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It is now some 15 years since a pC\.per concerned
with boiler plant efficiency was submitted to the
Association.' and it is considered that a review of
the current position would be of interest. During
that period the need for maintaining and improving
boiler efficiency has become more urgent in order to
reduce process costs, to meet the demand of increased
throughput and to overcome the problems created
by the 'bagasse fuel yielded from recently introduced
cane varieties being poorer in quality than the
bagasse formerly available.
Fuel Quality.
Green bagasse does not compare favourably as
an efficient fuel with the more conventional types
such-as coal and oil on account of the high moisture
content: e.g. during combustion approximately
25 per cent. of the heat liberated is irrecoverable
and needed to evaporate moisture. While this
limitation may be unimportant to the cane sugar
factory using a by-product as fuel, the increasing
world demand for cellulose-containing raw materials
by the rayon and paper manufacturing industries
could well create a price trend that may become
attractive enough for some factories to sell surplus
bagasse as raw material to the chemical process
industries, and ultimately develop to a point where
a substantial part of the output would be utilised
in this way. This prospect is of significance for the
national economy, since at present raw materials
are imported and the development of rayon and
paper making industries is now proceeding here in
Natal. One plant is being constructed at Felixton
where it is intended to utilise bagasse in the manu-
facture of Kraft papers.
In the past the view has been expressed
occasionally that fuel shortages may occur owing to
the fibre content of the new cane varieties being
less than the old varieties, but there is no evidence
to confirm this point of view. Data has been re-
produced from S.A.S.T.A. proceedings in Appendix 1,
and discloses that the average seasonal fibre content
for all factories has not changed significantly during
the past five seasons.' During this period the
proportion of N:Co.310 cane crushed increased from
.07 per cent. in 1948-49 to 21.12 per cent. in 1951-
52, and to 36.81 per cent. in 1952-53: the latter
figure is based on incomplete returns and will pro-
bably increase when all the data are available. The
highest fibre content of 16.28 per cent. was attained
in 1951-52. Similar data are also shown for Urn-
folozi and Felixton-factories that have crushed a
large proportion of N:Co,310cane during the current
season. At Umfolozi the fibre content declined
from 14.1G per cent. in 1948-49 when .01 per cent.
of the throughput was N:Co.310 to 12.93 per cent-
when 75,4, per cent. of the throughput was N:Co.310.
However, this decline cannot be wholly attributed
to cane variety since comparing two seasons 1949-50
and 1950-51 the fibre content increased from 13.64
to 13.8 per cent. with N:Co.310 proportions of
3.7 and 27.75 per cent. respectively. Again there
was an increase in fibre content from 12.58 per cent.
in 1951-52 with 56.39 percent. N:Co.310 crushed to
12.93 per cent. in 1952-53 with 75.4 per cent.
N:Co.310. At Fc1ixton the proportion of .N:(0.310
crushed rose from .028 per cent. in 1948-.49 to
36.71 per cent. in 1952-53, and the corresponding
average fibre percentage changed insignificantly
from IGAG to 16.44 per cent. Except for the
season 1950-51 when the fibre content declined to
15.8G per cent. with a throughput of 17.15 per cent.
N:Co. the fibre data has remained sensibly constant
at 16A-Hi.7 per cent. irrespective of the pro-
portion of N:Co.310.
While there is no evidence then for diminishing
fibre content there is evidence to show that the fuel
quality of the bagasse has deteriorated during the
past five seasons and that this may be influenced
by the proportion of N:Co.310 cane. Referring to
Appendix 1, the moisture content of the bagasse
in 1948-49 was 50.53 per cent. and 51.61 per cent.
in 1951-52: the current season's data show a further
increase to 52.4:1 per cent. The change has been
continuous and always instep with the proportion
of N:Co.310 crushed, i.e. increasing when the pro-
portion of N:Co.310 increased. The Umfolozi
data show an increase from 51.01 per cent. in 1948-
4:9 to 53.77. per cent. in 1952-53. Except for the
season 1950-51 this increase has been continuous:
an explanation for the exception is considered to be
that a new mill tandem was installed during 1950-51.
At Felixton the moisture content has increased from
51. 12 per cent. in 1948-49 to 53.6 per cent. in
1952-3, except for the season 1949-50, when it
was 50.79 per cent. It is probable that the explan-
ation is partly due to the proportionally small
amount (G.97 per cent.) of N:Co.310 crushed during
that season which would not have a marked effect
on the whole throughput. Further evidence is
available from the data in Appendix 2, where the
results of tests of 7-8 hours duration on N:Co.310
cane are shown. In an 8 hour test at Natal Estates
a moisture content of 53.10 per cent. was attained
compared with 51.18 per cent. attained during the
associated weekly period: at Chaka's Kraal two 7
hour tests showed increases of 0.24 and 0.77 per
cent. respectively in moisture content compared with
the associated 24 hour averages. At Felixton two
1 hour tests showed increases in moisture content
of 3.34 and 1.32 per cent. respectively.
It may be considered that increased throughput
rates and inbibition might have been the dominant
cause of the increased moisture content, but the
evidence available does not adequately support this
view. For instance, at Umfolozi the fibre through-
put dropped from 13.25 tons/hr. in 1948-49 to
12.5 tons/hr. in 1 9 4 9 ~ 5 0 , whereas the bagasse
moisture content increased from 51.01 to 52.45
per cent. respectively, and imbibition decreased
from 229 to 202 per cent. respectively. A similar
comparison of 1949-50 with 1950-51 discloses that
the moisture content diminished from 52.45 to 50.80
per' cent. with throughputs of 12.1)0 and 13.20
tons/hr. fibre respectively, and with imbibition
ratios of 202 and 205 per cent. respectively. The
throughput data for 1951-52and 1952-53at Umfolozi
are not directly comparable with the former data
since in 1951-52 two mill tandems were operating
and only one in 1952-53. At Felixton the moisture
per cent bagasse dropped from 51.12 per cent. in
1948-49 to 50.79 per cent. in 1949-50, although the
throughputs were 13.4 and 13.55 tons/hr. respec-
tively and imbibition was 229 and 202 per cent.
respectively. Similarly, comparing 1951-52 with
the current season, throughout dropped from 15.07
to 14.3 tons/hr. while the moisture content of
bagasse increased from 53.26 to 53. 6 per cent. and
imbibition remained sensibly constant at 225 and
226 per cent. respectively. It may be also inferred
that moisture content increased with increasing
throughput, e.g. by comparing the Felixton data
for 1949-50, 1950-51 and 1951-52, but since it has
been shown that the moisture content may also
decrease under the same conditions it is concluded
that the effect of throughput rate is not as signi-
ficant here as the apparent effect of the property
of N:Co.310 bagasse yielding moisture less freely.
Comparatively small changes of moisture content
have a marked effect on the quality of bagasse
fuel. In Appendix 3, Fig. I the variation of calorific
value with moisture content has been plotted for a
bagasse having a nominal analysis of 2.5 per cent.
sucrose and 50 per cent. moisture. The variation
is linear and shows that for each 1 per cent. change
of moisture content the lower calorific value changes
by 2.5 per cent., e.g. increasing the .moisture content
to 52 per cent. would reduce the quality of the fuel
by 5 per cent. Of course such a reduction may be
insignificant in a factory where there is an abundant
supply of bagasse, but in less favoured factories
where no surplus bagasse is available difficulties
due to drop in steam pressure and reduction in
boiler evaporation rate would occur. Aside from
the reduction in calorific value increased moisture
content reduces furnace temperature and demands
increased firing rate to maintain constant evapor-
ation. In turn the effect of increased firing rate
increases both fan power requirements and unburnt
fuel losses which results in lowering .the boiler
efficiency. .
It is not easy to offer a solution to this problem.
The first and most obvious remedy would be to dry
the bagasse, but this is impracticable on account of
the size of the drying installation and an alternative
must be sought in increasing and maintaining high
boiler efficiency and in process steam economy. 2 3 4
Responsibility for maintaining good operating
efficiency lies squarely on the back of the engineer
and is attainable provided that the boiler super-
visors are carefully selected and properly trained
for their work and that adequate control instruments
are installed and kept in good working condition.
Efficiency Tests.
During 1951 and 1952 boiler efficiency tests were
made at two factories and the results are shown
in Appendix 4. The plant at Sezela consists of
six similar boilers manufactured bv International
Combustion Co. Ltd., and it is believed that these
are the first of this firm's construction to be installed
in the South African sugar industry. The boilers
are of the three drum bent tube construction, some-
what similar in arrangement to the Stirling boiler
and are equipped with conventional pattern Stewart-
Murray furnaces: Usco plate type air heaters are
fitted. The boilers are arranged in two batteries
of three and from each battery flue gas is discharged
to engine driven induced draft fans: individually
driven forced draft fans are installed on each boiler.
The boilers were installed in pairs at intervals since .
1940 and No.6, the one tested, was installed during
1951 so that the plant may be regarded as a good
example of modern practice for the sugar factory.
The plant at Illovo considered here consists of three
two drum Babcock and Wilcox boilers Nos. 4, 5
and 6 which are of conventional construction and
are similar to a number that have worked success-
fully for many years in the industry. Boilers 4"
and 5 were installed in 1935 and are fitted with
Stewart-Murray furnaces: No.6 which was installed
in 1940 is also fitted with Stewart-Murray furnaces
and has a much larger combustion chamber than the
two former. Two coal fired boilers Nos. 7 and 8
and two multi-tubular boilers Nos. 1 and 2 are also
installed. The flue gases are discharged into two
Green's economisers, Boilers 1-5 discharging into the
first and boilers 6-8 into the second: no air heaters
are fitted. Draft regulation is attained by means of
steam turbine driven forced draft fans fitted on
each boiler: an induced draft fan is connected to
each economiser outlet.
The tests at Sezela in 1951 yielded efficiencies
of 57.5 and 58.6 per cent. respectively and evapor-
ation rates less than expected. It was realised that
the results had been adversely affected by the
removal of a gas baffle from the last boiler pass:
this had been done to prevent fine ash deposits
accumulating and clinkering on the tubes. Sub-
sequently an incorrectly assembled soot blower
and tube scale deposits caused by juice leakage
were also discovered. These defects were corrected
and the tests repeated in 1952 yielded efficiencies
of 68.2 and 61.5 per cent. and evaporation rates
of 25180 and 25700 lbs.yhr. respectively. The
highest efficiency, 68.2 per cent., was obtained by
restricting the entry of cold air to the furnace through
the bagasse feed port, and the least 61. 5 per cent.
with no precaution taken to restrict this air leakage.
During routine operation it would not be practicable
to restrict air leakage to the extent attainedin the
first test, but nevertheless the improvement of
6.7 per cent. corresponding to a bagasse fuel con-
sumption of approximately 1650 lbs.jhr. emphasizes
the effect of the leakage usually tolerated.
In a two-hour overload test intended to establish
the maximum continuous rating of the boiler an
evaporation of 28,000 lbs.jhr. was achieved. The
maximum draft pressure drop that could be obtained
from. the fans during the test. was 1.18 in. w.g.
If it is assumed that the draft is a function of (total
draft pressure drop)!' the draft required for a given
evaporation may be estimated approximately.
This fias been done in Appendix 5 where the evapor-
ation observed during the tests has been plotted
against the corresponding value of (total draft
pressure drop)!'. By extrapolating the curve to
evaporations of 30,000 lbs.yhr, and 35,000 lbs.yhr.
the corresponding draft pressures required for these
loads are estimated to be 1.25 and 1.56 in. w.g.
respectively, which discloses that the capacity of
the fans would have to be increased to attain the
higher rating. Air heater performance data are
tabulated in Appendix 6 and show that approxi-
mately 7.5-8.5 per cent. of the heat liberated was
recovered and transferred to the furnace air. The
performance of the heater is satisfactory although
the temperature of the leaving flue gas is high,
428-474F. This is caused by the relatively high
temperature of the entering flue gas 621-666F.:
under good conditions the latter temperature should
be less than this, approximately 550-570F. to
yield a flue gas outlet temperature of approximately
370-3801'. and reduce the sensible heat loss to a
mintmum. The high temperature of the flue
gas also yields a high furnace air temperature
498-5281". as compared with an expected temper-
ature of approximately 400F. These data disclose
that the peak boiler efficiency has not been attained,
and that results yielded so far could be improved
2-3 per cent.
During the tests at Illovo the boilers were operated
in a routine manner, and no exceptional conditions
were imposed. The highest efficiency attained was
68.2 per cent. with an evaporation of 21870 lbs.jhr.
on No.6 boiler. A second 8-hour test on the boiler
yielded 62.9 per cent. with an evaporation of
25730 lbs.yhr. The former result is exceptional
and probably due to the relatively steady steam
pressure that was maintained during the test and
to the lower evaporation. No.4 boiler yielded an
efficiency oE 60-60.8 per cent. and No..5,64. 5-65. 8
per cent. in successive tests. The lower efficiency
on No.4: is partly due to the higher sensible heat loss
and CO loss, and partly to the more pronounced
effect of steam pressure drop on draft. Although
boilers Nos. 4-5 are similar in construction a total
draft pressure drop of 3.12-3.21 in. w.g. is required
on No.4: as compared with 1. 87-;-2 in. w.g. on No.5
for the same evaporation. Both the I.D. and the
F.D. fans are steam driven and consequently steam
pressure drop reduces the speed and draft pressure.
Since the effect of a given change in speed is greater
the larger the draft the effect of steam pressure
drop on furnace temperature and efficiency is
greater on No. 4: boiler than No.5. The difference
in the performance of the two boilers discloses the
importance of regular maintenance of brickwork and
air ducts, and the need for a fan drive that is i n ~
dependent of steam pressure changes to' sustain
peak evaporation rates. The economiser perform-
ance is tabulated in Appendix 7. A temperature
rise 69-91.F. was attained by the boiler feedwater
and 4.1-5.9 per cent. of the heat liberated by the
fuel recovered yielding an average improvement
in boiler efficiency of 7.6 per cent. The flue gas
outlet temperature from the economiser connected
to boilers Nos. 4-5, i.e. economiser A is 504-
512F. and from economiser B 467-483F. These
temperatures are partly determined by the
economiser heat transmission area which in this case
is only 30 per cent. of the boiler heating surface area.
During the test the soot scrapers were not in oper-'
ation on economiser A which has reduced the heat
transmission co-efficient by nearly 28 per cent. in
comparison with 13, and lowered the efficiency of
the boiler by 2-3 per cent.
Flue gas analyses are shown in Appendix 8 and
disclose that at Sezela the optimum furnace air
supply was established during .the test of 19th
Sept ember, 1952 and yielded a combined sensible
, 56
heat and CO loss of 17,97 per cent. Under these
conditions the CO2 content of the flue gas was
12.9 per cent. Changes in CO2 content above or
below this amount increase the flue gas loss: for
instance decreasing the COi content to 12.4 per
cent. changes the loss to 18.42 per cent., an increase'
of 0.45 per cent. The Illovo results show the need
for improving the air supply regulation. On Boilers
No. 4-5 the CO
present is too high owing to in-
sufficient air being supplied: the CO present is also
too high and a combined heat loss of 23.7-25.2
per cent. is yielded. On the other hand CO2 present
on Boiler No.6 is too small owing to excessive air
supply, and causes a larger sensible heat loss 20.6-
21 per cent. These losses could be reduced by
regulating the air supply to yield 12--13 per cent.
CO2 in the flue gas. The results emphasize the
advantage of installing a CO2 recorder instrument
to enable the regulation of air supply for improving
and maintaining maximum efficiency.
A Heat Balance has been calculated in Appendix 9
to show the distribution of the available heat be-
tween that transferred to the water and the various
sources of loss. The remaining losses or un-
accounted losses consist of radiation, ash, unburnt
fuel . and leakage. Direct measurement of the
latter presents many difficulties: for instance, the
unburnt fuel consisting of fine bagasse particles
cannot be collected and weighed since it is dis-
charged to the atmosphere with the flue gases.
Past experience on several tests shows that the
undetermined losses may be 10-20 per cent. 5
of the lower calorific value of the fuel and that these
values may be used for the purpose of comparison.
Both 1951 tests at Sezela showed values exceeding
20 per cent. and are high because the absence of
the gas baffle would allow larger quantities of fine
unburnt bagasse to escape into the flues more
easily and avoid ignition. This view is supported
by the fact that before the baffle was originally
removed clinkering occurred at the last tube pass
showing that combustion was proceeding there.
In the 1952 tests the remaining losses were 13.38
and 20.85 per cent. respectively. The lower result
was attained under conditions where cold air
leakage to the furnace was restricted and it is con-
sidered that the increased loss in the second test
is due mainly to the effect of air leakage lowering
the furnace air temperature and causing increased
unburnt fuel losses.
The prospect of utilising bagasse as a raw material
for chemical processing and the disadvantage of
burning it as a fuel are discussed. Data is pre-
sented to show that the seasonal average fibre
content of all cane crushed in Natal since 1948-49
has remained sensibly constant: the fuel quality
of the bagasse has deteriorated continuously owing
to increased moisture in bagasse which is shown to
be due to crushing increasing proportions of N:Co.310
cane. The effect on steam production is discussed
and it is suggested that the improvement and
maintenance of boiler efficiency and the economic
use of steam is needed to meet the problem. ' The
results of boiler efficiency tests made at two factories
are given and the source of the losses examined.
Recommendations are made for installing flue
gas analysis recorders to assist the boiler operators
in working at maximum efficiency.
IHedley, E.P.: Boilers, Furnaces and Boiler Equipment.
Proc. S.A.S.T.A. 11, 6-18.
2Perk Chs., G.M.: Exhaust Steam Production and Consump-
tion, S.A. Sugar ji. 1953, 37,23.
3Perk Chs., G.M.: Reducing Injection Water Requirements,
S.A. Sugar ji, 1952, 12, 763.
4Comm. Rept.: Boiler Efficiency and Heat Balance in the Cane
Sugar Factory, Proc. S.A.S.T.A., 1928, 77-84.
"Archief v.d. ]. S. I.: 1932, pp. 1341-1448.
This Institute wishes to thank the Managements
and Staffs of the factories where the boiler tests
were made for the assistance and facilities provided
during the work. The Institute also wishes to
thank Messrs. Patrick Murray & Co. for their
collaboration during the test at Sezela.
Mr. Bentley said that Mr. McCulloch was to be
congratulated on presenting his paper on this most
interesting subject in so clear a manner; they at
Maidstone would be pleased if he could find the time
during the coming season to carry out similar tests
on some of their boilers.
One point in Mr. McCulloch's paper with which
he did not agree and which he felt was not entirely
supported by the evidence of last year's results
. was that there had been a deterioration in the
quality of bagasse due to the greater percentage of
N:Co. 310 crushed. Mr. McCulloch used the argu-
ment, that moisture per cent bagasse had increased
in line with the increase of N:Co. 310 crushed and
produced average industry figures to prove it. He
felt that a general decrease in extraction not
necessarily due to increased throughput of N:Co. 310
was responsible for the increase moisture per' cent.
bagasse. Had Mr. McCulloch taken his figures
from results of those factories such as Gledhow
and Maistone where extraction had not dropped,
he would have found that moisture in bagasse was,
if anything, lower than in previous seasons in spite
of a considerable increase in the percentage N:Co. 310
He drew attention to Mr. McCulloch's statement
that "Responsibility for maintaining good operating
efficiency lies squarely on the back of the engineer
and is attainable provided that the boiler super-
visors are carefully selected and properly trained
for their work and that adequate control instruments
are installed and kept in good working condition."
He felt that this subject deserved emphasis. In
many boiler installations in the industry there was
a complete absence of reliable instruments and he
felt sure that proper instrumentation intelligently
used would result in improved boiler efficiency
thereby saving fuel and recovering the cost of the
instruments in a comparatively short time.
Mr. Dymoml asked that a hearty vote of thanks
be accorded Mr. McCulloch.
Variation of Fibre % Cane, Moisture % Bagasse and' N :Co.310 Cane for the Past Five Seasons.
Factory. Season.
Reduction of lower
1948/9 1949/50 1950/51 1951/52 1952/53* calorific value per lb.
All. Fibre % Cane 15.90 16.19 15.80 16.28 16.10
Umfolozi. do.... 14.16 13.64 13.80 12.58 12.93
Felixton. do. ... 16.46 16.73 15.86 16.66 16.44
All. % N :Co.310 crushed .07 2.60 15.07 21.12 36.81
Umfolozi. do.... .01 3.70 27.75 56.39 75.4
Felixton. do. ... .028 6.97 17.15 19.36 36.71
All. Moisture % Bagasse 50.53 50.84 51. 22 51.71 52.41
Umfolozi. do.... 51.01 52.45 50.80 52.84 53.77
Felixton. do. ... 51.12 50.79 52.81 53.26 53.60
All. Lower calorific value 3230 3180 1.55
Umfolozi. B.T.U./lb.... 3190 2950 7.54
Felixton. do. ... 3180 2980 6.30
hr. 13.25 12.50 13.20 16.42 18
Felixton, do. ... 13.4 13.55 14.30 15.07 14.30
Umfolozi-Imbibition-% Fibre 229 202 205 192 191
Felixton. do. ... 222 207 209 225 226
*Data available up to 3rd January, 1953
Comparative Results Obtained from Milling N :Co.310.
Natal Estates. Chaka's Kraal. Felixton,
11 Oct., 1950. 9 Nov., 1950. 1 Dec., 1950. 8 Nov., 1950. 22 Nov., 19iiO
Information not available. Information not available.
Duration of test-hrs.
Moisture % Bagasse. N :Co.310 only
do. average result ...
Difference in moisture content (4)-(e,)
Throughput N :Co.310 only - Tons
Average throughput of all cane for
comparative period-Tons cane/hr.
51.18 (A)
1. 92
154.5 (A)
49.96 (B)
50.29 (B)
53.32 (A).
53.28 (A)
1. 32
Notes.-(A) Average data for the week in which the test was made.
(B) Average data for the 24 hours period in which the test was made.
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45 47 49 51 53 55
Test Data and Thermal Efficiencies of Boilers Tested.
Date of test,
Duration of test-c-hrs,
Boiler No.
International Combustion Ltd.
-c--Three drum.
Babcock &Wilcox Babcock &Wilcox 'Babcock &Wilcox
.,-Two-drum. <7 -Two-drum.
Heating Surface of Boiler-e-It.s ... 6000 4780 4780 4780
Heating Surface Superheater-c-It." ? 735 735
Heating Surface Air Heater-ft.
Heating Surface Economiser-ft. 2 2830 2830 4890
Type of Furnace ... Stewart-Murray Turbulent. Stewart-Murray Stewart-Murray Stewart-Murray
Turbulent. Turbulent. Turbulent.
Steam pressure-p.s.i.g. 146 153 152 155 127 119 118 116 137 115
Steam temperature-c-vf'.... 500 513 516 519 547 540 521 517 76% Dry80% Dry
Feed temperature-s-vf". ... 187 181 189 183 171 134 162 166 156 130
Weight of water evaporated-s-lbs.yhr.
(apparent) 19520 19600 25750 26400
Weight of water. evaporated-i-Ibs.yhr.
(corrected) ... 19070 19200 25180 25770 22420 22810 23810 23810 21870 25730
Weight of bagasse fuel-Ibs.jhr. 11220 11076 12320 14050 12655 13520 12080 11385 9605 9395
Moisture in bagasse-% ... 49.76 49.27 48.57 48.90 48.60 49.50 47.74 48.13 49.06 48.1
Lower calorific value-B.T.U./lb. 3302 3340 3375 3374 3387 3312 3456 3415 3377 3447
Weight of water evaporated per lb. fuel
-Ibs.... ... 1. 70 1.73 2.05 1. 83 1. 77 1. 69 1. 97 1. 92 2.04 1. 95
Weight of water evaporated per ft.
hr.-Ibs. 3.18 3.20 4.20 4.29 4.69 4.77 4.99 4.58 4.09 3.84
Gross thermal 57.5 58.6 68.2 61.5 60.8 60.0 65.8 64.5 68.2 62.9

.90 .95 1.0 1.05 1.10 1.15
Air Heater Performance.
1 .
Date ... 111 Sept., 51 20 Sept., 51 17 Sept., 52 18 Sept., 52
1. 51
2 .Ratio Actual air/Theoretical air
3 Weight of Air supplied p ~ r lb. of fuel-lbs.:
4 "" Dry gas "
5 "" Steam " .. "
6 Ambient air ternperature-v'F.
7 Temperature of air leaving airheater-s-f'F.
8 Temperature of flue gas entering airheater-s-T".
9 Temperature of flue gas leaving airheater-e-Ti.
Heat yielded in airheater-c-Bi'Ll.l.ylb. fuel:
10 By dry flue gas ... 205
n By vapour in flue gas ... 45
12 Total heat yielded by flue gas in airheater-B.T.U.jlb. fuel 250
13 Lower calorific value of fuel-B.T.U./lb. ... 3302
14 Proportion of (13) transferred in airheater = (12)/(13)-% 7.57
1. 52
1. 62
1. 57
Eeonomiser Performance.
16/7/52 17/7/52
156 160
247 237
680 654
467 483
5.70 5.30
4 5
11,6 162 166
232 232 235
580 622 624
505 510 512
10/7/52 11/7/52 31/7/52 1/8/52 Date of Test ...
2 Boiler No. '"
3 Water temperature-c-T".: Entering 171
4 Leaving 253
5 Gas temperature-c-f'f": Entering 576
6 Leaving 5 0 ~ __
7 Calculated heat transfer co-efficient-c-Bi'Ll.I.yft.V
hr.;cF. 2.77
8 Heat transferred from flue gases in economiser-
% ofL.c.v. of fuel .. .4.10 4.f-i0 5.90
N.B.- (i) Boilers Nos. 4 and 5 are connected to Econorniser A and Boiler No. fi to Econrnniser B on the flue gas side. On the water
side the two Economisers are connected in series.
(ii) The water temperature leaving, line (4), is the temperature leaving Econorniser B.
Flue Gas Analyses, Sensible Heat Losses and CO Losses.
1 Factory. Seaela. 1II0vo.
2 Date. l!l/H/lil 20/H/lil 18/11/1)2 11l/H/1)2 1II/7/1)2 11/7/1)2 31/7/1,2 1/8/1)2 .16/7/1)2 17/7/1)2
3 Boiler No. 6 fi 6 n 4 4 5 5 6 n
4 CO.-% 13.35 13.30 12.40 12.9 15.00 I'l, 12 14.60 11.01 10.1l
5 CO-% 0.38 0.21 0.47 0.34 1.20 I. 21 0.07 0.16
fi 0.-% fi.87 6'. no 7.01 7.88 4.011 5.55 5.00 8.75 10.44
7 Sensible Heat Loss-% Lower
Calorific Value of fuel. .. 16.20 17.40 15.70 HI.O 17.A IA.85 18.20 20.6 21
A 'Weight of carbon in bagasse burned
to CO-% of C present = (5)/
(5)J 2.77 I. 55 3.115 2.1\7 W.O 7.82 7.fil 0.fi3 I. 56
o Weight of carbon in bagasse burned
to CO-actual wcight-lbs. ... .00fi03 .00388 .000Ui .00fi(17 .02Fi . ()lOfi .019 .00157 .0030
10 Heat loss due to (9)-B.T.U:jlb.
fuel = 10000 x (9) fi9.3 38.8 01. 5 fin.7 21"i() Hili 190 15.7 30
II CO loss-% Lower Calorific Value
of fuel = (lO)jL.C.V.... 2.10 I.l(l 2.72 I. 97 7.aO 1i.f12 5.50 0.47 l.13
12 Sensible heat loss + CO loss-% (7)
(11) ... 18.30 18.Fin 18.42 17.07 2/'i.2 24.77 23.70 21. 07 22.13
Summary of Heat Balances.
Seeele. lIIovo.
2 Dale. 19/9/51 20/9/,1 18/9/,2 1\)/9/,2 10/7/[.2 11/7/,2 13/7/,2 1/8/52 16/7/52 17/7/52
3 Lower calorific value of fuel-% 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 WO
4 Sensible Heat Loss in Flue Gas-% ... 16.20 17.40 15.70 16.0 17.8 18.85 18.20 20.6 21
5 CO Heat Loss in Flue Gas-% 2.10 1.16 2.72 1. 97 7.39 5.92 5.50 0.47 1.13
6 Thermal Efficiency-% . 57.5 58.6 68.2 61. 5 60.8 60.0 65.8 68.2 62.9
7" Remaining Losses = (3)-(4)-(5)-(6)
-%... 24.20 22.80 13.38 20.85 14.0 15.2 10.5 10.7 15.0