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Cloud Computing Introduction

Cloud Computing is a model for enabling ubiquitous, convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction. It is a TCP/IP based high development and integrations of computer technologies such as fast microprocessor, huge memory, high-speed network and reliable system architecture. It is the practice of storing regularly used computer data and/or applications on servers that can be accessed through the Internet rather than a local server. Cloud computing is the combination of five core technologies: distributed systems, virtualization, web 2.0, service oriented computing and utility computing. With cloud computing, companies can scale up to massive capacities in an instant without having to invest in new infrastructure, train new personnel, or license new software. Cloud computing is of particular benefit to small and medium-sized businesses who wish to completely outsource their data-center infrastructure, or large companies who wish to get peak load capacity without incurring the higher cost of building larger data centers internally. In both instances, service consumers use what they need on the Internet and pay only for what they use. The service consumer no longer has to be at a PC, use an application from the PC, or purchase a specific version that's configured for smartphones, PDAs, and other devices. The consumer does not own the infrastructure, software, or platform in the cloud. He has lower upfront costs, capital expenses, and operating expenses. He does not care about how servers and networks are maintained in the cloud. The consumer can access multiple servers anywhere on the globe without knowing which ones and where they are located.

Characteristics of cloud computing

On-demand self-service. A consumer can unilaterally provision computing capabilities, such as server time and network storage, as needed automatically without requiring human interaction with each services provider. Broad network access. Capabilities are available over the network and accessed through standard mechanisms that promote use by heterogeneous thin or thick client platforms (e.g., mobile phones, laptops, and PDAs).

Resource pooling. The providers computing resources are pooled to serve multiple consumers using a multi-tenant model, with different physical and virtual resources dynamically assigned and reassigned according to consumer demand. There is a sense of location independence in that the customer generally has no control or knowledge over the exact location of the provided resources but may be able to specify location at a higher level of abstraction (e.g., country, state, or datacenter). Examples of resources include storage, processing, memory, network bandwidth, and virtual machines. Rapid elasticity. Capabilities can be rapidly and elastically provisioned, in some cases automatically, to quickly scale out, and rapidly released to quickly scale in. To the consumer, the capabilities available for provisioning often appear to be unlimited and can be purchased in any quantity at any time. Measured Service. Cloud systems automatically control and optimize resource use by leveraging a metering capability at some level of abstraction appropriate to the type of service (e.g., storage, processing, bandwidth, and active user accounts). Resource usage can be monitored, controlled, and reported, providing transparency for both the provider and consumer of the utilized service.

Along with these essential characteristics of cloud computing also includes characteristics like user friendliness, virtualization, Internet centric, variety of resources, automatic adaptation, scalability, resource optimization, pay-per-use, service SLAs (Service-Level Agreements) and infrastructure SLAs.

Benefits of cloud computing

Cloud computing provides many economic incentives and benefits to the county, governments, enterprises, and individuals. By evaluating application requirements in terms of costs, performance, security and compliance, the countys approach to cloud computing and the expansion of G2G (Government to Government) shared services can be evolutionary. Cloud computing resources can be deployed and used where and when it makes sense. Some of the benefits of cloud computing includes:

Achieve economies of scale: increase volume output or productivity with fewer people. Your cost per unit, project or product plummets. Reduce spending on technology infrastructure: Maintain easy access to your information with minimal upfront spending. Pay as you go (weekly, quarterly or yearly), based on demand. 2

Globalize your workforce on the cheap: People worldwide can access the cloud, provided they have an Internet connection. Streamline processes: Get more work done in less time with less people. Reduce capital costs: Theres no need to spend big money on hardware, software or licensing fees. Improve accessibility: You have access anytime, anywhere, making your life so much easier! Monitor projects more effectively: Stay within budget and ahead of completion cycle times. Less personnel training is needed: It takes fewer people to do more work on a cloud, with a minimal learning curve on hardware and software issues. Minimize licensing new software: Stretch and grow without the need to buy expensive software licenses or programs. Improve flexibility: You can change direction without serious people or financial issues at stake.