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SUHAILA MOHAMED Factors influencing food selection O Culture, religion, Values, belief, environment O Age, gender, occupation, education, income, O Influences: Family, social, emotional, peer, advertisements O Familiarity O Food association: cake- birthdays, cookies O Nutritional value: knowledge, health concern O Food characteristics: smell, appearance, taste O Cost convenience, availability Basic nutrition concept O Nutrition, nutrients, diet O Calories vs calories (heat 1g water - 1C), O basal metabolic rate & factors affecting it: Gender, age, growth rate, height, temperature, fever & stress O BMR= wt (kg) x 24 (male); x 22 (female) O Activity: v.light (x 1.3); light (x1.5-1.6); O Moderate (x 1.6-1.7); heavy (1.9-2.1) O Thermal effect of food O Nutrient density NUTRITION O The combination of the processes involved in taking in nutrients, assimilating & utilizing them.

Influence on nutrition Food availability & intake Acceptable taste Provision of a sufficient of O2 & H2O Individuals genetic constitution (Nutrigenomics) Age, gender, growth & health A ready loss of breakdown products of metabolism NUTRIENT Substances that can be used for growth, maintenance, tissue repair & reproduction. Contribute to bodily needs in several ways: Provisions of energy Creation of structure Provisions of essential small molecular substances Macronutrients; Carbohydrates, protein, lipid, water Micronutrients: Vitamin & minerals ESSENTIAL NUTRIENT

What is a nutritious diet O Adequate, balanced, moderate, varied O Dietary reference intake (DRI) O Estimated Average requirement (EAR) O Recommended Dietary allowance (RDA) O Adequate Intake (AI): (no EAR or RDA) O Tolerable upper limit (UL): toxicity risk Digestion absorption & metabolism: O Saliva, epiglottis, esophagus, peristalsis, cardiac sphicter, stomach, HCL, chyme, small intestine, duodenum. Jejjunum, ileum, bile O Whole food, fresh food, organic food, processed food, enriched / fortified food, genetically modified food Food Pyramid FOOD GROUPS: Cereals: (Complex carbohydrates) Vegetables Fruits Dairy products Meat: (Complex protein) Fats & Oils Refined carbohydrates
O Serving size: ~-1 cup, ~50-75 g, ~2-3 oz

Food labels: O Name of Food O Ingredients O Net content O Nutrient/ Health claims (optional) O Nutrition facts O Company name & address: O Product code, manufacturing date, best before date HEALTH CLAIMS
O Calcium osteoporosis O Na hypertension O Fat cancer O Saturated fat LDLcholesterol, CVD risk O Soluble Fiber CVD O Fruits & vegetables cancer O Folate neural tube birth defects O Sugar dental caries O Soy protein & CVD

O Computerised Nutrient analysis O Quacks

WATER O Importance to health w Removal of waste & toxins w Controls body temperature w Solvent w Transportation w Controls reaction w Requires: ~ 2 litres a day w Detoxification; Dehydration; Excess water

Glucose production during exercise (the Cori cycle). l-Lactate produced in muscles under anaerobic conditions during exercise is sent to the liver, where it is converted back to glucose. The glucose can then return via the bloodstream to the muscles, to be stored as glycogen or used for energy production. Gluconeogenesis requires energy, so shifting this pathway to the liver frees the muscles from the burden of having to produce even more energy.

Dietary Fibre EFFECTS OF FIBER ON HEALTH What is Dietary Fiber?

O Dietary fiber is the indigestible portion of the diet (i.e

resistant to hydrolysis by

human digestive enzymes)

O The indigestible portion of the diet consists mainly of
O plant polysaccharides (cellulose, hemi-cellulose, pectin substances) & O lignin

Components of Dietary Fibre

Plant polysaccharides

(cellulose, hemi-cellulose, pectin substances) and


Are found in the walls of plant cells Definition Commonly defined as plant material that resists digestion by the secreted enzymes of the human alimentary tract but may be fermented by microflora in the colon. ( O Dr. Dennis Gordon defines fiber as Food carbohydrates that are not digested or absorbed & which contributes to positive physiological function of the body. Dietary Fiber

Fiber can be found only in foods of plant origin: grains, cereals, vegetables, fruit, legumes, lentils, nuts & seeds. Meat, fish & milk products do not contain dietary fiber. Two basic types of fiber:

OWater soluble fibers OWater - insoluble fibers

OThis refers to whether the fiber dissolves in hot water.

WHAT IS SOLUBLE FIBER? O They usually dissolve in water to form gel which slows the rate at which food leaves the stomach. O This fiber seems to help reduce blood cholesterol & slow down the rate that glucose (sugar) enters the blood, thereby, lowering the blood sugar levels. O They are found in all fruits, wheat flour, wheat bran, some cereals (such as oats & barley) & in raisins, dried peas & beans & lentils. O This type of fiber acts as a natural thickening for foods.

WHAT IS INSOLUBLE FIBER? O The largest amount of fiber in our diet. O They tend to absorb water & increase bulk thereby increase the rate at which food passes through the digestive tract. O The end results is less risk of constipation and diverticulitis. O It is mostly found in wheat bran, wheat bran products, whole grain products, cereals & some vegetables (e.g., carrots, broccoli, peas & the skin of fruits). Physiological Effects of Dietary Fiber Dietary fiber influences the physiology of all major parts of the alimentary canal. Individual cell-wall polysaccharide components (e.g. cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin substances) may affect one part of the gut more than another. The physical presentation of the food (e.g. the extent of grinding or cooking) affects the physiological response observed. A diet with a high fiber content from food generates different (and probably or preferable) physiological response compared with a low-fiber diet supplemented with a purified fiber or bran. FIBER AND HEALTH

O Effects on Blood Lipids

OEffects on Stool Bulking

O Cereal fiber has the greatest effect on stool bulking. O Effect of fiber from cereal > cabbage > carrot > apple > guar gum. O Large bulky stools are thought to be protective against a number of diseases. O The bulking is due partly to the retention of water by fiber in fecal matter & partly

to increased excretion of solids.

OEffects on Carbohydrates Digestion & Absorption

O It has been shown that giving large doses (20 g/day) of viscous food-additive

gums like guar in the diet is advantages to diabetes (guar gum is the ground endosperm of a seed of a tree native to India which contains, instead of starch, 80% of a galactomannan).

O Diabetics placed on high-fiber diets (from leafy vegetables, fruit & cereals) without

supplementation with viscous gums also show improvement in sugar metabolism. ADVANTAGES The soluble fibers reduce triglyceride absorption, increase bile acid output & decrease low density lipoprotein & total cholesterol. Dietary fiber appears to lower blood cholesterol & may help to reduce the risk of coronary heart disease. Oats & guar gum are found in lowering blood cholesterol.

Dietary fiber, when ingested, are found to reduce post prandial glucose levels in blood & cholesterol levels. A low fat, high fiber diet may reduce the risk of colorectal cancer. Dietary fiber decreases transit time & allowing less time for the colonic bacteria to produce carcinogens. ADVANTAGES (cont.) Diet rich in fiber increases the acidity of stools by fermentation which reduces bacterial production of carcinogens.

It prolongs the feeling of fullness in weight loss by adding bulk to the diet.

DISADVANTAGES Diet containing high fiber can cause abdominal distension, pain, flatulence & diarrhea in some people.

Diet containing very high phytate hinder the absorption of calcium, zinc & iron. It can cause anemia & oesteomalacia. Decrease in zinc absorption in children produces stunned growth & retarded sexual
development. The table below shows the crude fiber & dietary content of some foods

ROLE OF FIBRE IN NUTRITION facilitates bowel removal, increase faecal volume by encouraging the growth of gut microbes reduce fat absorption reduce the absorption of toxic substances from food increase the production of vitamin B & K by gut microbes decrease the absorption of other nutrients from the gut, e.g. fats, minerals, cholesterol etc decrease blood cholesterol cleans & strengthens the gut DIETARY FIBRES AND BOWEL HEALTH prevents bowel diseases & therapeutic for degenerative (constipation) & inflammatory (colitis) large bowel diseases, & cancer prevention best when started young dietary fibres including resistant starch are fermented in the colon & improve production of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) best sources: legumes, brown rice, other cereals, vegetables, fruits BENEFICIAL EFFECTS OF SHORT CHAIN FATTY ACIDS pH lowering thus reduced absorption of toxic amines inhibit pathogen growth increased fluid & stimulates electrolyte transport relaxes resistant blood vessels major acids: acetate, propionate & butyrate SHORT CHAIN FATTY ACIDS Propionate o stimulates colon muscle contraction o promotes colonic epithelial proliferation Butyrate o inhibits growth of tumour cells o promotes cell differentiation o promotes repair of damaged DNA in cells o major metabolic fuel for colonocytes o repairs diversion & ulcerative colitis Fiber & Health O Digestive disorders: diverticulosis & hemorrhoids O Cancer: colon O Cardiovascular disease O Diabetes O Obesity O Cereals: Rice, Barley, buckwheat, Millet, Oats, Rye, Wheat, Sorghum, Amaranth, Quinoa O Types of rice: basmati, jasmine, short grain, japonica, purple O Legumes: LIPID

KEPENTINGAN LEMAK DALAM PEMAKANAN sebahagian dari tiap-tiap sel (kulit, rambut, saraf / otak) hormon membawa vitamin larut lemak memberi tenaga membuat hempedu menampung dan memelihara organ menjaga suhu badan, memberi tenaga ASID LEMAK PERLU asid lemak tidak tepu linoleik, linolenik arachidonik sumber minyak sayuran jagung, soya, kelapa sawit olein ikan KEKURANGAN LEMAK TAK TEPU bulu/rambut kering dan nipis kulit tebal, kering dan bersisik, penyakit kulit rahim rosak, kemandulan penyusuan terganggu tumbesaran terbantut, fungsi organ-organ terjejas edema Mono-unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA's) are found chiefly in vegetable oils such as palm oil, canola, olive & peanut oils & are liquids at room temperature. Poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA's) are found mainly in vegetable oils such as safflower, sunflower, corn, flaxseed & canola oils & are also liquids at room temperature. Saturated fatty acids (SFA's), on the other hand, are mainly found in animal sources such as red meat, poultry, milk & butter & are usually solid at room temperature. Poly Unsaturated fatty acids - Omega-3 oils (e.g. Eicosapentaenoic acid, commonly found in fish), Omega-6 oils (e.g. linoleic acid, gamma-linolenic acid) & Omega-9 oils (e.g. oleic acid) have great therapeutic properties. Omega-3 & Omega-6 oils are essential fatty acids (EFA's). EFA's are fatty acids that are necessary for normal growth & development but cannot be manufactured by the body. They have to form part of the regular diet for the body to have them & to begin to function efficiently. Omega 3 oils :prevent many health maladies reduced risks of heart attack, high blood pressure, cancer & many other health problems. - Deficiency :health problems including heart attacks, high blood pressure, diabetes

mellitus, arthritis, cancer, premenstrual syndrome, hair loss, multiple sclerosis, eczema, etc. Too much saturated fat : increase blood levels of cholesterol resulting in heart-related problems. -Mono- & poly-unsaturated fatty acids ("good fat") help lower cholesterol levels & decrease CVD risk. -The World Health Organisation (WHO) recommends a lower limit for dietary fat intake to be 15% of total calories & about 20% for women of reproductive age.

Eicosanoid cascade Unsaturated fatty acid metabolism lipogenesis Lipoprotein metabolism Lymphatic system

2)common name (e.g.butyric,stearic or oleic) 3)represent by a simple numerical expression

butyric oleic linoleic

4:0 18:1 18:3

4)each acid can be given a standard letter abbreviation palmitic P linoleic L B)Unsaturated Fatty Acids O named after parent unsaturated hydrocarbons O terminal anoic replaced by enoic O di,tri =no of double bond O location of double bond is put before the name of acid O Cs are numbered from the distal end of the acyl chain (the opposite end from the carboxyl group). C)Acylglycerols O The component shown here can be named: tristearoylglycerol, glycerol tristearate, tristearin or StStSt Classification (structural basis) (a)Simple lipids Fats & oils O Ester of FAs & glycerol Waxes O Esters of FAs & monohydric alcohols (b)compound lipids O Phospholipids (esters of glycerol & FA & n-complex) O Cerebrocide (ester of glycerol & CHO,FAs & n-complex, sphinosine) O other n- complex, cholesterol, beta carotene (C)Derived lipids( from natural triglycerides) O free FAs O alcohols ,long chain sterol (cholesterol) O hydrocarbons caratenoid (Squalene) O vitaminA,D,E,K Classification(source) Milk fats O Generally from ruminants (cows & goats) O Contain unique C4-C8 short chain FAs O Particularly butyric acid ( butanoic) O Odorous O Amount of butyric acid quite constant

O Form basis for detecting adulteration of milk fat with vegetable oils O Also can analyze for plant sterols O Contain limited PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acid) but has 25 to 48%oleic acid O Most expensive fat due to pricing system used for milk

Lauric acid fats(Dodecanoic 12:0) Main fatty acid is lauric acid (C12,40 to 50%) Moderate amounts of C6,C8,C10 FA O Claimed to be athorogenic in nature O Coconut & palm kernel oils O Widely used in chocolate coatings,snack,crackers

Vegetable butters cocoa butter unique component of chocolate confections O melts rapidly over short melting point range just under body temperature O specific arrangement of fatty acid on glycerides O large ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids

oleic-linoleic group
O most abundant fats & oils O mono & diunsaturated FAs O oleic group(18:1) O olive oil, high-oleic safflower & high-oleic sunflower oils O each contain more than 70%oleic acids non- athrogenic O linoleic group(18:2) O corn ,peanut, sunflower, safflower, cottonseed,sesame oil O high in linoleic acids(omega-6 fatty acids ) O criticized as possibly contributing to disease

O Marine oils O Mainly fish oils, also includes whales ,seals, walrus etc. O Contain unique LCFA (long chain fatty acids),omega-3 up to six double bonds O Very susceptible to oxidation O Contain cholesterol O Very beneficial towards alleviating Cardiovascular Diseases Linoleic group(18:3)
O All contain notable amounts of linoleic acid(18:3).Omega 3 O Soybean ,canola (puritan) O Sensitive to off-flavors through oxidation of double bonds O Beneficial to diet (may not be as good as fish oils

Animal fats O Tallow from beef, lard from swine, mutton tallow, poultry fats

O Mostly long chain fatty acids O Fairly levels of oleic & linoleic acids O Very few short chain fatty acid O High amount fully saturated triglycerides (gives high melting points)

OImportant Classes of Lipids

O 1. Fatty Acids O 2. Triacylglycerols O 3. Waxes O 4. Glycerolphospholipids O 5. Sphingolipids O 6. Steroids O 7. Prostaglandins & Leukotrienes

1)Fatty Acids Long Chain Carboxylic Acids (usually even no of Cs) Chain length of 14-22 C generally. General formula of FA is RCOOH. Free fatty acids are toxic-bound as oxygen esters in triacylglycerol, glycolipid, phospholipids 1. Saturated Fatty Acids Saturated fatty acids are highly flexible molecules that can assume a wide range of conformation because there is relatively free rotation around each of their CC bonds B. Unsaturated Fatty Acids
O contain C=C double bonds generally all cis-conformations. O Multiple Sites of Unsaturation are Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids O Single Sites of Unsaturated are Monounsaturated Fatty Acids. O Linoleic & Linolenic are essential fatty acids in the human diet (Arachidonic

Acid can be synthesized from Linolenic acid.

O Most unsaturated fatty acids double bond between C9 & C10 O Double bond are seldom conjugated but are separated by methylene group O Double bond tend to occur every 3 carbon atom

fatty acid forms zigzag chains that can fit compactly together, resulting in high van der waals attractions; therefore saturated fats are solids OIf a few cis double bonds are present in the chains, the molecules cannot form neat, compact lattices, but tend to coil; polyunsaturated triglycerides tend to be oils(melting point decrease)



Ester of glycerol & 3 fatty acids.

O3 FAs may be same or different. OC-1 & C-3 of glycerol are joined to saturated fatty acids OC-2 to an unsaturated one ODiglycerides consist of glycerol combined with 2 molecules of FA OMonoglycerides- consist of only one FA OBoth are used as emulsifiers in food industry

3)Waxes Esters of long chain fatty acids & alcohols. Generally mixtures of chain length. Carboxylic acid generally 16-36 carbons (even #'s) Alcohols generally 24-36 carbons (even #'s) Beeswax is 30-Carbon alcohol & 16-Carbon acid. Waxes found several places in nature OFruits - surface OLeaves - surface OAnimal Furs OFeathers (all properties of repelling water) They act as protective coatings for skin, fur, feathers, leaves, fruits, etc.

5)Sphingolipids O1. Esters of phosphate & small molecules with sphingosine.

O2. Sphingomyelin (containing choline) is a major constituent of the

membranes of the myelin sheath surrounding nerve fibers. Glycolipids OSphingosine-based lipids containing carbohydrate instead of the phosphate ester.


or Gangliosides are important cell surface components of nerve receptors. OMembrane sugars are involved in identification & recognition, protection, & adhesion. Membrane sugars are found on the external face (E-face)of the lipid bilayer. They do not occur on the protoplasmic face (P-face). OGlycolipids & Glycoproteins generally on outer surface of plasma membrane. 6)Cholesterol & other Steroids Steroids are lipids based on the tetracyclic ring structure

Steroid hormones OSex Hormones (testosterone,androsterone, estrone, estradiol, progesterone) OAdrenal Cortical hormones (aldosterone, hydrocortisone, cortisone)


KEKURANGAN PROTEIN otot lemah kuku, rambut dan kulit tidak sihat, dan mudah pecah tidak cukup tenaga tekanan darah rendah anaemia kekurangan enzim pengawal unkai bina mudah diserang penyakit: sel putih pelawan kuman tidak dapat terbentuk dengan cukup sistem penghadaman terjejas kecerdasan otot dan mental terjejas PROTEIN


O An essential amino O Found in corn, cereal grains, legumes, etc O Precursor of serotonin O Symbol: Try or w

Molecular formula: C11H12N2O2 O Molecular weight: 204.23 O Isoelectric point (pH): 5.89 O CAS registry number: 73-22-3 FUNCTION OF TRYPTOPHAN O Assist sleep O Anti depressant O Relieves pain O Increase pain threshold O Lower cholesterol & blood fat level O Others: treat parkinsonism, epilepsy, schizophrenia, aid weight-loss O Excess may be Toxic to:Asthma or systemic lupus erythematosus patients; Morning sluggishness O TRYPTOPHAN DEFICIENCY O Pellagra O Subclinical or subtle psycological effect



A group of organic compounds. Required in small quantities for certain chemical reactions, growth, maintenance of good health. Not usually synthesized in the body, therefore essential in the diet. Vitamins are grouped into two classes OWater soluble Vitamins B & C OFat soluble Vitamins A D E K

Vitamin A Vitamin A is a group of fat-soluble vitamins. Is a nearly colorless, long chain, unsaturated alcohol with five double bonds. The most useable form of the vitamin is retinol, often called preformed vitamin A as it is the active form in the body. Retinol activity is contained in a series of C20 & C40 unsaturated hydrocarbon. Retinol (an alcohol) can only be found in animal sources & can be converted by the body into retinal (an aldehyde) & retinoic acid (a carboxylic acid), other active forms of vitamin A. Retinol is a pale yellow solid compound. Structure of Retinol

3D Structure of Retinol

Vitamin is made up of isoprene units with alternate double bond, starting with one in the beta-ionone ring that is in conjugation with those in the side chain. Can exist in different isomeric vitamin A forms. The most active vitamin A form is the all-trans. Cis-forms can arise from the all-trans form. Isomer Vitamin A consists of the three biologically active molecules, retinol, retinal, retinoic acid

Each of these compound are derived from the plant precursor molecule, beta-carotene (a member of a family of molecules know as carotenoids). Beta-carotene which consists of two molecules of retinal linked at their aldehyde ends, is also referred to as the provitamin form of vitamin A. Carotenoids Contribute significant vitamin A activity. Found in red, orange, & yellow pigments that give color to many fruits & vegetables. More than 500 carotenoids have been isolated from nature, 50 exhibit some provitamin A activity. Can be converted to retinol by the body. Vitamin A activity of Beta-carotene is the greatest provitamin A activity. 1 mol of Beta-carotene = 2 mol of retinol. The conversion of carotenoids to retinol will decrease when body stores are full thus preventing a retinol overdose (can lead to toxic symptoms).

Other Provitamin a- & g-carotene Cryptoxanthin (orange) Beta- Zeacarotene Zeaxanthin Lutein

Structure of Beta Carotene

3D Structure of Beta Carotene

Sources in Food


Soluble in fat Sensitive OLight


Retinol sensitive to oxidation by the air. It is present in animal fats & oxidation of these can result in a loss of the fat soluble vitamin. OHeat Beta carotene pound is sensitive to heat but significant losses only occur after long periods of boiling or drying.


Maintenance of normal vision Health of epithelial cells Pregnancy & fetal development Protection against infection Absorption & metabolism Other actions Helps lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell) to function effectively, & that carotenoids may act as antioxidants in the body.

Vitamin A also has antioxidant activity & has a role in protecting against free radical damage which contributes to many common diseases. Vitamin A is involved in iron metabolism & storage.

Deficiency Night blindness - impaired vision in dim light. Xerophthalmia - partial or total blindness due to damage of the cornea from a severe deficiency. Skin lesions. Inhibited growth & bone development & loss of weight in the young. Increased susceptibility to infection. Kertinisation of mucous membrane, loss of gland activities, multiple fetal abnormalities.


Hypervitaminosis: O Possible fortified foods + supplement. O Extremely toxic & dependent on the forms ingested,duraton & individual. O Drowsiness, vomiting. O Stunted growth, anorexia, bone disease, hair loss, increase serum TG. O Pancreatitis, enlargement of liver. Increase the risks of birth defects & liver abnormalities & may reduce your bone mineral density, which could result in osteoporosis.

Vitamin B O Vitamin B1(Thiamine) O Vitamin B2(Riboflavin) O Vitamin B3(Niacin) O Vitamin B5( Pantothenic acid) O Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) O Vitamin B9 (Folic acid) O Vitamin B12(Cobalamin) Vitamin B1 Thiamin

Thiamin pyrophosphate

Natural Sources

O Brown rice O Egg yolks O Fish O Legumes O Liver O Peanuts O Spirulina

RDI O 0.1mg/ 1000KJ for all ages. O Varies from 0.4mg per day for infants to 1.1mg per day for adults O Requirement increase during period increased metabolism. Eg. Fever, pregnancy O High soluble in water, easily leached out of food


O Not stable in neutral or alkaline O Sensitive to UV & heat ( destroyed if >100C) O Maximum loss during cooking is 80%

O Act as co-enzyme in at least 24 enzyme system O Blood information O Carbahydrate metabolism O Production of hydrochloric acid O Enchances circulation & optimizes cognitive activity & brain function O Promote normal appetite, positive effect on growth O Transmision of nerve impulses


Deficiency O Cause beriberi, a nervous system disease O Beriberi is symptoms related to anorexia & weight loss, heart problems & neurological symptoms O Affect carbahydrate metabolism O Edema in the face, hands, legs, blood vessels dilate O Quite common developing countries O Common among elderly pregnant women O Diet rich in polished rice O High consumption of raw seafood O alcoholism

Cause of Deficiency

O Large doses taken orally appear safe but large doses administered intravenously have produced symptoms of shock Vitamin B2 O Cheese O Egg yolks O Mi l k O Spinach O Yogurt O Meat O legumes


Natural sources

RDI O 0.12mg/1000KJ O Varies from 0.5mg per day for infants to 1.4mg/day for adults O Related heat stable in acid O Less stable in neutral medium O Rapid destroyed in alkaline


O Sensitive to light

O Act as coenzymes (FAD & FMN) O Cell respiration O Release of energy from carbahydrate, protien & fat O Antibody production Deficiency O Cracks & sore at the corners at the mouth O Eye disorders (light sensitivity) O Failure to grow in children O Skin lesions O Inflammation of the mouth & tongue Toxicity O Large doses taken orally appear safe Vitamin B3 O nicotinamid O Nicothinic acid


Natural sources
O Beef liver O Broccoli O Bran (wheat) O Vegemite O carrots

RDI O 1.6 mg niacin equivalents / 1000KJ for all ages O Moderately resistant to heat, acid & alkaline O Relative stable during cooking & processing


O Part of NAD (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) enzyme system O Proper circulation & healthy skin O Cell respiration O Decrease mobilization of fatty acid Deficiency O Early symptoms: weakness, anaemia O Pellagra & is charaterised by the three Ds: Dermatitis Diarrhoea Dementia


Toxicity O Large doses of nicotine acid (100-200 x R.D.I.) have pharmacological effects - lowering of blood cholesterol & trighlyceride - increase blood density lipoprotein O Undesired side effect: - flushing - liver toxicity

O Yeast O Liver O Eggs O Kidney O Peanuts product O Rice bran O Wheat bran O 4-7 mg / day for adults

Natural Sources

Vitamin B5

RDI Function

O Functions as a co-enzymes for coenzymes A & acylcarrier protein (ACD) O Metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, proteins O Synthesis of amino acid, fatty acid, sterol, steroid hormone & vitamin D O Formation of red blood cells, haemoglobin O Anti-stress vitamin Stability O Maximum loss of 50% during cooking O Sensitive to heat & both acid & alkali conditions O Considerable amounts are lost during the milling of cereal grains O Clinical signs of deficiency have been recorded only under experimental conditions: - personality changes - headache - fatigue, vomiting & muscle cramps O Toxicity is low

Deficiency Toxicity
Vitamin B6

Natural sources
O Walnuts O Bananas O Corn

O Muscle meat O chicken

RDI O Adults & children 8 years & over 1.0 -2.2 mg/day Stability O Maximum loss of 40% during cooking O Stable to normal heat O Sensitive to light, air or oxygen & alkali conditions Function O Synthesis & metabolism of proteins O Release of energy from carbohydrate & fat O Amino acid metabolism O Aids in maintaining sodium & potassium balance O Cancer Imunity Deficiency O Anemia: high blood iron, FE levels & abnormal Trp metabolism O Increase the risk of heart attack O Cause chromosomal breaks of DNA O Increasing disease risk O Central nervous system disturbance O Toxicity is low but regular & prolonged intakes of large amounts can induce - dependency on vitamin B6 - interference with the action of certain drug - sensory neuropathy (>200mg/day) Vitamin B9 O Green leaf vegetables O Peanuts O Legumes O Liver O kidney


Natural Sources

O 200g total folacin / day for adults O 400g total folacin / day during prenancy


Stability O One of the most unstable vitamin & considerable amounts are lost during cooking O Sensitive to light, air, or oxygen O Sensitive to sulfide & nitrites


O Functions as a co-enzymes in the transfer of carbon molecules to various compounds in tne synthesis of key materials such as: -purine (DNA & RNA synthesis) - thymine - haemoglobin - choline Deficiency O Marcocylic anemia O Deficiency in early pregnancy lead to neural tube defects in fetus O Effectiveness of methotrexate O Small intestine defects O Large doses up to 15 mg / day appear to be non- toxic Vitamin B12 O Lamb liver (fried) O Sardines O Oyster O Kidney O Egg yolk


Natural sources

O 2.0 g / day for adults & boys & girls from 11-18 of age O Maximum loss of 10% during cooking O Sensitive to alkaline condition O Stable to heat, light, oxygen & acid



Function O Function as co-enzyme in protein metabolism O Activation of folic acid O Lower heart disease risk when consumed with folate O Prevents nerve damage O helps folic acid in regulating the formation of red blood cells & help in utilization of iron O Pernicious anemia O Neurological disturbance O 1g/ meal can cause B12 deficiency

Deficiency Toxicity

O Very low toxicity in doses over 1000 x the R.D.I.

Structure, Role & Properties of Vitamin C in Food GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS O Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid or ascorbate (ASC) O a white, crystalline water-soluble nutrient O although fairly stable in acid solution, it is normally the least stable of vitamins O Unstable in alkali solution O very sensitive to oxygen O its potency can be lost through exposure to light, heat, & air, which stimulate the activity of oxidative enzymes. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS (cont) O enolic form of 3-oxo-L-gulofuranolactone O Almost all animals can synthesize vitamin C from glucose O Man, monkeys & guinea-pigs are among the relatively few species which require a dietary source of vitamin C

Chemistry of Vitamin C Chemistry (cont) RDA O RDA (U. S. government Recommended Daily Allowance) is the nutritional equivalent of the minimum wage O The U.S. RDA for vitamin C is 60mg per day O Vitamin C cannot be stored in the body, a regular intake is essential to maintain health O Eating a variety of foods that contain vitamin C is the best way to get an adequate amount. Healthy individuals who eat a balanced diet rarely need supplements O Research showed that 10mg per day is sufficient both to prevent or to cure scurvy O RDI (Reference Daily Intake) OAdults 40mg per day OPregnancy 50mg per day OLactation 70mg per day to meet the needs of the baby SOURCE

O Good sources of Vitamin C are Broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower, cabbage, green

leafy vegetables, red peppers, chilies, watercress, parsley, blackcurrants, strawberries, kiwi fruit, guavas, citrus fruit. O Citrus fruit is perhaps the best known source of this water soluble vitamin. O It can also be found in green leafy vegetables, peppers & strawberries. O Vitamin C is not as widely distributed in foods as most other vitamins O Its found almost entirely in vegetables, fruits, but not in cereals or dried pulse vegetables O Very small amount in animal foods like raw liver, kidney & raw milk. O The ASC amount in fruits & vegetables is very variable, even within same variety. The table in the next slide show the average ASC content of some foods Where do we get ASC?
O 93% of the vitamin C in the diets came from fruits & vegetables. O Citrus fruits & tomatoes contributed almost half of the vitamin C provided by the

fruits & vegetables group.

O Foods that contain small amounts of vitamin C but are not considered good sources

can contribute significant amounts of vitamin C to an individual's diet if these foods are eaten often or in large amounts. What about fortified foods? O Some juices not normally a source of vitamin C, e.g. grape & apple, have vitamin C added. A 3/4-cup (juice glass) serving of these fortified juices may provide >40% of the RDA for ASC O Vitamin C is added to frozen peaches to prevent discoloration & to fruits drinks to compensate losses during processing. O Most RTE cereals are fortified with ASC. Fortified RTE cereals usually contain at least 25% of the RDA for ASC ROLE OF ASC O Vitamin C has been an essential ingredient to life O It is utilized throughout the body for so many things O E.g. tissues that maintain a higher [ ] of ASC would be most susceptible to chronic problems as a result of chronic deficiency of ASC O Plasma ASC [ ] of a healthy person is 8-14 mg/L, while adrenal glands, pituitary, thymus, corpus luteum & retina have concentrations > 100 times higher. O The brain, spleen, lung, testicle, lymph glands, liver, thyroid, small intestinal mucosa, leukocytes, pancreas, kidney & salivary glands have [ ]10-50 times that of plasma. The skeletal, smooth & cardiac muscle & erythrocytes have [ ] about 10 times that of plasma Collagen Formation
O ASC is necessary for the formation of collagen, the main protein of connective tissue. O Collagen is the cement that gives our tissues form & substance O Collagens are principal components of tendons, ligaments, skin, bone, teeth, cartilage,

heart valves, cornea, eye lens, in addition to the ground substance between cells

O Hydroxylation of proline & lysine residues in collagen. Without these post-

translational modifications the triple helix of collagen is unstable & connective tissue loses its integrity Collagen Formation (cont) O Thus, when collagen forms in the absence of ascorbic acid, but the fibers are abnormal, resulting in skin lesions & blood vessel fragility, characteristics of scurvy Tripel Helix of Collagen O Collagen is a rigid, fibrous protein that is the principal constituent of connective tissue in animals, including bones, teeth, cartilage, tendons, skin & blood vessels. O Collagen's high tensile strength is due to the unique structure of its basic structural unit, tropocollagen, which consists of 3 left-handed helical polypeptide chains intertwined around each other in a right-handed triple helix Antioxidant O oxidation is not always bad O But much [O] is damaging, accelerating aging & contributing to tissue & organ damage. O [O] is also a contributor to heart disease (LDL oxidation has been linked to atherosclerosis) & cancer. O the more free-radical damage appears to contribute to chronic conditions & the more we realize the importance of antioxidant O massive doses of ASC scavenging massive amounts of reactive free radicals who mediate all inflammations. Most acute infectious diseases can be cured if the free radicals are eliminated Homeodynamics O Homeodynamics is a fairly recent term that updates "homeostasis" O Definition: the physiological process by which the internal systems of the body (e.g. blood pressure, body temperature, acid-base balance) are maintained at equilibrium, despite variations in the external conditions O Homeodynamics attempts to add emphasis to the dynamic, ever-adjusting nature of these processes. O When our body's are exposed to stress our stores of Vitamin C are depleted, mostly by our adrenal gland (it takes a molecule of ASC to produce a molecule of adrenaline) Homeodynamics (cont) O E.g. Being wet & cold is stressful. It puts an additional strain on us to keep our body temperature up. This reduces our "resistance". O Since vitamin C is vital to both our immune system & our natural balance, the day after coming in from a cold rain, we find ourselves with a scratchy throat & its downhill from there. (Anti-stress function) Immune System O ASC is a requirement for the proper functioning of our immune systems. O Its involved in WBC production, T-cells & macrophages. O Without ASC in adequate quantities, our own body's best defense against disease is left without ammunition.

O Thus, not surprising that viral & bacterial infections can be dealt with by our own

systems when adequate C is present.

O ASC is toxic to viruses & bacteria, because of its prooxidant activity.

Others Role O Hematopoiesis O enhance absorption of Iron from intestine O formation of active compounds from tetrahydrofolates O CNS - neurotransmitters e.g. serotanin O Treatment of scurvy O Therapeutic Utilisation common cold - 1000mg/day, 45% decreased in incidence of colds cancer ASC is particularly toxic to malignant tumor cells but much less toxic to nonmalignant normal cells, thus its therapeutic use in cancer. DEFICIENCY Scurvy O Symptoms: Bruising & spontaneous hemorrhaging under the skin Gums become black & spongy Wounds & fractures fail to heal in the normal length of time O Reasons: Fail to absorb iron Inability to form RBC

O ASC is readily to destroyed during cooking. O It is very soluble in water & therefore leaches out into cooking water. O It is also oxidized. [O] is most rapid in alkaline conditions, high T, & on exposure to


light, air & traces of metals Zn, Fe & particularly Cu O ASC oxidase present in plant cell to increase [O] rate. In intact cells, its separate from ASC. O But, when vegetables bruised, cut or chopped, it comes into contact with ASC & destroy it. O The enzyme is destroyed >60C & is therefore destroyed during cooking -> [O] rate reduce Recommendations to minimize losses of ASC STORAGE O Store in cool, dark place O [O] is increase by heat & light O Avoid bruising or damaging fruits & vegetables O Will damage cells & release enzymes O Refrigerate prepared juices & store them for no more than 2 to 3 days O Store cut raw fruits & vegetables in an airtight container & refrigerate

B. PREPARATION O Prepare just before cooking O The enzyme release when cut O Dont soak in cold water O ASC is water soluble O Tear rather than cut green leaves O Avoid cells break O Avoid using iron knives graters O Iron increase [O] rate O Use thin hand peeling instead of thick hand peeling C. COOKING O Place in boiling water O Enzyme destroyed by heat O Use a minimum quantity of water & a covered pan O ASC leach into water (> water, >ASC loss) Cook in short time O Overcook will increase [O] O Dont add sodium bicarbonate to green vegetables O Alkali increase [O] O Cook potatoes in their skins D. SERVICE O Serve immediately O Keep >45min will reduce ASC by 50% or more O Avoid mashing & pureeing O Will increase [O] rate O Serve fruits & vegetables raw whenever possible Preserved Food O 50% ASC loss during canning O Greater loss during drying O Frozen food retain most of their ASC, thus may have more vitamin than fresh vegetables O There is a gradual loss of ASC during storage O E.g. peas stored at -18C for 8 months about 15% of their ASC content What he says? O Dr. Linus Pauling, the 2 times Nobel prize-winning scientist, was a chief advocate of the importance of supplementing our diets with Vitamin C to promote optimum health & cure disease.

Vitamin D

Soluble in fats & oils. Found in animal sources.

There are two forms of vitamin D : Cholecalciferol ( D3) Natural form vitamin according in foods. Formed by the action of sunlight (ultraviolet) irradiation on 7dehydrocholesterol in the skin. A white & crystalline compound O Ergocalciferol ( D2 ) Synthetic form. Production of ergocalciferol is similar, using a starting product of ultraviolet irradiation or ergosterol, a yeast extract. For pharmaceutical applications & food supplementation.

Structures of vitamin D

Activation of vitamin D

Cholecalciferol is manufactured by irradiating 7-dehydrocholesterol with ultraviolet. Vitamin D3 (Cholecalciferol) is converted to its active hormone form by the liver & the kidney. The Cholecalciferol is converted to 25-hydroxycholecalciferol, calcidiol. Then metabolized by the kidney to several active forms including 1,25dihydroxycholecalciferol, calcitriol.

O 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (calcitriol)

stimulate reabsorption of Ca kidney

stimulate reabsorption of Ca, phosphorus P bone increased absorption of Ca, P - intestine Structures Stability

Fat soluble vitamins. Sensitive O Oxygen & light 50% Cholecalciferol added to skim milk is lost during 12 days continual exposure to fluorescent light at 40C. Oxidative degradation especially in dried foods (breakfast cereal).

Stable O In food storage O Cooking O Processing Sources in Food Functions Maintain blood levels of calcium & phosphorus in the bones & teeth. Increase magnesium absorption & improve zinc balance. Cellular & neural functions (nerve impulses & muscle contractions). Promotes bone mineralization in concert with a number of other vitamins, minerals, & hormones. Deficiency Children leads to the disease called Rickets.
O Vitamin D acts as a hormone to regulate calcium absorption from the intestine & to

regulate levels of calcium & phosphate in the bones. O When there is a deficiency in the hormone, the body is unable to properly regulate calcium & phosphate levels. O Calcium & phosphate are the minerals that the body uses to produce bones. In essence, the blood lacks these minerals. O This signals the body to release them from the bones into the bloodstream. O This, in turn causes a loss of calcium & phosphate from the bone, which leads to a destruction of the supportive matrix.

O Results in progressive softening & weakening of the bones structure. O Include bone pain or tenderness, skeletal deformities, increased tendency to

fracture bones, dental deformities, muscle cramps, impaired growth and/or short stature. O The most prominently recognized deformity is bowing of the legs. O Rickets patient legs bow out, due to the lack of supportive matrix in the bone. O As more & more calcium & phosphate are desorbed from bone, the bones in the legs can no longer support the childs weight.

Adult leads to the disease called Osteomalacia. O Rheumatic-like disease; O Softening of the bones leads to deformities of the spine & pelvis.

Delayed eruption of teeth & out of order.

Rickets Osteomalacia Excess Dangerous, narrow different between requirement & toxic dose (50 mcg can cause hypercalcemia). Calcification of the soft tissue leading to renal failure, lungs & blood vessels damage. Polydipsia, polyuria, constipation, anorexia. Damaged fetus. High blood pressure & brain damage.

VITAMIN E O Tocopherol & tocotrienol. O Is a fat soluble vitamin. O It is much more abundant in plants foods, than in those of animal origin. O Present less risk of toxicity in high dosages than other fat-soluble vitamin.
O Vitamin E is predominantly found in vegetable & seed oils, nuts & seeds, green &


leafy green vegetables, & some fruits. VITAMIN E FOOD SOURCES (cont.) O Tocotrienols are found in high concentrations in palm oil & rice bran. O Other natural sources include coconut oil, cocoa butter, soybeans, barley & wheat germ. Moreover, tocotrienols were also detected in meat & eggs. O Sunflower, peanut, walnut, sesame & olive oils, however contain only tocopherols VITAMIN E FOOD SOURCES (cont.) O Because oils are a major ingredient of margarines & salad dressings, many of these products contain some vitamin as well. O Animal foods not good sources of vitamin E except for liver. RDA O 10mg/day (tocophenol). VITAMIN E DAILY NEEDS VITAMIN E STRUCTURE O Vitamin E is comprised of eight forms: the alpha, beta, gamma, & delta tocopherols & the alpha, beta, gamma, & delta tocotrienols. O The most active form is alpha-tocopherol.

O Other forms are considered less active. O The natural form of vitamin E is D-tocopherol. O The synthetic form of vitamin E is called L-tocopherol.

VITAMIN E STRUCTURE (cont.) Molecular structure of vitamin E stereoisomers. Tocotrienols consist of a chromanol nucleus & a lipophilic isoprenoid chain. Tocopherols differ only in the side chain (phytyl). The naturally occurring isoforms,alpha,gamma, beta & delta have methylation patterns as indicated.

STABILITY O Unstable. O Vitamin E is sensitive to heat, light & oxygen & significant losses have been found after relatively short times of food storage. VITAMIN E LOSSES O The milling of whole grains into flour takes out a high percentage of vitamin E. O The bleaching of flour eliminates any vitamin E remaining. O Vitamin E is fairly stable at regular cooking temperatures, but high frying temperature will destroy more of the vitamin. FUNCTIONS O An important antioxidant. - to prevent cell-membrane damage. - To protect unsaturated fats in the body, especially the polyunsaturated fats (PUFA) from oxidation. - Detoxifies radicals (a good word for destructive substances). FUNCTIONS (CONT.) O Aids in the growth of new tissue & the healing of damaged tissue from surgery or burns. O Protect red & white blood cells, reduce platelet aggregation. O Improves the immune response in older adults. O To protect the oxidation of the bad cholesterol (LDL) in the bloodstream (when LDL is oxidized, it is more likely to promote the buildup of fatty plaque in the artery walls (atherosclerosis). VITAMIN E DEFICIENCIES O Deficiencies are rare. O Usually associated with diseases of fat malabsorption such as cystic fibrosis & in individual consuming very low fat diets for a prolonged period. Malabsorption is difficulty in the digest or absorption of nutrients from food substances. VITAMIN E DEFICIENCIES (cont.)

O When blood concentration of vitamin E is in a severe deficiency state, the red blood cells tend to break open. O A prolonged deficiency state can cause neuromuscular dysfunction with loss of muscle coordination & impaired vision. VITAMIN E UPPER LIMITS O Extremely high doses may interfere with blood clotting & enhance the effects of drugs used to oppose blood clotting, such as aspirin, or anticoagulants. VITAMIN K O Is a fat-soluble vitamin. O The K is derived from the German word koagulation. O Phylloquinone- plant origin.(Vitamin K1) O Menaquinone- synthesis by bacteria.(Vitamin K2) VITAMIN K FOOD SOURCES O The best food sources are green vegetables (especially Brussels sprout, kale, broccoli, spinach, & loose-leaf lettuce). O Other sources include eggs (the egg yolk), milk, strawberries, tomato sauces, & other vegetables & fruit.

RDA O 60-80g/day. STABILITY

O Heat stable but sensitive to light.

FUNCTIONS O Vitamin K is necessary for normal blood clotting, including the protein prothrombin. O Vitamin K is part of the synthesis of blood clotting proteins & a protein that regulates blood calcium. O To make blood clot, it takes 13 different proteins plus calcium. FUNCTIONS (CONT.) O Vitamin K is essential for the synthesis prothrombin & at least flue other clotting factors to produce fibrin, the protein structure of blood clots. O Blood clots are needed to prevent the effects of injuries & the normal wear & tear that causes small rips in blood vessel. FUNCTIONS (CONT.) O This vitamin is also important for the synthesis of other proteins in the bone, plasma, & kidney. O Vitamin K is unique in that bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract can synthesis it. O Bacterial production alone is not enough to meet the bodys total need, it is important that the body gets adequate of amount of vitamin K from the diet. VITAMIN K DEFICIENCIES

O Because the body can store this vitamin, deficiency is unlikely. O The major sign of vitamin K deficiency is that the blood can not clot, coagulation is lacking, resulting in hemorrhagic disease. O Newborn infants have a sterile digestive tract at birth, & vitamin K in breast milk is minimal, therefore, newborns may be susceptible to vitamin K deficiency. VITAMIN K UPPER LIMITS O Since vitamin K is fat-soluble & stored in liver, the body can not excrete the excess. O Excessive doses can result in the clotting & breaking of blood cells. O One of the symptoms of toxicity is jaundice.

Mineral Elements O Chemical elements, other than carbon, hydrogen & nitrogen, which are required by the body O Present in food O Mostly in the form of inorganic salts (eg.sodium chloride) O Some are in organic compounds (eg.sulphur & phosphorus) Three main functions: 1. Calcium, phosphorus & magnesium are constituents of bones & teeth 2. Present as soluble salts which help to control the composition of body fluids. These include potassium & magnesium present inside body cells & sodium & chloride in the fluid outside the cells 3. Many of the trace elements are concerned in enzyme systems in the body Mineral elements required by the body Physical Properties of Calcium 2+ O Ca is a divalent cation (Ca ) with a radius of 0.95 O Comprises 1.5 to 2 percent of total body weight O Its an alkaline found primarily (90%) in the bone structures of the body O Recommended dietary allowance for Ca is 400 to 800mg/day for the adult. Recommended Intake for Calcium

Ca levels in blood & fluid surrounding the cells (extracellular fluid) must be maintained within a very narrow concentration range for normal physiological functioning

Physiological function of Ca are so vital to survival that the body will demineralize bone to maintain normal blood Ca levels when Ca intake is inadequate O Its ability to bind to neutral oxygens, including those of alcohols & carbonyl groups, & to bind to two centers simultaneously allow it to function as a cross-linker protein & polysaccharides Food Sources O Milk, cheese, cabbage, blackberries, carrot, celery, lettuce, lemon, orange, spinach, turnip, sardines, salmon, bananas, boiled potatoes (peeled), white bread Calcium Content of Some Foods Functions of Calcium O Builds strong bones & teeth O Aids in blood clotting, metabolism of vitamin D O Regulate the proper performance of the heart muscle & nutrients passage in/out of cells O Kidney function, reduce colon cancer, blood cholesterol O Maintain acid alkaline equilibrium

1. Structure: -mineral component of bone consists mainly of hydroxyapatile [Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2] crystals, which contain large amounts of calcium & phosphate -bone cells called osteoclasts begin the process of remodelling by dissolving or resorbing bone -bone-forming cells called osteoblasts then synthesize new bone to replace that was absorbed -osteoporosis result when bone resorption exceeds formation 2. Cell signalling -mediating the constriction & relaxation of blood vessels (vasoconstriction & vosodilation), nerve impulse transmission, muscle constraction & the secretion of hormones, such as insulin -excitable cells, eg.skeletal muscle & nerve cells, contain voltage-dependent calcium channels in their cell membrane that allow for rapid changes in calcium concentration -example: muscle fibernerve impulsecontractCa channels openCa2+ion enter into muscle cellbind to activator proteinrelease flood of Ca2+ from storage vesiclebinding of Ca to protein (troponin-C)muscle contraction

-binding of Ca to protein (calmodulin), activates enzyme that breakdown muscle glycogen to provide energy for muscle contraction 3. Cofactor for enzymes & proteins -binding of Ca ion is required for activation of seven vitamin-K dependent clotting factors in the coagulation cascade -coagulation cascade refers to s series of events, each dependent on the other that stops bleeding through clot formation. 4. As texture modifier -forms gels with negatively charged macromolecules such as alginates, low-methoxy pectins, soy proteins, caseins, etc -firms canned vegetable when added to canning brine Functional Role of Ca in Milk O Is an example of mineral interactions in a food system O Milk contains calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride, sulphate & phosphate O Ca distributed between the milk serum & the casein micelles O Ca in serum in solution & comprises about 30% of the total milk Ca O The remainder of the Ca is associated with casein micelles & is present primarily as colloidal calcium phosphate O Its likely that association of submicelles involves Ca bridges between phosphate groups esterified to serine residues in casein & inorganic phosphate ions Control of Absorption & Excretion Level Regulated by parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, & metabolically active vitamin D Blood Ca lowCa-sensing protein (parathyroid glands) signalssecretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH)conversion of vitamin D to its active form, calcitriolincrease absorption of Ca from small intestine PTH & calcitriol activate osteoclasts & decrease urinary excretion of Ca by increase its reabsorption in kidneysblood Ca rises to normal levels Ca is absorbed from the small intestine by active transport against concentration gradient Vitamin D required for the active transport Phytates & oxalates may decrease absorption of Ca by forming insoluble calcium salts within the intestinal lumen Phytic acid found in the bran of cereals, oxalic acid found in small amounts in many vegetable foods, e.g. spinach Certain amino acids & lactose may enhance absorption, so Ca from milk is more readily absorbed than from plant sources





Excess dietary phosphorus can increase calcium re-absorption from bones, because the phosphorus-calcium product in blood is kept fairly constant Ca maybe excreted in urine & to some extent in the faeces; minor amounts are excreted in sweat Urinary excretion of Ca is determined more by the absorption of Ca from the intestine than by dietary intake Deficiency Physical & mental fatigue Inability to concentrate Rickets, poor growth, depression, tooth decay, insomnia Muscle spasms & cramps, including that of heart Osteoporosis -occurs in old people, particularly in women after the menopause -Ca is gradually lost from the bones which become porous & fracture more readily -loss of Ca greater due to deficiency of the hormone estrogen

Physical properties of Magnesium O Alkaline, 70% stored in bones O Important constituent of muscles & aids in building cells particularly in lung tissues & the nervous systems O Large number of enzymes require Mg for activation Food Sources

Functions of Magnesium

Makes bone & teeth harder Gives strength & firmness to bone tissue Aid nerve & heart function Metabolism of potassium & calcium Help convert our food into energy Help brain function normally, prevent depression Necessary for cell growth & reproduction Activator of many essential enzyme reactions Sometime injected into patients veins in emerging situation such as an acute heart attack or acute asthma sufferers in a pill form Relaxes muscles along the airway to the lungs, which allow asthma patients to breath easier Can act as color modifier; removal of Mg from chlorophyll changes color from green to olive-brown Absorption & Excretion


The body has about 20 to 28g of Mg; about 55% is present in bone & about 27% in muscle O Mg intake varies widely O Excreted in sweat, desquamated skin, & in the urine O Dietary calcium, phosphate, & lactose affect Mg absorption Deficiency O Constipation O Poor blood circulation O Ca depletion O Heart spasms O Kidney stones, fatigue O Hyperexcitability

Occur in alcoholics or people whose Mg absorption is decreased due to surgery, burns, or problem with malabsorption (inadequate absorption of nutrients from the intestinal tract) O Deficiency symptoms have three categories: 1. Early symptoms: irritability, anorexia, fatigue, insomnia & muscle twitching, poor memory, confusion, reduced ability to learn 2. Moderate: rapid heartbeat & other cardiovascular changes 3. Severe: tingling, numbness, & sustained contraction of the muscles along with hallucination & delirium O If intake of Mg low, body conserves Mg by reducing amount of excretion via the kidney Nutritional Products of Calcium & Magnesium 1. Ca as food wafers -biologically active through careful cold sterilization -Ca & P provided by nature -made out of bones -for building bone & teeth because Ca & P in correct porpotion -its uncooked whole bone including the marrow, it helps support red blood cells formation just as its built in the marrow

2. Calcium lactate -excellent source of ionizable Ca & Mg -critical in muscle contraction, nerve impulse & blood coagulation -unique in being bio-available in the ionic form, which is the only form readily available for metabolic function -as alkaline buffer & used for rapid heart rate, cramps of the skeletal muscle, gastrointestinal tract & uterus,

nosebleeds, bleeding gums, excessive salivation & muscus secretion, fevers, tremors & hyperirritability 3. Ca in a soluble form -vegetable source Ca & P supplement -dissolved in water & can be swallowed whole with water -used in practically all of the situation ordinarily related to Ca deficiency -useful to support tissue 4. Magnesium lactate -provides trace minerals essential for the regulation of Ca & other catalytic enzyme function -is unique in being bio-available in the ionic form Copper O Copper (Cu) is an essential trace element for human & animals. 1+ 2+ O In the body, copper shift between the cuprous(Cu ) & the cupric(Cu ) forms. 2+ O Although the majority of the body copper is in the Cu form. O The ability of copper to easily accept & donate electrons explains its important role in oxidation-reduction (redox) reaction & the scavenging of free radicals Whole grain cereals Legumes Oysters Organ meats Cherries Dark chocolate Fruits Leafy green vegetables Nuts Poultry Prunes Soybeans Tofu Organ meats, Shellfish, Nuts Legumes. Food Sources of Copper


Food Sources of Copper(cont)


Functions Copper is a critical functional component of an essential enzymes, known as cuproenzymes. Some of the physiologic functions known to be copper dependent are as follows:

Energy production


The copper dependent enzyme,cytochrome c oxidase, plays a critical role in cellular energy production. The enzyme catalyzing the reduction of oxygen (O2) to water ( H2O). Cytochrome c oxidase generates an electrical gradient used by the mitochondria to create the vital energy-storing molecule, ATP Connective tissue formation Another cuproenzyme,lysyl oxidase, is required for the cross-linking of collagen & elastin,which are essential for the formation of strong & flexible connective tissue. The action of lysyl oxidase helps maintain the integrity of connective tissue in the heart & blood vessels & plays a role in bone for formation. central nervous system A number of reactions essential to normal function of the brain & system are catalyzed by cuproenzymes. nervous

Iron metabolism Two copper-containing enzymes, ceruloplasmin(ferroxidase I) & ferroxidase II have the capacity to oxidase ferrous iron (Fe2+) to ferric iron(Fe3+), the form of iron that can be loaded onto the protein transferrin for transport to the site of red blood cell formation. Although the ferroxidase activity of these two cuproenzymes has not yet been proven to be physiologically significant, the factor that iron mobilization from storage sites is impaired in copper deficiency supports their role in iron metabolism. Neurotransmitter synthesis Dopamine-B-monooxygenase catalyzes the conversion of dopamine to the neurotransmitter norepinephrine. Metabolism of neurotransmitters Monoamine oxidase (MAO) plays a role in the metabolism of the neurotransmitters norepinephrine,epinephrine & dopamine. MAO also function in the degradation of the neurotransmitter serotonin, which is the basis for the use of MAO inhibitors as antidepressants. Formation & maintainers of myelin The myelin sheaths is made of phospholipids whose synthesis depends on cytochrome c oxidase activity. Melanin formation The cuproenzyme, tyrosinase, is required for the formation of the pigment melanin. Melanin is formed in cells called melanocytes & plays a role in the pigmentation of the hair, skin, & eyes.

Antioxidant functions Superoxide dismutase superoxide dismutase (SOD) functions as an antioxidant by catalyzing the conversion of superoxide radicals (free radicals or ROS) to hydrogen peroxide, which can subsequently be reduced to water by other antioxidant enzymes . Two forms of SOD contain copper Copper/zinc SOD is found within most cells of the body, including red blood cells. Extracellular SOD is a copper containing enzyme found in high levels in the lungs & low levels in blood plasma Ceruloplasmin Free copper & iron ions are powerful catalysts of free radicals damage. Ceruloplasmin may function as an antioxidant in two different ways. By binding copper, ceruloplasmin prevents free copper ions from catalyzing oxidative damage. The ferroxidase activity of ceruloplasmin (oxidation of ferrous iron) facilitates iron loading onto its transport protein, transferrin, & may prevent free ferrous ions (Fe2+) from participating in harmful free radical generating reactions. Regulation of gene expression Copper-dependent transcription factors regulate transcription of specific genes. Thus, cellular copper levels may affect the synthesis of proteins by enhancing or inhibiting the transcription of specific genes. Genes regulated by copper-dependent transcription factors include genes for copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn SOD), catalase (another antioxidant enzyme), & proteins related to the cellular storage of copper. Zinc High supplemental zinc intakes of 50 mg/day or more for extended periods of time may result in copper deficiency. High dietary zinc increases the synthesis of an intestinal cell protein called metallothionein, which binds certain metals & prevents their absorption by trapping them in intestinal cells. Metallothionein has a stronger affinity for copper than zinc, so high levels of metallothionein induced by excess zinc cause a decrease in intestinal copper absorption. High copper intakes have not been found to affect zinc nutritional status. vitamin C In one study, vitamin C supplementation of 1,500 mg/day for 2 months resulted in a significant decline in ceruloplasmin oxidase activity.





In the other study, supplements of 605 mg of vitamin C/day for 3 weeks resulted in decreased ceruloplasmin oxidase activity, although copper absorption did not decline. Neither of these studies found vitamin C supplementation to adversely affect copper nutritional status DEFICIENCY Clinically evident or frank copper deficiency is relatively uncommon. Serum copper levels & ceruloplasmin levels may fall to 30% of normal in cases of severe copper deficiency. One of the most common clinical signs of copper deficiency is an anemia that is unresponsive to iron therapy but corrected by copper supplementation. The anemia is thought to result from defective iron mobilization due to decreased ceruloplasmin activity. Copper deficiency may also result in abnormally low numbers of white blood cells known as neutrophile (neutropenia), a condition that may be accompanied by increased susceptibility to infection. Osteoporosis & other abnormalities of bone development related to copper deficiency are most common in copper-deficient low-birth weight infants & young children. Less common features of copper deficiency may include loss of pigmentation, neurological symptoms, & impaired growth Fructose High fructose diets have exacerbated copper deficiency in rats, but not in pigs whose gastrointestinal systems are more like those of humans. Very high levels of dietary fructose (20% of total calories) did not result in copper depletion in humans, suggesting that fructose intake does not result in copper depletion at levels relevant to normal diets Individuals at risk of deficiency Cow's milk is relatively low in copper, & cases of copper deficiency have been reported in high-risk infants & children fed only cow's milk formula. High-risk individuals include: premature infants, especially those with low-birth weight, infants with prolonged diarrhea, infants & children recovering from malnutrition, individuals with malabsorption syndromes, including celiac disease, sprue, & short bowel syndrome due to surgical removal of a large portion of the intestine. Individuals receiving intravenous total parenteral nutrition or other restricted diets may also require supplementation with copper & other trace elements. Recent research indicates that cystic fibrosis patients may also be at increased risk of copper insufficiency. DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS

Physical Symptoms of Low Copper Not enough oxygen in the cells Lowered levels of HDL cholesterol O Skin problems O Swollen ankles


Anemia Low copper causes the cells to suffocate & lack oxygen Low copper levels linked to low enkephalins produced in the brain. Auditory hallucinations Depression Physical Symptoms of High Copper Headaches Hypoglycemia Increased heart rate Nausea Copper deposits in the brain & liver causing damage. Damage to the kidneys Inhibit urine production Causes anemia Causes hair loss in women Physical Symptoms of High Copper(cont) High copper interferes with zinc, which is needed to manufacture digestive enzymes. Many high copper people dislike protein & are drawn to high-carbohydrate diets because they have difficulty digesting protein foods. Excessive copper in children is associated with hyperactive behavior, learning disorders such as dyslexia, ADD & infections such as ear.

Iron O Iron has the longest & best described history among all the micronutrients. It is a key element in the metabolism of almost all living organisms. O In humans, iron is an essential component of hundreds of proteins & enzymes Food sources of Iron FUNCTION Oxygen transport & storage

Heme is an iron-containing compound found in a number of biologically important molecules. Hemoglobin & myoglobin are heme-containing proteins that are involved in the transport & storage of oxygen. Hemoglobin is the primary protein found in red blood cells & represents about two thirds of the body's iron. The vital role of hemoglobin in transporting oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body is derived from its unique ability to acquire oxygen rapidly during the short time it spends in contact with the lungs & to release oxygen as needed during its circulation through the tissues. Oxygen transport & storage: (cont)

Myoglobin functions in the transport & short-term storage of oxygen in muscle cells, helping to match the supply of oxygen to the demand of working muscles. Electron transport & energy metabolism Cytochromes are heme-containing compounds that are critical to cellular energy production & therefore, life, through their roles in mitochondrial electron transport. They serve as electron carriers during the synthesis of ATP, the primary energystorage compound in cells. Cytochrome P450 is a family of enzymes that functions in the metabolism of a number of important biological molecules, as well as the detoxification & metabolism of drugs & pollutants. Nonheme iron-containing enzymes, such as NADH dehydrogenase & succinate dehydrogenase, are also critical to energy metabolism. Antioxidant & beneficial pro-oxidant functions Catalase & peroxidases are heme-containing enzymes that protect cells against the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide, a potentially damaging reactive oxygen species (ROS), by catalyzing a reaction that converts hydrogen peroxide to water & oxygen. As part of the immune response, some white blood cells engulf bacteria & expose them to ROS in order to kill them. The synthesis of one such ROS, hypochlorous acid, by neutrophils is catalyzed by the heme-containing enzyme myeloperoxidase. Oxygen sensing Inadequate oxygen (hypoxia), such as that experienced by those who live at high altitudes or those with chronic lung disease, induces compensatory physiologic responses, including increased red blood cell formation, increased blood vessel growth (angiogenesis) & increased production of enzymes utilized in anaerobic metabolism. Under hypoxic conditions transcription factors, known as hypoxia inducible factors (HIF), bind to response elements in genes that encode various proteins involved in compensatory responses to hypoxia & increase their synthesis. Recent research indicates that an iron-dependent prolyl hydroxylase enzyme plays a critical role in regulating HIF & consequently, physiologic responses to hypoxia. Oxygen sensing (cont) When cellular oxygen tension is adequate, newly synthesized HIFa subunits are modified by a prolyl hydroxylase enzyme in an iron-dependent process that targets HIFa for rapid degradation. When cellular oxygen tension drops below a critical threshold, prolyl hydroxylase can no longer target HIFa for degradation, allowing HIFa to bind to HIFb & form an active transcription factor that is able to enter the nucleus & bind to specific response elements on genes. DNA synthesis Ribonucleotide reductase is an iron-dependent enzyme that is required for DNA synthesis.


Thus, iron is required for a number of vital functions, including growth, reproduction, healing, & immune function . Regulation of intracellular iron: Iron response elements are short sequences of nucleotides found in the messenger RNA (mRNA) that codes for key proteins in the regulation of iron storage & metabolism. Iron regulatory proteins (IRP) can bind to iron response elements & affect mRNA translation, thereby regulating the synthesis of specific proteins. It has been proposed that when the iron supply is high, more iron binds to IRPs & prevents them from binding to iron response elements on mRNA. When the iron supply is low, less iron binds to IRPs, allowing increased binding of iron response elements. Regulation of intracellular iron (cont) Thus, when less iron is available, translation of mRNA that codes for the iron storage protein, ferritin, is reduced because iron is not available for storage. Translation of mRNA that codes for the key regulatory enzyme of heme synthesis in immature red blood cells is also reduced to conserve iron. In contrast, IRP binding to iron response elements in mRNA that codes for transferrin receptors inhibits mRNA degradation, resulting in increased synthesis of transferrin receptors & increased iron transport to cells.



Nutrient interactions Vitamin A O Vitamin A deficiency may exacerbate iron deficiency anemia. O Vitamin A supplementation has been shown to have beneficial effects on iron deficiency anemia & improve iron status among children & pregnant women. O The combination of vitamin A & iron seems to ameliorate anemia more effectively than either iron or vitamin A alone. Copper O Adequate copper nutritional status appears to be necessary for normal iron metabolism & red blood cell formation. O Anemia is a clinical sign of copper deficiency. O Animal studies demonstrate a role for copper in iron absorption, & iron has been found to accumulate in the livers of copper deficient animals, indicating that copper is required for iron transport to the bone marrow for red blood cell formation. Zinc High doses of iron supplements taken together with zinc supplements on an empty stomach can inhibit the absorption of zinc. When taken with food, supplemental iron does not appear to inhibit zinc absorption. Iron-fortified foods have no effect on zinc absorption. Calcium


When consumed together in a single meal, calcium has been found to decrease the absorption of iron. However, little effect has been observed on serum ferritin levels (iron stores) with calcium supplement levels ranging from 1,000 to 1,500 mg/day.

DEFICIENCY Iron deficiency is the most common nutrient deficiency in the world. Three levels of iron deficiency are generally identified & are listed below from least to most severe: Storage iron depletion Iron stores are depleted, but the functional iron supply is not limited. Early functional iron deficiency The supply of functional iron is low enough to impair red blood cell formation, but not low enough to cause measurable anemia Iron deficiency anemia O If there is inadequate iron to support normal red blood cell formation, resulting in anemia. O The anemia of iron deficiency is characterized as microcystic & hypochromic, meaning red blood cells are measurably smaller than normal & their hemoglobin content is decreased. O At this stage of iron deficiency, symptoms may be a result of inadequate oxygen delivery due to anemia & or sub-optimal function of iron-dependent enzymes. O It is important to remember that iron deficiency is not the only cause of anemia, & that the diagnosis or treatment of iron deficiency solely on the basis of anemia may lead to misdiagnosis or inappropriate treatment of the underlying cause. Symptoms of Iron Deficiency & Anemia


Weakness Sore Tongue Shortness of Breath Fatigue Loss of Appetite Bleeding Gums Nausea Heart Palpitation Light Headedness Headaches Lassitude Subtle Behavioral Changes


O trace mineral & essential nutrient O essential for the normal metabolisms of cells O necessary nutrient for the production of thyroid hormones & normal thyroid functions

O Required for the synthesis of the thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T4) & triiodothyronine (T3). O T3 & T4 are iodinated molecules of the essential amino acid, tyrosine. O Necessary for protein synthesis O They promote nitrogen retention, glycogenolysis, intestinal absorption of glucose & galactose, lipolysis & uptake of glucose by adipocytes. O Iodine in food occurs primarily as the iodide ion. O Readily absorbed throughout the length of the small intestine. O Other forms of iodine are reduced to iodide prior to absorption. O When combined with alkali metals, iodide are completely ionized. O Iodinated amino acids are absorbed more slowly & less completely compared to inorganic iodine. O Absorbed iodide is distributed throughout the body through the circulatory system. O A portion (30 %) is removed by the thyroid for hormonal synthesis. O Iodine intake in excess of requirement is excreted primarily through the urine. Crystalline structure of iodine T3 & T4 O Synthesis & secretion of T4 & T3 are controlled by the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) from the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. O Functions of TSH :i) Stimulate iodide transport from blood into thyroid cells ii) oxidation of iodide to iodine iii) iodine binding to tyrosine O thyroid must trap about 0.060 mg of iodine per day to ensure adequate supply of T3 & T4. Deficiency O The excessive consumption of certain foods like cabbage, cauliflower, & raddish can cause iodine deficiency. O contain a substance which reacts with the iodine present in the food & makes it unsuitable for absorption O Symptoms:i) Goiter - the amount of the thyroid hormone in the serum decrease, the pituitary gland releases a thyroid-stimulating hormone which causes the thyroid gland to produce more cells & to increase in size in an attempt to manufacture more hormones. This results in enlargement of the thyroid gland, which is also called simple goitre

ii) Cretinism - dwarfed child who is mentally retarded, has an enlarged thyroid gland & defective speech. Such a child usually has brittle nails, bad teeth, & prone to anaemia. iii)myxoedema- adults,affecting the production of the thyroid hormone.symptoms are slower rate of metabolism, thickening of the skin, loss of hair, & general physical & mental sluggishness & enlarged thyroid glands. iv)anaemia, fatigue, a slow pulse, low blood pressure, & a tendency towards obesity. A serious deficiency may result in high blood cholesterol & heart disease. Toxicity
O Three types of responses to excess of iodine

I) Disturbance of thyroid activity excess iodine on the thyroid may result in goiter II) Sensitivity reactions - certain individual may be sensitive to iodine & may react to excessive intake with fever, salivary gland enlargement and/or ioderma. Some may experience allergic reactions such as rhinitis, cough & wheezing. III) Acute intake of large quantities of iodine (iodine poisoning) - the consumption of large single dose may result in death. Recommended daily intake of iodine O Infants: 50-60 micrograms O Children: 70-150 micrograms O Adult men: 150 micrograms O Adult women:120 micrograms O Pregnancy: 150 micrograms O Lactation: 200 micrograms Iodine content of some foods(micrograms per 100 grams of food) O Salt (iodized) - 300 O Seafood - 66 O Vegetables - 32 O Meat - 26 O Eggs- 26 O Dairy products - 13 O Bread & cereals - 10 Fruits - 4 Goiter Chromium

O Exist in two forms in food :O Trivalent chromium - non-toxic & the biologically active form. O Hexavalent chromium - highly toxic, are much better absorbed. O Hexavalent chromium in the diet will be reduced to the trivalent form within the GI tract. O Chromium is best known to help reduce body fat by metabolizing fat. O help lower elevated cholesterol & improve the ratio of the more desirable HDL to LDL cholesterol (lipoproteins). O niacin-bound chromium- helps to prevent cardiovascular disease. Niacin has been acclaimed as an effective controller of cholesterol O chromium bound to a small amount of niacin produces the desired cholesterollowering results & therefore shows significant potential in preventing cardiovascular diseases. O Chromium is needed for energy. It is involved in the metabolism of glucose, & for that reason it is sometimes called glucose tolerance factor (GTF) O regulate glucose levels & is especially effective for Type II diabetes by controlling glucose levels
O increases the effectiveness of the hormone insulin & its ability to regulate glucose,

preventing hyperglycemia or diabetes

O Additional chromium is needed during pregnancy because the developing fetus

increases the demand for this mineral

O can help an expectant mother maintain healthy blood sugar levels during pregnancy O involved in the transport of protein in the blood & the synthesis of protein

O Chromium picolinate, a trivalent form of chromium O complexed with picolinic acid, is used as a dietary supplement, because it is claimed to speed metabolism & may have anti-diabetic effects O Absorbs more readily than chromium obtained from food sources O is a very stable complex in the body O its absorption properties may be due to its ability to cross membranes readily Deficiency & toxicity
O Slight chromium deficiency can have serious effects on your body O Chromium deficiency is common, largely because chromium is lost in the refinement

of grains. O Whole wheat, rye & barley are some of the best sources of chromium, but when they are refined they may lose up to 95% of the mineral. O In athletes, it can inhibit energy production & muscle development. O In the elderly & in mothers, it can lead to diabetes (Type II). O heart disease, obesity & other disorders as well

O Abnormal cholesterol metabolism & increased progress of arteriosclerosis are associated with chromium deficiency. O decreased growth in young people & slower healing time after injuries or surgery O anxiety or fatigue O Toxicity is not common in humans because low absorption & high excretion rates of chromium O The amount of chromium that cause toxicity is estimated to be more than the amount commonly supplied in supplements Crystalline structure of chromium Recommended daily intake of chromium

Infants 0 to 6 months: 0.2 mcg 7 to 12 months: 5.5 mcg Children 1 to 3 years: 11 mcg 4 to 8 years: 15 mcg 9 to 13 years: 21 to 25 mcg

Adolescents males 14 to 18 years: 35 mcg females 14 to 18 years: 24 mcg Adult males 19 to 50 years: 35 mcg older than 50: 30 mcg Adult females 19 to 50 years: 25 mcg older than 50: 20 mcg pregnant: 29 to 30 mcg lactating: 44 to 45 mcg

Chromium content of some foods(micrograms per 100 grams of food) O Egg yolk - 183 O Brewer's yeast - 112 O Beef - 57 O Cheese - 56 O Liver - 55 O Wine - 45 O Bread, wholemeal, wheat - 42 O Black pepper - 35 O Apple peel - 27 O Potatoes, old - 27

O Oysters - 26 O Potatoes, new - 21 O Margarine - 18 O Cornflakes - 14 O Butter - 13 O Egg white - 8 O Oranges - 5 Example of food containing iodine & chromium