# LN 6-1

Koko Martono, FMIPA - ITB

MBM – 058

**Increasing, Decreasing, and Extremum
**

For the function y = f (x) in interval (a,b),

f ′(x) Positive (+) Negative (−) f ( x) Increase / Decrease 2 Graph of f Rises / Falls 2 Examples

Critical value The values of x in the domain of f where f ′(x) = 0 or does not exist are called the critical value of f. Local extremum local max

not extremum local max not extremum local min c1 local min c2 c3 c4 c5 c6 c7 x

not critical value/point

The quantity f (c) is called local maximum of f if there exist interval (m,n) containing c such that f (x) ≤ f (c) for all x in (m,n). The quantity f (c) is called local minimum of f if there exist interval (m,n) containing c such that f (x) ≥ f (c) for all x in (m,n). The quantity f (c) is called a local extremum. A point of graph where a local extremum occurs is called a turning point. Theorem If f continuous on interval (a,b), c ∈ (a,b) and f (c) is a local extremum of f, then either f ′(c) = 0 or f ′(c) does not exist (is not defined).

then f (c) is a neither a local maximum nor a local minimum.
Sign Test
f ′(x) m f (x) f ′(x) m f (x) f ′(x) m f (x) f ′(x) m
f (x)
Critical Value
Local minimum If f ′(x) changes from negative to positive at c.
−−−
+++
c n x decreasing increasing +++ −−−
c n x increasing decreasing −−− −−−
c n x decreasing decreasing +++ c
increasing increasing
+++ n x
Not a local extremum
If f ′(x) does not change sign at c. then f (c) is a neither a local maximum nor a local minimum.2 MBM059 Graphing and Optimization
First Derivative Test for Local Extremum
Let c be a critical value of the f ( f (c) defined and either f ′(c) = 0 or f ′(c) not defined). then f (c) is a local minimum Not a local extremum
If f ′(x) does not change sign at c. Construct a sign chart for f ′(x) close to and on either side of c. then f (c) is a local minimum Local maximum If f ′(x) changes from positive to negative at c.LN 6.
f ′(c) = 0: horizontal tangent
f (x) f (x) f (x) f (x)
f (c) 0 c f ′(x) − − 0 + + local minimum x
f (c) 0 c f ′(x) + + 0 − − local maximum x
f (c) 0 c f ′(x) + + 0 + + x
f (c) 0 c f ′(x) − − 0 − − not local extremum x
not local extremum
f ′(c) not defined but f (c) is defined
f (x) f (x) tangent line f (c) f (c) tangent line f (c) f (c) tangent line f (x) tangent line f (x)
0 c x 0 c x f ′(x) − − N + + f ′(x) + + N − − local minimum local maximum
0 c x 0 c x f ′(x) + + N + + f ′(x) − − N − − not local extremum not local extremum
.

(a) Write a brief verbal description of the graph of y = B(t).
Example 6. Sign test for local extremum : (−∞.−1) (−1.∞) f ′(x) + + + + + 0 − − − − − 0 + + + + + −1 f (x) increasing decreasing 1 increasing x
f (x) = x3 − 3x B ′(t) 10 8 6 4 2 0 4 12 15 t
local max local min The sign chart indicates that f increase on (−∞.1) (1. The graph of f and f ′ are shown on the left figure.
f (x) y = f (x) 2 −1 0 −2 1 x
x = −1 or x = 1.
3
−− 11 0
11 −3
x
Solution f ′(x) = 3x2 − 3 = 3(x − 1) (x + 1) Find all number x in the domain f where f ′(x) = 0.4). has a local maximum at x = −1.12). B′(12) = 0. has a local minimum at x = 1.3 MBM060 Graphing and Optimization f ′(x) = 3x2 − 3 = 3(x − 1)(x + 1)
f ′(x) y = f ′(x)
Example 6.1). where B(t) is the trade balance in billions of dollars and t is time in years. Find the critical value of f.2
B(t)
Agricultural Export and Import Over the past several decades. However. B′(t) < 0 on
0 4 12 15 t
(4.
.LN 6. The scale of vertical axes is depend on information of B(t). including a discussion of any local extreme. B′(4) = 0. and B′(t) > 0 on (12. Function B has local maximum at 4 and local minimum at 12. decrease on (−1. The critical values of function f are x = −1 and x = 1. local extremum of f. (b) Sketch a possible graph of y = B(t). and increase on (1.15).−1). and sketch the graph of function f and f ′. the USA has exported more agricultural product than it has imported. The graph on the left figure approximates the rate of change of the trade balance over a 15-year period. maintaining a positive balance of trade in this area. f ′(x) = 3x2 − 3 = 3(x − 1) (x + 1) = 0. the trade balance fluctuated considerably during the period.∞).1 Locating local extremum
Given the function f (x) = x − 3x.
Solution B′(t) > 0 on (0.

4 MBM061 Graphing and Optimization
Student Work-sheet
I. the interval where f (x) is decreasing. Solution
Problems Given f (x) = x + x . and the local extreme.N Name Signature Problems Given f (x) = x4 − 18x2. the interval where f (x) is decreasing. Find the interval where f (x) is increasing. Find the interval where f (x) is increasing.LN 6. and the local extreme. Solution
4
.

use the given information to sketch the graph of f.∞).∞).LN 6. use the given information to sketch the graph of f.5 MBM062 Graphing and Optimization
Student Work-sheet
I.N Name Signature
y
Problems If the function y = f (x) continuous on (−∞.
f ′(x) + + + N + + 0 − − − − 0 + + + +
x
−1 x f (x) −2 −3
0 −1 0 0 2
2 2 −1 3 0
x
Sketch the graph of f on left figure!
.
f ′(x) + + + + + 0 − − − − − 0 − − − − − −1
x
1 −1 3 0 2 1 1 2 −1
x
−2 f (x) 1
Sketch the graph of f on left figure!
y
Problems If the function y = f (x) continuous on (−∞.

The concentration of the drug in the bloodstream of the left arm t hours after the injection is given by C (t ) =
0. the interval where the concentration t2 + 1
of the drug is increasing.N Name Signature Problems Medicine A drug is injected into the bloodstream of a patient through the right arm. and the local extreme.14 t . Find the critical values for C (t). the interval where the concentration of the drug is decreasing.LN 6.
Solution
. 0 < t < 24.6 MBM063 Graphing and Optimization
Student Work-sheet
I.

b) we have
f ′(x) Graph of f Examples
Positive (+) Negative (−)
Increasing Decreasing
Concave upward Concave downward
f ″(x) < 0 over (a. denoted by y″.
. is f ¢¢( x) = dx f ¢( x) .b). d x2
d provided that it exist. graph f rise→fall
a b f ′(x) is negative and decreasing graph f falling
Inflection point
An inflection point is a point on a graph f where the concavity changed.b) and has an inflection point at x = c. f ′(c) = 0 and f ″(c) < 0 (> 0).b). For the concavity to change at a point. f ″(x) must be change sign at that point. or Concavity
f ″(x)
d 2y . graph f fall → rise
a b f ′(x) is positive and increasing graph f rising
a b f ′(x) is positive and decreasing graph f rising
a b f ′(x) decrease from pos. A partition number c of f ″.
For the function y = f (x) in the interval (a. → neg. → pos. The quantity f (c) is absolute minimum of f if f (c) ≤ f (c) for all x in domain of f. c at the domain f produced in inflection point for the graph of f only if f ″(x) changes sign at c. Theorem If y = f (x) is continuous on (a. f concave downward
f f f
f ″(x) > 0 over (a. f ″(x). Theorem A continuous function f on a closed interval [a. than f has an absolute maximum (minimum) on I. then either f ″(c) = 0 or f ″(c) does not exist.LN 6. Theorem If f is continuous on an interval I and c is the only critical value of I. and Optimization
Second Derivative For y = f (x). the second derivative of f.7 MBM064 Graphing and Optimization
Second Derivative. f concave upward
f f f
a b f ′(x) is negative and increasing graph f falling
a b f ′(x) increase from neg. Concavity.b] has both an absolute maximum value and an absolute minimum value on that interval.
Optimization
The quantity f (c) is absolute maximum of f if f (c) ≥ f (c) for all x in domain of f.

N(x) 2. the derivative of N ′(x).000 N ″(x) > 0 1.3
For the function f (x) = x . as 3 2 given by N(x) = 2. is increasing on (5.0) (0.∞) f ″(x) −−−−0++++ Graph of f : concave concave
downward upward inflection point
Example 6.LN 6. concave downward
−
Thus.000 − 2x + 60x − 450x. the rate of change of sales. since the rate of change of sales begins to decrease at this point. Notice that N ′(x) has a local maximum and N (x) has an inflection point at x = 10.10). and decreasing on (10.000 N ′(x) N ′(x) 0 10 15 point of diminishing return 5 20 x y = N(x) N ″(x) < 0
Solution The rate of change of sales with respect
to advertising expenditures is N ′(x) = −6x + 120x − 450 = −6(x − 5)(x − 15) To determine when this rate is increasing and decreasing. When is the rate of change of sales with respect to advertising expenditures increasing and increasing? What is the maximum rate of change? Graph N and N ′ on the same coordinate system.
. a company estimates that it will sell N(x) items after spending $ x thousand on advertising.
2
N ″(x) = −12x + 120 = −12(x − 10) The information obtained by analyzing the sign of N ′(x) and N ″(x) is summarized in table below. concave upward inflection point increasing.15). we have 2 f ′(x) = 3x and f ″(x) = 6x. 5 ≤ x ≤ 15. This value of x is referred to as the point of diminishing return. we see that N ′(x).
3
y = x3
inflection point 0 −3 −2 concave downward concave upward
1 2 3 x
Sign chart for f ″(x) about partition number 0: (−∞.4
Maximum Rate of Change Using past records. we find N ″(x). An examination of the graph of N ′(x) shows that the maximum rate of change is N ′(10) = 150.8 MBM065 Graphing and Optimization
y
Example 6.
N ′(x)
increasing local maximum decreasing
x
5 < x < 10 x = 10 10 < x < 15
N ″(x) +
0
N ′(x) + + +
N (x)
increasing.

LN 6.9 MBM066 Graphing and Optimization
Student Work-sheet
I.
y 40 32 24 16 8 0 1 2 3 4 5 x
Solution
Problems Find two positive numbers whose product is 100 and whose sum is minimum. Graph f and f ′ on the same coordinate system for 0 ≤ x ≤ 4.N Name Signature Problems Find the absolute maximum for f ′(x) if f (x) = 6x2 − x3 + 8. What is the minimum sum of these numbers? Solution
.

Solution
y
x
. and the local extreme. (a) Find the interval where f (x) is increasing. (c) Sketch the graph of f. and the point of inflection.N Name Signature Problems Given f (x) = 2x2 − x4. decreasing. concave downward.LN 6-10 MBM067 Graphing and Optimization
Student Work-sheet
I. (b) Find the interval where f (x) concave upward.

Solution
←⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯12⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯→
x x ? x x ? x ? ? x x x 12
. Find the length of the side of the square to be cut out in order to obtain a box of the largest possible volume and find the largest volume.N Name Signature Problems A cardboard box manufacturer wishes to make open boxes from pieces of cardboard 12 inches square by cutting equal squares from the four corners and turning up the sides.LN 6-11 MBM068 Graphing and Optimization
Student Work-sheet
I.

A method of solution is perfect if we can foresee from the start. 0 ≤ t ≤ 2. Politics In a new suburb. and the local extreme of f (x) = 1 + x -1 + x -2 . Given f (x) = x − 8x + 10. (b) Find the interval where f (x) concave upward. What is the average cost C ( x) per
blender if x blenders are produced in one day? Find the intervals where the C ( x ) is decreasing.
4 2
5. and the local extreme. (d) f ′(x) < 0 on (−1. (b) f ′(−1) = 0.∞) and satisfy the condition (a) f (−1) = 2. it is estimated that the number of registered voters 2 2 will grow according to N = 10 + 6t − t .1) and (0. and the local extreme. use these information to sketch the graph of f. find the intervals where f (x) is increasing. f ′(0) is not defined. 0 ≤ t ≤ 2.1). is increasing.
6. 2 equipment maintenance and repair $0. the intervals where f (x) is decreasing. decreasing. in my opinion more interesting then the inventions themselves. 4.0) and (1. and the local extreme. Botany If it is known from past experiments that the height (in feet) of a given plant after t months is given approximately by H(t) = 4 t − 2t. When will the rate of increase be maximum?
Math Quote
Nothing is more important than to see the source of invention which are. How long the plant to reach its maximum height? What is the maximum height? 7. Find the critical value. than following that method we shall attain our aim. 3.LN 6-12 MBM069 Graphing and Optimization
Exercise 6
1. (a) Find the intervals where f (x) is increasing. Gottfried Wilhelm (1646 – 1716)
. concave downward. If f (x) = 32x − x . f (0) = 0. the intervals where f (x) is decreasing. the intervals where f (x) is increasing. f (1) = 2. and the point of inflection. Leibniz.∞). If f is continuous on (−∞. f ′(1) = 0. unit production cost $30 per blender. Average cost A manufacturer incurs the following cost in producing x blenders in one day for 0 < x < 250. (c) f ′(x) > 0 on (−∞. and even prove.
4
2.08x . when t is time in years and N is in thousand. fixed cost $450.