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AERODYNAMICS OF THE WING HIGH-LIFT DEVICES
Swept wings of rather small area with an airfoil of rather small camber and relative thickness are applied in modern aircraft with the purpose of flight speed increasing. Such wings can not provide large lift on landing modes because of early flow stall. The problem of increasing lifting properties for modern wings at high angles of attack for shortening of take-off and landing distance is very actual now. For this purpose wings are equipped with special design elements which allow to increase the value of C ya max in the area of critical angles of attack α st . These elements working on modes of takeoff, landing and maneuver are called wing high-lift devices. The set of effective high-lift devices applied in aircraft is wide enough (table 7.1). There distinguish rigid, jet, combination high-lift devices and high-lift devices based on the boundary layer control (BLC). The high-lift devices are installed on the leading and trailing wing edges. The high-lift devices of the wing trailing edge are realized by flaps of various types (Fig. 7.1): simple flap, one-slotted flap, Fowler extension flap, double-slotted flap, plane flap etc. Flaps are applied to increase the lift of an airplane at keeping of its position (keeping the angle of attack). They are extended while taking off and landing. The lift grows due to increase of wing camber. Extension flaps consisting of several sections are used on modern airplanes. Multi-section configuration allows bending the wing smoothly, and air jets streaming on the upper surfaces of sections through slots, providing smooth continuous flow at high angles of sections deflection. The theoretical substantiation of multi-slotted flaps was given by S. A. Chaplygin. Such flaps additionally increase lift due to the growth of wing area.
Krueger slat.one-slotted flap.7 δ flap = 30 o . but also for direct control of lift.dev .dev . It is reached due to wing camber at the leading edge and jet blowing onto the upper wing surface through a slot. The flap are used not only for improvement of take-off and landing characteristics. rational redistribution of loading which effects a wing. At increasing of angle α under the influence of sucking force the slat is put forward into operative location.1 .Fig. = 1.4 .dev . and also for drag reduction. perpendicular to axis of > 0 if flap is deflected downwards. f) .dev .double-slotted flap ΔC yа h − l .Fowler flap. 7. The slats are intended for prevention of premature flow stalling from wing.9 δ flap = 60 o .one-slotted extended flap ΔC yа h− l . The high-lift devices of the wing leading edge are usually made as the deflected slats (Fig. = 0 . The slat is the wing-shaped and locates along the wing leading edge.2): movable slat. δ flap flap .8 ÷ 0 . e) . deflecting nose etc. = 1. 82 . It is measured in a plane.1. b) . 7.flap ΔC yа h − l . = 0 .plane flap ΔC yа h− l . c) . An angle between chords of main flap section in deflected and non-deflected positions is called flap setting δ rotation. An angle characterizing turn of coordinate system related with the slat at its deflection is called slat setting δ slat . d) . High-lift devices of the wing trailing edge: a) .
dev .3. High-lift devices of the wing leading edge: a) .extended slat ΔC yа h − l . as increment of the lift coefficient ΔC yа h− l . provided with it (Fig. 7. = 0 . flap and slotted wing onto C ya = f ( α ) Fig.6 ÷ 0 . 7. The growth of C ya is also promoted by increase of the wing area at using movable flaps.sliding slat.75 δ з = 60 o .dev . 7. Influence of slat deflection onto C ya = f ( α ) The major factor causing an increasing of a wing C ya factor at deflection of highlift devices is the growing of its cross-sections concavity.2.3. c) .4) and inevitable drag increment.Fig.dev . = 0 . 7.deflected nose ΔC yа h− l . 7. Fig.9 . The high-lift devices type allowing to receive the required take-off and landing characteristics of the airplane should be got out right at the beginning of the designing process. Influence of deflection of split flap. 83 . Choice of high-lift devices in each particular case is determined by such criteria.55 ÷ 0 .4. b) .
that the flap deflection causes an essential growth of rarefaction along total upper wing surface. systems with flow blowing-off from slot on a wing tail part (Fig. The change of dependence of lift coefficient is similar to slat application (Fig. and not just on its deflected part.dev .6 ÷ 0 . 7.6).Let's consider the influence of high-lift devices deflection of the trailing edge onto structure of flow about the wing. As a result the lift coefficient increases. 2 N 2 ⋅m m (7.5.4).8 at C μ = 0 . 7. 84 . 7.7) and system of blower of wing surface by jets from the engine (Fig. 7. 7.1) where m s is the air consumption per second.3 . The intensity of blower (blowing-off) is characterized by a factor of momentum: Cμ = msV j q∞ S j kg ⋅ m s s . V j is the jet speed. For effective realization of factor C ya increasing it is necessary to provide attached flow about wing with the extended high-lift devices. The control system of circulation ΔC yа h − l .5) shows. q∞ is the dynamic pressure. The appreciable increase of overpressure is observed along the total lower Fig. Pressure factor distribution along airfoil outline with flap and without it surface. this is promoted by boundary layer control (BLC) by increasing of kinetic energy of decelerated air layer (blown off) or its removal from the flow (suction) (Fig. As it's known. S j is the wing area maintained by high-lift devices. Comparison of pressure factor C p distributions chordwise at non-deflected and extended flaps (fig. = 0 .8) are also examples of jet high-lift devices. 7.
dev . b) flap lower surface δ flap = 40 o 60 o .dev . ΔC yа h− l . c) .jet flap ΔC yа h− l . = 6 ÷ 7 . = 7 ÷ 8 .7 . = 4 ÷ 5 . ≈ 8 . = 6 .dev .flap with blowing of the upper surface ΔC yа h− l .6 ÷ 0 .6.dev .suction through a slot. 7. C μ ≈ 2 . The pressure redistributes both on the upper and on the lower surfaces. = 0 . 7.. C μ ≈ 2 .dev . Fig. The spoilers are panels installed on the wing which can be deflected outside to spoil the flow over the wing. b) ..8 : a) .7. Spoiler either turbulizes or stalls the flow depending on altitude of its moving out. ΔC yа h− l .9) and installed both on the upper and on the lower wing surfaces. C μ ≈ 2 . b) .blowing of the flap upper surface δ flap = π 3 . 7. They are made as rotary or extended (fig. c) .dev .Fig.blow-off from a slot.distributed suction through the porous or punched surface. A system of wing surface blowing by engine jets: à) . 7. Systems for boundary layer control ΔC yа h − l .8.ejector flap ΔC yа h− l . 85 . Fig. Systems with flow blow-off from a slot on wing tail part: a) .
0 . that allows to increase braking force considerably. Spoilers are used for roll control (instead of ailerons). a type and span of high-lift devices. influence ΔC yа h− l . Generally. value.Fig. 7. flap chord b flap . In such case they are mounted on the wing upper surface directly ahead of flaps and deflected simultaneously on both wings.dev .7 . wing plan form. Such spoilers are called ground spoilers. For swept wings the effectiveness of high-lift devices is abruptly reduced at angles close to α st . It causes flow stalling from the wing upper surface and high-lift devices.75 . panel flap chord b flap .. etc..9. loading onto wheels also grows. As a result. type of wing airfoil and its relative thickness с . b) . For landing angles of attack ΔC yа h− l . the lift coefficient C yа abruptly decreases and the drag coefficient C xа grows.rotary. Spoilers are also applied for shortening of run at landing and aborted takeoff.dev . Similar effect is caused by aspect ratio decreasing. 86 . = −0 .extended. Spoilers: a) .
Even more drag than plain flap. Best flaps for lift. Nose-down pitching moment. Much drag. Nose-down pitching moment. Not so much drag. Nose-down pitching moment. Treble slots sometimes used. Same as single-slotted flap only more so. Reduces lift at small deflections. Nose-up pitching moment. Treble slots sometimes used.The table 7. 87 . Increase camber. Same as Fowler flap only more so. Angle of Increase of maximum lift basic airfoil at max. Much drag when fully lowered. Nose-down pitching moment. Increase camber and wing area. lilt Basic airfoil 12 ° Increase camber. Stalling delayed. High-lift devices. Control of boundary layer. Increase camber and wing area. 15 ° High-lift devices Remarks Effects of all high-lift devices depend on shape of basic airfoil. Complicated mechanism.1. Plain or camber flap 50 % 60 % Split flap 90 % Zap flap 65 % Slotted flap 70 % Double-slotted flap 90 % Fowler flap 100 % 14 ° 13 ° 16 ° 18 ° 15 ° Double-slotted Fowler flap 20 ° 50 % Krueger slat 25 ° Nose-flap hinging about leading edge. Increase camber.
and the exact design of the devices themselves. Greater angles of attack. Since the effects of these devices depend upon the shape of the basic airfoil. High-lift devices. 20 ° High-lift devices Remarks Controls boundary layer. More control of boundary layer. Nose-up pitching moment. Increases camber and area. Pitching moment can be neutralized. Slight extra drag at high speeds. treble slots may be used. Extra drag at high speeds. the values given can only be considered as approximations. The best combination for lift. Complicated mechanisms. 88 . Pitching moment can be neutralized. and not at the angles giving maximum lift. Angle of Increase of maximum lift basic airfoil at max. lilt 40 % Slotted wing Controls boundary layer. Nose-up pitching moment. Controls boundary layer. Increased camber and area. Note. To simplify the diagram the airfoils and the flaps have been set at small angles.Table 7. 50 % Fixed slat 20 ° 60 % Movable slat 22 ° 75 % Slat and slotted fl Slat and doubleslotted Fowler flap 120 % 25 ° 28 ° 80 % Blown flap 60 % Jet flap 16 ° ? Depends even more on angle and velocity of jet.1. Effect depends very much on details of arrangement.
WING PROFILE DRAG The profile drag is the sum of surface..THEME 8. the factor double value takes into 89 . that makes wave and profile drag inter-related.5 all drag components (wave. This circumstance is taken into account in approximate methods of C xp calculation. that C xp does not depend on angles of attack in modes of attached flow and then calculation of C xp is performed at α = 0 (small change of C xp on angles of attack is taken into account at definition of induced drag..5 (zone of hypersonic speeds) there are effects of viscous interaction. The most widespread engineering method of C xp calculation is method CAGI. According to CAGI method the wing profile drag is determined by the formula C xp = 2С f η c η м (8. or separate items at polar calculating). having put an effective aspect ratio λ eff ... At that the wave and induced drag are well calculated without the account of viscosity..5 (without the account of viscous interaction). However at M∞ ≥ 4 . induced. It is possible to adopt. which cause the necessity of the account of viscosity and pressure mutual influence.1) where С f is the drag coefficient of friction of one side of a flat plate in a flow of incompressible fluid at identical to wing: Reynolds number Re and position of a point of laminar boundary layer transition into turbulent x t . profile) can be determined separately from each other. Below we shall consider the method of calculation for streamlined bodies at M∞ ≤ 4 . It is necessary to mean that surface-friction drag is the main part of profile drag of streamlined bodies (therefore it is often considered that C xp ≈ C x fr ).friction drag and drag of pressure caused by pressure redistribution along the streamlined surface due to viscosity influence (sometimes latter item is called form drag).. According to this method the profile drag is determined as surface-friction drag of a flat plate with introduction of correction multipliers which are taking into account an additional part of drag from pressure forces. In range of Mach numbers less than 4 .
Re .3) The most complex and insufficiently investigated is the definition of position of transition point x T . where C x0 = C xp . ηc = f (c . η c and η м are also the function of x t . Polar formula is written as 2 . i.e. M i. Only profile C xp and induced C xi drags exist in subsonic flow. x t ) . at a preliminary designing stage the precise value of x t is not known. The parameter K max is determined as C xa = C x 0 + AC ya K max = 1 and at this mode C xa = 2C x 0 = 2C xp . It is convenient to write Reynolds number as a function dependent on Mach number and flight altitude Re = Vb A ν = M b A f ( H ) . At that Re = V∞ l ν∞ . From the standpoint of drag decreasing it is desirable to have the body (wing) streamlined completely by laminar flow (i. с . As a rule. However it practically can not be achieved. the profile drag is a half of 2 AC x 0 full drag).e. m − 1 12 535⎠ ⎝ [ ] (8. Generally С f . are a source of turbulence. η м is the multiplier which is taking into account a compressibility (Mach number M ∞ ). rivets. Usually one assumes that the body (wing) is streamlined completely by turbulent flow ( x t = 0 ). Or 2 ⎞ f ( H ) = 2 . η c is the factor taking into account contribution of pressure forces into profile drag. x t ) . η м = f ( M . Any irregularities. that overestimates full drag and required thrust of the power plant. x t ) . a∞ is the speed of a sound and ν∞ is the kinematic factor of viscosity are determined under the tables of standard atmosphere depending on flight altitude. С f = f ( Re.33⎛ ⎜1 − H + H ⎟ ⋅ 107 . (8. At actual value ( x t > 0 ) the excess of a thrust (power) is received which can go onto increasing of maneuverable properties of the 90 . where length of a mean aerodynamic chord bA is used as characteristic length l . x t = 1 ). welded seams etc.2) where f ( H ) = a∞ ν∞ .e.account flow about the upper and lower surfaces.
it is necessary to note deep researches. then it is necessary to locate the point of transition in a place of source presence.2 M 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (8.4 x t + 9 c 2 e − 4 x t .33 1 − xt ) + ( 2 Re xt . riveted and welded seams. In case of x т = 0 it is possible to assume the following computational formulae for C xp definition: Cf = 0 .2 M 2 . ηc = 1 + 2ce − 2 . joints of skin sheets. (8. ηc = 1 + 2c + 9 c . Nevertheless. slot of high-lift devices of the wing leading edge etc.6 ) 1.5 ): Cf = 0 .4) If the value x t ≠ 0 is known. ⎜ 1 + 0 . 91 .6 ) 2 . which are being performed on decreasing of C xp . ⎛ ⎞ ⎜ 1 2 ⎟ ηм = ⎜ + 0 .airplane.5) ( ) If there are various sources of turbulence on a streamlined surface (design superstructures.087 ( lg Re − 1.055 x t M ⎟ 1 + 5 c 2 M .).087 ( lg Re − 1. then it is necessary to address to the diagrams. It is also possible to use approximate formulae (at x t ≤ 0 . η м = 2 1 + 5c 2 M 1 + 0 .
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