The various religious ceremonials observed at Court are all on the strict lines of orthodox Shinto. and makes offerings before the Imperial cen178 .

now more particularly connected with the tranquillity and prosperity of the reign. — the ceremony being called Kanname (divine tastOn the twenty-third of the eleventh ing). The birthday of the Emperor himself is also celebrated. . praying for the happiness of his people and the peace of his reign. are offered to the Sun Goddess.. are addressed to these supernatural guardians. (memorial of the origin) is held. the third and fourth in memory of all the Imperial ancestors. the difference being that the is — first fruits are now offered to all the deities. and sake brewed from it. the Imperial ancestors and the deities of heaven and earth are again worshipped. and four solemn mourning services are performed. and petitions. the Niiname (new tasting) month. On the third of the same month. in a ceremonial called the Gens his ai (festival of the the significance being that the new beginning) year's work of administration commences with On the eleventh of the second month worship. a similar rite performed. and Shiuki-korei-sai (worship of the Imperial spirits at 179 . On the seventeenth of the tenth month. These tv^o last are called Shiinki-korei-sai (worship spirits at of the Imperial the vernal equinox). one on the anniversary (thirtieth January) of the death of the late Emperor (Komei) the second on that (third April) of the death of the first Emperor (Jimmu) . Jimmu. the first rice of the year. RELIGION AND RITES otaphs. Kigen-setsu the to commemorate the accession of the first mortal Emperor.

one dedicated to ancestors since all the Imperial Jimmu. or a place of reverence. respectively. — and within the folding doors of the shrines hang curtains woven out of bamboo threads. and so — . smaller shrines.JAPAN the autumnal equinox). The doors of the shrines are then opened. note 55. — * See Appendix. the Kashiko-dokoro. and offerings of various kinds vegetables. and provision of incense [shinko) is made after which the officials of the Bureau of Rites and those of the Imperial Household file in and seat themselves on either side of the hall. 180 . also of At one end stands a large snow-pure wood. Within the Palace there is a large hall. model of the sacred mirror. The floor is Before each covered with rice-straw mats having borders of white damask. the Sun Goddess. shrine stands a censer. No material differences distinguish the routine of these ceremonials to know one is to know all. At the appointed hour generally the grey of morning sakaki^ boughs are laid beside the shrines. and take place on the spring and autumn equinoctial days. knotless timbers. cloth. It encloses a void of decoration. the other to the remain- ing deities of the Shinto pantheon. fish. with delicately chased mountains of silver gilt. constructed of milk-white. carefully joined and smooth as mirrors but absolutely de: — — shrine. Ancestral worship thus constitutes a prominent feature of all the religious rites in the Palace. representing the great Flanking it are two ancestress.

and when they are seated. and the chief priests of the Monto i8i . and proceeding slowly to the shrines. Finally. So long as the Emperor is present in the hall. the Emperor himself appears. and. as before. and by the various officials. solemn music the while. all the officials remain standing. but without any prayer. but the official They now include worshippers are different. His Majestv retires. ignites sticks of incense and places one upright in each censer. Sh'nito and Buddhist superintendents. nobles of all orders. and then once more the officials of the Household Department resume their seats. terval of a few minutes succeeds. his departure.RELIGION AND RITES forth — are carried in and ranged before them. thereafter repeating a ritual (iioto). performed Thereafter the princes of the blood in Japanese style being and all officials of the two highest ranks {shinnin and chokunin)^ as well as the peers of the " musk chamber " {Jakd-no-?na) and the "golden-pheasant chamber " (Kinkei-no-ma)^ enter. each in due order of rank. bows his head. and all retire. is performed by a representative of the Prince Imperial. then on worship of the same kind. takes a branch of sakaki with pendent go-hei^ and having waved it in token of the purification of sins. the shrines are closed to accompaniAn inment of music. preparatory to worship by the Empress Dowager and the Empress. by the princes of the blood. the offerings are removed. The routine and rites are exactly as before. officials of the two inferior grades (^sonin and /m?i?ii?i).

JAPAN Sect. Christianity. however. as already shown. In no country does a conventional excuse receive more generous recognition than in Japan. the Indian Birushanabutsu) had been incarnated as Amaterasu in Japan. But if officials that profess Christianity and attend Christian places of worship made a habit of standing aloof. Yet among the body of officials who meet in the Kashikodokoro there must be many Christians. owing to the numbers that it and the unvaried solemnity of their procedure. there cannot be any doubt . on whatever plea. 182 . It would be possible for these men to absent themselves on the ground of sickness. The ceremony. the apostles of Buddhism in Japan combined their creed with the indigenous faith by declaring. in the eighth century. but is of the simplest character. It is significant that the chief representatives take part in of Buddhism join in these acts of Shinto worship but since. has made no such adaptation. Buddhist hierarchs of modern times merely obey the tenets of their religion when they bow before the Shinto shrine in the Hall of Reverence. and as Confucius in China. and is understood to be serviceable as an explanation no less than as a reason. as Saka-muni in India. from the services conducted by the Emperor in honour of the Sun Goddess and the spirits of the Imperial ancestors. The plea of " indis" position is accepted without scrutiny. that the Buddha of Light [Dainichi Nyorai. occupies a long time.

that worship i8' >3 . the unbroken — It is a passionate patriotism. also. but fanned into strong flame by the wind of intolerance. divine origin of the of his descent from the immortals. the guardianship that his deified ancestors extended to the realm and its people. there has been no evident tendency Some compromise seems towards dissociation. It must be added. strand in this instance. overlaid from time to time in the past by ashes now of disloyal ambition or domestic dissension. how much homage The line Emperor. a national cult — — At peaceful existence. The impalpable essence of Japanese patriotism takes the place of the soft thus acting. need not be inquired. the impression that such differentiation must ultimately produce upon the mind of the In point of fact Christians do not stand aloof.RELIGION AND RITES about nation. these are essential bases of Japanese patriotism. is at least problematical. to have been effected between conscience and convention. a fierce patriotism. " Men can be strangled with a strand of soft silk. How much violence they do to their own religious convictions in they pay to the god of expediency. They bow their heads and burn incense before the shrines in company with the disciples of Shaka and of Shinto." says a Japanese proverb. any rate. Western masterfulness and Whether any Japanese subject could openly dissociate himfor self from the tenets of this national cult patriotism in modern Japan is nothing less than and could yet lead a pleasant.

is not the only ordeal Any official. before leaving Japan. as do the chief representatives of Buddhism. the main body of the Christians in Japan accept the subtle distinction privately drawn by some of their fellow-believers. must. Possibly. genuflections performed by the body have no connection with religion. and singular also that Christians do not apparently recognise how plainly they are differentiated from the rest of the nation by the absence of any representative on ceremonial occasions in the Hall of Reverence. merely of a farewell declaration of allegiance. has its senior pastor or father of Japanese nationality. that so long as there is no worship in spirit. Each sect. but as yet no Japanese subject has attained such dignity. an Archbishop and several Bishops and Archdeacons. There hierarchs are Roman CathoHc and Protestant European and American origin. There is no . however. That is a duty Possibly it is regarded in the light no option. humble or prescribed by custom.JAPAN as a unit sions alluded of a large company on the State occato above. native Christian prelate in Japan. the 184 . whichever definition there is he pleases to adopt. exalted. proceed to the Hall of Reverence and perform an act of homage or worship. and until these — of — attend the ceremonials in the Hall of Reverence. who is ordered to proceed abroad on public business. But it is singular that this question has always been excluded from the sphere of public discussion. also.

Amaterasu is worshipped as the supreme being her descendants. the deities that made rain fall in time all these were severally and colof drought. that the deities that gave abundant crops. State has made a step . basis in the eyes of patriotic Japanese. that the description given here applies only to the ceremonial system organised subPrior to sequently to the Restoration in 1867. — towards monotheism. the deities that breathed the spirit of vigour into things animate and inanimate. The days set apart for these ceremonials within the Palace are not marked by any act of general devotion without. They are merely observed as national holidays. the deities that laid to rest wandering souls of the dead. the deities that quelled evil demons. that time. warded off plague and pestilence. the deities supposed to preside over worldly affairs were worshipped at fifteen set But these rites have been seasons annually. are connected with the very of nationalism. nor is there any other It should be evidence of a special occasion. Every householder hangs the national flag before his gate. Formerly the deities reduced and simplified. 185 . the ancestors of the Emperor. but visits are not paid to temples or shrines. too. the deities that guarded against conflagrations. But now the ^hinfo of the lectively placated. since the Emperor worships in lieu of his people.RELIGION AND RITES to be Christian element of the population will continue marked as standing aloof from rites which. noted.

The shrine of the Sun Goddess. Sometimes the object of worship at a State shrine of most imposing character is venerated elsewhere under circumstances that suggest an altogether inferior being. for the most part. it has never been counted by official statisticians. stands at the head of all. disfirst Between a State shrine last. Shrines are divided into four State. It is simply a question of local repute. the Daijin-gu of Ise. provincial. But the shrines that enjoy any considerable popularity are comparatively few.^ The incomes enjoyed by these shrines are not relative ^ See Appendix. 186 . or other independent causes. special tutelary role performing a the other members of the official grades. but scarcely a hamlet in the realm is without a Daijin-gu of its own under the alias of Myo-jin. just as in the Occident the same God is prayed to in city cathedrals and village churches. not more than ten in all. but there need not be any corresponding difference in the importance of the deities worshipped there. note 57. financial capabilities. a great difference in standing. of course. State shrines are dedicated. but at a few the objects of worship sovereigns or subjects that attained special tinction. trict. — are and divisional or dis- There are subdivisions. ^ See Appendix. prefectural.JAPAN receive homage as associated deities ^ . to the divine ancestors. of the there grade and a district shrine of the is. As for the number of the deities. note 56. pantheon are collectively reverenced.

The rest confer prosperity. avert sickness. It will be asked how one priest manages to which is the averofficiate at thirteen shrines. abundance of crops the and efficacy for prayer Taisha presides over wedlock the Kompira shares with the Suiten-gu the privilege of guarding those that " go down to the deep. but 14. against burglary. cure talent. are the sources of revenue.766 priests suffice to perform the rites of the creed. anonymity of the god. sterility. The answer the is that he does not officiate. and so on. The special functions assigned by the people to the deities worshipped at these shrines are various. people credit him with power to protect against all perils of sea and flood." . and contributes a handsome sum But despite the to his yearly maintenance. It as folks in West understand the term. supplemented by the offerings of the pious and the sale of amulets. . 187 . ' . by a strange juxtaposition of "spheres of influence." against the The deity of Inari secures pains of parturition. bestow literary like prowess. 193. Some can boast of forty thousand yen annually some of only a few hundreds.476 Shinto shrines — age. of his residence. endow with warare There in no less than Japan. and.RELIGION AND RITES formidable. and the shrine enjoys the peculiar distinction of being the private property It stands within the precincts of a nobleman. Small grants from the State. No one knows what spirit of heaven or earth is venerated at the Suiteti-gu in Tokyo.

Supplemented by a portion of the income accruvaries ing to the shrine. mutters a brief prayer. cannot fare temples of these many that seen better in the matter of ministrations than do the said generally may be Shinto shrines. and goes his way.JAPAN of the Shinto shrines that not more than one service is performed there The building stands frequently uninannually. held by the greatest of the latter corresponds only with that of a local governor or a vice-minister not climb to a there is no Archbishop of Canterlofty elevation Rome. deposits two or three cash in the almsThe Buddhists have chest. when there is rector. from 100 yen to 33 yen monthly. As Shinto shrines are officially graded. worshipper that hangs in front. indeed — * See Appendix. Nor would the emoluPope of no bury. so are But the rank the priests ^ connected with them. Now and then a habited.000 priests. one. The hierarchy does . 188 . sways it against the gong across which it is suspended. and having thus summoned the presiding spirit. apparently untended. he has to pass an and the continexamination. ments of office excite the envy of an English The official allowance. unless. note 58. It will be 108. of State. hempen rope thick the grasps comes. cent chance of such opulence. the portliest stipend of a Shinto priest probably amounts to twenty pounds sterling In order to qualify for the magnifiper month.000 temples and 54.

butions of their parishioners and on the income derived from lands that were of great extent and large wealth-yielding capacity until the Government of the Restoration reduced their area to a mere fraction of its original dimensions. — 189 .RELIGION AND RITES gency is not rare his father and forefathers have been priests for ten generations. nor are They live on the contritheir temples graded. Buddhist priests have no official rank.

Chapter VI SUPERSTITIONS will have been gathered. Not many painful superstitions attach to the Birds. in the efficacy of divination. the upper and the educated classes giving themselves little concern about theories and traditions which play no small part in the lives of the low-born and the That differentiation should be always ignorant. that the Japanese are They believe in ghosts. or fishes lower orders of creation. and treat them A cognate form of with profound reverence. the cat-fish. especially when they have an awe-inspiring aspect. Of and in the potency of spells and amulets. the monkey. age in secluded places great lived to a have that are regarded as tutelary spirits. course the degree of such credulity varies greatly in the different strata of society. and the snake. these creatures ?iusM (master). the turtle. the eagle. from what has IT been already written. in the possession of supernatural powers by animals. as is the case with the bear. remembered in reading what follows. in superstitious. animals. superstition is to revere doves as messengers 190 . demons. Rustics call the eel.

it as is generally believed." Over its head is built the shrine of Daimyo-jin at Kashima in the province of Hitachi. the fact would find expression in their superstitions. Whenever the god reduces the pressure or alters the position of his feet. But Japan was never troubled by the fiercer beasts of prey. It is in the form of a rude pillar. centipedes as those of Bishamon (the god of fortune).SUPERSTITIONS of Hachiman (the god of war). It is probable that had wild animals been at called any time a source of terror to the Japanese. the cat-fish writhes and the earth quakes. would seem inevitable that the tiger should But have made his home in Japanese forests. and that deity is supposed to have his feet planted on the monster's snout. That source of gravest alarm to the Japanese is believed to be due to a giant cat-fish [namazu) which lies buried under the "land of the gods. If her island chain once formed a part of the Asiatic continent. ever lion or there is no evidence that either tiger roamed the wilds of Japan. and ants as those of the Sun Goddess. A notable exception to this generally kindly view is connected with the origin of the earthquake. Beside the shrine stands a stone "the pivot rock" (kaname-ishi). Snakes abound. and the people believe that it penetrates to an enormous depth and reaches to the head of the cat-fish. rats as those of Daikoku (the deity of wealth). lions and tigers. nor yet by venomous reptiles. but they the mamushi with one solitary exception — — 191 .

JAPAN are absolutely harmless. children. He is of puppy-hood he presents some attractive features of fluffiness and rotundity. however. they. and artists have often But a few recognised his picturesque qualities. certainly Wolves. and products of 192 . though . were numerous and destructive in ancient times. packs of dogs. known spaces have been to pull down a child in one of the waste that mark the sites of former feudal mansions. though they may now be said to survive and bears occain the realm of tradition only sionally showed formidable propensities. therefore. and useless cur. Many Japanese believe that human beings were among the offersacrifices. are to-day hunter's quarry. vegetables. ** too. starving outcasts. he is never a pet. ings originally made to the tutelary deities. and he Even kindness by eating them. during recent requites their years. merely as the the At present the wild dog regarded mountain dog " (jama-inu) — — is the only beast not a wolf. Nevertheless the deity of animals is regarded as an inhuman monster whom in ancient time it was considered necessary to placate by means of human Tradition has become much confused about this custom. that inspires terror. In the stage Japanese dog is a valueless brute. in conjunction with fish. unsightly. within the precincts of the capital. but merely The a dog that has never been domesticated. months of life suffice to convert him into an ill- Except with shapen.


** T hunter's qu. He is not a wolf. and products of 192 . »• Vt " {yama-inu) and bears occaidable propensities. anc. but merely a ^n^r Jap i. into an illmonths of life suffice to convert him shapen. have been known to pull down a child in one of the waste spaces that mark the sites of former feudal mansions. of \'^^y\>y -hood he presents some attractive features of fiuffiness and rotundity. and he Even requites their kindness by eating them. though regarded merely as the the present the wild dog only . within the precincts of the capital. however. Tradition has become much confused about this believe that ings originally human made custom. in vegetables.og The has never been domesticated. — — is the only beast that inspires terror. In the stage is a valueless brute. and useless cur. starving outcasts. Nevertheless the deity of animals is regarded as an inhuman monster whom in ancient time it was considered necessary to placate by means of human sacrifices.iy harmless. mountain dog f^. packs of dogs. unsightly. were tructive numerous times. and artists have often But a few recognised his picturesque qualities. beings were to Many among Japanese the offer- conjunction with fish. though thev in the realm of sioi in ancient now be i said to survive m showed too. th^^fe*r(»F K^W^flH'er a pet. the tutelary deities. during recent years. Wolves. Except with children. thev.



houses may to-day be seen with a bent bow and an adjusted arrow standing where a chimney would protrude its head from a Westindustry. From the earliest ages. a newly erected roof.SUPERSTITIONS But the best authorities agree that were made to the god of wild such The victim was always a girl.— 13 . The bow-and-arrow 193 sign plainly indicates that rustic ignorance was ex- v. exercise of supernatural power. in prehistoric times. but even in the great cities. sacrifices ern roof. the must be sacrificed. the bow and arrow assumed that position by an householder rising in the morning would find that his roof had been thus distinguished during the night. unfortunate girls knavery practical tradition is a mixed record of more profitable : and gross superstition. Not in remote country districts only. the archer's weapons have been regarded with the utmost reverence in Japan. and in that sense were fixed upon the ridge-pole of The habit survives still. a manner of disposing of these The they were sold as slaves. It is said that. supposition being that her flesh served as a repast But the priests by and by found for the deity. VOL. Having been originally instrumental in bringing the barbarous autochthons under the celestial invaders' sway. A and the event was accepted as a divine intimation that the eldest unmarried daughter of the family She was buried alive. the bow and the arrow subsequently became symbols of security against all perils. and beasts only. the manner of selecting her was singular.

whole tradition is that the monster at whose ploited by dishonest priests. have existed or it must fancy the superstitious There is could not have been played upon. little hope. apparently. The prevalent idea about this custom is that. But facts and fancies 194 . of the barbarous rite would therefore rest with Buddhism. own Another form of human sacrifice believed to have been common in early ages and said to have been witnessed by men of the present generation. and that human beasts subsacrifices sequently turned the superstition to their villanous uses. a human being was buried alive near the foundations to secure stability. of ascertaining the details of a custom which probably ceased to be practised before the first records of popular life were What adds to the perplexity of the compiled. Thus the tradition becomes altogether Nothvague and untrustworthy as to its details. such as the building of a bridge or the erection of a castle. ing can be accepted as certain except the fact that ings of a human human were made to propitiate the deity of wild beasts. is spoken of by some writers as an animal The responsibility in the service of Shakamuni. But the sanctity of life has always been a fundamental tenet of the Buddhist religion. shrine these sacrifices (hitomi-goku. literally. offer- body) are said to have been made. or burying alive. was called iki-iizume. at the inception of some great work.JAPAN On the other hand.

and may serve in some degree to explain the really wonderful achievements that stand to the credit of human effiDrt Two in medieval. Japan. and looking down from Noge hill in the suburbs of Yokohama. a fortification constructed on the eve of attack. was this. are — : course. generally resorted to when extraordinary expedition had to be attained when an inundation had to be averted. the under corpses are said to be mouldering scarps of the futile forts hurriedly erected for the defence of Yedo (Toky5) in the interval between Commodore Perry's first and second comings. highly efficacious.SUPERSTITIONS What really happened here commingled. when every adult rustic had to contribute a certain number of days' work annually to the service of the State or of his liege lord. one may see the shrine of a servant girl who sacrificed herself to expedite the reclamation of a swamp behind 195 the foreign set- . or a work concluded in anticipation of It proved. and the corpse of a man thus done to death was treated as so much inanimate material thrown between the piles of an embankment or tossed into the foundations of a That species of fierce incitement was building. and even in modern. of the advent of some great man. it was usual for the official superintendent of these unwilling toilers to stand over them with a bare-bladed spear in hand. In the era of forced labour. Any display of laziness justified fatal recourse to the spear. a river dammed before the flowing of the tide.

Every night he fell into convulsions. the work of a is very strange monster. origin any legitimate connection with their superstition. had not in tlement.JAPAN Such incidents. with the head the legs of a . 196 of war on his of the cloud. cided that a warrior's weapon was needed. and neither medicine nor prayer gave him relief. the body of a serpent. and invited the renowned Yorimasa to undertake the the cloud floated to its place and the Emperor's paroxysm overtook him. That night. The Emperor Shirakawa (1153 A. that a rat possesses some demoniacal power which it exercises But nobody conmaliciously during the night. page of history. and the lower orders do still believe. They used to believe. in conclave. D. deMajesty's chamber. with a prayer to the god lips. as Yorimasa. however. II. It was observed that at the moment of his seizure a dark cloud emerged from a forest eastward of the Palace and settled over the roof of His The court.) was the victim of the visitation. task. I Since the EngKsh word " nightmare " indicates that the subjective character of that natural disturbance was not recognised when the AngloSaxon language came into existence. is devoted to the account of an imperial nightmare. shot an arrow into the heart There fell to the ground a monster of an ape. however. the student prepared to find a corresponding superstition among the Japanese. Half a cerns himself much about the question.

Roaming over a up a skull. towards facing and on his head. can assume human form and is also capable of entertiger. for even the name of the beautiful girl bestowed on Yorimasa was known it was " Sweet-flag " [Aya??ie). worships. puts it the north star. grassy plain. At first he performs his religious genuflections and obeisances slowly and circumspectly. dred acts of worship. notion was originally imported from China. faith in the supernatural attributes This of the fox is most widely entertained. the animal picks he must live in the vicinity of a graveyard. but by and by his motions become convulsively rapid and his leaps wondrously active. Yet however high he jumps towards the star. As 197 . Such a detail raised the record to the rank.SUPERSTITIONS and the strident cry of the fabulous bird nue. of authentic history in the eyes of people who believed the wind to be the breath of a mighty spirit and the stars to be the sources of rain-drops. Among all superstitions connected with animals in Japan. his After a hunskull-crown remains immovable. according to popular tradition. but if he desires to assume the shape of a beautiful maiden. Yorimasa received as reward an imperial sword and a Palace maiden. : ing into a man or woman. The fox. he becomes capable of transforming himself into a human being. and the Emperor's nightmare ceased. There could be no doubt in the minds of later generations about the accuracy of these facts.

but he refused. assist Summoned at midnight to a lady in her confinement. Not many years ago. which. Having received his fee and been regaled with macaroni. when he opened his purse. and I love you. became more and more hostile to the lady of the moors. the dog attacked her so fiercely that she lost heart. he found. an is sleep " Ono. But the next morning. Simulmoor and a vast evening on taneously with the birth of their son. derived from such a legend.JAPAN numerous " come and legends. on arrival at her house. though he may not entertain any very positive faith in such occurrences. a Tokyo journal published a recent experience of a physician in Tochigi prefecture." Ono called after her. At last. and fled. leaped over a fence. she stole back and slept in his arms. " but you are the mother of my son. he saw that trifling some 198 . preserves toward them a demeanour of respectful una girl he is the central — His very name — figure in ki-tsu-ne. She begged her husband to kill it. d. even of the present day. certainty. an ancient legend of the year 545 a. and that only medicines were needed. may be a fox. . as it grew up. The illiterate Japanese." So. every evening. inhabitant of Mino. spent the seasons longing for He met her one his ideal of female beauty. resumed her " You proper shape. Come back when you please you will always be welcome. that the event was over. one day. married her. Ono's dog was delivered of a pup. he returned home.

SUPERSTITIONS the coins handed to him at his patient's residence hastened to revisit the place. at a certain hour and in obedience to a religious incantation. animal will take its departure. and hundreds of folks that listen to them gravely. have the effect of confirming the superstition. had no difficulty in reaching the spot. The patient is informed that means of enticing the fox to return to the hills have been provided. In many cases these imaginary seizures are cured by the aid of a priest. The macaroni alone was real of that fact the physician was able to assure himself. tea plantation in the : The house had There are also weak-minded persons to whose imagination these legends appeal so vividly that they become subjective victims of fox-possession. He There was only a midst of which a young fox lay dying. exhibit the utmost aversion to dogs. and otherwise lose their human identity.. and in rural districts few Japanese are entirely without belief in the phenomenon of fox-possession ( kitsume-tsiiki) History contains records widely credited that 199 . were withered leaves. and. as they generally are. guided by the tracks of the cart which had come to fetch him the preceding night. and its provenance was explained by the discovery that macaroni prepared for a wedding feast in a neighbouring hamlet had been stolen on the same evening. attended by success. There are scores of such stories. disappeared. the Such remedies. They bark like a {o^. and that.

but it is regarded rather as a mischievous practical joker than as a malicious demon. that touched it In the year 1 248 the Emperor Fukakusa II.JAPAN On the supernatural powers of the fox. thanked the priest with tears and vanished. Another It is of the badger's has also been frequently de- picted by Japanese sculptors and painters. and struck the rock with his staff. and claws of a badger at most inopportune moments of a social reunion. and a beautiful girl. This half-transformed tea-urn bunbukuthe chagamay as it is called furnishes a favourite — — subject to carvers feat in wood or ivory. and any living thing man. Genno. stepping out. invoked the aid of Buddha. snout. or animal perished. the Nasu moor {Nasu-no-hara) in the province of Shimotsuke there used to stand a large rock attest known as sessho-sekiy or the stone of death. commissioned a priest of renowned piety. On moonlit nights the animal raises himself on his hind-legs and goes roystering about the country. whereupon the big stone split into fragments. It had been bewitched by a fox. knocking at the doors of timid folks. leading belated travellers 200 . To the badger somewhat similar powers are attributed. One of its most celebrated exploits as a supernatural trickster was in connection with a tea-urn which fell into the uncanny habit of developing the tail. beating a drum on his paunch. bird. — — to exorcise the evil spirit. called the hara-tsuzumi (paunch drum). Genno repaired to the moor.

and the horse itself. farm-horse was shorn off by invisible agency. .SUPERSTITIONS into wrong roads. and demanded payment name. the Presently the tail of the tricked by a badger. the farmer found the three pieces of silver that had been carried off by the In such roles the badger thrusts pseudo-servant. a nondescript demon which sometimes cuts tresses from women's hair as they walk in unfrequented places. led it back. and terrifying children and old women in beast's in sundry ways. locked it in. sented himself as the in his master's One day a rustic preservant of a man to whom owed money. and locked the badger out but again the horse absconded. escaping from the stable. Then. and the fishkettle was found to contain only boiling water of playground. farmer handed over After a time the creditor himself came and asked for his money. farmer knew that he had been of course. Awa recently became the A kitchen when meal-time the farmer arrived. and often inflicts bleeding wounds on people's legs and arms without any visible exercise The kama-itacht s performances of effort. are vaguely connected with a sudden solution of 201 . The three pieces of silver. himself upon the stage of human existence. The house of a farmer the province knife moved automatically from peg to block. and on searching its stall. The badger's sphere of influence is occasionally invaded by the kama-itachi (sickle-imp). took The farmer refuge in a neighbouring village.

and. despite by it. : there is a lake the dog days.JAPAN atmospheric continuity. he has no hesitation in attributing cal sickle-carrier. but malevolent monster. or other aerial disturbance. is hairy like a . It dwells in rivers and lakes. its favourite food. for the result is loss of reason and gradual wasting This river-urchin. and if a country bumpkin finds that he has unconsciously received a hurt. monkey . . indeed. has in its of piercing brilliancy speaks the language of skull a cup-like cavity the water. is credited with vampire propensities it attacks people in the water and sucks their blood. No one has attempted to describe the kama-itachiy but the kappa's appearance It has the body of a minutely depicted. puny proportions. but emerges human beings lives in . more deadly in its doings. In the Uma district of lyo province at nightfall . a whirlwind. snapping-turtle. is as bad as to be defeated. it \ to the demonia- (river-urchin) is another fabulous like the sickle-bearer. is The kappa ten-year-old possesses eyes child . comes off violently vicits unless. in common with the away. and its favourite haunts are catalogued with solemn accuracy. Wrestling is the pastime affected It invites men to try a bout. when its strength vanishes. 202 . ping-turtle is where country-folk often bathe in There the river-urchin or the snapsaid to claim two victims yearly. To defeat it. however. the water contained in torious its skull-cup be spilled. and steals melons and egg-fruit.

having fondled the head for a time. and surrounding it with tempting viands. The example set by this vengeful old woman is said to have been followed by others Their idea being to in a more logical fashion. convert the spirit of longing into a physical agency. superstition outlined by this legend generally takes the form of a belief that the blood The 203 . but the spirit of the dog became thenceforth an inmate of her house. An old woman. not as naturally malevolent. kill my enemy and I will worship you as a deity. they buried a dog. and made her suffer for her cruelty. difficult to ascertain. Having thus received a vivid object lesson in the pain of unsatisfied desire. leaving only the head exposed. buried her favourite dog in the ground so that its head alone emerged. but tradition represents him. Even the dog has a place in Japanese demonHow the faithful animal originally fell ology. cut it off with a bamboo saw. but merely as the agent of human passion.: SUPERSTITIONS emerging from the and gradually pine away with symptoms that do not bear description." Her wish was granted. it is lake. the dog's spirit was supplicated to save its former master or mistress from similar suffering. saying "If you have a soul. suffered it to starve to death. and then. conwith hatred sumed of a powerful enemy whom They lose their colour after her vengeance could not reach. under suspicion of supernatural wickedness.

his celebrated romance. before contracting a marriage. member of a dog-demon family casts eyes of longing on viands belonging to another person. Japan's greatest writer of fiction. supposed to have tainted many households. the influence of the inu-gami overtakes the latter and quickly reduces him to a It is also supposed that if a state of dementia. for example. The latter. figures prominently in some most aristocratic legends . the "Eight-dog Tale" [Hakken-den)y upon the Buddhist doctrine Frequently characterthat animals have souls. It will readily be conceived that if the dog finds a place in demonology. the cat is not exempted.JAPAN flows in the veins In the " island of the four provinces" [Shikoku) and in the eight provinces forming the "mountain shadow district " [San- of the dog-demon {inu-gai7ii) of certain famiHes. indeed. they immediately become putrid. and ignorant folks. are careful to employ an expert who examines the genealogical tables of in-do\. but when any one lineally related to the dog-demon covets the possessions of a neighbour. the is dog-demon the bride and bridegroom in order to ascertain whether any trace of the evil influence is appar- Bakin. a story familiar under the name of Nabeshima Sodo to 204 41 Ml . the sanguinary connection caused by a cat in the noble family of Nabeshima. istic of fox-possessed men is an outrageous insistence on being served with the best of everything ent. based at the shortest notice.

every reader of Japanese literature. Crimes which, under less romantic circumstances, would be ascribed to very vulgar passions, are laid to the
cat's charge.

Old age develops
a neko-mata,




time has rendered

propengaunt and

grisly, it


or cat-imp.

agency is detected in weird lights that dance above the floor, darting out of reach when pursued in the spinning of untouched wheels in the turning of beds during their inmates' sleep. Then, perhaps, the old cat is detected sitting on its hind-legs with its head wrapped in the towel of the person it intends to bewitch, and if it is killed at the right moment, it is found to have two tails and a body five feet long. Among people so profoundly convinced of the truth of animistic philosophy and at the same time so keenly appreciative of the beauties of nature, it was inevitable that the most graceful or brilliant objects in the world of foliage and flowers should be invested with spirit attributes. The spirit of a tree is called Kodama. The Tenoki {Ceitis sinensis), which grows to an immense size and shows strange gnarling of trunk and distortion of branch, is a frequent object of this superstition. In Itabashi, a suburb of Tokyo,
; ;

" love-severing Tenoki'' {Tenkiri Tenoki), which has the property of separating all lovers that come within its shadow. In the seventeenth century, when Princess Iso travelled from Kyoto to Yedo to be the Shoguns




bride, her cortege


a long detour to avoid

the vicinity of this tree, and the same precaution was observed in the cases of Princesses Raku and Kazu at subsequent dates. Another tree of the same kind at Yenoki-zaka in Tokyo cures toothache, and the leaves of an oak at


Sometimes a cordon of straw drive away ague. rope plaited in the style of the New-Year shimenawa is drawn about such sacred trees sometimes they are fenced off, and sometimes a shrine with a box for thank-offerings is placed under their boughs by persons not indisposed to derive profit


their fellow-beings' piety.


cedar and


camphor-tree are notable objects of such respect. Plants growing in an abnormal manner or presenting any peculiar features are also thought to possess miraculous power. Many pretty legends grew out of that conviction. The cherry bloom, type of glowing loveliness, and the willow, image of everything that is refined and gentle, often took the shape of winsome maidens and bestowed themselves upon some great warrior or noble exile. So, too, when Sugawara-no-Michizane, the most unfortunate of Japanese statesmen, became the victim of a rival's slanders and was banished to Dazaifu in Chikuzen, the rosy-petalled plum-tree on whose boughs he had hung verselets every spring from the days of his boyhood, flew through the clouds from Kyoto, and planted itself by his side in the place of his solitude. The Japanese love this legend of the flying plum (tobi-ume), and

love also to

of the peonies of Ono-no-Komachi

the celebrated poetess, whose life included the most luxurious and the most illustrious experiences, as well as the most miserable and the most abject, that ever fell to the lot of an Oriental lady. In the village where she was born a shrine stands dedicated to her memory, and near it grow ninety-nine peony-trees, planted by her own hand, just a thousand years ago, and now tended by her spirit. From time to time a few of the little trees were transplanted to some city garden
for the sake of their

magnificent blossoms, but

invariably they pined

away and would have


ished had they not been carried back to their old place beside the shrine, where the homage of all

sympathetic souls is paid to them still under the name of Komachi-Shakuyaku. Tombstones, too, are supposed to have healing power. A fragment of the Sankatsu sepulchre in Osaka, if powdered and drunk with water, cures consumption; and the tomb of a green-grocer's daughter, Oshichi, in Tokyo, if similarly treated, has the property of conferring an exceptional capacity for wine-bibbing. Buddhism, with its worlds of hungry devils and of infernal beings, and its realistic pictures of the torments suffered by the souls of men in the kingdom of the god of Hades (Yemma), is responsible for the Japanese people's conception ot

They reprean anthropomorphic demon [o?ii). sent him with horns, a vast, heavy-fanged mouth,

glaring eyes, a


nose, broadly expanding nos-

three-fingered hands and three-toed feet, long

silvery talons,

of tiger skin. malignity proper to his kind. He takes his pastime when on earth in the depths of forests and the caverns of remote mountains, lives there on

and wearing nothing but a girdle He has all the ferocity and all the

to be a



carries off beautiful



share his orgies.

In the ninth century he began prominent figure in Japanese imagination,


his doings since that era are recorded in a

library of startling records too

voluminous to be

opened here.
another genus of demon that deserves notice as being essentially an outcome of Japanese fancy. It is the tengu, generally imagined as a monster of huge stature and enormous strength, with the body of a man and the face and wings of a bird. The tengu is one of the most mysterious of Japanese monsters. The ideographs with which the name is written signify " heavenly dog." One tradition says that, in the year 638 A. D. the Emperor Jomei gave the name tengu to a meteor which flashed from east to west with a loud detonation. Another and more venerable account alleges that the tengu were emanations from the excessive ardour of the " Impetuous Male Deity " (Susa-no-o) that they were female




demons, with human bodies, beasts' heads, vast ears, noses so long that they could hang men on them and fly a thousand miles without feeling the

.mu:sAWi TA aoai>m viaaoov/;

glaring eyes, a


nose, broadly

expanding nos-

three-fingered hands and three-toed feet, long

talons, and wearing nothing but a girdle of tiger skin. He has all the ferocity and all the malignity proj ins kind. He takes his pastime when on earth in the depths of forests and the caverns of remote mountains, lives there on




.nd carries off beautiful



share his orgies.

In the ninth century he began to be a prominent figure in Japanese imagination, doings since that era are recorded in a ii^.. .ry ui startling records too voluminous to be

opened here.
another genus of demon that deserves notice as being essentially an outcome of Japanese fancy. It is the tengu, generally imagined as a monsteiiv©^Dfe«^f M?ir%T aWfl^i^ff&tmous strength, with the body of a man and the face and wings of a bird. The tengu is one of the most mysterious of Japanese monsters. The ideographs with which the name is written signify ^'heavenly dog." One tradition says that, in the year 638 A.D. the Emperor Jomei gave the name tengu to


a meteor which flashed from east to west with j loud detonation. Another and more venerable account alleges that the tengu were emanations from the excessive ardour of the ** Impetuous Male Deity " (Susa-no-o) that tbrr n-ere female

demons, with human bodies, L .^eads, vast ears, noses so long that they could hang men on them and fly a thousand miles without feeling the



gl "'i t .


between the sobs of a dying storm. was heard calling for help. companied ping in V. but the tengu is still supposed to frequent the recesses of high mountains. they 200 called out to know VOL. the 14 gale. and his girdle cut into three pieces. Kiuchi Heizayemon disappeared. Sometimes he spirits men away and restores them to their is homes in a called tengu-kakushi (hidden semi-demented condition. hoarse as the wind itself. Kiuchi's comrades searched for him everywhere. teeth that bit through swords and spears. Suzuki Shichiro saw a winged The figure standing on the roof of the temple. . They found only his wooden clogs cast far apart the scabbard of his sword broken into fragments the blade bent like the handle of a kettle. This by a tengu). and the faculty of becoming pregnant by inhaling miasma. tameless band. and observing that the winglike appendages were only a torn umbrella flap. others drew near. They defy the control of the celestial deities. A great scholar of the eighteenth century. and are altogether an unruly. has recorded an example furnished by his own era On : the evening of the 17th of March in the year 1740. Hirata Atsutane. the latter being deputed to superintend some repairs at the monastery of Hiei-zan. Passing through the rain and sleet. a voice. he had ac- A his master from Otsu. retainer of Ishikawa Seiyemon. At midnight. He is not a particularly malevolent being. .SUPERSTITIONS burden. The demon proper [oni) has his permanent abode in other worlds.

Heizayemon. found Heizayea monk. When he recovered consciousness he said " That evening I heard my name called. I asked the name of my benefactor. shouting Beside him stood a huge mon. beaten severely. but he answered only that he had lived on Mount Sometimes the Hiei for nine hundred years. and prayed to be taken down. dressed in black. broke the scabbard in pieces and bent the blade into the shape of a kettle-handle. and immediately I was lowered. but in a moment he seized it. who ordered me roughly I refused to climb to the roof of the vestibule. Then they tore off my girdle. apparently to the summit of a high mountain.' man with flaming red visage and dishevelled hair : * reaching to the ground. as when 2IO . But no yes. and with three blows of After that their staffs cut it into as many pieces. It seemed to me that I had been ten days flying through space when I began to pray to Buddha. and finally compelled to take my seat on a round tray. which ascended with me into the air and travelled at lightning speed to various regions. him than hands on he fainted they laid sooner had away and lay for three days in a swoon." tengu assists heroes to achieve their aims.JAPAN He answered whether the figure was Kiuchi. and drew my sword. At the same time I recognised the voice of a venerable priest who had previously interfered to prevent the monsters from beating me to death. but really to the roof of the temple. and going out. I was raised to the roof.

for the most part. she exhibited extraordinary skill of fence with halberd and sword alike. Dr. but the youth arriving. fessor declared that a girl who had lost the use of her left hand sprang from her bed one night crying that the tengu was coming. using her one sound hand.?^«-possession. out of the vista of adult observation. to ShUgun occasion of a projected visit of the Nikko. they directed that the following notice 211 . Inouye Enryo. affirmed by the fencing-master The learned proof the Tokyo Police School. as she had predicted. This possession by a tengu is called tengu-gakart. she had no recollection of what had happened. and that a youth with a halberd and a fencing-sword would The following morning arrive the next day. and with closed eyes. the fit overtook her again. tengu has faded.SUPERSTITIONS Yoshitsune received fencing-lessons from a teiigu near the monastery where his boyhood was passed and sometimes the strange creature enters into frail girls and endows them with miraculous martial prowess. and in children's tales now figures but at a date the Ansei era (i 854-1 860) the and old women's not more remote than officials of the faith Yedo Government showed that their in On the such supernatural beings was practical. The chiefly stories. an eminent Japanese philosopher of the present era. recently delivered a lecture on demonology. in connection with which he referred to a case of /^. .

until the Shogun's visit is concluded. another notice-board the local officials addressed the supernatural beings as follows : On — To THE Great and Small TENGU and officers to exhibit Demons. we obey as in duty bound. Mount Akibu of Totomi province. Nikko gives detailed directions to the goblins and imps as to the places of their retreat. Having received orders from the Shogun's chief the accompanying tablet in connection with the coming of His Highness to Nikko. intends to visit the Nikko Mausolea next April. Therefore ye Tengu and Demons had better disperse to Mounts Kurama and Atago of Kyoto. (Signed) Mizuno. and a youth that derided Shaka was permanently fixed 212 . now therefore ye Tengu and other Demons inhabiting these mountains must re- move elsewhere Dated July. as when a man that stole nails from a Buddhist idol lost the use of four fingers.JAPAN should be exhibited in the neighbourhood of the mausolea : — To THE TENGU AND OTHER Whereas our Sh'ogun DeMONS. i860. It need scarcely be said that the deities are credited with ability to inflict punishment before death. and Mount Hiko of Buzen province. It will be observed that appropriate routine is followed in these notices. The order from the Shoguns chief minister is couched in general terms the order from the local officials at . Lord of Dewa.

so that when pox becomes epidemic special prayers are uttered and charms employed. and in the middle of the nineteenth century the inhabitants of Owari and Mino were thrown into a state of ecstasy by a shower of sacred paper which fell from heaven to indicate the presence of the deities. found comfort in thinking that the miseries they had sometimes to suffer unresistingly at the hands 213 . Of course miraculous events have frequently occurred. They small- believe also in plague gods. The lower orders ruined fortunes. At the beginning of the eighteenth century the spirit of the renowned prelate Kobo Daishi fashioned the grooves on a mill-stone in one night by way of token that the people of the should enjoy his protection during the year. Believing that the spirits of the dead watch district over and protect their living kindred. and suicide. and escorted out of the district with beating of drums and reciting of exorcisms.SUPERSTITIONS in the the evil window through which he had looked at image. and when influenza prevails the deity of the evil blast is manufactured in straw effigy. perpetrators aptheir upon cruelty have brought paritions and mental torments ending in madness. Like many other peoples the ignoomens of stars as rant classes in Japan regard comets as and falling precursors of death. the Japanese believe also that the ghosts of the departed sometimes vex and torture those that used them Deeds of blood and ill on this side of the grave.

are so city common that in every two or three may be seen standing untenEducated men might have no hesitation in anted. When the last light has disappeared. their faith in the accuracy of i midnight ghosts love to walk abroad. reality from which it may be inferred that the is not questioned When a girl warns her faithless by the masses. and when folks allege that they have seen the soul of the newly dead float away over eaves and roof. their eyesight is honest. lover that her spirit will haunt him [tottsuku)^ she does not doubt her ability to make the threat of ghostly appearances good. houses. Death is not an essential preliminary to the exghosts. however. and timid mortals are correspondingly careful to remain within Yet there is never much hesitation to doors.JAPAN of the great might be thus requited after the death of the sufferer. the restless ghost with a mission of revenge never Haunted seriously disturbed the public mind. The convives sit within a circle of a hundred lamps and recount a hundred legends (}nyaku-7nonogatart)y one lamp being extinguished for each legend. but they would certainly find difficulty in getting servants to live there. renting or purchasing such places. the party are in a mental condition suitable to welcome the demons. or other supernatural beings that inevitably come upon the scene. on the whole. a transparent globe {Jiito-damd) of impalpable essence. 214 . When rain falls at take part in a spirit-summoning rhmion. but.

The passion of hatred or revenge may become so intense as to Hberate the soul from its bodily tenement. but it does 215 . the wild woman. is is described as a large black-haired monkey. kill him brings dire calamity. a element" is linked with the zodifemale man-eater is born. female figures frequently in the pages of She is a cannibal capable of flitting assailants. Her body dif- from that of an ordinary female only in The wild man being covered with white hair. There is a story of a wild woman caught in a ercise — — — spring trap in fered Hiuga province. when the "senior acal horse. All these beliefs have left their mark upon the literature of the nation and upon the canvas of the artist. or sudden death upon his ogre {kijo) romance. He steals food from the villages. literally. The about like a moth and fire traversing pathless Once in every circle of sixty mounyears. the female ogre [kijo). pos- enormous muscular strength. and the mounThe wild man and the wild tain genius {sen-nhi). but is always ready to sessing help woodcutters to transport timber in return Any attempt to capture or for a ball of rice. In a deeper stratum of superstition may be found still stranger fossils of tradition the wild man. where the people call him yaina-waro. said to abound among the mountains of KiuHe shiu.SUPERSTITIONS of spirit power. insanity. plague. the " mountain man" and the woman "mountain woman" are harmless curiosities. tains. and despatch it upon a mission of hostility.

The first Japanese sen-nin was a native of Noto. and thus. by mortification of the flesh and complete annihilation of all carnal desires." Abstaining fruit only. In esoteric terms the Chinese sieng-niing are supposed to be beings released from the chain of transmigrations for a hundred thousand years. which. for the rest. Exceptional ability and profound charity marked his early life. A more widely disseminated also left indelible traces in the belief. belong rather to the phantasies of the nursery than to the superstitions of grown-up folks. This superstition came to Japan from China. is based upon the theory that. It had its who hid themmountain caves beyond the sounds of the world's passion and confusion. by name Yosho. which has realm of fine art and sculpture. d. his He was born in 870 a. were origin in the hermits or ascetics selves in supposed to have attained immortality. study of the " Lotus of the which was devoted chiefly to the Law. which period of rest they spend in mountain solitudes. fading imperceptibly out of human knowledge. from at rice and barley. he lived on and length he succeeded in reducing his diet to a 216 .JAPAN not follow that the intervening years are never disgraced by the appearance of such monsters. supernatural character was presaged and by his mother's dream that she had swallowed the sun.. the divine attributes of the soul may be actively developed though it still retains its earthly tenement.

hollow trees or rocky in recluses living there are caverns among the forests and mountains of Ehime prefecture and of northern Tosan-do.SUPERSTITIONS grain of millet daily." and promising that if flowers were offered and incense burned on the i8th of every month. with a scroll from : bequeath name of my mantle to Emmei of Dogen-ji" (the a temple). the voice of Yosho was heard overhead. After Yosho's disapfell sick. to requite his father's love. The Japanese view the sen-nin (or rishi) with In the innumerable representaplayful gravity. They subsist on herbs and fruits. and hunters sometimes carry to country hamlets tales of strange beings appearing and disappearing so suddenly as to sugDoubtless out of such gest supernatural powers. a ray of laughter 217 carvers always . his father and prayed fervently might once more see his favourite son. This Even now legend inspired imitation in all ages. Thus. pearance. materials the myths of the sen-nin and probably of the tengu also. his spirit would come. reciting the " Lotus of the Law. seeking his master among forests and mountains. year after year Emmei. drawn by the perfume and the flame. having attained supernatural power. he departed from the earth His mantle was found hanging in the year 901. By and by. " I the branch of a tree. tions of these strange beings that are to be found among the works of celebrated painters or in wood and ivory. became himself that he a sen-nin. were originally constructed.

as he blows his soul into space. is sufficiently dirty. a fox-flame (kitsiine-bi). People to whose imagination the unknown . seems astounded at his own achievement Gama. fate of a hermit or the fanaticism of an ascetic mine of vivid myths. and thus had to be ultimately content with the buried corpse of a beggar Roko balances himself on his flying tortoise with the air of a decrepit acrobat and Kume. meddled with earthly affairs or placed their supernatural powers at the disposal of human beings. distraught. a badger-blaze [tanuki-bi). . ship presents an inane aspect quite in character with the myth that he forgot to provide for the safety of his body during the wanderings of his spirit. It was a ghost-fire [in-kwa). a flash-pillar (hito-bashird). were much more accommodating. who fell from his cloud-chariot because his carnal desires were revived by the sight of a beautiful girl's image mirrored in a stream. lamp of Buddha (Butsu-to\ and so forth. Here 218 presented such a . liberating his magic horse from a monster gourd. with his toad warlock. watching his sacred geese. whereas the tengUy as shown above. did not fail to find weird explanation of the ignis fatuus. a dragon-torch {j'iii-to). a demon-light [oni-bi). and unkempt to suit such companionTekkai. . 2. Sobu. has a wavering mien suggestive of some such The mountain genii of Japan never catastrophe.JAPAN lightens the general austerity of the conception. looks as though he were himself on the verge of cackling Chokoro.

resting sometimes on the top of in a tree. a little ball of . caused Nikobo to be put to death. from the middle of March to the end of June In the every year. 219 from whose margin. recalling its origin. beadsman [yamabushiV His services having been solicited on behalf of the sick wife of the local governor. She recovered. At the ince base of the Katada hills in lies Omi prov- there a lake fire cloudy nights in early Creeping towards the feet of the emerges. a globe of fire. practising his pious art. he passed many days by the side of the lady's couch. For. His benevolent work thus requited with inhuman wrong. which. on autumn. people regard it with pity. a celebrated for his skill in exorcism. there may be seen.SUPERSTITIONS are two of the legends : these wild-fires — that have grown out of Nikaido district of Settsu province. to have a found lurid when examined intently. hovered over the roof of the murderer's house. Since that time Nikobo's ghost-flame pays a yearly visit to the scene of its suffering and its revenge. charging him with a foul crime. and taking the form of a miraculous fire. in an excess of jealousy. is human face peering from its The surface. in remote ages. and kindled a fever in his blood that finally consumed him. but her husband. about a foot diameter. the soul of the beadsman flamed with resentment. It is a harmless phenomenon. there lived in this district one Nikobo.

who is at all times a sociable fellow. Of the "badger-blaze" it is related that it wanders in the Kawabe district of Settsu on rainy nights. What has thus far been written about superstito tion wdll have probably prepared the reader to attach great hear that the Japanese have always been disposed importance to divination. The numerous legends that Japanese fancy has woven round the will-o'-the-wisp have an interest of their own as illustrating the genius of the people. three feet in diameter. It i attach themselves. and that uninitiated rustics. with superhuman force. but resents. 220 It is . Once a wrestler of unconquered fame waited at midnight for its coming. but limits of space forbid fuller reference to the subject here. mistaking it for the glowing pipe of an ox-driver. its glow two faces.JAPAN sometimes swelling to a brilliant sphere. and have even lit their own tobacco at his and puffed it in his company. He was hurled to a distance of ten or twelve yards. but always when it rises to the height of a man's stature above the ground. takes its way slowly and harmlessly to the recesses of the hills. sometimes not developing to more than a third of that size. it grows as it goes. and sprang to grasp it as it passed through the mists. struggling furiously. and barely escaped with his life. to which gradually the torsos of two naked wrestlers. any attempt to interrupt its progress. hold converse with the badger. showing within mountains.

" Commenced by Fuh-hsi. bokii signifying divination. Lespedeza sericea thejK^wand iht yang. as " has been well said. Much of the book's supposed value lies in the Starting from the mystery that enshrouds it. that as stand it. The for divination call it in the Far East. give the The Japanese Te-Ki. eighteen centuries later. and to the method of divination it derived from name boku-zei. 221 . chikUy respectively.SUPERSTITIONS unquestionable that Confucianism is largely responsible for the growth and persistence of such an irrational mood. was to add some inexplicable chapters to an incomprehensible book. carried far towards completion by Wan Wang. and zei and and bamboo. the Tib-King has long been the chief vehicle ing his lifetime. Chinese literati and foreign students alike having failed to underOne point only may be noted. and enlarged by Confucius. of which woods the divining sticks are made. fundamental idea that the universe had its origin in the union of the male and female principles. any full explanation of it would be to supplement vagueness by bewilderment. or boku- zeichiku. it undertakes to elaborate a theory of all physical phenomena and of all moral and political doctrines by means of eight To attempt trigrams and sixty-four diagrams. thirty centuries before Christ. So much time and study did the Chinese Sage devote to the Book of Changes (Tih-Ki7ig) that the leather thongs holding its leaves together were worn out thrice durresult of his labours.

the eight trigraphs are right in other words. it is probable that he too would have philosophical formulae. which means that whatever the event may prove to be. partly arbitrary. and that failures to obtain true glimpses of the future by means of divining rods are generally attributed not so much to inefficacy in the doctrine as to imperso- fections in the mood of the 222 disciple. as prescribed by the Tih-King. But it is not to be denied that the faith of an immense number of people is belied by such an aphorism. Ataru mo hakke ataranu mo hakke. in If the mystical shaped his fancies into diagrams and trigraphs instead of expressing them in numerals.JAPAN the evolution of written ideas in China could be traced in the growth of ideographs. Thus much premised. an explanation may be given of the simplest manrler of divination. which were simply linear combinations. since by following the process a tolerably clear idea is obtained of the manner in which the sexual principle and the trigraphs serve for purposes of prediction. The Japanese have a very pithy proverb. that the diviner always leaves a margin for his own justification. so the authors of the Tih-King^ they sat down to ruminate on the processes of nature and the operations of the intellect. The . instinctively turned to the grouping o^ long and when short lines as a vehicle for the construction of numbers which Pythagoras sought the elements of realities had been themselves necessarily resolvable into lines. partly systematic.

pervaded by a thrill indicating that communication with the supernatural has been established. is separated from the any one of the rods rest and set upright in the rod-rack. the thoughts are concentrated solemnly on the almighty intervention This is Presently the senses are about to be invoked." remaining rods are then held with the left hand. the supreme moment. and reverentially grasps the fifty divining rods.SUPERSTITIONS called "orthodox" and "intermediate" methods complicated to be explained is comparatively easy. indeed. but the "abridged" matters little. employed. The diviner. inside. — — and upper ends are With the right hand. the quickest process is the most selves likely to give good results. The eyes are closed. having thoroughly cleansed his body. thus becomThe lower ends of the ing the "great origin. and at that instant the rods are divided into two 223 . the forty-nine rods are now raised above the head. seats himself perfectly upright in a secluded chamber. so far as the but since everything depends on the singleness of the diviner's mind and the fervour of his faith. remembering always that they are sacred media through which the purposes of the all powerful are revealed by One the aid of certain numerical mutations. the respiration is suspended. It are altogether too here. fingers outside. thumb their slightly dovetailed. which method itself is is . and since ordinary men cannot hope to abstract them- method concerned completely from their surroundings for any lengthy period.

the figure thus formed being a trigraph. once more divided. the "posiThe right-hand group tive " and the " negative/* on the table. may be any remainder from cipher to seven." and two by two counted in cycles of eight the remainder. which has its The rods are now corresponding ideograph. It is called the " outer complement." "thunder. and from the remainder another trigraph is obtained. The above process is now repeated. earth. used after the manner of a dictionary." "mountain. with the " inner complement. the corresponding interpretation is taken out." The trigraph indicated by the remainder is called the " inner complement. pleted. the celestial and the terrestrial. is inserted lengthways between the third and little fingers of the left hand." a diagram of six lines." and being placed at the top of the projected group." "water. this time in cycles of six. and these eight possibilities." and is placed at the bottom of the group which. The left-hand group is then and mankind. and from the pages of the Tih-King. correspond to eight triis laid — — graphs representing " heaven. and a second trigraph is obtained. 224 . commencing with unity and ending with cipher. when comwill give the desired information. is noted. Thus gradually a diagram of six trigraphs is built up." " fire.JAPAN groups." and " earth. and one rod. "heaven." "wind. and again counted. including the rod held between the Evidently there third and little linger. having been removed from it." " morass. gives.

aMOT QVIA STAO asMo^a .XflA<l AaiHS .^Y^iOT .

the celestial and the terrestrial. and from the pages of the Tih~Kingf used after the manner of a dictionary. the figure thus formed being a trigraph. this time in cycles of six.r u^ ai^y remainder from cipher to seven. SHiBA PARK/Tg^Oi^ placed at the bottom of the group which." " fire. and one rod. with the " inner complement." a diagram of six lines." " morass. and from the remainder another trigraph is obtained. the corresponding interpretation is taken out. including the rod held between the Evidently there third and little finger. commencing with unity and ending with cipher. It is called the " outer complement. when comwill give the desired information. and tiiv. is inserted lengthways between the third and little lingers of the left hand. The rods are now once more divided. p.u eight possibilities. Thus gradually a diagram of six trigraphs is built up. and a second trigraph is obtained." and " earth. which has its corresponding ideograph. 224 . earth. correspond to eight triis laid — — graphs representing " heaven.'* on the table." "wind. having been removed from it.:. is noted. pleted. The above process is now repeated. gives." "mountain.JAPAN groups." and being placed at the top of the projected group. and again counted. The left-hand group is then and mankind and two by two counted in cycles of eight the remainder. . "heaven." "water." "thunder." The trigraph indicated by the remainder BRONZE GATE AN8n1<^l^. the "posiThe right-hand group tive " and the " negative.n-.



his conduct. await the casual consultations that timid or bashful folks are glad to hold. on the assumption that every human being has received from heaven a vital essence or spirit [ki). d. They may be roughly described as the in vogue. atives Among living represent- of the To-kiu are the widows of two of its formerly renowned professors. vt^ith conspicuously disposed paraphernalia of rods . and the year of a man's birth. 15 225 . Both are primarily based casting of horoscopes.I SUPERSTITIONS Professors of this art of divination are numerous. Two of the best known are the Ten-gen (heavenly ori- and in larger sums are ginal). by the influence of which his health. dating from 1835. imposing mansions and tomes. and there. V. year 960 a. the month. their clients legion. when expressed in terms of the elementary and VOL. is of somewhat later origin than the To-kiu. A third and cognate system. of importance very much It will readily be conceived that many other systems of vaticination are practised. The hour. The and the To-kiu (zodiacal essence system). The great adepts live in the rank and file are content to spread a mat by the roadside. known as Kanshi-jutsu (the element and zodiacal art). The fee varies cases from two or three sen to a yeriy paid. the day. and his moral ability are determined. the latter is a Japanese modification of the former. former was introduced from China in the . and it receives large support from the noble families of Suwa and The Ten-gen and To-kiu are much Tachibana.

professor in analysing the "prime essence" of an inquirer cannot be defined. and enabling him to avert calamities which the preponderance of his inferior elements would certainly entail. It is a species of astrology based upon the supposia horoscope.JAPAN zodiacal series. furnish materials for constructing from which the course of procedure *' mayto the nature of this " spirit adapted best Thus these forms of divination be mapped out. stitutes a serviceable but not an essential assistant. Considered from the point of view of the large part that it plays in the every-day life of the people. have recourse to adepts in these systems. Men of means and position and students on the threshold of independent life or struggling to win academical laurels. the vital indications being drawn from the horoscope. It is also practised as an independent science under the name of Ninso-jiitsu. which they regard as more or less useful guides to moral The exact methods pursued by a philosophy. as at developing the better side of a man's character. do not aim so much at furnishing exact predictions. the processes of the art being known only to the families in which they have been secretly transmitted from generation to generation and by whose representatives Physiognomy {kwan-so) conthey are practised. the system of " aspect divination '* [hoijutsu) is more important than any of the above. tion that the supernatural influences which mould a man's destiny emanate from certain regions of the 226 .

but the two series of "terrestrial stems" and "celestial branches " out of which the cycles of the old starry firmament. should not give their houses a northeasterly aspect. almanack were constructed. and that human beings should preserve towards that quarter a demeanour of reverential deprecation — should not face it in sleeping. should not cultivate the corner of their parks or gardens on which the eyes of the evil spirits looked out from the portals of bad omen. and if any one examines the pleasure-grounds 227 . Men believed that somewhere away in the northeast stood the demon's gate {ki-mon). and nothing then remains except to assign special attributes to special stars or combinations of stars. It would appear that in remote ages this theory had not emerged from a rudimentary form. were religious barriers suggested by this superstition. The Gregorian calendar was finally adopted in Japan thirty years ago. and the scarcely less celebrated temples of Uyeno on the northeast of the Shoguns palace in Tokyo.SUPERSTITIONS and that good is invited or evil averted by turning towards the auspicious quarter or away from the inauspicious at critical seasons in life. The celebrated monastery of Hiei-zan on the northeast of the Imperial Palace in Kyoto. should not turn their feet thitherward at the commencement of a journey. still present to the astrologer and horoscopist ready means of establishing connections between any point of the compass and the date of a birth.

JAPAN surrounding Japanese houses. even with the aid of a large band of disciples. ing a house. before applying for an official post. before pre- before any of these paring for an accouchement. chief professor of the science of " aspect divination. Such evidences of practical demonology afford. before setting out on a journey. are numbers of sober business men and educated to say nothing of the gentlemen in Tokyo who deem it softer sex and the uneducated absolutely essential to preface every important act Before buildby recourse to this kind of augury. and even by many members of the upper. however. — A Tokyo ment newspaper recently published a state- illustrating the uses to which diviners are 228 . in the case of the more superstitious. the advice of the aspect diviner has to be sought. and. things. the tion of celestial quarter. he will see that the northeasterly quarter is always thickly planted and left without ornamental rockery or pathway. before changing from one residence to another. but a slight glimpse of the importance attached by the middle and lower classes. before any act that lies outside the most ordinary routine of every-day existence.'* is unable. before engaging in any industrial or commercial enterprise. before opening a store. to furnish oracles for the multiThere tudes that come daily to consult him. before selecting a site. before despatching a — — cargo. before betrothing a son or daughter. before fixing the date of a marriage. to the quesOshima Sekibun.

spent lavishly. make a diversion from the direct route homeward. He therefore proceeded to upbraid the diviner. He regulated his affairs accordingly. apprehended him in the act of selhng the vegetables. his money and paid his funeral expenses. hired a cart for their transport. establish a claim upon deeds benevolent that heaven's protection.SUPERSTITIONS man having purchased a quantity of vegetables. Another story of contemporary doings shows the adroitness of the diviners in accounting for their failures." said the diviner. lay down to await the supreme moment. A person in good circumstances learned from a horoscopist the exact date of his death. Needput." replied the other. When their owner discovered his loss. A ing to place. I gave away considerable sums in that way. and that they would surely be rewarded by the lengthening of your life." "Just **But you failed to observe so. It came and passed uneventfully. he bade the carter wait at a certain The carter seized the opportunity to ab- scond with the vegetables. he repaired to the house of a diviner. my opportunities of spending money were brief." Prominence has here been given to modes of a coffin : and having procured divination which may still be classed among the 229 . The latter listened calmly to his reproaches. and finally " May I inquire whether you devoted asked any of your fortune to charitable objects?" " Believing that " Certainly. and hastening off. obtained information as to the whereabouts of the thief.

being known in the last-named Tortoisecountry as " reading the speal-bone. Another method. and even England. of the lines on the charred surface drew inferences about the course of their love affairs. But. Arabia. the doubts of the such to their ears. But others of or less obsolete. the god formed from Izanagi's staff which he cast behind him to stay the demons as they purheart-sick resolved. of discerning the future was practised in ancient times in Tartary. by such glimpses Sometimes a rod was planted of fate's purposes. Mongolia." was subsequently substituted for shoulderchange especially convenient for a bones. in former days. has quite gone out of vogue. and observing the divergence or shell — convergence. though now more deserve passing notice. who. regularity or confusion. or road divining. great interest. or divining by the cracks and lines in the scorched shoulder-blade It is suggestive that the same method of a deer. by burning the ends of their tortoise-shell combs. women. Lapland. after the " cracker " fashion of the West. much practised by girls. Among these the oldest appears to have been scapulimancy. fragments and the aspirations of the village belle encouraged. were often 230 .— JAPAN important customs of the nation. in the ground to personify the deity of roads. was to stand by the roadside in the evening and construct auguries by patching together were wafted of wayfarers' talk as This tsiiji-ura. The term is now applied to mottoes placed within envelopes of sweet biscuit.

having drawn their fingers along the teeth of a box-wood comb box-wood because the Japanese name for that wood {tsuge) means also " to tell " stationed themselves. strange to say. though auguries were oc- drawn from them. It need scarcely be said that the old custom of . do not seem to have been regarded in the light of important three maidens. they thrice repeated an invocation to the deity of ways marked out a space over which they scattered rice to drive away evil spirits. .SUPERSTITIONS sued him from the under-world. trial by ordeal. Dreams. though not disfigured by physical cruelty. each on a different road." Suppose that a theft has oc231 . method of later origin — — supernatural revelations. but there exists a device for detecting guilt which. Offerings having been made to this rod. partakes of the It is called sumi-iro. Another required the cooperation of Repairing to a place where roads crossed. Sometimes an augury was sought by standing casionally under a bridge and listening to the patter of feet overhead sometimes the familiar device of pitching coins was employed. "colour of ink. and then. found professors. and sometimes divine revelations were supposed to be conveyed in the sounds made by a priest whistling by inhalation. of course. the conversation of the passers-by was earnestly listened to. waiting to catch the words of people going by. to which allusion is made in prestill vious chapters. and the service of interpreting them has. has disappeared. or the nature of an ordeal.

JAPAN curred in a household. Equal division is counted as a remainder of 9. Something of the same kind frequently happens when the sumi-iro device is employed. If the remainder is 3 or a smaller number. 232 . the tracing of an ideograph involves such an effort of muscular directness and undivided attention that the quality of a suspected person's writing may often have much significance. The sum thus obtained is multiplied by 3 and divided by 9. the away rather than submit to the test. Its use is confined to cases of illness. the case is grave. if possible. There is in this device a practical element that often secures the desired result. and signifies certain death. but that condition is not Conscience is supposed to betray its essential.) commanded the ordeal of boiling water as a means of detecting usurpers of noble names. If it is a number between 3 and 6. Then each domestic is required to write a certain word with the same brush and the same solution of Indian ink. It is on record that when the Emperor Inkyo (411-453 a. The writing should take place. working in the lines of the ideographs written. but. recovery is considered certain. d. the danger growing as the remainder ascends. in the pres- ence of the diviner. The simplest and perhaps the most senseless method of divination is by the abacus (soroba-n). under guilty folks ran any circumstances. To the number of years that the patient has lived are added the numbers of the month and of the day of his birth.

. that an abnormal nervous condition can be produced by concentrated attention and abeyance of the will.SUPERSTITIONS The reference just made to the ordeal of boil- wide realm of translated ing water brings the student to the confines of a superstitions based upon Shinto belief in the omnipresence of the tutelary spirits and into visible phenomena through the agency of hypnotism. priests practised by Shinto It must be noted that these performances do not seem to have been degraded by charlatans in any Their era into mere money-making spectacles. preceded by purificatory rites and assisted by violent finger-twistings. of uttering preThe range of dictions. — — object has always been to vivify religious faith. sprinkhng boilmiracles was limited to three. were the means employed to produce this mesmeric state. note 59. and. mean Prayer and incantation. and of curing diseases. The Japanese seem to have discovered. and the person reduced to it became a spirit-medium. As for the faculty of vaticination supposed to be ^ See Appendix. ing water over the body without feeling the heat. and walking with naked soles over all of which are constantly a bed of live coals. like many other peoples to whom a scientific itself. ascending on bare feet a ladder of razor-sharp sword-blades.^ and devotees to this day. gifted with the power of performing miracles. explanation of the fact had not presented they interpreted the strange condition to spirit-possession. at a very early period.

is frequently invoked for all sickness and disease being attributed to the influence of evil spirits. more it accurately described as clairvoyance. power. The text. but are only accessories. since happening beyond the range of normal observation rather than events For the rest. 234 . it seems natural and proper that the tutelary deities should be summoned to drive out these demoniacal tormentors. and to have been continued through The Ichiko uses all generations without change. it does not occupy any prominent place in the The healing usages or thoughts of the nation. the connection that the Shinto creed undertakes to establish between its disciples and supernatural beings. ryo) or a living (Iki-ryo^. still lying in the lap of the future. This record is confined to a mere outline sketch of discloses events actually . Ichiko or Kuchi-yose belongs to this con- She is a species of medium who under- takes to summon the soul of a dead person {shini- and to make it speak its owner's thoughts through the mouth of another. however. indeed. its uses are It might.JAPAN developed during the sacred trance. This custom seems to have had its origin in the Heian epoch. To fill in the details of the picture would involve long descriptions of rites and incantations which precede and accompany spirit-possession. having much the same relation to the central phenomenon as the faceted glass held before a subject's eyes in Europe has to the mesmeric state induced by staring at it. be of the simplest character.

every temple. the Deity of the Wind . and the nineteenth. Souls of parents Oh. Teach us so that there Oh. forty-second. of Rain . Oh. but the sick is little The often appeal to her. Emmao . and it is beyond doubt that many faith cures are effected by her influence. : — " Reverentially I entreat the deities. utilised in modern times. seats of government and of the Great Shrine of Idzumo. Let the bow twang once and its sound will reach the sacred place in ! ! ! . ^3S . the Deity of the Hearth. the Deity Bontentaishaku and Shitendaio and Godomeikwan.SUPERSTITIONS a bow utters and as she draws the string she the following form of incantation for the rite. the ninety-eight thousand and seven gods and the thirteen thousand and four denizens of Buddhist sanctuaries. five feet in length. and thirty-seventh in During these unlucky years the case of women. the Deity of the Deity of the Sun . all those of hell." Ichikos function as a medium of penetrating the thoughts of other persons. God of the Bow shall be no lack of knowledge. thirty-third. all the deities of divine the . the Goddess of the Sun at her Shrine in Ise. the Deity of the Well . and years of life in the case of men. No form of superstition is more general than the belief that each individual has special reason to apprehend misfortune at certain periods of his existence. Moon Vouchsafe the divine presence. at her forty sub-shrines and at her eighty branch-shrines . Spirits of our relatives Man may change water may be transformed. sixty-first — the twenty-fifth. is immutable. the deities of the sky and of the earth. living or dead. those of heaven. but this bow.

JAPAN exceptional attention is paid to religious exercises which the " " epithet closed {happo-fusagari^ is applied in the sense that no change of residence must be made or journey undertaken during the twelvemonth. and eschew the " monkey " days of the calendar and choose the *' bird " days for such operations. There are also various devices for enlisting the a visit benevolent interest of the deities. it is thrown under the eaves or the floor with a wish. and. The loud cawing of rooks or the prolonged barking of dogs is considered ominous of evil. by a rat's. when a little one's tooth falls out. whereas from a spider at daylight. or placing three pinches of rice on the shoulder gusset. thirty-fourth. that it may be replaced by a demon's tooth. — the sixteenth. in the former case. twenty-fifth. nearly all 236 . of all kinds. and that in the latter case the garment will be as durable as the plumage of a bird. forty-third. and sixty-first. or a glowing lamp-wick portends good fortune. Thus. Some ladies never cut out material for a costume without uttering a set formula of invocation. the beHef being that burns and rents will result if the former precaution be neglected. Many superstitions are connected with children. in the latter case. need scarcely be said that a prophetic import attaches to some of the commonest incidents. There are also years to These years fifty-second. sneezing on New Year's morn. It are the same for both sexes.

by putting under its bed straw taken from a pig-sty by rubbing the powder of an herb on comb .SUPERSTITIONS The word "puppy" averts . " In the long days of spring weeds may be removed. and an eruption on the head is driven away by twice reciting the sentence. ensure it is against aversion to bathing. the baby will ultimately distinguish itself in calligraphy and sewing. head thrust into a child's pillow charms it to sleep. 237 . There are numerous devices for facilitating child- swallows a piece of paper on which the name of the province of Ise is written or a petal of lotus having the ideograph for birth. and a needle. cash on the 1 6th of June and given to a child of sixteen guarantees it against penury throughout life. but those in the garden must be cut down at once. Pieces of straw taken from under the bed of a newly born infant's mother and fastened to the little one's head. — the woman . and then drawing all the Food bought with sixteen water from the well." A baby's crying is stopped by tying on its back a red cotton bag containing dog's hair . and loss of sight from smallpox is prevented by throwing seven peas into a well. and if the placenta buried with a pen. saying seven prayers over them. or by writing certain ideographs on paper and placThe bone of a mole's ing it under the pillow. the soles of the feet or the palms of the hands. written on the forehead nightmares blood taken from a cock's cures an indigestion resulting from a surfeit of rice dumplings. a cake of ink.

A hiccough is driven away by applying under the knee a sheet of hanshi. may be cured by putting on the tip of the nose dust gathered from a floor-mat and saying." If the halves of a soja bean are swallowed. These are but a few of the many superstitions connected with childbirth and childhood. then. the other with the ideograph "emerge. whereas a female child will have it in her right. . " Take a trip to the capital " a pain in the head. Quaint methods of dealing with ordinary maladies are also practised. by fumigating the tooth with the smoke of calcined Nandina domestica} If a fish bone sticks in the throat. be rendered tial.JAPAN " man " inscribed on parts. note 60. that this aid should Paralysis without the knowledge of the sufferer. by placing on the pate a saucer containing a burning moxa and toothache. the phrase " A descendant of Sayemon Kenjuro of Izumo " . or a peach-stone divided '* one with the ideograph " able written on it. ^ See Appendix. however. the character / having been traced on one and the character se on the other. folded to the left in the case of a man and It is essento the right in the case of a woman. 238 . Bleeding at the nose is supposed to be checked by placing on the head a piece of paper folded into eight and dipped in freshly drawn well-water. should a male child be born. it will hold the bean in his left hand. it . but in general the details do not into two lend themselves to narration.

Sometimes a malady is treated by tying together a snake-gourd and a section of bamboo. facing westward. is swallows seven peas with some well-water drawn at dawn on the ist of July. ing to the south and east are shaped into posts and erected at the corners of the house or the blood of a white dog is smeared on all the entrances. . with upthe .SUPERSTITIONS written on the inside of a sake cup. Various methods are in vogue for exorcising Branches of a peach-tree bendevil influences. and when the bean begins to sprout. : . The swelling is rubbed with a soja bean on the 7th of July the bean is then planted in the hollow of the second tile on the southern face of the roof. My name and age are and throwing the whole into a river sometimes the shell of a craw-fish is roasted and the odour inhaled sometimes the skin is smeared with ink on which certain ideographs are traced sometimes the whole body is rubbed with garlic. and intermittent fever is driven away by swallowing a paper on which is written the phrase. ." transferred to you. 239 . A man desiring to be protected against calamity or accident traces in the air." Such fantastic nostrums are innumerable. One of the most curious is the charm for removing a wen. " The leaf falls and the ship sails. the latter " My disease is hereby bearing this inscription . and water from the cup is drunk by the sufferer. . In case of dysentery the sick person. boiling water is poured over it so that it withers away. wen disappearing simultaneously.

from whoopingcough by tracing impressions of their hands on paper which is posted over the lintel. when an unexpected guest arrives. and when fever is abroad folks write over their doors " Hisamatsu not at home. or when. bygoing abroad at night. straw puppets are thrown into a river with ringing of bells and beating of drums. and outlines the ideograph " grow " inside them. satellite of the *' God of the Three Peaks " (Mitsumine\ these being a charm against practice is to protect children infectious diseases in general. or when one meets a funeral. two crossed triangles. Similar security is obtained by carrying copper in the pocket. In time of an epidemic. and then drinking some of the water. or by holding in the hand a red cotton bag containing the bone of a horse. and Osome and 240 . or an amulet showing the emaciated face of the saint Ganzan Daishi is A very common fastened above the entrance. The shell of a crab nailed over the entrances serves the purpose assigned to a horse-shoe in the Occident. reserving one stroke to be added on the following There are formulae to be repeated morning." because the common appellation for contagious fever is osome-kaze. and on the same position may often be seen rude sketches of the Guardian Deities (the Deva Kings). one has to run the risk of encountering demons. or of a wolf. or by throwing into a well on the 1st of January twenty red beans or seven pieces of Sesamum orientalis.JAPAN ward-pointing finger.

.'A^AI 3IJnU4 A VI aVlAT2 HDVIUJ .%.

two crossed triangles. when an unexpected guest arrives. and on the practice is to protect children rude sketches '^^^L9A'^^N6e^i^ A puBLiPMftKKings). one has to run the risk of encountering demons. ward-pointing finger. satellite of the *' God of the Three Peaks " [Mitsumine\ these being a charm against e position may often be seen infectious diseases in general. and natsu abroad lolks write over their do< not at home. or by throwing into a well on the ist of January twenty red beans or seven pieces of Sesamum orientalis. and then dri' cd >e of the water. straw puppets are thrown into a river with ringing of bells and beating of drums.'* because the common appellation for contagious fever is osorne-kaze^ and Osome and 240 a . The shell of a eracd to he entrances serves the purpose ver is -hoe in the Occident. or when one meets a funeral. or by holding in the hand a red cotton bag containing the bone of a horse. In time of an epidemic. A very common ' from whoopingcough by tracing impressions of their hands on paper which is posted over the lintel. or when. or of volf.JAPAN Llii. ai " grow " inside them. outlines the ideograph added to be on the following reserving one stroke There are formulas to be repeated inorning. by going abroad at night. or an amulet showing the face of the saint Ganzan Daishi is emac: above the entrance. Similar security is obtained by carrying copper in the pocket.

rm:*^- . .^* \^-.


affections will surely visit one in a dream and a meeting with a lover is foreshadowed by the loosening of an undergarment's string. the object of one's . VOL. 16 241 . On the other hand. or by the appearance of a spider. conjugal affection is maintained. V. the little one is safe against attacks from foxes. It will readily be inferred that many supersti- tions are connected with love is afl^airs. Lost children are sought by a man carrying a cloth measure in his girdle on the left side. and when the ideograph for " dog " is traced with the ring-finger on the forehead of a child taken out at night. badgers. and curling hair. or by irritation on the eyebrow or inside the ear. or swallow pills made of red millet and the fruit of Job's tears and her fidelity to her marriage vow may be tested by hiding in some part of her garments earth taken from the hoof of a horse A . or rats. If the bone of a dove that cooed on the 5th of the 5th month is placed in a red bag and carried on the person. or by a woman carrying the same object on the right. or by a sudden sneeze. the pain of unfaithfulness may be assuaged by tying rushes around the body or by keeping a shell of the wasure-gai (clam of forgetfulness) in one's pocket. or by the stumbling of a horse.SUPERSTITIONS Hisamatsu were lovers whose names have been handed down in story. wife may be cured of jealousy by making her eat the broiled flesh of a bush-warbler. An ink-stain on the sleeve indicates that one is loved. that one loves. If one's night-robe worn inside out.

The realm of dreamland is peopled with As in the Occident so in Japan. the case in all counpor- A conflagration witnessed in sleep tends the birth of a child a among one's relatives woman who . — — inevitable. and a sketch of the Baku considered is posed to swallow evil dreams The visions. the dreamer looks for a reality the opposite of what he sees in his visions. efficacious for averting unlucky latter purpose may also be achieved by placing one of the person's wooden clogs erect and the Some other face downward when going to bed. " treasure-ship " {takara-bune) laden with riches A and navigated by the Seven Gods of Fortune. as tries.. pect a lover and of has a vision of a sword may exall objects presenting them242 . JAPAN nose of a tiger sus" pended from the middle of a " ventilating panel irammd) ensures the birth of a male child. is frequently used on New Year's Eve for that pura tapir suppose. superstitions. Special significance attaches to certain is objects seen in dreams. rustics never fail to go under a mulberry-tree and repeat three times inaudibly the details of the Otherwise calamity is preceding night's dream. and barrenness may be cured by swallowing thrice on a certain day of the sexagenary calendar powdered travelling eastward. and he also employs the device of placing an object under his pillow picture of the to procure a lucky dream. The blossoms of the ginko and the peach dried in shade on another fixed day of the same calendar.

or the pulling of one's own ear wardwith the hand by way of preliminary . does not cover cases like the blowing of a horn at the foot of a tree attacked by insects or the tracing of an ideograph (716) in the air to paralyse a or the redragon-fly that one desires to catch moval of a stone from beneath a bee-hive and placing the foot on its reverse side in order to or the carrying of avoid being stung by the bees to perceive the . Generally A handed down these remedies consist in reciting some formula and it is or placarding it at suitable places. Horses are believed to be specially amenable to An untethered the influence of poetic spells. an egg-plant. first. third. a hawk. second. a dried beetle as a charm to increase one's robe left . easy connection between such acts and the recitation of rituals by Shinto priests in former times. however. the most fortunate be. and it can be induced to walk quietly into a ship by uttering thrice in its left ear the couplet : 243 . to grasping a snake or the burying of an old calendar near a weazel's hole in order to drive away the animal. very long catalogue of curious recipes are from generation to generation among the lower orders as efficacious against mischief from insects or reptiles. a fixed place leaving from prevented can be horse by simply informing it in verse that all routes to the four points of the compass are closed. .— SUPERSTITIONS selves in a New to Year's dream. are believed Fujiyama . That explanation. and. .

in default of that commodity. but it may be prevented from biting by turning towards it the " palm of the hand having the ideograph " tiger and its bite can be cured by rubbing inscribed the place with a tiger's bone." an elaborate form of recitation and finger-bending to deter a mad dog from biting.JAPAN " On the Ryusha River Floats the Indian ferry. or of burning a bit of dried mogusa [Arte?}iisia moxd) on his sandals with the same object and the care taken by females to . A There is muttering " Come tiger. cat strays. come tiger. Cats are not generally considered dangerous. it To be kill a cat is to become if a ac- cursed to the seventh generation. among children and women. rubbing with the hand and . 244 . may Among the commonest superstitions may be mentioned a habit. or. . Horse and man embarking Find the way to heaven. and pet immediately recalled by erasing from the calendar the day of the animal's disappearance. of hanging out a paper doll (teri-teri-bozu) to secure fine weather the custom of standing a broom upside down to drive away an unwelcome guest. though it is deemed necessary to keep them away from a dead body by placing a sword near the corpse." dog is less open to suggestion. and the bone of a tortoise's foot held in the left hand protects a man against being bewitched by a fox or a badger.

repeating formulas to propitiate the demons. is utilised by a large number of persons who make it their business to go from house to house. the ten thousand of the tortoise. some pledge themselves to make a religious pilgrimage in lieu of any one willing to employ them. and all pronounce a blessing on households " Every bestowing alms. but their occupation has become comparatively unprofitable in modern times. 245 . the eight thousand of Urashima Taro^ and the nine thousand of Tobo-saku. such a blessing as good be with you for the thousand years of the : crane.-^ The belief borrowed from Taoism that every inanimate object has a spirit. Some pro- nounce spells against conflagration and burglary. undertake to make the needle of the seamstress move deftly or the chop-sticks convey only wholesome food to the mouth.SUPERSTITIONS avoid the use of words suggesting unfortunate events. Spells are sometimes employed to bring on an enemy. note 63. 1 injury a rival Unfastening her hair. and that the ills of life are due to malignant demons. tolling a handbell or playing a flute as they passed from door to door. binding a mirror '^ ' See Appendix. See Appendix. who are in reality a species of beggar.^ These reverend mendicants used to be constantly seen in every city of Japan. Some of these quasireligionists. See Appendix. note 6i. note 62. especially when the latter is in love. wearing pseudo-sacerdotal costume.

spirit-materialisers. and the fact may suggest to some critics a low estimate of Japanese intellectual development. But. the idea of invoking aid from deity or demon for the purpose of working mischief was never widely entertained in Japan. the jealous woman proceeds to a temple at the hour of the Ox (midnight). but length.JAPAN on her bosom. almost entirely to the middle and lower orders of . it has already reached almost excessive It suggests that the Japanese are eminently superand so they certainly are with a reservastitious tion. unquestionably allow a considerable element of the supernatural to obtrude itself into their daily lives. that the upper classes are perhaps as little troubled by such phantasies as any people in What has been written above applies the world. and nails to some sacred tree a straw effigy of her rival. They American 246 . Yet when the student recalls the history of Occidental credulity from the days of the Alexandrian Platonists to the times of Swedenborg and Werner and the era of the people. namely. he may be less disposed to pronounce harsh judgments on the traditional mysticism which has been handed down from generation to generation in the secluded family circle of the Japanese nation. on the whole. and walking on high clogs. This record might be very much extended.

Appendix 247 .


22221 niomme of 900 fineness. the silver ^m becoming her unit of currency. however. and. ing 2. The yen continued to be their coin of account. nothing was necessary except to double the denominations of the gold coins in terms o^ yen^ leaving the silver subThus the old 5-7^« gold piece. is nominations of the gold coins were doubled. as the indemnity that her she received from China after the war of 1894— 1895 had placed in possession of a stock of gold. she determined to revert to erly a reversion to gold monometallism. Gold having appreciated so that its value in terms of silver had exactly doubled during the first thirty years of the Meiji era. and the deGold. But. in the first place. as all other Oriental nations were silver-using. — This operation should be called more prop- currency system. weighsidiary coins unchanged. the unit being the gold yen^ a coin worth four shillings. however. Japan's stock of gold was soon driven out of the country by her depreciated fiat currency. became a lo-yen piece in the new currency. with little over two shillings. the operation was very easy. No change whatever was required in the reckonings of the people. established by Japanese financiers at the beginning of the Meiji era was based on the gold standard. Japan ultimately drifted into silver monometallism. The the gold standard. and as the silver Mexican dollar was the unit of accounts in Far-Eastern trade. Note 2. So soon. Mechanically speaking. in round numbers. and a new ^-yen piece of half the weight was coined.Appendix Note i. — The amounts include the payments made in connection with what may be called the disestablishment of the 249 . in the second. the whole duty of currency is done by little seen in Japan a fixed sterling value of a : notes.

and their estates aggregated 354. It involved a total expenditure of 26.750.APPENDIX There were 29.000 yen^ paid out in pensions spread over a The measure sounds like wholesale period of fourteen years.500 to 15. etc. and are then redeemed within fifty years at latest. run for a period of five years without redemption.278 tons. Her post-bellum fleet now includes six first-class battleships.000 yen^ of which 6. The Treasury has competence to expedite the operation of redemption according to financial convenience. depended for their validity on the maintenance of feudalism. All Japan's domestic loans are now placed on a Note 6. Japan suffers severely from inundations. uniform basis. But some extenuation is found in the fact that confiscation.335 tons.805 endowed temples and shrines Church.500. Within the limit of that sum redemption is effected either by purchasing the stock of the loans in the open market or by drawing lots to determine the bonds to be paid off.000.000 bushels of rice (representing The Government resumed possession of all 2.000 tons. six first-class cruisers of 9. Note 5. comparatively small vessels. the largest being three coast-defence She captured from China an armour-clad ships of 4. ranging from 3. ranging from 3. It has been estimated that the average annual loss from this source does not fall short of 19. was a tentative — — — — 250 . Note in 3. Perhaps a more suggestive idea may exchange for fiat notes. the temples and shrines held their lands and revenues under titles which.200 tons . They carry five per cent interest. throughout the Empire. but the sum expended on amortisation each year must receive the previous consent of the Diet.000.000 had been expended when the war with China broke out. nine second-class cruisers.700 to 4. being derived from the feudal chiefs. In 1887 an extensive scheme of riparian improvement was undertaken.481 acres. of 7. ten third-class cruisers.800 tons . of the latter.000.000 yen). — This sum It represents interest-bearing bonds issued with the idea of reducing the volume measure and proved of no value.500. these lands and revenues at a total cost to the State of a little less than 2. the first line-of-battle ship in her navy. approximately.300 tons. together with 1.000 ^^«. Japan's fleet at the time of the war consisted of Note 4. ranging from 12.

Note 8. — Income programme. There is a business tax which is levied on various branches of business . the clearances aggregated less than 3.000. according to the present Note jects. consolidation. twenty-two different that.000. by 1946. payable.296. The taxes on vehicles and sake do not call Stamp-duties and registration fees are for any special notice. but also by all having resided there for more than one year. the number at the close of 1899 was 2.^i 0. printing. they In 1887.215. factors. that 269. up to a limit of five and one half per cent.000) or upward.000. so does the rate. in 1892.000. be furnished of Japan's finance during the owing kinds of national bonds were issued from 1870 to 1896. and that the remainder will be redeemed. etc. in — 1899. When levied on the amount of mercantile transactions. it is 2^^qq^ for wholesale dealers and t^-qq for retail dealers.000.APPENDIX Me'ijl era by noting to processes of conversion. restaurants.042. warehousing. approximately. the year after the estabaggregated 33.000 sterling and loans agIn 1873 ^^^ ^""^^ deposited by gregating 267. in 1873. or at the it is levied at the rate of *^^ °^ yo^o" rate of from two per cent to six per cent on the rental value of When a business is carried on partly the buildings employed. The minimum taxable income is 300^^^ (. and the rate for such an income is one per cent. hotels. they totalled over 129.000 sterling. sales of merchandise.!^3o) annually. and brokers. Thus whereas.000 yen (. banking. individuals in banks amounted to 500. there of course. 7.198 >'fn of that total had been paid off at the close of 1897. and aggregate loans of the same amount. As the income increases. transportation. which is paid by persons having an income of 100. as.. or is tax The efliciency of money has greatly increased. and to various requirements of the State's progress.000.500 yen. were only half a dozen banks with a total capital of six thousand pounds. with a total capital of 49. not only by Japanese subpersons having a domicile in Japan. in a foreign country and partly in Japan. In other cases. capital engaged. only the capital used in Japan is liable to tax.000. photography.000.500. during recent years. lishment of clearing-houses in Tokyo and Osaka. manufacturing. insurance. that they aggregated 673. also collected. 251 .

the legs short. adult male Japanese. E. in the lower orders. to reduce the rate to This. between the tip of the nose and the upper lip. and from 140 to 145 lbs. development ceases sooner in the The head is large. in the upper (against an average weight of 188 lbs. The eye is always dark. and appears to be broader. but frequently it is large and the teeth are prognathous. The average height of the and weight of the Japanese. 4 ft. Baelz. according to Dr.. whereas The bulk of the people the European grows thirteen per cent. 2^/^ in. very small. Baelz. the woman weighs from 122 to 125 lbs. the upper lid is is due to the position of the lids. following The Japanese grows only always the authority of Dr. the length of the and torso are long. but the obliquity Further. This idea was founded partly on the inferior 10. duty on imports. the best authority on the ethnography of Japan. Thus the male and that of the adult female. in the Japanese it is distineily less. the lower are robust and muscular. generally of a fine brown. under heavy pressure and even armed menace.APPENDIX The tariff was fixed originally on a basis of ten 9. the face Japanese than in the European. but are strong. weight of the male is 150 lbs. It will be convenient to set down here some salient facts as to the physical structure and properties of the people. too. in Europe) . for the conversion five per cent. The in Japan is about as tall as the female in Europe. Note — 252 . stature . is less prominent than that of the European. as well as in that of height. was only nominal. The mouth is sometimes small and shapely. eight percent of his stature from the time of puberty. Indeed. In the matter of weight. torso and the shortness of the legs are so marked as to constiIn a European the length of the leg tute a race characteristic. of ad valorem duties into specific was managed in such a manner that the sum actually levied on imports did not average as Note — per cent much as two and a half per cent of their value at the port of shipment. 8^ in. face. The forehead is low the vertical distance but is not really so. is 5 ft. but in 1865 Japan consented. The upper classes are comparatively weakly. in consequence of the low bridge of the nose. from the trochanter to the ground is more than one-half of the The length of the body . It seems to be oblique.

especially in women the calves are strongly developed . J^ and miscellamillions). 40 million j^« annually. and the Central Treasury grants aids to the extent of 4>4 million yen. Some of the local taxes are secondly. The Japanese belong to the least hirsute of the human species. and houses. speaking generally. as is the case in Europeans. hands. on taxes as some are levied independently. first. but baldness is comparatively rare. as II millions of it was devoted to useful public works. a town or district tax. The system of local taxation is complicated. and. The total local expenditures are a little over Note 13. — or animals kept for hire and those maintained by private individ- . instead of being recessed under the eyebrow. the ankles thick the feet broad the arms. but the increase is not an evidence of extravagance in administration. . APPENDIX almost a direct continuation of the skin of the forehead. They increased from 25 millions to 12. The cheeks are broad and flat the chin. often not darker than that of southern Europeans. business (2^:^ from obtained is sum large milUons). is Note — The number of — The — these students had reached two 40 millions in a period of five years (1895-1899). journal highest rate of subscription to a daily twelve shillings per annum^ and the usual charge for advertisements is from sevenpence to one shilling per line of twenty-two ideographs (about nine words). and that they belonged to the same stock as the Egyptians. Baelz conto fifty. owned by levied in which case the on the basis of the national tax of the latter fraction former must not exceed a certain fixed vehicles. hundred by the middle of 1901. and neck remarkably graceful. and Revenue to meet these outlays nearly 2 millions to education. but sometimes as dusky as that of the Singhalese. tax neous — (3^ A property the local administrations. two kinds of impost have to be paid. tax tax [sYi millions). a prefcctural tax... Their It turns grey at the age of forty-five hair is black and straight. but. Note i i. . cludes that the finer type of the Japanese came from the bor- ders of the Euphrates and Tigris. 5 . the skin is light yellow. vehicles between made is distinction marked A draft-animals. Dr. millions). narrow the legs are often crooked and graceless. houseland-rate (13 is derived from five taxes.

723 — — appeals. 7. 32.654 appeals and 133. He declares unhesitatingly that the claim of sungenesis was probably invented by the earliest Mikado for political purposes. or i for every 1.215 first-instance or magisterial cases.987 clerks.201 judges with the assistance of 471 public procurators and 5.821. stories are precisely those most likely to be thus preserved. and 8.910.934. so that the burden decreases rapidly as the poorer classes are reached. namely. of justice. and the total number of police officials of all grades. favourable hypothesis. not only because they rest on the very fallible testimony of memory and hearsay. He conjectures that " Amaterasu" was a title of comparatively modern invention. Note (including 15. has been ably summarised by by declaring that all unwritten traditions must be considered unworthy of belief. but statistics show that the courts perform their functions rapidly. He then goes on to show that.APPENDIX uals. He contends that no cosmogony can be credible which makes vegetation antecedent to the birth of the sun. and the same principle of graduation observed in the case of the income tax is applied to the house tax. but also because the most striking. in criminal matters.421 of the popuThe police force has been increased by 4.591 during lation. 8. He denies that the gods in heaven make any Japan until a . but of that increment the newly organised Formosa) There are 365 tribunals force for Formosa represents 2.472 first-instance cases. The mayor of a town [shicho) is nominated by Note 14. It has been complained that the number of tribunals and their personnel are not sufficient to discharge the business coming before them.571 cases altogether. and 16. presided over by 1. the art of writing did not in become known thousand years had separated the reign of the first mortal ruler from the compilation of the first manuscript record.507 questions of conciliation . — The number of is police-offices in the Empire 13. 155. the Minister of State for Home Affairs from among three men — chosen by the town assembly. The criticism is probably just. on the most Sir Note — Ichikawa's view He sets out Earnest Satow. in civil suits. and therefore the most improbable. the past five years. for in 1 897 the latest year included in the published records they dealt with 313.

This remarkable scholar and philosopher was He is justly regarded by his 1730 and died in 180 1. Note 22. on second decade. dignity. — 17. by which last proposition he seems to indicate a belief in progressive evolution. more or less. every Note erally *' 20." inspected with a phosphorus lamp and afterwards embraced by a fellow of the Royal Society. they are more likely to have been animals or birds than gods. a mirror. — Thousands of these From tori (a bird) and . and beauty. in the text in is a summary works " The Revival — wood.APPENDIX racial distinctions. Note 21. sweet herbs and bitter herbs.. fine cloth. and having some affinities with the " Pixies " of — Anglo-Saxondom. but gensilk included bow. — These — — funeral orations often rise to heights of remarkable pathos. The language of these rituals is sometimes full of fervour and eloquence." etc. and are read aloud by the chief priest in a manner at once simple and impressive. Being constructed of so perishable that instead of resorting repair. " things narrow of fin and wide of fin. all of which. were " piled up like ranges of hills. a sword. Note 23. countrymen as the greatest interpreter of their ancient faith. or perch). Compare Mr. — The a offerings varied." bright cloth. and coarse cloth. a baldachin. geographical conditions being alone responsible for such accidents. glittering cloth. / (to rest. Note 24. the buildings are to a process of constant an alternate site. He refuses to accept any arithmetic of years when the calculators were men without cyclical signs or assisting script. Note Note 25 26." sake jars. miniature shrines are to They be seen in the rice-fields or in the vicinity of hamlets. new edifices are erected. As to the name are erected in honour of the Spirit of Food. to use the language of the ritual. Note in — born The brief review of his opinions given of Sir Earnest Satow's analysis of his of Pure Shintor Note 18 Hirata Atsutane. Note ig. Closely resembling the " Pottergeist " of the Germans. and he concludes by declaring that if the ancestors of living men were not human beings. Alfred Wallace's account of the young lady's " double.

Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Japan. — Hirata and fortunes of Atsutane in people. The fox is supposed to be an agent of the or the rice-carrier." Note 34. Terrestrial Deities ruled over the "Un- O-kuni-nushi (who yielded the sovereignty of Japan to Ninigi)." it is said by some sinologues to be that of a place. which is Some reside in of varying character and degrees of influence." cannot hope to live more than a hundred years under the most favourable circumstances. and the lives : as the tranquillity of the State." writes Hirata *' At- Tama no Mihashira^ seen world.APPENDIX " Inari. — — Note 31. — delightfully Note — Kokoro dani Makoto no m'lchi ni Kana'tnaha^ Inorazu totemo That quent is the Kami ga mamoran. but as you will go to the Unseen Realm of O-kuni-nushi after death and be subject to his rule. 28. On them devolved the direction of everything that could not be seen. and Elsewhere he says " You children. hence the stone foxes usually placed near the shrine. in the 29. Note for his breath. the deity Tenjin of subse- "The Revival of Pure Shinto" Satow. sutane in the — "The Spirits of the dead. god . "The Revival of Pure Shinto" Satow. learn betimes to bow down before him. and his consort Suberi-hime. wives. — The They were eras. They continue to render services to their princes." the god ascribed to a definite author prosperity. It was believed that man depended on the wind Note 30. Note 33. volume on this subject. Percival Lowell has published a 27. They had to be exchanged every half : continue to exist in the uneverywhere about us. its its Note 32. but the general belief in Japan makes it a contraction of ine-ninai. Note written Mr. as when in the body. others never leave their tombs. The final use to which these pieces of wood were put is curious. code of Shinto ethics as summed up in the tenth century by Fujiwara no Michizane. They all become gods — 256 . temples built in their honour .

taunted the sea-sharks by alleging that tribe invited shore. v. they were journeying to pay court to Princess Yakimi of Inaba. Note — Motoori Motonaga. when you've got it. and being thus redeities approached. whom they all loved. which so fell Note 36. —A hare. it them to range themselves in line between shore and That done. who had been degraded by his brothers to the position of baggage-carrier. mere silliness. As it lay writhing and weeping. reached its desired destination. a band of The elder brothers of O-kuni-nushi (the of Japan). Presently O-kuni-nushi. in "Pure Shinto" the the celebrated exponent of eighteenth century endorses the above view which has here been arrived at by direct comparison of He says that the Chinese philosophy and Japanese history. should win the princess. in the Occidental sense of the term. and by the last shark in the line its skin was torn off. Note its 35. not his brothers. jumping from back to back and it professing to count as leaped. is a complete answer to the shallow critis who allege not known in ics that love. numbered more than theirs. — 17 257 .APPENDIX year for fire new fragments. by which unkindly prescription the animnal's sufferings were doubled." VOL. is responsible for numerous that the theory of these critics becomes 37. Japan. terrestrial ruler stored. and others. He told the unhappy hare to wash in the fresh water of the river and roll its body in the pollen of the sedges . the hare. Observing the hare's misery. Hope of finding beyond the grave the union suicides so which in life circumstances forbid. This — out. they bade it bathe in the brine of the sea and lie thereafter exposed to sun and wind. and the old were employed to light the under a bath for the virgin priestesses that danced at the festival of purification. the Ashikaga. desiring to cross from a mid-ocean island to the mainland. By way of practical test. ethics enumerated by the Sages of China may be reduced to two " Take other people's territory and hold it fast simple rules : and he distinctly attributes to the influence of Chinese learning the contumacy shown toward the Mikado in He the middle ages by the Hojo. it promised that he. came along bearing his burden. But ultimately conceit prompted it to jeer before its feet were fairly planted on dry land.

not to be guilty of dishonesty. Lloyd's "Developments of Japanese Buddhism. The Tendai (Heavenly command) Sect. Note 41. others previously called Muraji^ Note 39. members of the Kwotitles of nobility. — Fate. It Note — may For example. decreed that the unworldly and meditative sect had its headquarters should have a history resonant with the clash of arms. Note 46. — The — chief Shinto official at the great shrine in Izuma claims to be the eighty-second descendant in a direct line from the deity Susano-o. in a plain. It was from this time that Shinto and Buddhism became commingled into the form of creed known as fined words.. the twelve-linked chain of causation. to use re- unexaggerated manner. The monks of Hiyei-zan became. to practise charity and patience. his list and carried it back much be accepted as a historical fact that eight names instituted by the Emperor Temmu at the close of the seventh century corresponded pretty closely with our modern 38. received the name Mabito. This sect received much patronage from the monastery where — — 258 . not to drink intoxicants . with this its proverbial irony. It had its chief headquarters at the celebrated monastery of Hiyei-zan. not to kill." a work of high value to students of this subject. the four aspirations. to devote the mind to moral thoughts. from an early date.APPENDIX might have greatly extended farther. In this stage he passed to the consideration of the four verities. not to be lewd. Note 45. The five negative precepts were. founded by Dengyo Daishi in 805 a. d. to be kind to all sentient beings. who became governors of provinces. Note 40. Members of the same tribe hitherto called Omi were idea of betsu^ thenceforth designated A-son became Suku-ne^ and so on. to employ gentle and peace-making language. under Imperial auspices. a community of soldiers. to be chaste. Note 42. Note 43. and to cultivate pure intentions. to speak the truth. the ten virtues were. . to be liberal. Note 44. to express everything — — — Ryobu-Shinfo. not to speak untruth. and the six transcendental virtues.

H. translated by Messrs. body. 47. Nezu. for the support of Shinfo shrines. "The Doctrines of Nichiren. 52.020 to the Nichiren Sect. Note disciples). and Out of the colourlessness of the Shinto of Motoori and Haruta a sect grew which enjoys some influence to-day. Zojo-ji. 140. to the sylvan — The use oi sakaki {Cleyera Japonica) is referred method of worship practised in the earliest times. as well as from the great temple. K. eye. of which 140. belongs to the Jodo-shu (Shu-sect). Note Guimet" 49. — Rokkon prayer for the purification of the spirit. Note 55. the other sects having comparatively small numbers. Tatsumi and F. 51. — Shin-shu^ called also Monto-shu (Sect of gatesect).020 to the Pure Land Sect (Jodo-shu)^ and 33. founded by Shinran in 1224 A. which stands Tokugawa Shoguns. The among the Tokugawa Mau- solea in Shiba. The festival takes place in Note six senses. Note Note October. — Near Tokyo.934 temples Japan. the Right Virtuous Abbot Kobayashi .884 belonged to the Spirit Sect {Shin-shu) . trees were called a " sacred fence " (^himorori). A groom called Koraku. Note 53. and Ikko-shu (Undivided 48. shdjd^a. Some strange admissions were made to the Shinto pantheon which had grown too large to be accurately — controlled." compiled by 50. nose. and more than one notorious malefactor received apotheosis from the ignorant multitude on account of legends associated with their memories. ear. and a criminal called worshipped there. and extends no aid whatever to — Buddhism. tongue. Note — Statistics compiled in in 1790 show that there were then 469. D. —These — doctrines. Balfour. as heads of the sect. A The space surrounded by thick trees constituted the hall of rites. the Tenri-kyo^ with its twelve hymns and dances and its faith-cures. and it seems 259 .000 v<?« annually Note 54. The State grants a sum of 216. The to be mistaken for that of the litterateurs constantly grave of a wrestler (Narihira) in Yedo came famous poet of the same name.— APPENDIX Imperial Court. are fully set forth in expounded by responsible the " Annales du Musee (1880).

" shine ^ has been changed into yone^ because the former signifies also " death " and for the same reason " four persons " are word implies ." — rather a " Shinto official. It is not absolutely correct to speak of a Shinfo Note 58. . Note 63. who ate the sacred fruit of — — longevity. . Note Note 60. A fisherman who was transported to the submarine castle of the dragon king. and Suwa (Shinano). But among the hundred and twenty-eight sovereigns that have sat on the throne of are thus honoured. Temman-gu (Hakata) Kompira (Sanuki) Suiten-gu Jtago (Kyoto) Kasuga (Nara) (Tokyo). where he lived unconscious of the flight of time. rather than as mi'z. Tokugawa Kusunoki (Tosho)^ Hideyoshi the Toiko (Toyokuni). — — : . 260 . Percival Lowell. deities. 61. Inari (Kyot5) man-gu (Kyoto). in " Occult Japan. . — Mr. two only On the other hand. Sugawara no Michizane (Temman). frequently lyeyasu Masashige (Minatogawa). etc. or deeds of the performances. alluded to as yottari^ not as shinin. A Chinese Merlin. a bough of sakaki with white pendants (^go-hei) continued to be included in the paraphernalia of the ceremony of worship. It might be supposed that many Emperors Note 56. . — would have received this distinction. speaks of "water" (the honourable cold thing). Ojin and Kwammu Japan." Note 59.— APPENDIX probable that strips of the cloth offered to the deities were hung from the branches. effect is that the germs of the as o-hiya latter the patient's ear. Note 62. . . and the jewel). even after a shrine had been built to receive the divine insignia (the mirror. He is called Shinkwan^ which signifies minister as a " priest." gives lengthy and picturesque accounts of these and other cognate They are called Kami-waza.u^ because the Again. the old word for " rice. Thus. the sword. great subjects have been deified much more for example. caries are expelled — The supposed from — Thus woman a separation. Tai-sha (Izumo) HachiDaijin-gu (Ise) Note 57.




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Frank Japan. arts.Brinkley. ^Library ed. and literature.5 PLEASE DO NOT REMOVE FROM THIS CARDS OR SLIPS POCKET UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO LIBRARY .j 1901 V. its liistory.

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