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Instruction Manual for

NAPIER 297
TURBOCHARGER

NAPIER Turbochargers
Publication TB 2972 ( Issue 2) July 2005 Printed in England

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FOREWORD
This Instruction Manual is provided in support of equipment supplied by NAPIER Turbochargers. It is designed to provide information, advice and guidance to the owner/operator on the operation and routine maintenance of the equipment. The equipment supplied is complex which is intended for use only by professionally trained operators. The owner/operator should therefore ensure that all operators are properly trained for the operation and maintenance of the equipment assigned to them. All operators and routine maintenance staff must have ready access to a copy of the Instruction Manual. Further copies can be obtained from NAPIER Turbochargers. The instructions set out in this Manual assume that operators have a general understanding of the requirements for safe operation of mechanical and electrical equipment in potentially hazardous environments involving either gas or liquid fuels. These instructions therefore should be interpreted and applied in conjunction with the safety rules and regulations applicable at the site and the particular requirements for operation of other equipment at the site. The final decision for operating the equipment at the site in a safe and responsible manner rests entirely with you as the owner/operator. This involves many factors outside NAPIERs knowledge and control, and therefore NAPIER is unable to accept (and hereby disclaims) any liability (whether based on breach of contract, warranty or statutory duty, negligence or otherwise) for damage or loss of any kind which may be incurred as a result of applying the information or advice contained in this Manual. No additional representations or warranties by NAPIER regarding the equipment or its use are given or implied by the issue of this Manual. The rights, obligations and liabilities of NAPIER and the owner/operator are strictly limited to those expressly provided in the contract relating to the supply of the equipment. The information set out in this manual has been developed from NAPIERs standard equipment build specification. Where possible at the time of publication, information has been included in respect of modifications to that equipment which are specific to that contract and for additional equipment manufactured by others. The timing of publication and the ongoing nature of design improvements can mean however, that features of the equipment supplied will be different from those shown in this publication. No liability is accepted by NAPIER for errors, omissions or discrepancies of this nature. Because of variations in equipment build, it is important that owners/operators should only replace components with spare parts which are identical to the original or contain modifications approved by NAPIER. When ordering parts always quote the turbocharger serial number and the specification of build. NAPIER accepts no responsibility under its warranty or otherwise for defects, damage or injury which result from the use of repair or replacement parts not approved by NAPIER. This manual must be maintained for the life of the equipment supplied. Updates issued by NAPIER in the form of specific Amendments or more generally published as Service Bulletins will be distributed to the engine builder and they are responsible for the distribution to the end user and should be incorporated without delay for future reference. The data, drawings and other information contained in this manual are confidential proprietary information of NAPIER. They are disclosed in confidence to the owner/operators of the equipment supplied by NAPIER under the contract solely for their use in the operation and maintenance of that equipment. No licence is granted for the manufacture of replacement equipment or components or other purposes. The contents of this manual shall not be copied or disclosed to third parties without written authorisation of NAPIER.

Copyright

NAPIER Turbochargers 2000 Confidential. No part of this publication may be reproduced or copied in any form or manner (including electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording translating or other information retrieval system) without prior written authority of the copyright owner.

INFORMATION
The manual is compiled on a loose leaf system. Due to modification of equipment or changes in technique it is occasionally necessary to amend the manual. The amendments are numbered serially and issued to the engine builder who should ensure that they are distributed to the end user without delay for incorporation into the manual. Full instructions for incorporation and recording are given with each amendment and, because of the importance of keeping the manual up to date, it is recommended that amendments are incorporated without delay in all copies. As occasion demands, Service Bulletins are issued, these contain recommendations either of an urgent or general nature and it is recommended that instructions are implemented and the bulletin filed with the manual for subsequent reference. Personnel should be aware and be familiar with the Safety Instructions to be observed when operating or maintaining the turbocharger and equipment before operating or maintaining the equipment. In addition, attention is drawn to conditions which under certain circumstances can be injurious to health and safety, by the insertion of notices in the manual under the headings of WARNING, CAUTION or NOTE. A WARNING is given when failure to observe the instruction could result in risk of health and injury to personnel. A CAUTION is given where failure to observe the instruction could result in damage to the equipment. A NOTE is used for emphasis or the provision of information of particular importance. The NAPIER Turbochargers Customer Support Department is always at the disposal of users. Never hesitate to consult us on any problem or difficulty which arises; it may save time and expense if expert attention is given promptly. We shall be pleased to give all possible assistance no matter how small the difficulty.

Note:
SPECIAL INFORMATION ON TOOLS & SERVICING. The Parts List includes parts for the turbocharger. It should be recognised that many of these items, although included in the Parts List, may not be fitted without the use of Specialist Tools & Equipment. For Turbocharger users who are unable to affect changeout of some of these items, we Strongly Recommend the use of suitably qualified staff which NAPIER Turbochargers can provide on site. Alternatively, Cartridge Exchange Units are available for ease of maintenance. Further details are available on request from:

NAPIER Turbochargers
Customer Service Department P.O. Box 1 Lincoln. LN5 7FD England Tel:Fax:e mail:+44 (0)1522 516633
+44 (0)1522 516669

enquiry@napier-turbochargers.com

Safety Instructions

SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS

Introduction The safety instructions in this manual are given for information and guidance and are provided in the interest of safety of personnel and the installation. NAPIER Turbochargers cannot accept responsibility either for the manner in which they are observed or for any consequence of failure to observe them. Personnel must become thoroughly familiar with the safety instructions and must observe these instructions throughout all procedures. Maximum safety of personnel must be of primary importance, followed closely by protection of equipment from damage. Careful observation of the instructions for safe equipment operation will also result in minimizing hazards to personnel. These instructions in no way override local procedures and regulations when operating and maintaining the installation. Statutory and local requirements, codes of working practices, safety and/or health precautions must be observed. This equipment has been designed and constructed so as to be safe and without risks to health When properly used for the purpose for which it was designed, and in accordance with the manufacturers recommendations. It is important that the equipment should be INSTALLED, OPERATED AND MAINTAINED by, or under the supervision of competent qualified staff. Acceptable standards of engineering practice, recommendations contained in this manual, and any instructions specifically advised by the company, with particular reference to information marked on the equipment, must be employed in these activities. NOTE: You are requested to take such steps as are necessary to ensure that any appropriate information relevant to our products is made available by you, to anyone concerned in the installation, operation and maintenance of the contract supplied equipment.

Safety instructions also include procedures to be observed in the event of certain operating malfunctions. Personnel must understand and apply the safety precautions contained within this section during any relevant phase of operation or maintenance. They are not related to any specific procedures and are not repeated elsewhere in the manual. 2 General Directives Location and content of Warnings, Cautions and Notes Warnings and cautions are located directly above the text to which they relate and are intended to emphasize critical or important information. They tell the reader what he must do to avoid the danger. Any necessary background information follows the initial instruction.

Safety Instructions

Directive on safe operation A preliminary walk-round safety inspection of the site should be carried out before beginning any procedures: this inspection should also include any other equipment which may be peculiar to the installation. Any actual or potential hazard must be corrected before proceeding. The equipment is designed to provide safe and reliable operation, when properly used. Close observation of the following directives will aid in the prevention of trouble and will ensure satisfactory operating performance to design standards. The order of listing is not intended to indicate the measure of importance: each item is important to overall safety and satisfactory operation. 3 Operational hazards Pre-start Before starting the turbocharger ensure that no maintenance operation is being conducted, and personnel are clear of the air inlet and exhaust, and that any loose articles, cleaning materials, tools etc. have been removed. Before operating the turbocharger understand the operating procedures and system functions thoroughly. Know and understand all indicators, normal indications and operating limits. Be aware of possible malfunctions by studying the instructions supplied, and be prepared to take appropriate action in the event of any emergency. During operation Stand clear of all pressure lines and fittings during the start. Turbine speed and temperature are the best indication of performance. Should an abnormal condition arise take the appropriate action. When carrying out compressor or turbine wash procedures refer to the instruction manual to ensure that limits are not exceeded. Ensure that all drains and vents are kept clear during the wash procedure. 4 Maintenance hazards Health hazard Wear appropriate protective equipment (masks, goggles, gloves etc.) when using cleaning solvents or solutions. Avoid skin contact with solvents or solutions. Should solution enter the eyes, rinse immediately and seek medical attention. Use all cleaning solvents, fuels, oils and adhesives in a well ventilated area. Avoid inhalation of fumes.

Safety Instructions

Procedural hazards Determine if personnel are working on equipment in the area and whether such work is of a hazardous nature that precludes work on other equipment. Before disconnecting any pipelines (lubricating oil, water etc.) or dismantling components in situ for maintenance, ensure that the applicable system pressure has been isolated at source, pressure dissipated and the system vented. Ensure that there is no naked flame in the area. Do not use fingers as guides when installing parts or to check alignment of bolts. Cap all open lines and fittings during maintenance to prevent entry of contaminants into the system. Ensure that all loose items such as nuts, bolts and washers are removed from the installation and air intake areas before starting. Tooling hazards Improperly maintained tools and support equipment can be dangerous to personnel and can damage turbocharger parts. Maintain tools and equipment in good condition to avoid unanticipated failures. Use tooling only for the purpose for which it was designed, and avoid abuse. Inspect for wear or damage, and initiate appropriate action for immediate approved repair or replacement. Use of lifting equipment (slings, cranes etc.) Before using any lifting equipment, ensure: i. ii. iii. The equipment is the correct type for the task. The equipment has valid test certificate and the safe working load is marked on the equipment. Shackles, slings are in good condition.

Use of adhesives and jointing compounds Before using adhesives and jointing compounds (particularly in confined spaces), check the manufacturers instructions regarding injurious, offensive or inflammable fumes, risk of skin disease etc.

Introduction

NAPIER TURBOCHARGER TYPE NAPIER 297 SPECIFICATION Type Max. Permissible (R.P.M.) Speed Pressure Ratio Max. Turbine Temperature Inlet Weight

NAPIER 297

SEE TURBOCHARGER TYPE PLATE FOR DETAILS

5:1

SEE TURBOCHARGER TYPE PLATE FOR DETAILS

777kgs approx.

NAMEPLATES The turbocharger has a name plate mounted on the main casing. The information shown on this name plate is explained overleaf. (Example only)

NAPIER TURBOCHARGERS TYPE: NAPIER SPECIFICATION SERIAL No. MAX. SPEED MAX. TEMP
297 4GS87B125M 700123 29500 650

FRAME LETTER

EJ

R.P.M.
0

ALTERATION RECORD M K 1 14 2 15 3 16 4 17 5 18 6 19 7 20 8 21 9 22 10 23 11 24 12 25 13 26

Introduction

INFORMATION ON NAMEPLATE TYPE: This indicates the turbocharger type. Example: NAPIER 297 FRAME LETTER: Example: EJ SERIAL No. The turbocharger identification serial number. Example: 700123 SPECIFICATION: The turbocharger build reference specification. Example: ( typical )

4GS

87B

125

M Shroud and rotor blade designation Nozzle Throat area in cm Design type Diffuser throat area in cm
2. 2.

Compressor capacity ( size & type)

MAX. SPEED: Maximum permissible speed in R.P.M. MAX. TEMPERATURE: Maximum permissible turbine inlet temperature in C ALTERATION RECORD: Alteration numbers 1 to 26 are already printed on the plate. Any alterations affecting turbocharger interchangeability will be indicated by obliterating the relevant numbers on the plate.

Introduction

SPARE CARTRIDGE ASSEMBLIES A turbocharger serial number followed by the symbol X e.g.( 700123X ) indicates an assembly which has been built and supplied as a CARTRIDGE ASSEMBLY only. Spare parts are supplied to the latest specification applicable to the particular turbocharger. Customers will therefore appreciate, when checking the part numbers of spare parts supplied against those ordered, that a difference in part numbers does not necessarily indicate that an incorrect part has been supplied. IT IS RECOMMENDED THAT ORDERS FOR SPARE PARTS QUOTE THE TURBOCHARGER SERIAL NUMBER, SPECIFICATION, ITEM CODE NUMBER AS WELL AS THE DESCRIPTION OF EACH PART, AS A SAFEGUARD AGAINST MISUNDERSTANDINGS AND INCORRECT SUPPLY.

Enquiries to NAPIER should be directed to the following departments: SPARE PARTS:TELEPHONE: FAX: + 44 (0) 1522 516622 + 44 (0) 1522 516669

SERVICE AND ORDERS:TELEPHONE: FAX: + 44 (0) 1522 516633 + 44 (0) 1522 516669

NAPIER Turbochargers, P.O. BOX 1, LINCOLN, LN5 7FD

e-mail: enquiry@napier-turbochargers.com 24HR EMERGENCY: + 44 (0) 7912 515754

or alternatively, contact one of our Service Network Centres around the World.

USE GENUINE

NAPIER PARTS MANUFACTURED BY NAPIER Turbochargers

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1 CHAPTER 2 CHAPTER 3 CHAPTER 4 CHAPTER 5 CHAPTER 6 CHAPTER 7 CHAPTER 8 CHAPTER 9 CHAPTER 10

Construction Installation Operation Maintenance and Inspection Dismantling Table of Clearances Re-assembly Tool List Supplementary Information Spares and Servicing Facilities

CHAPTER 1
1.1 1.2 Turbocharger Functions Construction

CONSTRUCTION

1.2.1 Turbine Outlet Casing 1.2.2 Turbine Inlet Casing 1.2.3 Cartridge Assembly 1.2.4 Main Casing 1.2.5 Rotor Assembly 1.2.6 Bearings 1.2.7 Compressor Outlet Casing 1.2.8 Air Filter Silencer

Construction

1.1

TURBOCHARGER FUNCTIONS The function of a turbocharger is to use the exhaust gas energy of an internal combustion engine (which would otherwise be wasted) to drive a turbine wheel and hence a compressor. The compressor increases the pressure and density of the charge in the engine cylinder, thereby increasing the power above that of a naturally aspirated engine. Turbocharging has been shown to be the most successful method of reducing cost, weight and space requirement of diesel engine installations, and is recognised as a reliable method of improving their performance, efficiency and fuel consumption.

Fig. 1.1

Turbocharger Functions

The NAPIER 297 Turbocharger consists of a single stage axial-flow turbine and centrifugal air compressor connected by a single rotor shaft supported on inboard bearings. The exhaust gas discharged from the engine cylinders enters the turbine inlet casing and is accelerated through a nozzle ring into the turbine blades, where the gas rotates the rotor shaft. The gases then pass through the turbine outlet casing to an exhaust pipe into the atmosphere. The air required by the engine is drawn through an air filter silencer or a compressor inlet casing, and compressed by an impeller and diffuser into the compressor outlet casing. The air is then forced into the engine combustion chamber.

Construction

1.2

CONSTRUCTION The NAPIER 297 turbocharger is an assembly of four casings bolted together, to house a single stage, axial flow, exhaust gas driven turbine and a centrifugal air compressor, which are mounted on a single shaft. The turbocharger is mechanically independent of the engine to which it is applied, but its lubrication may form part of the engine system or be provided from a separate source. 1.2.1 TURBINE OUTLET CASING

The air cooled turbine outlet casing is attached to the main casing and collects the exhaust gas from the turbine and directs it to the exhaust outlet to which it is connected. The turbine outlet casing is fully indexable allowing for a wide range of casing positions. Also fitted to the casing is the shroud ring. 1.2.2 TURBINE INLET CASING

The air-cooled turbine inlet casing is attached to the turbine outlet casing at one end and to the engine exhaust pipes at the other. It also supports the nozzle ring assembly. 1.2.3 CARTRIDGE ASSEMBLY

Designed to aid servicing, the cartridge assembly is built up from the main casing, compressor outlet casing, compressor insert, rotor assembly and bearings. The cartridge can be removed complete leaving the turbine inlet and outlet casings attached to the engine allowing the unit to be serviced off engine (Fig. 1.2). Nozzle servicing or replacement can also be carried out from the compressor end with the cartridge removed. 1.2.4 MAIN CASING ASSEMBLY

The main casing forms the principle structure to which the other casings are attached. The forward mounting foot is part of the main casing and mounts directly on to the engine and also functions as the connection point for the lubricating oil inlet and outlets. The lubricating system can either be integrated through the foot or through standard piped connections attached to the foot. A seal plate is attached to the main casing and machined grooves form part of a labyrinth seal. Mating grooves on the back of the impeller form the other part of the labyrinth seal. A controlled air supply bled across the labyrinth seal pressurises the compressor end seal ring, the air is then transferred via passages in the casing to the turbine end, cooling and pressurising the space between the main casing and the cone. This air then pressurises the turbine end seal rings against oil leakage and ingress of exhaust gasses. The air then passes across the face of the turbine blisc, cooling the blisc before it passes into the turbine outlet to atmosphere. 1.2.5 ROTOR ASSEMBLY

This consists of a solid steel shaft, one end of which is a shrink fit on the hub of the turbine blisc. NO ATTEMPT SHOULD BE MADE TO SEPARATE THE BLISC FROM THE SHAFT. A pre-set seal ring is fitted into the impeller hub and two piston ring seals are fitted at the turbine end of the shaft. The seals prevent oil leakage and exhaust gas ingress. The rotor and seal rings are supported by the compressor and turbine end bearing housing assemblies. Each major component of the rotor assembly is dynamically balanced before assembly. After assembly the complete rotor is check balanced without the thrust collar fitted.

Construction

Fig. 1.2

Removal of the Cartridge Unit

Construction

1.2.6

BEARINGS

There are two bearing housings, both located onto the main casing assembly. They are used to locate the turbine end journal bearing and the compressor end combined journal and minor thrust bearings and to transfer lubricating oil to and from the bearings. The major thrust bearing is fitted to the inboard end of the compressor end bearing housing this pre-sets the rotor assemblies position, no adjustments are required. Seal ring positions are automatically adjusted to the rotors position. All bearings are hydrodynamic and are lubricated from the main engine supply or from an independent source. 1.2.7 COMPRESSOR OUTLET CASING

Air is drawn through either an air filter silencer or air supply ductwork, which is attached to the compressor outlet casing and discharged to the engine via the impeller and diffuser through a flanged discharge connection. 1.2.8 AIR FILTER SILENCER

A combined air filter silencer is available for any installation in which the turbocharger is required to draw air from the engine room. The wire mesh filter element consists of two equal segmental panels, which are clipped together forming a complete annulus between the front and rear casings. Six bolts on the exterior of the silencer attach the filter to the compressor outlet casing periphery. If the air supply is to be ducted to the turbocharger from outside the engine room, a compressor inlet casing can be fitted in place of the air filter silencer.

CHAPTER 2

INSTALLATION

2.1 2.2 2.3

Slinging Arrangement Turbocharger Weights Instrumentation 2.3.1 Pressure Gauge Connection 2.3.2 Speed Measurement

Installation

2.1

SLINGING ARRANGEMENT

Fig. 2.1

Turbocharger complete

Fig. 2.2

Turbocharger cartridge

Installation

2.2

USEFUL TURBOCHARGER WEIGHTS ( APPROXIMATE ) Turbocharger Complete Cartridge Complete Turbine Outlet Casing Main Casing Compressor Outlet Casing Turbine Inlet Casing (Single Entry) Turbine Inlet Casing (2 Entry) Compressor Insert Rotor Assembly Cone Shroud Ring Air Filter Silencer 777Kg 500kg 186Kg 122Kg 135Kg 35Kg 25Kg 36Kg 33Kg 20Kg 38Kg 50Kg

Installation

2.3

INSTRUMENTATION 2.3.1 PRESSURE GAUGE CONNECTION

Pressure gauge tappings, in the outlet of the compressor casing and turbine outlet casing, are provided. To eliminate the possibility of damage due to engine vibration, the gauge must be mounted clear of the engine structure. Under no circumstances must a gauge be mounted directly on the turbocharger induction manifold. If it is necessary to adopt some form of attachment to the engine, the gauge should be protected by a suitable flexible mounting. The pressure gauge is outside NAPIERs scope of supply. Any reputable supplier will satisfy. Connection size is M18x1mm pitch. 2.3.2 SPEED MEASUREMENT

The speed sensor is arranged to count the impeller vanes during each revolution of the turbocharger shaft. The speed sensor is threaded and held in place by a lock nut, and is positioned on the compressor outlet casing insert. The speed sensor is supplied with 1.5 metres of PTFE 3 core cable and terminates in a 4 pin plug. A connecting plug is supplied with solder terminations. OPERATING INFORMATION Temperature range, 30 +125 C. The maximum permissible speed of the turbocharger is recorded on the turbocharger nameplate.
o o

CHAPTER 3

OPERATION

3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5

Lubricating Oil Sealing and Cooling Air Turbocharger Priming Initial Start Inspection Routine Operation 3.5.1 3.5.2 3.5.3 3.5.4 3.5.5 Routine Starting Running Stopping Pitch and Roll Pressure Ratio

3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9

Prolonged Shutdown Turbocharger Surge Turbocharger Matching Component Lives

Operation

3.1

LUBRICATION OIL The thrust and journal bearings are the only parts of the turbocharger that require lubrication. Lubricating oil for the bearings may be drawn directly from the filtered side of the engine system or from any other suitable source, provided that correct arrangements are made for filtration. The engine oil filters are to be cleaned in accordance with the Engine Builders Manual. THE FILTER MESH SHOULD NOT EXCEED 25 MICRONS. OIL VISCOSITY GRADE SHOULD BE BETWEEN SAE 20 to SAE 40 OIL CLEANLINESS SHOULD CONFORM TO BS5540 (ISO 4406) LEVEL 19/15 OR BETTER. Frame Size Oil Flow (1) Ltr/min Rpm (max) Oil Temp (C) In (min) Out (max) 50 115 Alarm 125 Heat Flow Oil Pressure Drain (2) (1) (KW) (Barg) (mm) Design (3) 37 2.2-3.3 50

NA297 42 29500 Notes: 1. Oil flow is typical at full load 2. Heat flow is typical at full load 3. 4.5 barg max. by agreement

Table 3.1 Lubricating Oil Characteristics, Max. TC Speed/Engine Load (SAE 30 Oil) This lubrication system complies with Lloyds Register of shipping regulations in that it will operate satisfactorily when tilted permanently at 15 in any direction and at a temporary tilt of 22, such as might be experienced in marine installations. However the turbocharger shaft must be horizontal while initial installations are made. 3.2 SEALING AND COOLING AIR The seal rings fitted outboard of each bearing are pressurised by air taken from the compressor. Pressurisation of the compressor end seal prevents oil being drawn into the compressor casing and the turbine end seal prevents gas and oil leakage. Close clearances between the rear of the impeller and a labyrinth on the seal plate form an effective seal between the turbine outlet casing and the compressor outlet casings. The seal clearances allow a controlled flow through the main casing to the cone, to cool the inner face of the turbine disc. 3.3 TURBOCHARGER PRIMING Oil flow is required at the turbocharger bearings as soon as the rotor begins to rotate. It is recommended that priming is carried out until the maximum lubricating oil pressure is registered by the engine instrumentation, OR the turbocharger is primed for a minimum of 5 minutes. The priming of the turbocharger is often able to be achieved just with an engine driven lubricating oil pump. However, in some cases the design of the lubricating oil system and the speed of starting can result in the turbocharger operating without oil. Where engines are required to start rapidly, oil should be supplied from a priming tank or from an accumulator designed to discharge oil to the turbocharger until the engine pump becomes operable. Running in of the engine should be carried out using a running-in filter in the supply line immediately before the turbocharger to ensure a clean supply of lubricating oil during commissioning. The running-in filter MUST be removed on completion of engine commissioning/acceptance.

Operation

3.4

INITIAL RUNNING OF A NEWLY INSTALLED ENGINE, OR NEWLY OVERHAULED ENGINE Checks to be made at the first running of the turbocharger installed on an engine. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Check that all bolts, holding the turbocharger to the engine mounting faces, are secure. Prime Turbocharger as per instruction 3.3. Start and run the engine up to idling speed. Check and record the oil pressure at the turbocharger inlet. Check all gas and air lines for leakage. At various engine loads, to serve as a basis for future checks on turbocharger and engine performance, record: a. b. c. d. e. Turbocharger speed Air delivery pressure Temperatures before and after the turbine Temperatures before and after the compressor Temperatures before and after the charge air cooler

3.5

ROUTINE OPERATION 3.5.1 ROUTINE STARTING

Before starting the engine, make the following checks: 1. Check in the logbook and by observation if possible, that any maintenance work required has been completed in accordance with the MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION SCHEDULE given in chapter 4. Proceed as described in 3.4 Initial Start of Engine. RUNNING

2. 3.5.2

During the watch inspection of the engine. Check the oil supply. Record: a. the air delivery pressure. b. the depression at the compressor inlet. c. the rotor speed. d. the gas temperature at the turbine inlet.

Operation

A gradual or sudden deterioration in these figures will indicate the need for internal cleaning or overhaul of the turbocharger, and may also assist in deciding the cause of unsatisfactory engine operation. 3.5.3 STOPPING

When shutting down, it is desirable that the turbocharger speed be allowed to stabilise, with the engine idling, before finally stopping. This procedure applies particularly where rapid load shedding occurs. NORMAL STOP Engine driven pump - Normally the oil supply will be adequate for the rundown period. Motor driven pump - It is recommended that a delay of at least 90 seconds is introduced, between engine shut-down and pump shut-down or A reservoir (run down tank), the capacity of which is sufficient to supply Lube oil for 90 seconds, is included in the turbocharger supply system. EMERGENCY STOP NOTE: As for NORMAL, but subject to prevailing local conditions and legislation.

Should circumstances dictate that the oil supply to the turbocharger be shut-off before it has run-down, then it is recommended that the bearings be inspected before attempting a restart.

3.6

Pitch and roll List and trim limits for all Napier Turbochargers is +/- 35 degrees from the horizontal mounting plane. Rate of pitching and rolling is not to exceed +/- 30 degrees per second. Pressure Ratio All Napier Turbochargers are designed to operate at the specific pressure ratio. Lives are, however, affected by other factors such as ambient temperatures. Although operating within the data plate pressure ratio limit, therefore, the specified 50,000 hour design life will be reduced if, for example, the ambient or air intake temperature to the turbocharger is above the design figure. It is critical, therefore, that all operating conditions are clearly understood and defined and that records of operation are maintained to establish when component lives have expired and components require change.

PROLONGED SHUT-DOWN The turbocharger should be inhibited at the beginning of any period of disuse, which is expected to extend beyond a period of one month. Details of the procedure are given in chapter 4, MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION, section 4.8. 3.7 TURBOCHARGER SURGING Surging is a phenomenon that can occur in all turbocharger systems irrespective of type or make. Surging is defined as the operating point at which the compressor ceases to maintain a steady flow for a given boost pressure, and reversal of the flow takes place. This is usually accompanied

Operation

by noise in the form of pulsations or panting, sometimes mildly and sometimes noisily with a large amplitude. It is essential that surging during engine operation is avoided. Damage may be caused to the rotating parts with consequent damage to the complete turbocharger. The following may give rise to surge: i. ii. iii. iv. A violent change of engine load or excessive overload. An excessive rise of cooling water temperature in the charge air cooler. Extreme fouling of the inlet or exhaust manifolds. Mismatching of compressor and turbine components in respect of a particular engine.

v. The turbine nozzles and blades accumulating carbon deposits from the burnt residue of fuel impurities and lubricating oil additives, resulting in high turbine speeds, high boost pressure and exhaust gas temperature rise. Continued deposits will raise the exhaust gas temperature sufficiently to cause surging.

3.8 TURBOCHARGER MATCHING Output of a turbocharger is matched to the engine air demand and exhaust characteristics by the selection of impeller, compressor diffuser, turbine nozzle and turbine blades of the length necessary to drive the impeller at the correct speed with maximum efficiency. Consequently, although the same NAPIER frame size of turbocharger may be fitted to more than one size of engine, the various diffuser and turbine wheel combinations are NOT interchangeable. Component Lives Lives of critical components are limited by operation conditions. All Napier turbochargers have a design life of 50,000 hours and 50,000 cycles (no load to full load) based on stated design conditions (refer to operation and maintenance manuals). Actual life will be dependant on the application and the actual operating conditions but Table 3.8 is intended to give some indication of expected component lives and recommended replacement intervals. It is essential that appropriate instrumentation is fitted to indicate operating conditions and logging is carried out allow evaluation of expired life. Information recorded must include: Turbocharger speed Ambient temperature Running hours at conditions recorded Number and nature of operating load cycles

OPERATION OF TURBOCHARGER COMPONENTS BEYOND DESIGN LIVES OR LIVES DICTATED BY SITE CONDITIONS WILL ULTIMATELY RESULT IN COMPONENT FAILURE.

Operation

Remove Cart. Strip, Clean, Inspect

Fit New Bearings/Thrust Plate

Fit New Rotor (See Note 1)

Fit New Bearing Housings If necessary

Fit New Oil Seal Rings

Check Balance Rotor

Fit New Thrust Collar

Fit new Shroud ring

Hours 12000 24000 36000 48000 60000 72000 84000 96000 108000 120000

X X X X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X X X X

X * X * X

X X * X * X X X X X X X X X X X X

* Thrust Collar and check balance included with new Rotor Notes: 1. Rotor life based on a cyclic duty that does not exceed 1 cycle every 2 hours 2. Units that exceed the number of cycles and/or temperature will have a reduced lifespan and advice should be sought from Napier 3. Ambient temperature assumed to be 25C Table 3.8 Component replacement interval

Fit New T/O casing

Fit New T/I Casing

Fit New Nozzle

CHAPTER 4 MAINTENANCE & INSPECTION


4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 Periodic Maintenance & Inspection Schedule Bearing Replacement Thrust Bearing Wear Journal Bearing Wear Rotor Shaft Check Balance Air Filter Removal and Cleaning Operating Difficulties Protection Against Corrosion (Inhibiting)

Maintenance & Inspection

4.1

PERIODIC MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION SCHEDULE The table below shows the standard maintenance and inspection periods. However servicing necessity varies with site conditions. It may be that certain operations must be performed more frequently than recommended. Similarly, favourable conditions may result in acceptable extended periods. Time Maintenance & Inspection Schedule Confirm the circulation of lubricating oil, i.e. engine feed supplies. Initial Inspection After first 100 hours of operation Inspect all gas and air pipe connections, ensure they are tight. Inspect security of holding down bolts and casing nuts. Every day. This will depend on individual site conditions. Periodic Inspection Every 250 hours. This will depend on individual site conditions. Every 8,000 12,000 hours. To coincide with engine manufacturers engine overhaul IMPORTANT: Compressor water wash (See Chapter 9)

Clean air filter elements.

Dismantle and clean complete turbocharger.

Ensure the turbocharger is fed with clean filtered lub-oil by cleaning the engine oil filters according to the Engine Manufacturers Manual.

4.2

BEARING REPLACEMENT Bearing life varies considerably depending on the operating conditions, the fuels used and the state of the oil. If unfavourable service conditions do prevail the bearing should be inspected every 8,000 hours. If any doubt exists over the condition of the bearing it is advisable to contact the Customer Service Department of NAPIER Turbochargers.

4.3

THRUST BEARING WEAR Service experience has shown that the major thrust bearing can become worn in service, mainly as a result of contaminated lubricating oil. In addition, in particular cases, wear has been experienced during initial engine operation when running in compounds have been used. The following notes provide guidance on bearing wear: 1. In general when bearings show any sign of wear they should be changed since in most cases wear precedes failure.

Maintenance & Inspection

2.

An anodised surface is used on the bearing pads to make the bearing more tolerant to contaminants that cause wear. As long as the anodised surface remains intact the bearing is suitable for further use. There are some cases where the pad surfaces become worn, but it may not be practical to change the bearings. The following list is a guide as to when bearings may or may not be re-used: Cocoa staining, a brown discoloration of the anodised surface, is a typical feature and the bearing is acceptable for further use. If however all the pads are affected then it is an indication that the oil temperature may be too hot. Black marking on the bearing surface is pick-up from the thrust collar and is an indication of lack of lubrication. The bearing is not suitable for further use and an investigation into the oil system is recommended. In some cases contaminated oil, (from running in compounds etc,) will lead to a fine polishing of the pads where the anodised layer is worn away. Some such wear is acceptable. If less than 1/3rd of the total number of pads are affected (i.e. 3 from 12), the bearing can be considered acceptable for a further period of service. If the pads are scored then this is an indication of particles / debris in the oil system. In this instance the bearings are not suitable for further use and the filters should be inspected. JOURNAL BEARING WEAR

3.

4.4

The compressor and turbine journal bearings should be replaced if the journals are subject to wear or scoring. Wear should not exceed 50% of any lobe. 4.5 ROTOR SHAFT BALANCE CHECK

The rotor shaft of the turbocharger is dynamically balanced when new. If any rotating parts have been damaged or major components have been replaced, it is important that the rotor shaft is check balanced. It is recommended that the rotor shaft balance is checked by NAPIER Turbochargers or one of our Approved Servicing Organisations every 24,000 hrs. or every 4 years, whichever is applicable. 4.6 AIR FILTER REMOVAL AND CLEANING

At 250 hrs. clean the filter elements. This will depend on individual site conditions and should be closely monitored, as it may be necessary to increase the frequency of cleaning. The filter elements are of the oil wetted type and can be cleaned by using compressed air at 300KPa, ( 30 - 60 p.s.i.) and directing it in the reverse direction to normal airflow to the compressor. Eye protection should be worn. Very dirty panels may be washed using a high pressure warm water jet. Oil and grease may be removed by using Para Chlorethylene (Dry Cleaning Chemical) or Industrial Alcohol (Fig. 4.1). The splitters should be cleaned using a hand brush for general dust and debris and Para Chlorethylene (Dry Cleaning Chemical) or Industrial Alcohol to remove oil and grease. NOTE: The splitters should not be immersed in fluid. Do NOT use solvents The filters are lightly oiled after cleaning to improve dust adhesion.

Maintenance & Inspection

Fig. 4.1

Air Filter Cleaning

Maintenance & Inspection

4.7

OPERATING DIFFICULTIES Operating difficulties can be prevented providing the daily turbocharger operating data is measured and regular maintenance and inspection routines are adhered to. To assist users in identifying causes of performance deterioration, the following table has been formed:

OPERATING DIFFICULTIES

PROBABLE CAUSE Foreign matter / debris caught between the turbine blade tips and the shroud ring. Blade tips rubbing the shroud ring. Bearing disorder. Fouling of turbine nozzle, blades.

REMEDIAL MEASURES Provide cleaning and eliminate the cause for the ingress of the foreign matter. Inspect and replace with new bearings. Cleaning of the turbine side of turbocharger as required. Refer to Engine Builders Instruction Manual.

Engine starts running but the turbocharger does not.

Turbocharger experiences surging during operating.

Engine cylinder unbalance.

NOTE; Rapid changes of engine load, particularly during shut-down can cause turbocharger surging. ( See 3.7 Turbocharger Surging ) Fouling or damage to turbine nozzle or turbine blades. Lack of air, e.g. dirty air filter. Exhaust gas temperature higher than normal. Exhaust back pressure too high. Charge air cooler dirty. Engine fault in fuel injection system. NOTE: Refer to Engine Builders Instruction Manual for other remedial measures. Pressure gauge faulty or connection to it leaking. Gas leakage at engine exhaust manifold Charge air (boost) pressure lower than normal. Dirty air filter, causing pressure drop. Dirty turbocharger. Rectify. See Engine Builders Instruction Manual. Clean as required. Cleaning of complete turbocharger required. Inspect and replace as necessary. Cleaning the turbine side of the turbocharger or component replacement. Clean as required. Investigate cause. Clean and adjust as Makers Instruction Manual.

Turbine blades or nozzle ring damage.

Maintenance & Inspection

Pressure gauge reading incorrectly. Nozzle ring clogged with carbon deposits. Engine overload, engine output higher than expected. Fault in engine fuel injection system. Severe unbalance of rotor due to dirt or damaged turbine blading. Bent rotor shaft.

Rectify. Clean as required. Consult Engine Builders Instruction manual. Consult Engine Builders Instruction manual. Rebalance the rotor assembly.

Charge air pressure (boost) higher than normal.

Turbocharger vibration.

Inspect and replace as necessary.

Defective bearings.

Inspect and replace as necessary.

Incorrectly assembled bearings.

Inspect and replace as necessary.

A simple system of washing the compressor components while the engine is running, is available, to help maintain peak performance between overhaul periods. Provision for fitting such equipment is made on all turbochargers. The system consists of an injection pipe located on the Air Intake Duct, with a discharge orifice located to spray the eye of the impeller, which may be injected by a syringe or pressurised system. For full compressor cleaning instruction see Chapter 9.

Maintenance & Inspection

4.8

PROTECTION AGAINST CORROSION The bearing surfaces, oil passages, thrust faces etc, in all turbochargers leaving the NAPIER factory are inhibited with Shell ENSIS Engine Oil. It is recommended that turbochargers, at the beginning of any subsequent period of idleness, that is likely to be more than one-month duration, should be similarly inhibited. Inhibiting should be repeated at 6-month intervals if the turbocharger continues to be inoperative. Turbochargers fitted to engines that are to be shut down for long periods, or turbochargers to be held as spares, must receive preparation for long-term storage. More extensive treatment and instructions for this work can be obtained on request. INHIBITING AN INSTALLED TURBOCHARGER 1. 2. 3. Disconnect the lubricating oil supply from the top of the main casing. Remove the lubricating oil drain flange and pipe. Introduce inhibiting oil (e.g. Shell ENSIS Engine Oil) for a short period through the open connection at the top of the main casing, to the turbocharger rotor shaft bearings. At the same time rotate the shaft by hand whilst draining off excess inhibiting oil. Spray or brush the turbocharger internal surfaces with inhibiting oil. Refit the drain flange and pipework, previously removed, or blank off the drain. Seal all the turbocharger vents and open connections with fabric tape.

4. 5. 6.

GENERAL ANTI-CORROSION TREATMENT In addition to inhibiting, the following precautions are undertaken prior to despatch from the NAPIER factory, to prevent damage to turbochargers during transit and short term storage:Each units external surfaces can be finished in high quality paint. External steel and all bright parts are coated with acid free mineral grease. Blanks are fitted to all machined facings and outlets, etc. Joints are dry packed.

CHAPTER 5
5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 5.10 5.11 5.12 5.13 5.14 5.15 5.16

DISMANTLING

Preparation for Dismantling Safety of Personnel Dismantling Operation Removal of Complete Turbocharger from Engine Removal of Turbine Outlet Casing Cartridge Removal on Engine Nozzle Removal from Compressor End Dismantling the Cartridge Assembly Removal of the Impeller Removal of Compressor Outlet Casing Dismantling the Main Casing Removal of the Rotor Shaft Continued Dismantling of the Main Casing Bearing Removal (Compressor End) Bearing Removal (Turbine End) Component Cleaning 5.16.1 Air/Filter Silencer 5.16.2 Alternative Side Entry Casing 5.16.3 Bearing Surfaces 5.16.4 Turbine Blisc

Dismantling

5.1

PREPARATION FOR DISMANTLING This chapter contains the information necessary to completely dismantle the turbocharger. Included are the instructions for a strip inspection considered to be within the scope of a customer without special facilities. It is assumed that strip inspection and overhaul will be linked with engine overhaul periods advised by the engine builder. At the same time that the turbocharger is overhauled, the air filter and the engine lubricating oil filters should be serviced. Complete overhaul, including detailed viewing, crack detection and pressure testing can be undertaken by NAPIER Turbochargers. The facilities of our technical organisation and the services of our engineers are available at all times to assist in the investigation of any matter connected with Turbochargers. A maintenance tool kit is available and should be ordered separately. Individual tools referred to in the following instructions have been given item numbers from a complete list given in Chapter 8. Although it may be possible to remove some of the components using tools other than those specified, the correct, designed tools will avoid damage to the components, surrounding parts and personnel. Before the start of any dismantling work, mark the vertical centreline at the top of all casing flanges and joints to be certain that all components are returned to their correct relative positions. The identity marks must not damage the flanges etc., but should be sufficient to remain in evidence after cleaning. Drain the oil system. Disconnect the oil system if the oil is supplied externally. Disconnect the air and exhaust pipes and trunking. Disconnect the charge air cooler. Disconnect and protect all fitted instrumentation. Seal all open pipes, vents etc. until re-assembly. Adjustment shim, thrust collar, and the rotor assembly components are to be carefully handled. Renewal can involve delay and replacement costs. Damage can alter the working clearances or affect the dynamic balance of the rotor assembly.

5.2

SAFETY OF PERSONNEL The change of the centre of gravity must be appreciated when casings are removed from the turbocharger. If the whole unit is to be taken down from the engine for servicing, adequate holding provision must be made at the working surface.

Dismantling

101 to 106 110 111 112 113 & 114 115 116 117 118 120 121 122 123 125 130 131 132 140 141 142 143 160

Turbine Inlet Casing Capscrew - Turbine Water Wash (WW) WW Blanking Plate WW Injector Plate WW Injector Plug Temperature Boss (Not shown) Stud (Turbine Inlet / Outlet Casing) Spacer (Turbine Inlet / Outlet Casing) Nut (Turbine Inlet / Outlet Casing) Nozzle Nozzle Clamping Ring Capscrew Clamping Ring Disc-lock Washer C Seal (Turbine Inlet / Outlet Casing) Shroud Capscrew - Shroud Disc-lock Washer Turbine End Mounting Foot Stud (Mounting Bolt) Plain Washer Nut Turbine Outlet Casing

Fig. 5.1

Turbocharger Casing (Sheet 1 of 2)

Dismantling

Fig. 5.1

Turbocharger Casing (Sheet 2 of 2)

Dismantling

5.3

DISMANTLING PROCEDURE FOR ALL OPERATIONS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Remove the insulation panels from the turbocharger. Disconnect the compressor water wash pipe. (If fitted) Disconnect the speed measuring sensor connector. Remove the side entry compressor inlet casing, if fitted, from the compressor outlet casing. Remove the air filter / silencer, if fitted, from the compressor outlet casing. Disconnect the alternate oil feed pipe. (if used) Disconnect the alternate oil drain pipe. (if used) Disconnect the compressor outlet.

5.4

REMOVAL OF COMPLETE TURBOCHARGER FROM ENGINE 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Disconnect the turbine inlet connections. Disconnect the turbine water wash injectors. (if fitted) Fit suitable lifting equipment to the main casing lifting points. Take the weight of the turbocharger. Remove the 4 turbine end mounting foot bolts. Remove the 4 main mounting foot attachment bolts. Ensure that the turbocharger remains level during the removal operation or damage may occur to the turbine.

CAUTION:

7. 8. 5.5

Remove the turbocharger from the engine. Mount the turbocharger on a suitable service stand.

REMOVAL OF TURBINE OUTLET CASING (Refer to Fig. 5.1) 1. 2. 3. Fit lifting bracket to the turbine inlet casing (101). Remove the nuts (118) and spacers (117) securing the turbine inlet casing. Remove the turbine inlet casing from the turbine outlet casing (160). Ensure that the safety devices are fitted to the main casing to compressor outlet casing positions.

CAUTION:

4.

Using suitable lifting equipment take the weight of the turbine outlet casing (160).

Dismantling

5.

Remove the nuts and washers from the compressor outlet casing (300) through main casing (200) to turbine outlet casing (160). Ensure that the turbine outlet casing remains level during removal or turbine damage may occur.

CAUTION:

6.

Remove the turbine outlet casing (160). To continue with the dismantling of the cartridge assembly proceed to 6.8.

NOTE: 5.6

CARTRIDGE REMOVAL ON ENGINE CAUTION: Before removing the cartridge the turbine outlet casing must be supported or severe damage will occur to the casing and turbine.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Fit suitable lifting slings to the main casing (200) lifting points. Remove the 3 safety bolts/setscrews from the main casing/turbine outlet casing interface. Remove the nuts and washers from the compressor outlet casing/turbine outlet casing. Take the weight of the turbocharger on the lifting equipment. Remove the 4 mounting foot bolts. Ensure that the cartridge remains level or damage to the turbine will occur.

CAUTION: 6. 7.

Remove the cartridge assembly from the turbine outlet casing. Mount the cartridge assembly on a suitable service stand. If required the nozzle assembly may be removed from the compressor end.

NOTE: 5.7

NOZZLE REMOVAL FROM COMPRESSOR END (Refer to Fig. 5.1) 1. 2. 3. 4. Remove 2 shroud ring (130) attachment capscrews (131) and disc-lock washers (132). Fit the shroud ring guide bars. (1004). Remove the remaining 4 capscrews (131) and disc-lock washers (132). Remove the 6 capscrews (122) and disc-lock washers (121) securing the nozzle assembly (120). The nozzle (120) can now be removed, cleaned and inspected for damage.

5.

The next sequence describes the dismantling of the cartridge assembly.

Dismantling

300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 401 402 403 500 515 516 800

Compressor Outlet Casing Compressor Insert Packing Ring Peelable Shim Diffuser Stud Nut Stud Plain Washer Capscrew (Packing Ring) Capscrew (Compressor Insert) Disc-lock Washer Plain Washer Thrust Collar Impeller Shaft and Blisc Assembly Air Filter Silencer Compressor Water Wash Pipe Compressor Water Wash Coupling Speed Sensor Probe

Fig. 5.2

Rotor Assembly and Compressor Outlet Casing (Sheet 1 of 2)

Dismantling

Fig. 5.2

Rotor Assembly and Compressor Outlet Casing (Sheet 2 of 2)

Dismantling

5.8

DISMANTLING THE CARTRIDGE ASSEMBLY (Refer to Fig. 5.2) CAUTION: Ensure that the cartridge assembly is mounted securely before attempting to dismantle it.

1. 2. 3. 4.

Remove 2 capscrews (310) and disc-lock washers (311) from the compressor insert (301). Fit the 2 guide bars to the compressor insert (301). Undo the speed sensor gland nut (800) on the compressor outlet casing (300). Remove the rubber grommet from the speed sensor cable. Ensure that the compressor insert remains level during removal or severe damage will occur to the impeller.

CAUTION:

5. 6.

Fit the lifting bracket to the compressor insert. Remove the remaining 6 caphead screws (310) and disc-lock washers (311) from the compressor insert. If required 3 jacking screws may be used if the insert is tight. Ensure that the speed sensor (800) cable feeds through the compressor outlet casing (300) as the insert is withdrawn or damage to the cable may occur.

NOTE: CAUTION:

7.

Carefully withdraw the compressor insert (301) from the compressor outlet casing (300) taking care not to damage the peelable shim (303). When the compressor insert is removed from the compressor casing, fully withdraw the speed sensor cable. Ensure that the speed sensor cable is stowed safely if the probe is not to be removed. Fit a blank to the cable end.

8.

9.

10. Remove the guide bars which were fitted at 2. NOTE: The torque on the impeller must be broken at this stage before the compressor outlet casing is removed as the casing is required to mount the tooling.

5.9

REMOVAL OF THE IMPELLER (Refer to Fig. 5.2) 1. 2. 3. Fit the impeller removal tooling to the compressor outlet casing (306). Fit the 2 shaft locking stays to the turbine end of the main casing. Position the shaft locking tool onto the turbine and attach it to the two shaft locking stays using two nuts and bolts. Fit the tool to the nose of the impeller (402).

4.

Dismantling

5. 6.

Unscrew the impeller with the tooling until hand tight. Remove the tooling fitted in 1 and 2. Care should be taken when removing the impeller due to the weight and the lifting angle. Continue to unscrew the impeller by hand until it comes off the shaft.

CAUTION:

7. 5.10

REMOVAL OF COMPRESSOR OUTLET CASING (Refer to Fig. 5.2) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Fit lifting eye to compressor outlet casing (300). Fit the jacking screws to the compressor outlet casing. Using suitable lifting equipment take the weight of the compressor outlet casing. Remove the 3 safety setscrews between compressor outlet casing and main casing. Screw in the jacking screws evenly until the compressor outlet casing is free. Remove the compressor outlet casing from the main casing. If required the diffuser packing ring may be removed from the compressor outlet casing.

5.11

DISMANTLING THE MAIN CASING (Refer to Fig. 5.2) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Remove the diffuser (304) from the main casing. Remove 2 of the labyrinth seal plate (217) capscrews. Fit guide bars (1004) to the labyrinth seal plate. Remove the remaining capscrews from the labyrinth seal plate. Remove the labyrinth seal plate from the main casing. Remove the guide bars. Remove 2 of the compressor end bearing housing capscrews. Fit the compressor end bearing housing guide bars. (1004) Remove the remaining capscrews from the compressor end bearing housing.

10. Fit the jacking screws to the compressor end bearing housing. 11. Continue screwing the jacking screws evenly until the bearing housing is free. Remove the bearing housing from the main casing. 12. Remove the guide bars and jacking screws.

Dismantling

NOTE:

The oil transfer tube may still be attached to the turbine end bearing housing.

13. Remove the oil transfer tube.

Dismantling

115 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 222 223 224 236

Plug - Alternative Lub Oil Inlet Main Casing Cone Bearing Housing (TE) Oil Feed Pipe Bearing Housing (CE) Major Thrust Plate O Ring Capscrew (Thrust Plate) Capscrew Bearing (TE) Bearing (CE) Retaining Ring O Ring (Oil Fed Pipe) Bearing Housing Plug Anti-Rotation Screw Capscrew (Cone) Disc-lock Washer (Cone) Sealing Plate Sealing Ring (CE) Sealing Ring (TE) x 2 Sealing Caps (Integrated Oil Drain) Oil Drain Cover Joint Oil Drain Setscrew (Oil Drain Cover) Spring Washer

Fig. 5.3

Main Casing (Sheet 1 of 2)

Dismantling

Fig. 5.3

Main Casing (Sheet 2 of 2)

Dismantling

5.12

REMOVAL OF THE ROTOR SHAFT (Refer to Fig. 5.2) 1. 2. 3. 4. Fit the rotor shaft locking tool (1007). Fit the thrust collar removal tooling (1001). Using the tooling pull the thrust collar off the shaft. Remove the tooling and remove the thrust collar from the tooling. Ensure that the thrust collar is stored carefully to avoid damage to the thrust face.

CAUTION: 5.

Support the compressor end of the rotor shaft before removal to prevent damage occurring to the turbine end bearing. Wear gloves or use suitable protection as the turbine blades are sharp and can cause injury to the hands.

CAUTION:

6.

Remove the shaft and blisc assembly (403) from the turbine end. The shaft and blisc assembly should be stored in a safe area where no damage can occur.

NOTE:

5.13

CONTINUED DISMANTLING OF THE MAIN CASING (Refer to Fig. 5.3) 1. Remove the 6 caphead screws (215) which secure the cone to the main casing. The cone is heavy and must be supported when removing the caphead screws.

CAUTION: 2. 3. 5.14

Remove the 6 caphead screws which secure the turbine end bearing housing (202). If required use the jacking screws to remove the bearing housing

BEARING REMOVAL (COMPRESSOR END) (Refer to Fig. 5.3) CAUTION: When bearings are removed they should be stored so that they can not be damaged.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.15

Unscrew the low caphead screws (207) securing the major thrust bearing (205). Carefully remove the compressor end journal bearing retaining ring (211). Remove the anti-rotation screw (214) from the bearing housing (202). Remove the compressor end journal bearing (210).

BEARING REMOVAL (TURBINE END) (Refer to Fig. 5.3) 1. Carefully remove the turbine end journal bearing retaining ring (211).

Dismantling

2. 3. 5.16

Remove the anti-rotation screw from the bearing housing (214). Remove the turbine end journal bearing (209).

COMPONENT CLEANING All components should be thoroughly cleaned in a chlorinated hydrocarbon degreasing plant or washed in paraffin. All silicone sealant must be thoroughly removed. CAUTION: Flammable substances should only be used in a well ventilated area. Keep away from naked light.

The nozzle ring may require to be boiled in water to remove stubborn deposits resulting from low grade fuels or additives in the lubricating oil. After cleaning, all components should be inspected for serviceability. Examine all of the dismantled components for:1. 2. 3. Excessive wear, corrosion or structural damage. The security of fittings, studs, bolts etc. The condition of threads on the rotor shaft, in the lubricating oil tappings, in extraction holes etc. The condition of bearings and thrust faces. Confirm that the oil, air, drain holes and all passages are free from fouling or obstruction. All O rings must be replaced. All disc-lock washers should be inspected for serviceability. AIR/FILTER SILENCER positive

4. 5.

6. 7.

5.16.1

Examine for damage, corrosion of the casing and fittings, condition and security of the lining, and the condition of the filter panel media. The filter elements are of the oil wetted type and can be cleaned by passing air at 300KPa, ( 30 60 p.s.i. ) through in the reverse direction to normal airflow to the compressor. Eye protection should be worn. Very dirty panels may be washed using a high pressure water jet oil and grease may be removed by using Para Chorethylene (Dry Cleaning Chemical) or Industrial Alcohol (Fig. 4.1). The splitters should be cleaned using a hand brush for general dust and debris and Chorethylene (Dry Cleaning Chemical) or Industrial Alcohol to remove oil and grease.. Do NOT use solvents. Para

Dismantling

Dust adhesion and dust holding capacity can be improved if the filters are lightly oiled after cleaning. 5.16.2 ALTERNATIVE SIDE ENTRY CASING

Inspect for damage, corrosion etc. and repaint if required. 5.16.3 BEARING SURFACES

Examine the bearing bores for wear and the thrust faces for scoring. Check both bearing housings for scuffing in the bore. Any allowable wear of journal and all rotating surfaces must be concentric. Every precaution must be taken AT ALL TIMES to protect bearing surfaces from dirt, grit and moisture. Bearings awaiting reassembly should be kept safe, new parts should be kept in their protective packing until required. 5.16.4 TURBINE BLISC

The repair of individual blades is not possible. Both ends of the lacing wire are bent inwards midway between adjacent blades, any damage requires investigation and replacement. Dynamic balance must be maintained.

CHAPTER 6
6.1 6.2

TABLE OF CLEARANCES

Table of Clearances Torque Settings

Table of Clearances

6.1

TABLE OF CLEARANCES

Turbine blisc/cone clearance

Impeller axial clearance

Compressor end bearing thrust clearance

Turbine Blisc/cone clearance Impeller axial clearance Compressor end bearing thrust clearance

2.815 / 2.185mm 0.95 / 0.85mm 0.095 / 0.335mm

(0.111 / 0.086 inch) (0.037 / 0.033 inch) (0.004 / 0.013 inch)

Clearances measured with shaft pushed towards the compressor end. See chapter 7, REASSEMBLY, for procedure.

Table of Clearances

6.2

TORQUE SETTINGS
297 TORQUE LIST
SIZE M5 M6 LOCATION C/E BRG HSG ASSY THRUST BRG T/E BRG ASSY- ANTI ROT SCREW OIL INLET ASSY W/W INJECTOR ASSY PACKING RING M8 OIL INLET ASSY BRACKET SHROUD HJK SHROUD TYPE M C/E BEARING HOUSING & SEAL PLATE T/E BEARING HOUSING M10 T/O W/W DRAIN COVER OIL DRAIN COVER MAIN CSG NOZZLE TO T/I CASING CONE TO MAIN CASING VOLUTE INSERT TYPE OF PART M5 X 12 LOW HEAD CAP FROM M6 X 20 CAP M6 X 25 CAP LOW HEAD M6 X 12 CAP (A2/70 S/S) M6 X 30 CAP M8 X 12 SETSCREW NI PLATED M8 X 120 CAP (D) M8 X 110 CAP (D) M8 X 25 CAP M8 X 25 CAP M10 X 25 SETSCREW M10 X 25 SETSCREW M10 X 25 CAP (D) M10 X 120 CAP (D) M10 X 35 CAP QTY 6 1 4 9 1 2 6 6 12 6 6 4 6 6 8 6 3 3 12 12 12 12 7 7 12 12 3 16 2 TO 8 1 1 1 25 180deg 50 90deg 80 180deg 50 180deg 50 50 80 40 10 40 10 610 SEE SK14122 FOR FITTING INSTR. ROCOL DRY MOLY PASTE THREADS/SPIGOT/ABUT. FACE ASSEMBLY T Nm 6 10 10 3 10 25 25 25 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 50 CLEAN/DRY & LOCTITE 222 CLEAN/DRY & LOCTITE 243 ANTI-SEIZE LOW TORQUE! ANTI-SEIZE LOCTITE 243 ANTI-SEIZE DISC LOCK +ANTI-SEIZE DISC LOCK +ANTI-SEIZE 243 LOCTITE NORD-LOCK + ANTI-SEIZE ANTI-SEIZE & SEE NOTE 2 SRING WASHER ANTI-SEIZE & SEE NOTE 2 DISC LOCK +ANTI-SEIZE DISC LOCK +ANTI-SEIZE DISC LOCK +ANTI-SEIZE DISC LOCK +ANTI-SEIZE ANTI-SEIZE. USED FOR STRIP ANTI-SEIZE. USED FOR STRIP ANTI-SEIZE & SEE NOTE 3 ANTI-SEIZE ANTI-SEIZE & SEE NOTE 3 ANTI-SEIZE ANTI-SEIZE & SEE NOTE 3 ANTI-SEIZE ANTI-SEIZE & SEE NOTE 3 ANTI-SEIZE ANTI-SEIZE. USED FOR STRIP PLAIN WASHER + ANTI-SEIZE NOTES

M12

LAMINATED FOOT TO BASE M10 X 35 BOLT PLATE MAIN CSG TO T/O CSG M12 X 55 BOLT TO ABOVE T/I CSG TO T/O CSG TO ABOVE MAIN CSG TO T/O & VOLUTE TO ABOVE MOUNTING FOOT TO TURBOCHARGER TO ABOVE AFS TO ABOVE M12 NUT M12 X 65 STUD (D) M12 HELI-LOCKNUT M16/M12 X 140 OA WAISTED STUD 12.9 GRADE NI PLATED M12 NUT M12 X 25/45 STUD (D) M12 HELI-LOCKNUT M12 X 35 STUD M12 NUT M16 X 30 SETSCREW M16 X 35 CAPSCREW (D) PLUG M 18 X 1.5 ED PLUG M 10 X 1 ED

M16

MAIN CSG TO VOLUTE SAFETY SCREW T/I BYPASS COVER T/I & T/O CSG. M/CSG. VOL. T/E BRG HSG ASSY

MISC

OIL I/L ASSY - GAUZE FILTER BSP CAST IRON PLUG PORT SPEED PROBE PROBE AND GLAND IMPELLER (ROTOR)

NOTES
1. The anti-seize compound recommended by NAPIER is Rocol ASC251T. 2. Owing to the serious risk of leakage problems on soft joints the following must be observed: torque to 50% of torque shown, using suitable sequence. Then repeat sequence to full assembly torque. All accessible soft joints must be re-tightened where possible after 24 hours running (cold). 3. Angular settings e.g. studs: tighten to seat and apply angular displacement shown.

CHAPTER 7
7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9 7.10 7.11 7.12 7.13

RE-ASSEMBLY

Preparation for Re-assembly Preparation of the Main Casing Preparation of the Bearing Housings Assembly of the Main Casing Preparation of the Rotor Shaft Fitting the Rotor Shaft Fitting the Compressor End Bearing Housing Continued Preparation of Main Casing Fitting the Impeller Assembly of the Compressor Insert Fitting Cartridge Assembly Assembly of Turbine Inlet Casing Fitting Complete Turbocharger

Re-Assembly

7.1

PREPARATION FOR RE-ASSEMBLY NOTE: The NAPIER 297 may be built up as a cartridge or as a complete turbocharger. The first part of the following procedure describes the build of a cartridge assembly.

During re-assembly of the turbocharger, clearances must be checked. It should not be necessary to alter clearances following an overhaul, during which no component parts of the turbocharger were replaced . However, if a particular clearance is found to be incorrect, the adjustment shims should not be altered until all components have been checked for cleanliness, that they are undamaged and correctly assembled. All disc-lock washers must be inspected for serviceability before re-assembly, and unserviceable washers replaced. All bonded seals and 'O' rings must be replaced with new items. Check that all components are clean, un-damaged and free from burrs. Where a specific torque loading figure is given it is essential that these figures are adhered to. CASING POSITIONS If the marks made at the top of the casings during dismantling have been erased, the original position of each casing must be ascertained and the casings re-marked. Similarly, if a casing is to be re-assembled in a new position, it should be re-marked. ROTOR ASSEMBLY Bores and diameters of components such as bearing housings and sleeves are manufactured to close tolerances, and the normal practice of applying clean lubricating oil to these surfaces before assembly should be followed. CAUTION: Ensure that all components are thoroughly cleaned before any re-assembly operations commence. All air and oil passageways should be blown through with compressed air to ensure that no foreign objects are present.

7.2

PREPARATION OF THE MAIN CASING 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Ensure the cleanliness of all components before assembly. Check that the oil drain core plug or plugs are fitted in the correct position, use Loctite 542 on plugs. If required fit the alternative oil drain blanking plates, use new gaskets. If required fit the alternative oil feed blanking plug, use a new washer. If required fit the alternative oil feed manifold to the front of the main casing, use a new 'O' ring. If required fit the blanking plug to the integrated oil feed.

6.

Re-Assembly

115 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 222 223 224 236 237 Fig. 7.1

Plug-Alternative Lub Oil Inlet Main Casing Cone Bearing Housing (TE) Oil Feed Pipe Bearing Housing (CE) Major Thrust Plate 'O' Ring Capscrew (Thrust Plate) Capscrew Bearing (TE) Bearing (CE) Retaining Ring 'O' Ring (TE) Bearing Housing Plug Anti-Rotation Screw Capscrew (Cone) Disc-lock Washer (Cone) Sealing Plate Sealing Ring (CE) Sealing Ring (TE) Sealing Caps (As required) Oil Drain Cover Joint Oil Drain Setscrew (Oil Drain Cover) Spring Washer 'O' Ring (Main Casng) Main Casing (Sheet 1 of 2)

Re-Assembly

Fig. 7.1

Main Casing (Sheet 2 of 2)

Re-Assembly

7.3

PREPARATION OF THE BEARING HOUSINGS (Refer to Fig. 7.1) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Fit drain plug (213) with washer to turbine end bearing housing. (oil feed side) Fit turbine end bearing (209) to the turbine end bearing housing (202). (number upwards) Fit the anti-rotation screw (214) to the bearing housing use Loctite 222 on the threads. Fit the bearing retaining ring (211) to the bearing housing (202). Fit a new 'O' ring (206) to the bearing housing. Fit the compressor end journal bearing (210). Fit the bearing retaining ring (211) to the bearing housing (204). Fit the thrust bearing (205) using the caphead screws (207), use Loctite 222 on the threads. Fit a new 'O' ring (206) to the bearing housing.

7.4

ASSEMBLY OF THE MAIN CASING (Refer to Fig. 7.1) 1. 2. Fit the turbine end bearing housing (202) to the main casing (200). One hole is offset to ensure that the oil feed is at the bottom. Fit the 6 caphead screws (208) to the bearing housing assembly and torque load them. (See Table in 6.2) use Loctite 222 on the threads. Disc-lock washers are assembled in pairs and must have the cam faces together for correct fitment.

NOTE:

Fig. 7.2 3.

Disc-lock washer profiles

Fit the cone (201) to the main casing using the 6 caphead screws (215) and disc-lock washers (216) and torque load them (See Table in 6.2). A high temperature anti-seize compound should be used on the screw threads.

NOTE: 7.5

PREPARATION OF THE ROTOR SHAFT 1. 2. 3. Obtain a balanced rotor assembly. Fit the two piston ring seals (219) onto the turbine end of the shaft ensuring that the gaps are 180 apart. Lubricate the piston ring seals and turbine end bearing with clean engine oil.

Re-Assembly

Piston ring seals

Fig. 7.3 7.6

Piston Ring Seats Position

FITTING THE ROTOR SHAFT 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Care must be taken when fitting the shaft otherwise damage could occur to the bearing. Fit the shaft assembly into the main casing. Apply Rocol (anti-scuffing paste) to the shaft where the thrust collar fits onto it. Heat the thrust collar to 80 C above ambient temperature. With the shaft pushed towards the compressor end fit the thrust collar onto the shaft and fit the tooling to ensure that the thrust collar is fully seated. When the thrust collar has cooled enough (approximately 15 minutes) remove the tooling. If it is not possible to heat the thrust collar it can be pushed onto the shaft using the tooling.

NOTE:

Rotor shaft/blisc

Thrust collar

Main casing

Fig. 7.4

Fitting shaft to main casing

Re-Assembly

115 300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 401 402 403 500 515 516 800

Plug Compressor Outlet Casing Compressor Insert Packing Ring Peelable Shim Diffuser Stud Nut Stud Spring Washer Capscrew (Packing Ring) Capscrew (Compressor Insert) Disc-lock Washer Plain Washer 'O' Ring (Compressor Insert) Thrust Collar Impeller Shaft and Blisc Assembly Air Filter Silencer Compressor Water Wash Pipe Compressor Water Wash Coupling Speed Sensor Probe

Fig. 7.5

Rotor Assembly and Compressor Outlet Casing (Sheet 1 of 2)

Re-Assembly

Fig. 7.5

Rotor Assembly and Compressor Outlet Casing (Sheet 2 of 2)

Re-Assembly

7.7 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

FITTING THE COMPRESSOR END BEARING HOUSING (Refer to Fig. 7.1) Fit 3 new 'O' rings (212) to the oil transfer tube. Fit the oil transfer tube (203) into the compressor end bearing housing (204). Liberally oil the thrust and journal bearings with clean engine oil. Fit the guide bars (1004) to the main casing in preparation for fitting the bearing housing. Fit new 'O' ring (206) to bearing housing. Ensure that the oil transfer tube is correctly aligned

NOTE: 6. 7. 8. 7.8

Fit the compressor end bearing housing (204) to the main casing (200). Remove the guide bars. Try to rotate the bearing housing to ensure that the oil tube has engaged. Fit the 6 caphead screws (208) and torque load them (See Table in 6.2). Use Loctite 222 on the screw threads. Fit the guide bars (1004) to the main casing (200) in preparation for fitting the labyrinth seal plate (217). Fit the labyrinth seal plate to the main casing. Remove the guide bars. Fit the 6 caphead screws (208) and torque load them (See Table in 6.2). Use Loctite 222 on screw threads. Apply 4 large spots (evenly spaced) of RTV Silicone Sealant to the seal plate/diffuser interface. Fit the diffuser (304) to the main casing.

CONTINUED PREPARATION OF MAIN CASING (Refer to Fig. 7.1) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

7.9

FITTING THE IMPELLER (Refer to Fig. 7.5) 1. 2. Fit the piston ring seal (218) to the seal ring carrier on the impeller. Lightly smear the shaft and screw thread with Rocol anti-scuffing paste. All traces of anti-scuffing compound must be removed from the impeller/shaft abutment face on the shaft prior to fitting the impeller.

CAUTION:

3. 4. 5. 6.

Fit the impeller (402) onto the shaft (403) and gently turn the impeller until it is hand tight. Check the rotor assembly for freedom of rotation and thrust bearing clearance by pushing the rotor rearwards and pulling it forwards (not measured at this time). Fit the two shaft locking stays (1025) to the turbine end of the main casing. Position the shaft locking tool onto the turbine and attach it to the two shaft locking stays using two nuts and bolts.

Re-Assembly

7. 8. 9.

Fit the packing ring (302) to the compressor outlet casing (300) using the caphead screw (309). Fit the 'O' (237) ring to the main casing. Fit the compressor outlet casing (300) to the main casing and attach with the three safety securing setscrews.

10. Fit blanking plugs (115) as required to the compressor outlet casing. 11. Fit the tooling for torque loading the impeller. CAUTION: The tooling for torque loading the impeller includes a 5-1 torque multiplier and the torque figure given in Table 6.2 must be divided by 5 to give the correct figure.

12. Torque load the impeller. Refer to Table 6.2 for details of torque loading. 13. Remove the tooling fitted at 11. 14. Mount a dial gauge indicator to the compressor outlet casing and position the arm on the nose of the impeller. 15. Push the rotor towards the turbine end and hold. Zero the indicator, push the rotor towards the compressor end and hold, record the reading. For thrust clearance see table in Chapter 6.1. NOTE: This clearance is not adjustable, if the clearance is too small the rotor has been assembled incorrectly. Seal Ring

Anti-scuffing must be removed from these bearing surfaces

Fig. 7.6

Fitting impeller

Re-Assembly

O ring

Fig. 7.7 7.10

Position of 'O' Ring

ASSEMBLY OF THE COMPRESSOR INSERT (Refer to Fig.7.5) 1. 2. 3. Fit the guide bars (1003) to the compressor outlet casing (300) in preparation for fitting the insert (301). Fit the compressor insert lifting bracket. (1005) Locate the compressor insert onto the guide bars. Use extreme caution when pushing the insert into the compressor outlet casing as damage to the impeller could occur. The insert must be kept level.

CAUTION:

4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Push the insert into the compressor outlet casing. Remove the lifting bracket from the compressor insert. Fit the eight caphead screws (310) and continue to pull the insert in until the insert lightly touches the impeller vanes, with the rotor shaft pushed towards the compressor end. Ensure that the gap between the insert and the compressor outlet casing is equal. Using feeler gauges measure the gap in four places, take the average and record this dimension. The next step is to set the impeller to insert clearance. (See Table in Chapter 6.1)

NOTE: 9.

To calculate the size of shim required to give the correct impeller to insert clearance:i. Ensure that the rotor shaft is pushed and held towards the compressor end, this is to remove the thrust clearance.

Re-Assembly

ii.

Take the figure obtained in 8 above and add this to 0.75mm (0.029 inches), which is the mid point of the clearance required, the figure obtained is the size of the shim required to give the correct impeller to compressor insert clearance. The shim is peelable and each lamination is 0.05mm (0.002 inches)

NOTE:

10. Peel off the laminations of the shim (303) until the correct thickness is achieved. 11. Remove the 8 caphead screws and remove the compressor insert with extreme caution. 12. Fit the 'O' ring (313) to the compressor insert and lightly lubricate it. CAUTION: It is most important to ensure that the speed probe is flush with the inner surface of the compressor insert. Failure to ensure this, or the correct fitting of the lock nut, could cause impact with the compressor wheel.
'O' Ring

Compressor Insert Lifting Bracket

Guide Bars

Impeller Clearance Adjustment Shim

Fig. 7.8

Fitting Compressor Insert

13. Screw the speed probe (800) into the compressor insert until the end of the probe is flush with the inner surface of the insert. 14. Tighten the locknut on the speed probe. 15. Using a feeler gauge measure the gap from the tip of an impeller vane to the insert near the speed probe. 16. Using a feeler gauge measure the gap from the tip of an impeller vane to the speed probe. If the reading is different from that taken in 15 adjust as necessary. 17. Fit shim onto the guide bars (1003).

Re-Assembly

101 to 106 110 111 112 113 & 114 115 116 117 118 120 121 122 123 125 130 131 132 140 141 142 143 160

Turbine Inlet Casing Capscrew Turbine Water Wash (WW) WW Blanking Plate WW Injector Plate WW Injector Plug - Temperature Boss Stud (Turbine Inlet / Outlet Casing) Spacer (Turbine Inlet / Outlet Casing) Nut (Turbine Inlet / Outlet Casing) Nozzle Nozzle Clamping Ring) Capscrew Clamping Ring Disc-lock Washer 'C' Seal (Turbine Inlet / Outlet Casing) Shroud Capscrew - Shroud Disc-lock Washer Turbine End Mounting Foot Stud (Mounting Bolt) Disc-lock Washer Nut Turbine Outlet Casing

Fig. 7.9

Turbocharger Casing (Sheet 1 of 2)

Re-Assembly

Fig. 7.9

Turbocharger Casing (Sheet 2 of 2)

Re-Assembly

18. Feed the speed probe wiring through the hole in the compressor outlet casing. 19. Fit the compressor insert (301) into the compressor outlet casing (300) ensuring that the insert remains level to avoid damage to the impeller and that the wire for the speed probe does not get trapped. 20. Fit the eight caphead screws (300) and disc-lock washers (311) and torque load them. See Table in 6.2. 7.11 FITTING CARTRIDGE ASSEMBLY (Refer to Fig. 7.9) CAUTION: Use extreme care when locating the cartridge assembly to the turbine outlet casing (160) as turbine damage could occur. Ensure that the 'O' ring seals are located and not dislodged during fitting if the integrated oil system is being used.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 7.12

Fit the cartridge assembly to the turbine outlet casing (101). Fit the 4 mounting bolts to the foot. Refer to engine manufacturers recommendations regarding torque load. Fit the washers (117) and nuts (118) to the studs (116) on the turbine outlet casing. Fit the alternate oil drain pipe if used. Connect the alternate oil feed pipe if used. Fit the air filter silencer or side entry casing. Connect the compressor water wash pipe. Connect the speed measuring sensor. Fit the insulation panels to the turbocharger.

ASSEMBLY OF TURBINE INLET CASING (Refer to Fig. 7.9) 1. 2. 3. Place the nozzle ring (120) onto the turbine inlet casing (101). Place the nozzle clamping ring (121) onto the nozzle and align the 6 holes. Fit the 6 caphead screws (122) and disc-lock washers (120) to the nozzle and clamping ring. (See Table 6.2 for Torque load). Use Rocol ASC251T on the screw threads.

NOTE:

Re-Assembly

Support for Turbine Outlet Casing

Turbine End Mounting

Fig. 7.10 7.13

Fitting Cartridge Assembly to Turbine Outlet Casing

FITTING COMPLETE TURBOCHARGER (Refer to Fig. 7.9) If a complete turbocharger is to be fitted complete all operations up to 8.10 then proceed as follows. CAUTION: Use extreme care when locating the turbine outlet casing onto the main casing as turbine damage could occur.

1. 2.

Fit the shroud ring (130) to the turbine outlet casing (160). Fit the 6 caphead screws (131) with disc-lock washers (132) and torque load. (See Table at 6.2) Use Rocol ASC251T on the screw threads.

NOTE: 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Fit the turbine outlet casing (160) to the main casing (200). Fit the set screws (safety devices) to the turbine outlet casing to main casing. Fit the washers and nuts to the studs on the turbine outlet casing. Fit the 'C' seal (125) to the turbine inlet/outlet interface. Fit the turbine inlet casing to the turbine outlet casing using the spacers (117) and nuts (118). Fit the turbine end mounting foot and torque load the nuts. (See Table at 6.2) Fit the insulation panels to the turbocharger.

10. Using suitable lifting equipment lift the turbocharger into position on the engine.

Re-Assembly

CAUTION:

When positioning the turbocharger ensure that it remains level and that the 'O' rings for the integrated oil system are not trapped.

11. Fit the 4 mounting bolts to the foot. Refer to engine manufacturers recommendations regarding torque load. 12. Fit the 4 mounting bolts to the turbine end mounting foot. 13. Connect the compressor outlet. 14. Fit the alternate oil drain pipe if used. 15. Fit the alternate oil feed pipe if used. 16. Fit the air filter silencer or side entry casing. 17. Connect the compressor water wash pipe. 18. Connect the speed measuring sensor.

CHAPTER 8

TOOL LIST

8.1 8.2

Care of Tool Kit List of Tools

Tool List

8.1

CARE OF TOOL KITS A set of tools should be ordered with the turbocharger. It is comprised of all the tools listed in section 8.2. Two different kits are available, one for integrated and one for non-integrated turbochargers. It is suggested that all tools for servicing the turbocharger and in particular the multi-purpose assembly and removal tool, should be thoroughly cleaned after use. The tools, and in particular their screw threads, should be treated with a soft preservative (such as DEF.2231) and returned to their storage area. NOTE: All customer connecting flanges and other turbocharger threads are drilled and tapped to I.S.O. Metric Coarse Thread Series

8.2

LIST OF TOOLS

Tool List

Tool List

CHAPTER 9 SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION

9.1

Turbocharger In-Service Cleaning 9.1.1 Compressor Washing 9.1.1.1 Installation 9.1.1.2 Frequency of Washing 9.1.1.3 Cleaning Fluid 9.1.1.4 Cleaning Operation 9.1.2 Turbine In-Service Cleaning 9.1.2.1 Frequency of Washing 9.1.2.2 Cleaning Fluid 9.1.2.3 Engine Operation During Turbine Cleaning 9.1.2.4 Cleaning Procedure

9.2

Emergency Operation 9.2.1 Rotor Locking 9.2.2 Blanking 9.2.2.1 Turbine Outlet Casing Blanking 9.2.2.2 Main Casing Blanking

Supplementary Information

9.1

TURBOCHARGER IN-SERVICE CLEANING Turbine Side Components Fouling to the turbine side components is caused by the deposition of particulates carried in the exhaust gases. These comprise combustion by-products as well as unburnt fuel, and include long unburnt carbon molecules as well as corrosive sulphur and very hard abrasive Vanadium Pentoxides, the carbon providing an effective binder. This is particularly true in HFO applications. Distillate fuels do not normally present serious fouling problems. The nozzle is most at risk from fouling. The effect is deterioration in performance (due to constriction of the nozzle throat area), which is noticeable through an increase in turbocharger speed and turbine inlet temperature. Compressor Particulate matter entering with the ingested air may slowly accumulate on the working surfaces of the compressor. The rate at which the surface contamination takes place depends on the working environment of the engine but is exaggerated if oil vapour is present in the air stream. This may also occur over time, when air intake filters are fitted to a turbocharger. In order to maintain the optimum performance from the turbocharger during the periods between overhauls, the compressor and turbine can be washed. It is important that the instructions for washing are followed closely, as incorrect methods could cause severe damage to the turbocharger. It is also important to follow guide-lines on the frequency of washing, as too long a period between washes may allow a heavier build up of hardened deposits which will be difficult to remove by water injection, thus necessitating a strip down of the turbocharger. Partial removal of heavy deposits may lead to rotor imbalance and consequential catastrophic failure.

9.1.1

COMPRESSOR WASHING

There are 2 methods of compressor washing which can be used, pneumatic or syringe. Pneumatic is the normal method, for ease of operation and consistent results. See Fig 8.1 for typical installation of equipment for compressor washing. Compressor washing should be carried out using warm fresh water only.

Supplementary Information

Fig. 9.1 Typical Installation of Equipment for Compressor Washing

9.1.1.1

INSTALLATION

Where pneumatic injection is used, a fluid dispensing vessel of fixed volume is required. This is generally mounted on the engine adjacent to the turbocharger, and is pressurised from the turbocharger compressor outlet or from the engine charge air manifold. Compressed Air In Water Charge Out

Water Charge Release

Pressure Vessel Isolating Valve

Figure 9.2 Pneumatic Water Washing Pressurised Container

Supplementary Information

9.1.1.2

FREQUENCY OF WASHING

The frequency of washing the compressor during operation depends on the environmental conditions in which the engine is operating, the engine duty and the frequency of filter maintenance. Typically, once a week gives satisfactory results for a reduced duty normal environment. If more than one turbocharger is fitted to an engine, then both turbochargers should be cleaned. However, they should be cleaned one after the other, not at the same time. 9.1.1.3 CLEANING FLUID

Optimum results will be obtained by using warm fresh water, no additives should be used. 9.1.1.4 CLEANING OPERATION

Before commencing the wash procedure record the turbocharger air delivery pressure and the turbine inlet temperature: these can be used to assess the efficiency of the wash. With the engine operating at about 75% load, the container filled with 0.75 litres of warm water is pressurised and injected into the compressor wheel. Record the turbocharger air delivery pressure and the turbine inlet temperature and compare these with the readings taken before the wash to assess the effectiveness of the wash. If the first cleaning attempt appears to be unsuccessful, then the engine temperatures and pressures must be allowed to stabilise (typically 10 minutes at load) before a further attempt is made. If subsequent attempts are unsuccessful in improving engine performance, then consideration should be given to overhauling the turbocharger and engine.

Supplementary Information

9.1.2

TURBINE IN-SERVICE CLEANING

During engine operation the turbine nozzle vanes and rotor blades may become coated with deposits. The rate of build-up is more severe with lower grades of fuels such as HFO. From NAPIERs long experience with many types of fuel, it has been found that the best method of turbine cleaning during engine operation is by means of water washing. Injection of water just upstream of the turbine nozzle in the form of spray allows water droplets to impinge upon the nozzle and turbine blades. The droplets remove the deposits by a combination of scouring and dissolving actions. A thin coating of deposits on the nozzle and rotor blades has a negligible effect on the turbine performance but if deposits become excessive the turbocharger performance can alter significantly. Coatings that are deposited unevenly will affect the dynamic balance of the rotor. In-service cleaning of the turbine, if carried out as part of a routine schedule, assists in maintaining optimum turbine performance between turbocharger overhauls. However, operators should realise that whilst this cleaning operation is very useful, it is supplementary to and not a substitute for the periodic overhaul of the turbocharger as stipulated in this manual. Turbochargers fitted with this facility have fluid injectors fitted at convenient positions on the turbine inlet casing (see Fig 9.3). The injector orifice geometry ensures good water distribution around the nozzle. The water supply should be isolated when not washing and snap fit connectors and / or shut-off valves are generally used.

Water Wash Injector

Engine Exhaust Flow

Fig. 9.3 Typical Arrangement of Turbine Washing Equipment in Turbine Inlet Casing

Supplementary Information

9.1.2.1

FREQUENCY OF WASHING

The optimum period between cleaning operations will vary from installation to installation and from one fuel type to another, and may also depend on the type of lubricant used. Under normal operating conditions, engines running on medium quality residual fuel have found that periods of 200-250 running hours between cleaning to be satisfactory. HFO 2 operation will require cleaning on a more regular basis. However, this may be varied to suit other maintenance, or to correspond to a time when engine load is reduced to meet operating demands. 9.1.2.2 CLEANING FLUID

Optimum results will be obtained by using de-mineralised water, although fresh domestic water is acceptable. No additives should be used. 9.1.2.3 ENGINE OPERATION DURING TURBINE CLEANING

Water washing is most effective when carried out at 15% to 25% of full engine output, provided that the water supply pressure is maintained. In order to ensure that components are not subject to excessive thermal fatigue, it is critical that the turbine inlet temperature does not exceed 450 C at the onset of cleaning. Table 9.1 shows the flow rates that could be expected for a range of pressure drops and injector configurations. Pressure drop in this instance is the water supply pressure less the static exhaust pressure. Flow Rate (litre / min) P (barg) across water injector 1 2 3 4 Single entry/ 3 entry 3 injectors 13 19 23 27 2 entry 2 injectors 9 13 15 18 4 entry 4 injectors 18 25 31 36

P (barg) is defined as water injection pressure less the static exhaust pressure. barg bar gauge Table 9.1 Turbine Water Washing Flow Rates

Supplementary Information

9.1.2.4 1.

CLEANING PROCEDURE

Record the boost pressure, turbine inlet temperature and turbocharger speed for later use when assessing the efficiency of cleaning and any subsequent deterioration in performance. Reduce the engine output so that the turbine entry temperature is lower than 450C. Operate the engine at this condition for 10 minutes to allow stabilisation of thermal conditions. Open drains and check that these are not blocked with deposits, by means of a short probe. Connect the water supply to the washing pipe, open the supply valve and inject for a period of 5 minutes (or less if any alarms sound such as exhaust gas exit valve high temperature). Continue to observe the drains to ensure that the system is not being flooded. Whilst being a worthwhile check, water flow from the drains is not a suitable gauge of washing effectiveness. CAUTIONS: 1. Failure to do this may result in serious damage to the turbocharger and engine. The scalding temperature of hot water is 70C.

2. 3. 4. 5.

2. 6.

Turn the water supply off and allow the temperatures to stabilise. CAUTION: Failure to do this may result in serious damage to the turbocharger and engine.

7. 8.

Ensure that the drain points are clear from sludge or other deposits before closing them. Return the engine to operational load and repeat the readings taken under para. 1 for comparative purposes. Through this process, and in conjunction with monitoring of the exhaust temperatures during washing, it will be possible to refine the procedure and either inject for less than or longer than 5 minutes (depending on the effect on temperatures), or inject more than once, with a period of temperature stabilisation in between.

Supplementary Information

9.2

EMERGENCY OPERATION If a defect occurs which prevents further operation of the turbocharger, by isolating the turbocharger, it may still be possible to run the engine, albeit at greatly reduced output. Running the engine in this condition leads to higher engine temperatures for given loads, and therefore the exhaust engine temperature must be closely observed. There are two methods of isolating the turbocharger as described below. CAUTION: If the TC nozzle is severely damaged it must be removed to prevent severe, or total restriction of the exhaust gas flow. If the engine is fitted with exhaust back-pressure instrumentation, a restriction due the nozzle can be assessed quickly, without the need for a time-consuming strip-down and inspection. Unless the engine has a secondary means of charge air compression, the two-stroke engine will not function with the TC isolated. NOTE: The turbocharger is required to be stripped for complete inspection and cleaning, at the earliest opportunity. ROTOR LOCKING

9.2.1

This is the quickest way to isolate the TC, and involves securing the damaged rotor to prevent rotation, without dismantling the TC (see Fig 9.4). The Air Filter Silencer is removed and the Impeller Locking Tool, (contained in the NAPIER toolkit), is used to restrain the impeller. Since the impeller is left in place and locked, the air ingestion to the engine will be severely constrained. On four-stroke engines scavenge air will continue to be drawn through the impeller, cooling the turbocharger. Socket (1002*)

Impeller Reaction Plate (1002*) Bolts securing reaction plate to AFS mounting holes

Tie wraps to prevent movement of T-bar under vibration T-Bar with drive

Figure 9.4 Rotor Locking

( * - refers to Item No. in tool list, Section 8.2)

Supplementary Information

9.2.2

BLANKING

Blanking-off is a more robust method than shaft locking - but more time consuming, since it requires the TC to be partially dismantled. Blanking plates are used to maintain the air and/or gas circuit through the TC turbine outlet and/or volute. The TC nozzle will be accessible for inspection during the blanking procedure, and if severely damaged it must be removed, to prevent dangerous restrictions of exhaust gas flow. The two types of blanking system complete with fixing and fitting instructions, are available as service items from NAPIER Turbochargers for various frame sizes as follows: 9.2.2.1 TURBINE OUTLET CASING BLANKING

The cartridge must be removed for the implementation of this method. After the cartridge has been removed the blanking plate is bolted to the turbine outlet casing (see Fig 8.5), and fitted back onto the engine. Exhaust gas can now flow straight into the uptake without restriction, (provided the nozzle is in good condition or has been removed). If the turbocharger has integrated oil feed no modifications are necessary, however for nonintegrated models the external oil feed to the turbocharger must be terminated.

Blanking Plate

Figure 9.5 Turbine Outlet Casing Blanking NOTE: Removal of the cartridge, and therefore the compressor casings, effectively makes the normal air intake ducting and filtration system, redundant. Separate provision will need to be made to prevent the ingestion of larger particles, into the charge air cooler.

Supplementary Information

9.2.2.2

MAIN CASING BLANKING

This assembly consists of two plates with a central retaining bolt, which effectively replaces the rotor, blanking off the main casing from the volute and turbine outlet casing. This is a more time consuming procedure than removal of the cartridge, followed by blanking of the turbine outlet casing. The advantage however, is that the main casing, and therefore the compressor casings, remain mounted to the engine in the usual way (See Fig 9.6). The air intake ducting and filtration hence continue to provide protection. Either the volute can be refitted with the turbine outlet casing, or the turbine outlet casing can be fitted to the main casing with the safety screws. Both integrated and non-integrated turbochargers must have their oil feeds terminated with this system. Integrated units require a blanking plug (available from NAPIER) to be fitted to the turbocharger foot.

Blanking Plate

Blanking Plug

Figure 9.6 Main Casing Blanking

CHAPTER 10 SPARES AND SERVICE FACILITIES


10.1 Spare Parts List 10.2 Procedure For Ordering Spare Parts 10.3 Training Courses 10.4 Publications 10.5 Factory Overhauls 10.6 Customer Service Support 10.6.1 Technical Support 10.6.2 Approved Servicing Organisation

Spare Parts List for:

NAPIER 297
TURBOCHARGER

NOTE: The quantities listed are the maximum required for any combination of build

NAPIER Turbochargers
P.O. BOX 1, LINCOLN LN5 7FD, ENGLAND
TEL: +44 (0) 1522 516666 FAX: +44 (0) 1522 516667 E-mail: enquiry@napier-turbochargers.com

Spares & Service Facilities

10.1

TURBINE INLET/OUTLET CASINGS 110 112 113 114 125 120 121 123 115

111

119 100

160 140 116 143

122 143 117

141 115

142 3

TURBINE INLET/OUTLET CASINGS


CODE NUMBER ITEM DESCRIPTION QUANITY

100 110 111 112 113 114 115

Turbine Inlet Casing Capscrew Turbine Wash V Turbine Wash Blanking Plate Turbine Wash Injector Plate V Turbine Wash Injector V Turbine Wash Injector V Plug Temperature

1 9 3 3 3 4 8

Spares & Service Facilities

CODE NUMBER

ITEM DESCRIPTION

QUANITY

116 117 119 120 121 122 123 125 130 131 132 140 141 142 143 160 162 163 164 165 166 167

Stud Turbine Inlet/Outlet Casing Spacer Turbine Inlet/Outlet Casing Spring Tension Pin V Nozzle* Nozzle Clamp Ring Capscrew Clamp Ring Disc-Lock Washer C Seal Turbine Inlet/Turbine Outlet Shroud Capscrew Shroud Disc-Lock Washer Turbine End Mounting Foot Stud Mounting Foot Washer Plain Nut Turbine End Mounting Foot Turbine Outlet Casing Drain Cover Drain Cover Joint Bolt Safety Main Casing/Turbine Outlet Nut for 164 Not Illustrated Washer Plain for 165 Setscrew Safety Main Casing/Comp Out

12 12 3 1 1 6 6 Pairs 1 1 6 6 Pairs 1 7 7 19 1 2 2 3 3 3 3

V Part is not applicable for every turbocharger build * Details for item 120 can be found on the turbocharger data plate

Spares & Service Facilities

MAIN CASING AND NON INTEGRATED OIL OPTION 225

234

235

233 229 231 232 226 or 239 & 240 227 228

230

201

206 209 200 202 208

215 216 204 205 206 219 211 212 203

214 213

217

218 207 210 208 208 211 115 220 237 223 224 236

222

Spares & Service Facilities

MAIN CASING AND NON INTEGRATED OIL OPTION


CODE NUMBER ITEM DESCRIPTION QUANTITY

200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 115 222 223 224

Main Casing Cone Bearing Housing Turbine End Oil Feed Pipe Bearing Housing Compressor End Major Thrust Plate O Ring Bearing Housings Caphead Screw Major Thrust Plate Caphead Screw Bearing Hsg/seal Plate Bearing Turbine End Bearing Compressor End Retaining Ring Bearings O Ring Oil Transfer Tube Bearing Housing Plug Anti-Rotation Screw Capscrew Cone Disc-Lock Washer Cone Seal Plate Seal Ring CE Seal Ring TE Sealing Caps Plug-Alternative Lub Oil Inlet Oil Drain Cover Joint Oil Drain Setscrew Oil Drain Cover

1 1 1 1 1 1 2 6 18 1 1 2 3 1 1 6 6 Pairs 1 1 2 3 2 2 2 4

Spares & Service Facilities

CODE NUMBER

ITEM DESCRIPTION

QUANTITY

225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 239 240

Oil Inlet Manifold V Manifold Bracket V Lub Oil Strainer V Bonded Seal V Oil Inlet Pipe V Male Stud Coupling V Setscrew Manifold Bracket V Spring Washer V Capscrew Low Head V O Ring V Blanking Plug (Manifold) V Spring Washer M10 Oil Drain Cover V O Ring Seal V Male Stud Fitting V Reducing Thread Adaptor V

1 1 1 1 1 3 2 2 4 1 1 4 1 1 1

V Part is not applicable for every turbocharger build

Spares & Service Facilities

ROTOR ASSEMBLY and COMPRESSOR OUTLET CASING

403

401 402

300

304

301 312 308 307

303

305

308

306

115

306 302 313 309 800

311 310 515 516 500

Spares & Service Facilities

COMPRESSOR OUTLET CASING


CODE NUMBER ITEM DESCRIPTION QUANTITY

300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 115

Compressor Outlet Casing Compressor Insert Packing Ring Peelable Shim Compressor Insert Diffuser* Stud Compressor Outlet/Main Casing Nut for item 305 and AFS Stud AFS or Side Entry Casing Spring Washer for items 305 & 307 Caphead Screw Packing Ring Caphead Screw Compressor Insert Disc-Lock Washer Washer Plain - for item 307 O Ring Compressor Insert Plug

1 1 1 1 1 12 24 12 18 1 8 8 pairs 6 1 2

* Details for item 304 can be found on the turbocharger data plate.

ROTOR ASSEMBLY 400 401 402 403 Rotor Assembly* Thrust Collar Impeller* Shaft and Blisc Assembly* 1 1 1 1

* Details for items 400, 402 & 403 can be found on the turbocharger data plate.

Spares & Service Facilities

AIR FILTER SILENCER & SIDE ENTRY CASING


CODE NUMBER ITEM DESCRIPTION
QUANTITY

500 510 515 516

Air Filter Silencer Side Entry Casing Compressor Water Wash Pipe Compressor Water Wash Coupling

1 1 1

SPEED MEASURING 800 Speed Sensor Probe 1

TURBINE OUTLET CASING INSULATION 900 Insulation *Order by orientation of outlet. 1

Spares & Service Facilities

10.2

PROCEDURE FOR ORDERING SPARE PARTS When ordering spare parts please specify the following information: Turbocharger Frame Size Turbocharger Serial Number: If this is not visible, please include: Engine Type & Serial Number Installation details: Location & application of the unit including geographical details. Parts required. These should be referred to from the parts list in section 10.1

Following these instructions will enable the unit to be easily identified and so simplify the ordering process. 10.3 TRAINING COURSES NAPIER has a Training Centre at its Lincoln works which provides courses for its customers technicians concerning the operation, maintenance and overhaul of turbochargers. The courses are largely practical with supporting lectures. The topics of these courses cover the basic theories behind turbocharging a diesel engine, the design features of the range of NAPIER turbochargers, and how they may be operated and maintained. The training workshop is equipped with a selection of NAPIER turbochargers. The practical elements of the courses include: instruction in the selection and the correct use of tools, methods of inspecting parts, how to change components as a result of technical improvements, the correct method of ordering spare parts However each course will tailored to needs of the individuals. Trainees will also be able to witness the manufacturing and test facilities at NAPIER Turbochargers and the strict Quality Control procedures under which the components are manufactured and assembled. Training courses may also be run at customer sites in both the UK and overseas. Full details will be supplied on request. On completion of the course, the NAPIER Turbochargers CERTIFICATE OF COMPETENCE shall be presented. These training certificates are security coded against copying, remain the property of the sponsoring company and list the delegates name and the types of turbocharger on which training was received. 10.4 PUBLICATIONS A copy of this instruction manual, complete with spare parts list, is supplied with each turbocharger. Additional copies of manuals may be purchased.

Spares & Service Facilities

10.5

FACTORY OVERHAUL At Lincoln we have established, as an important part of our Customer Support Services, special facilities for the overhaul of used turbochargers. The same procedures apply to the rebuilding of these units as to new production units. Dynamic balancing of rotating assemblies, crack detection of component parts, ultrasonic and pressure testing of casings, sophisticated equipment for the cleaning and descaling of the returned units, are all available to the overhaul facility. Turbochargers overhauled in this facility will carry a manufacturers six-month guarantee. Customers are advised of recommendations for reconditioning or renewal of parts, together with a complete inspection report on all components.

10.6

CUSTOMER SUPPORT SERVICES 10.6.1 Technical Support Qualified engineers can attend the commissioning of new installations and are experienced in the operation, installation and maintenance of turbochargers. They are available to attend at short notice whenever and wherever their services are required. 10.6.2 Approved Servicing Organisations Our Approved Servicing Organisations are available at any time to provide technical advice, spare parts and service assistance world-wide. Copies of the Global Support Network Directory are available from the Service Department of NAPIER Turbochargers.

Tel: Fax:

+44(0) 1522 516633 +44(0) 1522 516669

E-mail: enquiry@napier-turbochargers.com