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2.010 CONTROL SYSTEMS PRINCIPLES Introduction to the Operational Amplier The integrated-circuit operational-amplier is the fundamental building block for many electronic circuits, including analog control systems. In this hand-out we examine some of the basic circuits that can be used to implement control systems. We take simplied approaches to the analysis, and this discussion is by no means complete or exhaustive. What is an operational amplier (op-amp)? It is simply a very high gain amplier with a pair of dierential inputs. Its functionality comes about through the use of feedback around the amplier as we will show below.

The op-amp has the following characteristics: It is basically a three terminal amplier with two inputs and an output. It is a dierential amplier with very high gain vout = A(v+ v ) where A is typically 104 105 , and the two inputs are known as the non-inverting (v+ ) and inverting (v ) inputs respectively. In the ideal op-amp we assume that the gain A is innite. In an ideal op-amp no current ows into either input, that is they are voltage-controlled and have innite input resistance. In a practical op-amp the input current is in the order of pico-amps (1012 ) amp, or less. The output acts as a voltage source, that is it can be modeled as a Thevenin source with a very low source resistance. Op-amps come in many forms and with a bewildering array of specications. They range in cost from a few cents to many dollars, depending on the specs. These specications include input impedance, input bias current, output oset voltage, external power requiremets, etc. Higher grade ampliers are known as precision, or instrumentation ampliers. In this course we will be relying on the industry standard 741 op-amp wherever possible. Although it was a major step forward in its day, by todays standards it is not a high 1

performance amplier. Its major advantage is that it costs about $0.30! If we need higher performnce we will use the OP-07 amp, which is laser trimmed during manufacture to reduce its oset voltage to a very low level. Op-amps come in a variety of packages. We will be using the common 8 pin DIP (dual inline package) form. Many amps use a common basic pin-out for this package as shown below:

The pins are numbered counter-clockwise from the top left as shown above. (Note that pin 1 is identied by a notch at the top or a dot beside pin 1.) The basic amplier is connected between pins 2,3 and 7. The amplier requires a pair of external supply voltages to operate, these are typically 15 volts and are are connected to pins 7 (positive) and 4 (negative). Pins 1 and 5 are usually used for optional external oset nulling circuitry - the actual connection is dependent on the type. We will not use this feature if we can get away without it.

Non-Inverting Congurations

The Unity Gain Non-Inverting amplier: is as a unity gain buer amplier: The simplest conguration of the op-amp

The output is connected directly to the inverting input. Then vout = A(v+ v ) = A(v+ vout ) A v+ = 1+A and if as noted above A is typically 104 or much higher we may simply say vout = v+ The unity gain amplier is used commonly to minimize loading on a circuit because it draws no current yet provides a low output resistance output. 2

The Non-Inverting amplier with gain: The above circuit may be modied to feed back only a fraction of the output voltage by including a two resistor voltage divider.

In this case R1 and R2 act as a voltage divider, and v = Then vout = A(v+ vin ) = A vin R2 vout R1 + R2 A(R1 + R2 ) = vin R1 + R2 + AR2 vout = R2 vout R1 + R2

R1 + R2 vin R2 For example if R1 = 47 k, and R2 = 10 k, the amplier voltage gain will be 5.7. The Voltage-Controlled Current-Source: duce a current source. The above circuit can be modied to pro-

and when A

Assume that the op-amp drives a load of unknown resistance. A small resistor R is placed in series with the load. Then the inverting input is v = iR. At the output of the amplier vout = A (v+ v ) = A (vin iR) 3

Then i= and i A 1

Inverting Congurations

The Inverting Amplier: The inverting amplier has a conguration as shown below:

The non-inverting input is connected to ground and a pair of resistors, Rin and Rf (the feedback resistor) is used to dene the gain. To simplify the analysis we make the following assumptions: (a) The gain A is very high and we let it tend to innity. Because vout = A(v+ v ) and v+ = 0, this means that v = limA vout /A = 0. In other words, the inverting input voltage is so small (volts) that we declare it to be a virtual ground, that is in our simplied analysis we assume v = 0. (b) No current ows into the inputs. This allows us to apply Kirchos current law at the junction of the resistors. Apply Kirchos current law at the junction of the resistors: iin + if = 0 Since the junction is at the virtual ground we can simply use Ohms law: vin Vout + =0 Rin Rf or Rf vin Rin In other words the voltage gain is dened by the ratio of the two resistors. vout = 4

As before we assume that the inverting input is at a virtual ground and apply Kirchos current law at the summing junction i1 + i2 + if = 0 v2 Vout v1 + + = 0 R1 R2 Rf or Rf Rf v1 v2 R1 R2 which is a weighted sum of the inputs. If R1 = R2 = Rin the output is a pure sum vout = vout = Rf (v1 + v2 ) Rin

The summer may be extended to many inputs by simply adding input resistors Ri vout = Rf vi i=1 Ri

n

If all of the input resistors are equal (Ri = Rin ) vout = Rf Rin

n

vi

i=1

The Integrator: If the feedback resistor in the inverting amplier is replaced by a capacitor C the amplier becomes an integrator.

At the summing junction we apply Kirchos current law as before but the feedback current is now dened by the elemental relationship for the capacitor: iin + if = 0 dvout +C = 0 dt

t

vin dt + vout (0) Rin C 0 As above, the integrator may be extended to a summing conguration by simply adding extra input resistors: 1 t n vi vout = dt + vout (0) C 0 i=1 Ri and if all input resistors have the same value R vout 1 = RC

t 0 n

vi dt + vout (0)

i=1

The Dierentiator: If the input resistor Rin in the inverting amplier is replaced by a capacitor, the circuit becomes a dierentiator:

At the summing junction we apply Kirchos current law as before but the input current is now dened by the elemental relationship for the capacitor: iin + if = 0 dvin vout + = 0 + C dt Rf RfC dvin dt As we have noted in class, pure dierentiators are rarely used because of their susceptibility to noise. In practice it is common to put a resistor in series with the capacitor. (See Homework 3). vout = A General Linear Transfer Function: The inverting conguration may be extended to synthesize many general linear transfer functions by including appropriate networks in the feedback and input paths. Consider the general circuit shown below with elements described by impedances Zin (s) and Zf (s) in the input and output paths: Then

At the summing junction iin + if = 0 Vin (s) Vout (s) + + = 0 Zin (s) Zf (s) so that the amplier becomes a linear system with a transfer function H (s) = Zf (s) Vout (s) = Vin (s) Zin (s) 7

This conguration may be used to synthesize lead-lag compensators for control, active lters for signal processing, and many other functions.

A dierential amplier produces an output that is proportional to the dierence between two inputs.

At the non-inverting input R1 v1 R1 + R2 If the op-amp gain is assumed to be innite, v = v+ . The input current at the inverting amplier is: v+ = iin = v2 v v2 v+ = R1 R1 1 R2 = v2 v1 R1 R1 (R1 + R2 )

Applying Kirchos current law at the summinig junction iin + if = 0, then yields vout = R2 (v1 v2 ) R1

so that the output is proportional to the dierence between the two inputs.

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