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Java - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Coordinates: 7°29′30″S 110°00′16″E
Java (Indonesian: Jawa) is an island of Indonesia. With a population of 135 million (excluding the 3.6 million on the island of Madura which is administered as part of the provinces of Java), Java is the world's most populous island, and one of the most densely-populated places on the globe. Java is the home of 60 percent of the Indonesian population. The Indonesian capital city, Jakarta, is located on western Java. Much of Indonesian history took place on Java. It was the center of powerful Hindu-Buddhist empires, the Islamic sultanates, and the core of the colonial Dutch East Indies. Java was also the center of the Indonesian struggle for independence during the 1930s and 40s. Java dominates Indonesia politically, economically and culturally. Formed mostly as the result of volcanic eruptions, Java is the 13th largest island in the world and the fifth largest island in Indonesia. A chain of volcanic mountains forms an east-west spine along the island. It has three main languages, though Javanese is dominant, and it is the native language of about 60 million people in Indonesia, most of whom live on Java. Most of its residents are bilingual, with Indonesian as their first or second languages. While the majority of the people of Java are Muslim, Java has a diverse mixture of religious beliefs, ethnicities, and cultures. Java is divided into four provinces, West Java, Central Java, East Java, and Banten, and also two special regions, Jakarta and Yogyakarta.
Native name: Jawa
Topography of Java
Geography Location Coordinates Archipelago Area Area rank Southeast Asia 7°29′30″S 110°00′16″E Greater Sunda Islands 138,794 km2 (53,588.7 sq mi) 13th
Highest elevation 3,676 m (12,060 ft) Highest point Semeru Country
1 Etymology 2 Geography 3 Natural environment 4 Administrative division 5 History 5.1 Hindu-Buddhist kingdoms era 5.2 Spread of Islam and rise of Islamic sultanates 5.3 Colonial periods 5.4 Independence
Indonesia Provinces Banten, Jakarta Special Capital City Region, West Java, Central Java, East Java, Yogyakarta Special Region Jakarta Demographics Population Density 138 million (as of 2011) 1,064 /km2 (2,756 /sq mi)
which was said to be common in the island during the time.050 km) long and up to 130 miles (210 km) wide.1 Ethnicity and culture 6. Java is surrounded by Java Sea in the north. See Volcanoes of Java. It is about 650 miles (1.3 Religion 7 Economy 8 See also 9 References 10 Sources 11 Further reading 12 External links Ethnic groups Javanese (inc.000 km2. a plant for which the island was famous. Indian Ocean in the south and Bali Strait and Madura Strait in the east. The most active volcano in Java and also in Indonesia is Mount Merapi (2. And. Sundanese (inc. There are other possible sources: the word jaú and its variations mean "beyond" or "distant". meaning 'home'. Cirebonese. One possibility is that the island was named after the jáwa-wut plant. Geography See also: Volcanoes of Java Java lies between Sumatra to the west and Bali to the east. in search of Sita. Java is almost entirely of volcanic origin. The area of Java is approximately 139. Madurese Etymology The origins of the name "Java" are not clear. Bantenese. the chief of Rama's army dispatched his men to Yawadvipa. Another source states that the "Java" word is derived from a Proto-Austronesian root word. the island of Java. Baduy).org/wiki/Java 2/13 . Coffea arabica is grown on the Ijen Plateau by small-holders and larger plantations.Wikipedia.wikipedia. the rice lands of Java are among the richest in the world. starting in 1699. Tenggerese. then flows north and eastward to its mouth in the Java Sea near the city of Surabaya. It was hence referred to in Indian by the Sanskrit name "yāvaka dvīpa" (dvīpa = island).2 Languages 6.676 m). Osing) .7/7/13 Java . It is the world's 13th largest island. the free encyclopedia 6 Demography 6.968 m). Betawi. More mountains and highlands help to split the interior into a series of relatively isolated regions suitable for wet-rice cultivation. in Sanskrit yava means barley. "Yawadvipa" is mentioned in India's earliest epic. and that prior to Indianization the island had different names. the Ramayana. Borneo lies to the north and Christmas Island to the south. en. Today. The river rises from its source in central Java at the Lawu volcano. Sunda Strait in the west. Sugriva. it contains thirty-eight mountains forming an east-west spine which have at one time or Mount Semeru and Bromo in East Java another been active volcanoes. The highest volcano in Java is Mount Semeru (3. Java was the first place where Indonesian coffee was grown. The island's longest river is the 600 km long Solo River.
 Parahyangan highland near Buitenzorg. Javan silvery gibbon. 1865-1872 Male Javan rhino shot on 1934 in West Java. Javan rusa.733. and highland areas inland are cooler again. Java used to have its own endemic tiger subspecies that went extinct in the mid-1970s. The Parahyangan highlands of West Java receive over 4. With an estimated population of 114. it is the world's rarest rhino. Natural environment The natural environment of Java is tropical rainforest.org/wiki/Java 3/13 . rocky coastal cliffs on the southern coast. shaped the landscapes and created rice paddy and terraces to support the growing population. with some already extinct. and Javan leopard. Baluran. Today. the free encyclopedia Temperatures throughout the year average 22°C to 29°C and humidity average 75%. people have opened the rainforest. Some of Java's endemic species are now critically endangered. ca. while the north coast of East Java receives 900 mm annually. and low-lying tropical forests to high altitude rainforests on the slopes of mountainous volcanic regions in the interior. The northern coastal plains are normally hotter averaging 34°C during the day in the dry season. The south coast is generally cooler than the north. altered the ecosystem. where numbers of endemic species of flora and fauna flourished. such as the Javan rhinoceros. The growing human population has put severe pressure on Java's wildlife. capital: Semarang en. Javan hawk-eagle. Java mouse-deer. Meru Betiri and Alas Purwo. Javan lutung. However. Originally Javan wildlife supported a rich biodiversity. from wet and humid dense rainforest in western parts. Javan banteng.000 mm annually. With over 450 species of birds and 37 endemic species. The wettest months are January and February. Javan rice terraces have existed for more than a millennium.Wikipedia. with ecosystems ranging from coastal mangrove forests on the north coast. The wet season begins in October ending in April during which rain falls mostly in the afternoons and intermittently during other parts of the year. Since ancient times. several national parks exist in Java that protect the remnants of its fragile wildlife.wikipedia. West Java is wetter than East Java and mountainous regions receive much higher rainfall. corresponding to the climate and rainfall in these regions. and had supported ancient agricultural kingdoms. Gede Pangrango. Today only small numbers of Javan rhino survive in Ujung Kulon.7/7/13 Java . Java warty pig. as rainforests were diminished and confined to highland slopes or isolated peninsulas. Java contains well over half of Indonesia's population. Administrative division The island is administratively divided into four provinces: Banten. Java is a birdwatcher's paradise.500 in 1995. to a dry savanna environment in the east. Mount Halimun-Salak. The Javan environment and climate gradually alters from west to east. Java is also home to large numbers of humans. such as Ujung Kulon. Javan peafowl. capital: Bandung Central Java. capital: Serang West Java.
This ancient kingdom built monuments such as the 9th century Borobudur and Prambanan in central Java.7/7/13 Java . With the death of Hayam Wuruk and the coming of Islam to Indonesia. small kingdoms developed. However. Hayam Wuruk's prime minister. the free encyclopedia East Java. Previous Javanese kingdoms had their power based in agriculture. however. Majapahit went into decline. 1350-89) it claimed sovereignty over the entire Indonesian archipelago. communication between Java's population was difficult.wikipedia. Majapahit took control of ports and shipping lanes and became Java's first commercial empire. Around the 10th century the centre of power shifted from central to eastern Java. A system of roads. led many of the kingdom's territorial conquests. Subsequently. Gajah Mada. and the kingdom produced some of Java's earliest Hindu temples on the Dieng Plateau. The island's exceptional fertility and rainfall allowed the development of wet-field rice cultivation. Medang's religion centred on the Hindu god Shiva. Majapahit was established by Wijaya and by the end of the reign of Hayam Wuruk (r. Only the fundamental factors in its history.org/wiki/Java 4/13 . Out of these village alliances. Bali and Madura. although Java's many rivers are mostly short. Hindu-Buddhist kingdoms era The Taruma and Sunda kingdoms of western Java appeared in the 4th and 7th centuries respectively. which required sophisticated levels of cooperation between villages. yet also pursued trade within the Indonesian archipelago. dating back 1. Around the 8th century the Sailendra dynasty rose in Kedu Plain and become the patron of Mahayana Buddhism.Wikipedia. permanent bridges and toll gates is thought to have been established in Java by at least the mid-17th century. The eastern Javanese kingdoms of Kediri. capital: Surabaya and two special regions: Jakarta Yogyakarta. although control was likely limited to Java. and with China and India. en. Singhasari and Majapahit were mainly dependent on rice agriculture. Brantas and Sala rivers could provide long-distance communication. Local powers could disrupt the routes as could the wet season and road use was highly dependent on constant maintenance. Java's volcanic topography and and European colonialism. popularly known as the "Java Man". and this way their valleys supported the centres of major kingdoms. The chain of volcanic mountains and associated highlands running the length of Java kept its interior regions and peoples Mount Merbabu surrounded by rice separate and relatively isolated.7 million years were found along the banks of the Bengawan Solo River. History Fossilised remains of Homo erectus. the rivers provided the main means of rich agricultural lands are the communication. Before the advent of Islamic states fields. the first major principality was the Medang Kingdom which was founded in central Java at the beginning of the 8th century.
Cirebon. the increase in the area under rice cultivation.org/wiki/Java 5/13 .7/7/13 Java . In the second half of the 18th century. Internal conflict prevented the Javanese from forming effective alliances against the Dutch. The 9th century Borobudur Buddhist stupa in Central Java Tea plantation in Java during Dutch colonial period. and the introduction of food plants en. After its failure the Portuguese presence was confined to Malacca.Wikipedia. through conversion firstly amongst the island's elite. and in the 19th century population grew rapidly across the island. During the short-lived Daendels administration (as French proxy rule on Java). Java was returned to the Dutch under the terms of the Treaty of Paris. had surpassed Hinduism and Buddhism as the dominant religion in Java. there may have been five million people in Java. Java's major role during the early part of the colonial period was as a producer of rice. In 1814. Islam. In 1815. In 1596. and Sir Stamford Raffles was appointed as the island's Governor. Factors for the great population growth include the impact of Dutch colonial rule including the imposed end to civil war in Java. By the end of the 18th century the Dutch had extended their influence over the sultanates of the interior (see Dutch East India Company in Indonesia). The Mataram Sultanate became the dominant power of central and eastern Java at the end of the 16th century. and to the eastern islands. a four-ship expedition led by Cornelis de Houtman was the first Dutch contact with Indonesia. The road span from Anyer in Western Java to Panarukan in East Java served as a military supply route to defend Java from incoming British invasion. rice was regularly imported from Java. becoming a possession of the British Empire. Javanese kings claimed to rule with divine authority and the Dutch helped them to preserve remnants of a Javanese aristocracy by confirming them as regents or district officials within the colonial administration. and Banten were ascendant. in or before 1926 In 1811. the Islamic kingdoms of Demak.wikipedia. During Napoleonic wars in Europe. The principalities of Surabaya and Cirebon were eventually subjugated such that only Mataram and Banten were left to face the Dutch in the 17th century. and so did its colony in East Indies. During this era. Prambanan Hindu temple Colonial periods Java's contact with the European colonial powers began in 1522 with a treaty between the Sunda kingdom and the Portuguese in Malacca. Java was captured by the British. the Netherlands fell under France Republic. the construction of Java Great Post Road was commenced in 1808. Remnants of the Mataram survived as the Surakarta (Solo) and Yogyakarta principalities. the free encyclopedia Spread of Islam and rise of Islamic sultanates By the end of the 16th century. to supply the deficiency in means of subsistence. population spurts began in districts along the north-central coast of Java. In spice producing islands like Banda.
Approximately 45% of the population of Indonesia is ethnically Javanese. Greater Bandung.000 lives in Java in 1820.062 people per km² in 2010 it is also one of the most densely-populated parts of the world.8% 136.0% 107. is the most populous island in the world and is home to 57% of Indonesia's population.086.528 20. It is home to 3 metropolitan areas. Independence Indonesian nationalism first took hold in Java in the early 20th century (see Indonesian National Awakening).306 17. Cholera claimed 100. there was no absolute preference for boy babies which was significant in Java where agriculture depends on the labour of both men and women.5 million in the 2010 census (including Madura's 3.486 6.563.7/7/13 Java .581. Though little population growth is registered in Central Java. Sumatra. population growth. Borneo. There were no significant famines in Java from the 1840s through to the Japanese occupation in the 1940s. Furthermore. this figure does not take into account uninhabitable areas due to numerous volcanoes. Ethnological factors are also thought to have contributed to the increase in population. At 1. and in turn. and the struggle to secure the country's independence following World War II was centred in Java.wikipedia. East Java. In Java.269. the free encyclopedia such as casava and maize which could sustain populations that could not afford rice. The advent of trucks and railways where there had previously only been buffalo and carts. Demography Central Jakarta With a combined population of 136. The island has dominated Indonesian social.org/wiki/Java 6/13 . and Greater Cirebon..Wikipedia.400 per km2 and is taking up the lion's share of population growth of Java. and at current growth rates. and DKI Jakarta) has an even higher population density exceeding 1. large riots targeted the Chinese Indonesians in another series of pogroms.733. In 1998.5% sources: The dense Western third of the island (West Java. and Papua.6 million).9% 114.352. the age of first marriage dropped during the 19th century thus increasing a women's child bearing years. 139 million combined in 2011. which has been the source of resentment of those residents in other islands. Historical populations Census Pop. en. Others attribute the growth to the taxation burdens and increased expansion of employment under the Cultivation System to which couples responded by having more children in the hope of increasing their families' ability to pay tax and buy goods. telegraph systems. Sundanese make a large portion of Java's population as well.608 5. and Yogyakarta. political and economic life. The abortive coup and the subsequent violent anti-communist purge in 1965/66 largely took place in Java. Greater Jakarta (with outlying areas of Greater Serang and Greater Sukabumi).327 — 91. %± 1971 1980 1990 1995 2000 2010 76. Banten. preceding the fall of Suharto's 32-year presidency. these regions have higher birth rates than one would assume due to mass emigration to the Western side of Java.142 12.6% 121. and more coordinated distribution systems under the colonial government all contributed to famine elimination in Java.
300 3.021.Wikipedia.235 995 1.030 9.745 Population Census of 2010 10.765.941.084 782 1.293.993 121.063. the free encyclopedia Java is forming into a megalopolitan chain of cities.org/wiki/Java 7/13 .297 Area % 7.121.011 136.079 35.817 32. Kambangan 121 sqkm.922 128.045 34.250 188.8.131.525 132. Province or Special Region Banten DKI Jakarta West Java Central Java Yogyakarta East Java Region Administered as Java Madura Island of East Java Java Island1) Capital Serang Bandung Semarang Yogyakarta Surabaya Jakarta Area km²2) 9.071 1) Other islands are included in this figure but are very small in population and area.621.3 2.646 852 - 124.258 3. Panaitan 170 sqkm.3 100% Population Census of 2000 8.496 1.4 37.361.162 14.801 3. Bawean 196 sqkm.7/7/13 Java .476.724.3 3.098.5 27.1 0. Karimunjawa 78 sqkm.133 47.380.064 - 4. Nusa Barung 100 sqkm.440 1.563.687 3.000 en.7 664 34.277 8. as seen from space.wikipedia.644.452.230.7 sqkm with a combined populated roughly 90.7 118.826 32.093 31.142 Population Density in 2010 1.588.047 96.1 25. Thousand Islands 8.198 43.390 37.
1913 In the southwestern part of Central Java. A third group is the Madurese. Javanese. the Sunda lands of West Java. Bugis.7/7/13 Java . Java is comparatively homogeneous in ethnic composition. bringing together Javanese culture and Sundanese culture to create the Banyumasan culture. the free encyclopedia 2) Land area of provinces updated in 2010 Census figures. making those places especially strong repositories of classical Javanese culture. Dutch. as well as large numbers of Madurans due to their historic poverty. and the eastern salient. A teenager in Java wearing traditional Javanese attire: blangkon headgear. areas may be different than past results. The Javanese kakawin Tantu Pagelaran explained the mythical origin of the island and its volcanic nature. arts. Madura makes up a fifth area having close cultural ties with coastal Java. Chinese and Indian brought to or attracted to Batavia to meet labour needs. who inhabit the island of Madura off the north east coast of Java. and have immigrated to East Java in large numbers since the 18th century. However. They have a culture and language distinct from the surrounding Sundanese and Javanese.Wikipedia. This program has met with mixed results. mostly descended from various Indonesian archipelago ethnic groups such as Malay. and it is the region from where the majority of Indonesia's army. Java's remaining aristocracy are based here.org/wiki/Java . Ambonese. many literary works en. Sundanese. 8/13 Java was the site of many influential kingdoms in the Southeast Asian region. Only two ethnic groups are native to the island—the Javanese and Sundanese. Minang. the north coast of the pasisir region. mixed with foreign ethnic groups such as Portuguese. The kejawen Javanese culture is the island's most dominant. The Javanese comprise about two-thirds of the island's population. Balinese. the Indonesian government ran transmigration programs aimed at resettling the population of Java on other less-populated islands of Indonesia. and etiquette are regarded as the island's most refined and exemplary. contemporary kings trace their lineages back to the pre-colonial Islamic kingdoms that ruled the region. Betawis are creole people. Its language. East Java is also home to ethnic Balinese. Java's share of the nation's population has fallen steadily. Ethnicity and culture See also: Culture of Indonesia and Music of Java Despite its large population and in contrast to the other larger islands of Indonesia. also known as Blambangan.wikipedia. business. and political elite originate. Jakarta and its outskirts being the dominant metropolis is also home to people from all over the nation. Classic arts of Java include gamelan music and wayang puppet shows. a cultural mingling occurred. batik sarong and kris as accessory. Arab. Makassar. which is usually named the Banyumasan region. while the Sundanese and Madurese account for 20% and 10% respectively. sometimes causing conflicts between the locals and the recently arrived settlers. they are the descendants of the people living around Batavia from around the 17th century. Four major cultural areas exist on the island: the kejawen or Javanese heartland. The territory from Banyumas in the west through to Blitar in the east and encompasses Indonesia's most fertile and densely populated agricultural land. The forth group is the Betawi people that speak a dialect of Malay.[citation needed ] In the central Javanese court cities of Yogyakarta and Surakarta. and as a result. From the 1970s to the fall of the Suharto regime in 1998.
which came after Hinduism. . The mosque combined traditional Javanese style (multi-tiered roof) with European architecture. Students around him provided his needs. which has created a broad range of religious belief. there is a en. Small Hindu enclaves are scattered throughout Java. Languages The three major languages spoken on Java are Javanese. with those who taught mysticism and those who sought reformed Islam with modern scientific concepts. and translations of Ramayana and Mahabharata. Osing and Tenggerese (closely related to Javanese). There emerged in Java a loosely structured society of religious leadership. belief and practice.wikipedia. As a result. Islam recognises no hierarchy of religious leaders nor a formal priesthood. In Javanese pesantren (Islamic schools). Baduy (closely related to Sundanese).org/wiki/Java 9/13 Mosque in Pati. However. and married the queen of the ancient Javanese kingdom. this very looseneess of kyai leadership structure has promoted schism. who took care of their master's daily needs. Kangeanese (closely related to Madurese). A resi lived surrounded by students. the local dialect as one of Malay creole dialect. These include Ken Arok and Ken Dedes. but the Dutch colonial government established an elaborate rank order for mosque and other Islamic preaching schools. blending with indigenous tradition and culture. Sundanese and Madurese. even peasants around the school. Balinese. The Kyai perpetuated the tradition of the resi. who merely instructed in Islamic law. Languages spoken in Java (Javanese is shown in white). More than 90 percent of the people of Java are Muslims. Indian influences came first with Shaivism and Buddhism penetrating deeply into society. Brahmin clerics and pudjangga (sacred literati) legitimised rulers and linked Hindu cosmology to their political needs. There were often sharp divisions between orthodox kyais. Religion Java has been a melting pot of religions and cultures. possessing various degrees of proficiency in preIslamic and Islamic lore. Pramoedya Ananta Toer is a famous contemporary Indonesian author. One conduit for this were the ascetics. The Muslim scholar of the writ (Kyai) became the new religious elite as Hindu influences receded. the free encyclopedia Java was the site of many influential kingdoms in the Southeast Asian region. "Malay" refers to Betawi. At the courts. called resi. Pre-Islamic Javan traditions have encouraged Islam in a mystical direction. strengthened the status structure of this traditional religious pattern. Other languages spoken include Betawi (a Malay dialect local to the Jakarta region). The kyais are the principal intermediaries between the villages masses and the realm of the supernatural. on a broad continuum between abangan (more traditional) and santri (more modernist). and as a result. Islam. Central Java during colonial period. often as a second language. who taught mystical practices. the story of the orphan who usurped his king. who has written many stories based on his own experiences of having grown up in Java. and takes many elements from Javanese folklore and historical legends.7/7/13 Java . revolving around kyais. and Banyumasan The vast majority of the population also speaks Indonesian. especially around the town of Banyuwangi. Resi's authorities were merely ceremonial. many literary works have been written by Javanese authors.Wikipedia. but there is a large Hindu population along the eastern coast nearest Bali.
Their total membership is difficult to estimate as many of their adherents identify themselves with one of the official religions. such as sugarcane. such as Jakarta. mostly in the larger cities. (See Religion in Indonesia. until well into the VOC era. culture and tourism in Java.Wikipedia. coffee. etc. 35 were in Central Java. Trade with other parts of Asia such as India and China flourished as early as the 4th century. Yogyakarta . Industrial estates also growing in towns on northern coast of Java. These include Kejawen. The toll road highway networks was built and expanded since Suharto era until now.) A wider effect of this division is the number of sects. During these colonial times. Java is the most developed island in Indonesia since the era of Netherlands East Indies to modern Republic of Indonesia. Java was famous for rice surpluses and rice export since ancient times. Roman Catholics and other Christian groups have been persecuted for their beliefs such as a ban on Christmas services. the free encyclopedia division between santri. though some rural areas of south-central Java are strongly Roman Catholic. Surakarta. the Dutch introduced the cultivation of commercial plants in Java. Surabaya. and rice agriculture contributed to the population growth of the island. tea. The road transportation networks that have existed since ancient times were connected and perfected with the construction of Java Great Post Road by Daendels in the early 19th century. The Indonesian constitution recognises six official religions. Tangerang. and Bandung. the name "Java" today has become a synonym for coffee. as evidenced by Chinese ceramics found on the island dated to that period. business and trade. with abangan. and Majapahit were dependent on rice yields and tax. The Java Great Post Road become the backbone of Java's road infrastructure and laid Java transportation network the base of Java North Coast Road (Indonesian: Jalan Pantura. also services flourished in major cities of Java. Gresik and Sidoarjo.org/wiki/Java 10/13 Javanese women planting rice in a rice field near Prambanan. In the middle of 1956. 22 in West Java and 6 in East Java. Thus. who have mixed pre-Islamic animistic and Hindu-Indian concepts with a superficial acceptance of Islamic belief. Mataram. and Cirebon preserved its royal legacy and become the centre of art. There are also Christian communities.7/7/13 Java . who believe that they are more orthodox in their Islamic belief and practice. Economy Initially the economy of Java relied heavily on rice agriculture. while some traditional Sultanate cities such as Yogyakarta. Sumarah. rubber. Of these. Karawang. Ancient kingdoms such as the Tarumanagara. Buddhist communities also exist in the major cities. connecting major urban centres and surrounding areas. In the 19th and early 20th century. Java also took part in the global trade of Maluku spice from ancient times in the Majapahit era. such as in and around Jakarta and en. Dutch East India Company set their foothold on Batavia in the 17th century and was succeeded by Netherlands East Indies in the 18th century. especially around Cilegon. the Department of Religious Affairs in Yogyakarta reported 63 religious sects in Java other than the official Indonesian religions. Subud. Semarang. Today the industry. Bekasi. The need to transport commercial produces such as coffee from plantations in the interior of the island to the harbour on the coast spurred the construction of railway networks in Java. and quinine. Javanese coffee gained global popularity.wikipedia. abbreviation from "Pantai Utara" ). primarily among the Chinese Indonesian.
sciencemag.ncbi. also the ones in Cirebon.1146%2Fannurev.nlm.doi.doi.gov/indonesia/doingbusinessinindonesia/aboutindoneisa/index. T.pdf) (PDF). Semarang and Surabaya. G (August 15.org/10. (1991). PMC 384173 (//www.A. 7.doi. Reksodiharjo-Lilley.1146/annurev.. B. The Ecology of Java and Bali. "Dating hominid sites in Indonesia" (http://www. M. (9 December 1994). EDGE Evolutionarily Distinct and Globally Endangered. A. de Vos. Sondaar.asp).. Pope. (1996).uk. T.7992059).nlm.C. Martin-Schiller.co. G. See also The spread of Islam in Indonesia (1200 to 1600) List of monarchs of Java History of Indonesia References 1. PMID 6410399 (//www.80. ^ "Indonesia bird watching tour" (http://wildlifenews. Retrieved 26 June 2012. 10. 1983). (1996). Thomas E. 9. Page 3 3. "Recent advances in far eastern paleoanthropology". E. 11. R.edgeofexistence. J. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 80 (16): 4... A.org/wiki/Java 11/13 .16. A. 1–32. In addition to these motorways. ^ Pope. Hong Kong: Periplus Editions Ltd. Hong Kong: Periplus Editions Ltd.988–4992.id/books? id=9ic4BjWFmNIC&pg=PA465&lpg=PA465&dq=Yawadvipa+is+mentioned+in+India's+earliest+epic. en. ^ History of Ancient India Kapur.go. cited in Whitten.1073/pnas.ncbi. Retrieved 26 June 2012. Fretes. K.000355).P.16. ISBN 962-593-076-0. Lucas.4988)..1126/science.nlm. ^ "Javan Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros sondaicus)" (http://www. R. : "The History of Java". R. 5.. cited in Whitten.google.ncbi. Y. the free encyclopedia Bandung. Suraya A.php? id=11).100188..17.17. Page 2 2.id/english/3WorkArea/20BengawanSolo. Soeriaatmadja. R. 15. Retrieved 26 June 2012.org/cgi/reprint/266/5191/1726..000355 (http://dx. Science Magazine 266 (16): 4. pp. J...gov. A. 6. Oxford University Press. p. E. "Evidence on the Age of the Asian Hominidae" (http://www. ^ Raffles. T. E.org/mammals/species_info. (1996).gov/pmc/articles/PMC384173).uk/2011/indonesia-bird-watching-tour-with-wildlife-newstravel/). Thomas E. 1965 .co.1126%2Fscience. Hong Kong: Periplus Editions Ltd. ^ "Doing Business in Indonesia" (http://export. (1996).wikipedia. London: MacMillan.. wildlifenews. ^ Monk.7/7/13 Java .an.4988 (http://dx. 1965. : " The History of Java".Y. ISBN 0-333-57690-X.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC384173)..1073%2Fpnas.an. doi:10. pp. ^ Management of Bengawan Solo River Area (http://www. export. (1984).1300 (2nd edition).nih. Annual Review of Anthropology 17: 43– 77.100188. Suraya A.988–4992. G G (1988).htm) Jasa Tirta I Corporation 2004.org/10. Oxford University Press. "Mapping cultural regions of Java" in: Other Javas away from the kraton. Kamlesh (http://books.jasatirta1.gov/pubmed/6410399).. 309.+the+Ramay ana&source=bl&ots=WxBOr6BCNJ&sig=jc4B_jT3nZ4WQS3Ldu_I1PlWmA&hl=id&ei=QR0wTbLrL86HrAfOp4GOCQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CCcQ6AE wAg#v=onepage&q=Yawadvipa%20is%20mentioned%20in%20India's%20earliest%20epic%2C%20the%20Ramay ana&f=false) 4. p. ^ Hatley. A History of Modern Indonesia since c.Wikipedia. cited in Whitten. Suraya A. The Ecology of Nusa Tenggara and Maluku. 7. 309–312. Soeriaatmadja. Schiller. ^ Ricklefs. Soeriaatmadja. P.80.nih. The Ecology of Java and Bali. ^ a b Raffles. p. Java has 16 national highways. doi:10.co. Retrieved 26 July 2006 8. doi:10.7992059 (http://dx.org/10.
16. ^ Ricklefs (1991). The Indian Archipelago: its history and present state. 21. Varieties of Javanese Religion: An Anthropological Account.html). London and Honolulu: RoutledgeCurzon Press. August 23 2010.stm). Volume 1 (http://books. ISBN 0-521-62473-8 Sources Taylor. 253.01p1432u). 137.Wikipedia. 32. 2008 November.bps.org/stable/3024260). 15. doi:10. ISBN 0-300-10518-5.asp?name=Indonesia+(Java+and+Bali)) – Ethnologue.org/10. ISBN 0-313-34102-8.citypopulation. "Christians refuse to cancel Christmas" (http://www. 18. Longman. Further reading Cribb. Retrieved 28 April 2010. 27. 31. 33. (1961).cia. p. Indonesia) (http://www. Andrew. UCA News. Indonesia: Peoples and Histories. ISBN 978-979-709-391-4. Laporan Jurnalistik Kompas. p. p.01p1432u (http://dx.com/EBchecked/topic/301673/Java).1961. Encyclopedia of Pestilence.jstor. 26. p. ^ Atkins. 1–2. ISBN 962-593-244-5. James (1889). the free encyclopedia 12. Cambridge University Press 1999. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. ^ Java (island. Bernard. Robert (2000). Brown. BBC News. pp.ucanews. p.2. Jean Gelman (2003). The Coins And Tokens Of The Possessions And Colonies Of The British Empire. 1500-1700.7/7/13 Java .org/wiki/Java 12/13 . Singapore: Periplus Editions. ABC-CLIO. Joseph Patrick (2008). ^ http://www. 58. 17.com/2010/12/23/christians-refuseto-cancel-christmas/). 30. Jakarta Indonesia.go. ^ Taylor (2003).wikipedia. 99.co. ^ Taylor (2003). p.google.com/books?id=5Pvi-ksuKFIC&pg=PA99&dq#v=onepage&q=&f=false). "New Religious Sects in Java". Encyclopædia Britannica. 22. 28. and Longmans. Justus M. p.com/show_country.html ^ a b c d e Hefner.de/Indonesia-MU. Historical Atlas of Indonesia. 309. Konradus.uk/1/hi/events/indonesia/special_report/118576. The Globe Encompassed: The Age of European Discovery.google.1961.bbc. 14.id/tab_sub/view.my/books?id=UJ9FAAAAIAAJ). ^ a b c d e f van der Kroef.com. ^ CIA factbook (https://www.ethnologue. 19. ^ See Wallace Stevens's poem "Tea" for an appreciative allusion to Javanese culture. 23. Other sources may list some of these as dialects rather than languages.1525/as. Pandemics. JSTOR 3024260 (http://www. 16–17 ^ Ricklefs (1991). 99. PT Kompas Media Nusantara. ^ Languages of Java and Bali (http://www. ISBN 0-8248-2111-4.30.php?kat=1&tabel=1&daftar=1&id_subyek=12¬ab=1 ^ a b c "Population growth ‘good for Papua’" (http://www. 213.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/id. ^ Epa. 20. pp. John. ^ Ekspedisi Anjer-Panaroekan. ^ Byrne. Robert (1997). 13.30. 253-254. 25. External links en. p. ^ Ames. ^ Beatty. ^ St. The Ecology of Java and Bali. Horace Stebbing Roscoe (1853). p. 15.thejakartapost. ^ "Ethnic Chinese tell of mass rapes" (http://news. Penerbit Buku Kompas. Hong Kong: Periplus Editions Ltd. Java.doi. The Jakarta Post.2. (2008). ^ a b Taylor (2003). 24. pp. Far Eastern survey 30 (2): 18–15. 254. 29. and Plagues: A-M (http://books. Glenn J.html) ^ a b http://www. 23 June 1998.1525%2Fas.com/news/2010/08/23/populationgrowth-%E2%80%98good-papua%E2%80%99. Green.britannica. University of Hawaii Press. London: Quaritch.
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