An Effective Guide to Gathering Information, Referencing and Evaluating Research
This booklet aims to help you to:
get the most out of your library visits by forward planning use library catalogues effectively enlist the help of library staff access photocopying and inter-library loans facilities understand how copyright laws apply to you
If you want to locate a library copy of a specific book for which you have the bibliographic details, try the following steps: 1. Start by using the library catalogue of your home institution. Some online library catalogues do not cover older material, you should ask a member of library staff if there is a card catalogue which you also need to check. If your search in the catalogue is successful you will need to note down the classmark in order to find the book in the library. Note: Criminology texts at MMU are located on the ground floor (West Wing) and start at classmark 360. 2. If your home library does not hold the book you require, try searching the library catalogues of any other libraries you may have access to. The library staff will be able to provide further help with this. If your search is successful and you intend to visit another library for the first time you should always find out what their entrance requirements are, for example a specific university ID card. Again, the library staff should be able to provide you with this information.
3. If you are unable to access the book in a local library then ask at your home library if it is possible to obtain the book through the inter-library loan service. This is usually a simple process of filling out the bibliographical details of the book you require onto a form/card obtained from the library staff. The library staff will then attempt to obtain the specific text and will keep you informed of the progress. Please note you should ensure you allow plenty of time if you intend to obtain a book which is important to your research in this way as certain inter-library loans may take over a week to obtain. Thus, you do not want to be chasing a book with days to go before a deadline!
like any other book. at home) so other methods of ensuring that you are an authorised user need to be adopted. bibliographies and directories that you may need to consult while using the library. are usually an essential resource for researchers in the arts. These include:
Rare and Older Books
Libraries often place restrictions on the use of older and rare books in order to protect them. For example they may be held in the special collections department or you may only be able to consult them in a reading room under supervision. These books are all usually known as e-books and are in either html or pdf format. humanities and social sciences. When you login to a database on campus it is likely that you will never know that you are using IP secured access to a database. ask a member of library staff if you need help.
It is now possible to access the full text of some books electronically. You should search for these works using the library catalogue. On-campus.
Scholarly journals. Your library may also provide access to electronic journals. the publisher of the database needs to ensure that only authorised users (usually staff and students of the subscribing institution) are able to use the database. do note that it is usually only certain texts which are available electronically and these may not be some of the core texts that you may require. such as dictionaries. However. Your home library should hold printed copies of some journals. such as JSTOR. This lets you know that this book is usually in a specific physical location and that you cannot borrow it.Types of books
There are a number of different types of books that you may need to use during your research.g.
Many libraries include sections containing 'quick reference' books. also known as periodicals or serials.
Using Electronic Journals/Publications Access:
When a library subscribes to a database. this is often ensured by registering the IP numbers of the institution's computers with the database supplier. You will usually not be able to make photocopies yourself but library staff may be able to do this for you. this book is in the 'Reference Collection' or that a certain text is marked for ‘reference use only’. for example. Some of these materials can be difficult to use. However. The catalogue record for the book should tell you that. this could be in the form of individual titles through the library catalogue or in full-text databases through the library website. They include articles which can provide in-depth and up-to-date consideration of a subject. students and staff often want to access these databases off-campus (e.
com) > click on ‘More’ at the top of the page > Click ‘Scholar’.google. Common limiting criteria are:
Date Publication type eg book or journal article Type of record eg search for full text articles only. ‘Anti-Social Behaviour’.
In the UK one of the most common ways of providing off-campus access to electronic resources is using the Athens access management system. The content provided (or cited) in databases has usually been subjected to the same peerreview process as a published printed work. Details of how to register for your Athens username and password will usually be available on your library's website. (Please refer the section below to structure the focus of your search)
Refining Your Search
Databases often have the facility to limit your search according to criteria independent of the topic you are searching for. such as JSTOR or Ingenta.g. Type in what you are wanting to search for e. If you are not using a computer within an educational institution it is normally necessary to first login in order to use this type of tool.A subscription database is an electronic tool that you (or your institution on your behalf) have subscribed to. Athens allows you to login to a range of electronic resources from different suppliers using a single username and password. you will usually only need to enter your username and password once. until you close your browser. The use of single sign-on technology means that.
One of the best ways to access electronic journals is through ‘Google Scholar’.
. Go to the Google home page (www. You will usually need to go into your library and register for your Athens username and password before you can use your Athens account off-campus. excluding records where only an abstract is available Journal title
Language: You can use the language drop down box to limit your search to pages written in one of over thirty different languages. Using this function should prevent the need to look through a long list of results that do not meet your requirements.
uk for uk.ac. Impact Factor. . For example.
File Format: This is a specific feature of Google which allows you to search the web for specific type of files.gov.ac.nhs.pdf).uk for academic institutions in the UK.uk for UK Government.doc) or Excel (.uk for the UK National Health Service. Occurances: Google will look for your keywords anywhere in a web page.gov for US Government. on Google Scholar there is the option listed as ‘Anytime’ – this box allows you to exclude journals based on the year the journal was published.uk
Go to www. . Total Cites. Impact Factor over Five Years. Domain: This limits the search by the information that is found in the URL (Uniform Resource Locator) or Internet address. . eg Portable Document File (. search using the WoK 'All Database search' or select an individual product from the 'Select a Database' page. You can also limit your search to a particular type of institution. Word (. .edu for US educational organisations. This enables you to limit your search to the most recent pages or a certain period of interest. This can be useful as some reports and guides are only available in PDF format and not in plain HTML.mimas. 2.
. or the text of the page. certain journal databases are more prestigious as a publishing source than others. Connect to the Web of Knowledge Service. Date: You can limit by when the page was last updated. .uk > click ‘access to journal citation reports (highlighted in red in the centre of the page) > select ‘JCR Social Sciences Edition (2010)’ > press submit > select ‘Criminology and Penology’ > From the JCR Data. British Journal of Criminology. title. ‘Web of Knowledge’ – What is it? Citation and Journal Databases.no for Norway). This option allows you to specify that the keywords appear only in the URL.wok. Note: One of the most useful tools available on the web is refining your search by date. Other organisational domains include . The Web of Knowledge UK Education provides a single route to all the Thomson Reuters products subscribed to by your institution.wok.ac. if you wanted to limit a search to a specific country add the country code into Google's domain box (eg.xls).e. Limiting a search to page titles can be a poweful tool for focusing your search. although a list of all the country codes is available. Article Influence Score. therefore reducing the number of results returned.mimas. Not only is it a useful tool to save time in searching for the most up-to-date journal articles but it also helps to exclude those journals which may have fell into academic obscurity. you should focus on four boxes 1. for example.g.hk for Hong Kong. .
Where can it be found?
Web of Knowledge can be found at www. For example. Theoretical Criminology have varying impact upon the academic world i.
Evaluating the ‘Impact’ of Journals
It is important to note that different journal databases e. Many of these country domains are easy to guess. . Use the 'Additional Resources' tab for helpful tools and web sites.
in some cases it will also be necessary to utilise lower journals so don’t be afraid to do this as this is perfectly fine too!
The British Journal of Criminology The British Journal of Sociology.org. If you want to investigate government policy this Thinktank will be of some use. You should always try and cite/reference/utilise journals which have the highest impact factor and citations.ippr. ageing. Sage Publications. Demos found at www.uk. Technical reports. ethnicity and crime. do be cautious of its Conservative edge! 5.policyexchange. communities and housing justice. This Thinktank is predominantly a Conservative Thinktank thus its influence is very much from a right wing perspective. The Institute for Public Policy Research (IPPR) found at www.org. Policy Exchange found at www.org. The Young Foundation found at www. power and citizenship.
2. However. the economy and crime. and the Big Society ethos. working papers. Home Office publications. This Thinktank is particularly useful when investigating issues such as crime and social justice. Theoretical Criminology.uk. 4.
. education. Crime and Criminology. Policing and Society.uk.g. commissioned research reports. however.jrf. 3. Joseph Rowntree Foundation found at www.These four pieces of information illustrate that different Journals/Publications have different levels of impact upon the academic world. government policy
What is a Thinktank?
Examples of Thinktanks are:
1. democratic reform.
‘Grey Literature’ What is it? Grey Literature e. This Thinktank is particularly useful when
looking at issues such as poverty and crime and.co.demos.org. and international security and human rights. Policing – A Journal of Policy and Practice. This Thinktank is particularly useful when investigating issues such as health. youth leadership. and Think Tanks.youngfoundation.
htm An example of referencing correctly where a book is listed as the 1st edition:
Reference where 1st edition:
.libweb.guardian. check the content is within the scope of your research How authoritative is the information? Follow the link for further guidance on how to ascertain if a website is authoritative. out-of-date. The result of this is a considerable amount of inaccurate.ac. evaluate web resources using similar criteria as the other resources you are using in your research:
Is the website relevant to my research? For example. This is because:
Anyone can publish 'information'. To find out more visit: www. This is largely as a result of the information provided above as there is a great deal of information on Wikipedia which is inaccurate.co. check that the arguments are supported with independent evidence.For a list of what are considered the UK’s most influential Thinktanks visit:
www. There are no standards for web search tools such as search engines. Therefore before considering how the content impacts on your research.uk/referencing/harvard. Most
university’s use the Harvard Referencing System. biased and illegal information is available on the web. There are no official organisers. check when it was last updated Note: Grey Literature is not formally published so do be aware that there may be a level of bias within these reports! Further note: Please avoid using Wikipedia.anglia. Websites constantly change. Websites disappear without notice and new websites are contantly being created. This is especially important if you are using a web resource which has not previously been evaluated by experts (for example a resource catalogued on an academic portal).uk/politics/page/2007/dec/20/1
When you have located a relevant web resource it is vital that you properly evaluate it before using it in your research. Is the website accurate? For example. Is the website still current? For example. cataloguers or evaluators.
Referencing is key part of academic writing and the ability to reference correctly is essential at university level and also extremely important as to avoid issues of Plagiarism.
T... The World Health Organisation. D. R.D. Use an and to link the last two multiple authors. 3rd ed. R. and Coatie. 1988) has challenged traditional thinking …
Books with four or more authors:
For books where there are more than four authors.. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.J. J. Edition (only include this if not the first edition). Kirk and Munday.
An intext reference for the above examples would read: Leading organisations concerned with health ( Weiss and Coatie.. P. with Sage. its history and impact. 2008. Title of book. use the first author only followed by et al.Baron. J. The required elements for a reference are:
. Reference: Weiss. Kirk. 1988. 2008) when there is … Leading social scientists such as Redman (2006) have noted …
What happens when there are two or more authors?
For books with two. and Munday.J. London: Perseus. 2010 ) have proved that………… A new theory (Barker. Year. The required elements for a reference are: Author.. London: Open University in assoc. Place: Publisher. 2006. Good essay writing: a social sciences guide. Business and the organisation. P. Initials. 3rd ed. 2010.. three or four authors of equal status the names should all be included in the order they appear in the document. Where 3rd edition: Redman. An intext reference for the above examples would read: Organisations have been found to differ (Baron.
Barker. Narrative analysis. Chester: Pearson.
her/his initials. B.. year): Komisaruk. thesis. her/his first name. 29-56 Available from: <http://www.D. 1832). A history of the world.First author.org> [Accessed 30th July 2004]
Author’s surname. Edition (only include this if not the first edition). Title of the journal. Journal of Latin American Studies [internet] 2nd March. W.
Articles in electronic journals
Author's surname. name of university: Kanter. L. Catherine H. and Social Relations in the Central American Capital' (Unpublished Doctoral Thesis. and Gender in Rural Mexico. D. 5:73-94. Ph. (year of publication). Title of book. (1993) Hijos del pueblo: Family. Community. the use of (Grace et al. (1996) The 'Weakness' of Women and the Feminization of the Indian in Colonial Mexico. her/his initials. volume number (issue number).journals. name of university. I would include the list of the all the authors in the Bibliography.D. pagination or online equivalent <availability statement> [date of accession if necessary]: Fowler. (year). 'Women and Men in Guatemala. 'title of thesis/dissertation' (unpublished doctoral thesis. E. followed by et al. UCLA.. Conversely. Initials. 1988.cup. page numbers of article: Lewis. Place: Publisher. Colonial Latin American Review. Ph. title of article. Year. et al. volume and part number. (2004) Joseph Welsh: a British Santanista (Mexico.
Unpublished theses and dissertations
Author's surname. the Toluca Region. pp.. Reference Grace. 1988) in in-text referencing would be useful as it demonstrates academic writing and is also a neater way to structure your work)
Author's surname. 1730-1830. 2000)
. Title of journal [type of medium] date of publication.. A. NJ: Princeton University Press. her/his first name (year) title of the thesis. 1765-1835: Gender. month or season of the year. Princeton. title of the article. thesis. 36(1). Ethnicity. (This is technically one of the correct ways to reference however. University of Virginia.
interviews. films. By keeping upto-date with your in-text referencing and contributing to your bibliography gradually throughout your research you will save yourself a lot of time and will also avoid a great deal of unnecessary stress!
The bibliography is a fundamental part of your research. Further note: The sooner you familiarise yourself with referencing correctly using the Harvard System the better your academic skills and writing will be! Also. the variety of sources you used and the level of specialisation you have reached in your research subject. or by the first word of the title if the author is not known. even if it stands at the very end and sometimes is just considered an appendix. A bibliography should also include any type of material that you have used. I cannot emphasise enough that you should strive to avoid sorting your bibliography and referencing out the night before. they can be divided into: manuscripts printed texts visual records material artefacts audio and video recordings online resources When your research is based mainly on archival material. 2. Useful Tip: The place and publisher of a book is usually listed on the E-library section along with the title of the book and the author(s). in addition to being well combined and consistent with the reference system.
What to include
You should include any work that you quote or refer to in your research and any work that has contributed to your research. including visual records. Therefore it is essential for a bibliography to be clear and straightforward. A bibliography for an undergraduate piece of research might have the following subsections: 1. etc. omitting 'The' or 'A/An' . Primary sources: documents and materials which are the immediate subject of your research. C (2007) The Complete Guide to Referencing and Avoiding Plagiarism. The bibliography has the key function of guiding readers of your work into the field. Here you can usually find all the relevant information needed to reference the book correctly in your bibliography.
. Maidenhead: Open University Press. the combination of references and bibliography help readers to locate the sources and to understand the kind of information that can be found on the subject.Note: For further information on referencing a useful text is: Neville. In fact it shows the breadth of your research. Secondary sources: documents and materials that deal with the subject of your research. Entries in a bibliography are given by alphabetical order according to the author's last name. entries can be subdivided by indicating the different archives.
Biological Positivism 7. Realist Criminology 14. Contemporary Classicism 15. Radical and Critical Criminology 13. Understanding Crime and Criminology 2. Late Modernity. Culture and Subcultures 10. Interactionism and Labelling Theory 11.
Fully comprehensive – covering all major areas of criminology and criminal justice as well as guidance on disseration/long-essay writing Authoritative – written by a leading criminologist and experienced teacher Broad approach – moves beyond sociological approaches to crime and criminal justice to take account of the contribution of other disciplines Up-to-date – informed by QAA subject benchmarks for the teaching of criminology Extensively illustrated with photographs.
Part 1: Understanding Crime and Criminology 1. tables and diagrams and a range of questions for students to discuss and debate Additional website support for students and teachers. Governmentality
. Crime and Punishment in History 3. Crime and the Media Part 2: Understanding Crime – Theories and Concepts 5. Control Theories 12. charts. Classicism and Positivism 6.Key Texts For 1st Year Criminology: Newburn. The Chicago School. Cullompton: Willan. Durkheim. Psychological Positivism 8. Crime Data and Crime Trends 4. T (2007) Criminology. Feminist Criminology 16. Anomie and Strain 8.
Restorative Justice Part 5: Critical Issues in Criminology 31. accessible yet authoritative introductory textbook for students of criminology in the UK and beyond. Organised Crime 20. Criminal Courts and the Court Process 27. Crime and Justice 32. Criminal and Forensic Psychology 34.' − Professor Gordon Hughes. written by one of our leading criminologists. Violent and Property Crime 21. It is not easy to think of another criminologist who could have managed this nor or a better single volume to put in the hands of a criminology student..
. Cullompton: Willan.
'At last a truly comprehensive. Prisons and Imprisonment 29. Written by one of the most renowned experts in the field. The Police and Policing 26. Doing Criminological Research. T (2009) Key Readings in Criminology. achieving (near comprehensive) breadth without compromise to depth. UK 'Newburn's distinctive accomplishment in this book is the combination of accessibility and scholarship. White-collar and Corporate Crime 19. Victims. Leicester University. Victimization a nd Victimology 18. it is the very first sole-authored. Crime and Justice 33. truly student-friendly text in the field. UK
Newburn. Globalisation.and Risk Part 3: Understanding Crime – Types and Trends 17. this text is set to become an indispensable guide for those who study and teach criminology.' − Professor Yvonne Jewkes. Youth Crime and Youth Justice 30. Race. Gender. De Montfort University. UK 'Criminology is a remarkable achievement. Terrorism and Human Rights Part 6: Doing Criminology 35..' −Professor Rob Canton. comprehensive. Cardiff University. Penology and Punishment 23. In short. Sentencing and Non-custodial Penalties 28. Drugs and Alcohol Part 4: Understanding Criminal Justice 22. Understanding Criminal Justice 24. Understanding Criminological Research 36. Crime Prevention and Community Safety 25.
Race. and is designed to be used either as a stand-alone text or in conjunction with the same author’s textbook. London Metropolitan University ‘..’ – Jonathan Simon. Organised Crime 20. Crime Prevention and Community Safety 25. Rotterdam
. Interactionism and Labelling Theory 11.. Durkheim.. It provides students with convenient access to a broad range of excerpts (over 150 readings) from original criminological texts and key articles. Understanding Criminal Justice 24. Control Theories 12. Classicism and Positivism 6. I have no doubt that it will prove very successful indeed.’ – Dave Edwards. The Chicago School: Culture and Subcultures 10. Left and Right Realism 14.. Restorative Justice 31. Psychological Positivism 8. Doing Criminological Research. Criminal Courts and the Court Process 27. by far the most comprehensive..
1. it’s a terrific collection and nothing nearly as good exists elsewhere. Terrorism and Human Rights 35. Crime and Justice 32. Anomie and Strain 9. Crime and the Media 5. Erasmus University. Crime Data and Crime Trends 4. Sentencing and Non-Custodial Penalties 28. University of California Berkeley ‘A lot of criminology for little money. that it is fair to say it is an excellent buy for anyone studying criminology’ – Professor Renvan Swaaningen. Youth Crime and Youth Justice 30. Globalisation. Crime and Punishment in History 3. Governmentality and Risk 17 . White-collar and Corporate Crime 19. Criminal and Forensic Psychology 34.. Reviews:
‘. Prisons and Imprisonment 29. Victimization and Victimology 18. Biological Positivism 7. Crime and Justice 33. Violent and Property Crime 21. Radical and Critical Criminology 13. Penology and Punishment 23. Contemporary Classicism 15. The Police and Policing 26. Drugs and Alcohol 22. Late Modernity.Book Synopsis:
Key Readings in Criminology provides a comprehensive single-volume collection of readings in criminology. Feminist Criminology 16. It contains so many classics we want our students to read anyway. Criminology. contemporary and wide-ranging reader on the market . Gender.Victims. Understanding Crime and Criminology 2.
and the strengths and weaknesses of each theory and model are clearly identified. Cullompton: Willan
This book provides a comprehensive and up-to-date introduction to criminological theory for students taking courses in criminology at both undergraduate and postgraduate level. Environmental Theories 15. Psychological Positivism 7. The Gendered Criminal 12. Socio-biological Theories 14. Labelling Theories 10. Social Control Theories 16. Conflict and Radical Theories 11. Introduction: Crime and Modernity Part 1: The Rational Actor Model of Crime and Criminal Behaviour 2. Classical Criminology 3. Conclusion: Crime Radical Moral Communitarian Criminology. The fourth part of the book looks more closely at more recent attempts to integrate theoretical elements from both within and across models of criminal behaviour. Within these the various criminological theories are located chronologically in the context of one of these different traditions. the first three of which address ideal type models of criminal behaviour the rational actor.
1. The text is divided into five parts. Crime and the Postmodern Condition 18. globalization and communitarianism. Critical Criminology Part 4: Integrated Theories of Crime and Criminal Behaviour 13. Populist Conservative Criminology 4. Left Realism Part 5: Crime and Criminal Behaviour in the Age of Moral Uncertainty 17. while the fifth part addresses a number of key recent concerns of criminology – postmodernism. R (2009) An Introductory to Criminological Theory (2009) 3rd Edition.
. and victimized actor models. Globalisation and the Risk Society 20. Cultural Criminology and the Schizophrenia of Crime 19. Women and Positivism Part 3: The Victimised Actor Model of Crime and Criminal Behaviour 9. cultural criminology. Hopkins-Burke. Sociological Positivism 8. Crime. Biological Positivism 6. predestined actor. Contemporary Rational Actor Theories Part 2: The Predestined Actor Model of Crime and Criminal Behaviour 5.
which address the two essential bases that form the discipline of criminology.
. Presenting a clear and thorough review of theoretical thinking on crime. psychology. K. and biology. Morgan. drawing upon contributions from the disciplines of sociology. Introduction – Crime: The Historical Context 2. J (2011) Crime and Criminal Justice
Crime and Criminal Justice provides students with a comprehensive and engaging introduction to the study of criminology by taking an interdisciplinary approach to explaining criminal behaviour and criminal justice. Sociological Explanations for Criminal Behaviour 5. Part one describes. and of the context and current workings of the criminal justice system. The Courts. and examines the main areas of the contemporary criminal justice system – including the police. G. this book provides students with an excellent grounding in the study of criminology. and more recent approaches to punishment. Explaining the Criminal Behaviour of Ethnic Minorities Part 2: Exploring and Explaining Criminal Justice 7. The History of Crime and Justice 10. Prisons and Imprisonment. Psychological Explanations for Criminal Behaviour 4. discusses and evaluates a range of theoretical approaches that have offered explanations for crime. Norris. G and Cochrane. Biological Explanations for Criminal Behaviour 3. Melville.. Theories of Punishment 9.
Part 1: Exploring and Explaining Crime 1. Why Punish? Philosophies of Punishment 8. Marsh. Sentencing and the judiciary 13. Explaining the Criminal Behaviour of Women 6. the courts and judiciary. The book is divided into two parts. It then goes on to apply these theories to specific forms of criminality. Part two offers an accessible but detailed review of the major philosophical aims and sociological theories of punishment... Police and Policing 12. I. Victimology 11. prisons.
3rd Edition. R (2007) The Oxford Handbook of Criminology.. Oxford. E (2005) Criminology. 4th Edition. New York: Oxford University Press Inc. S (2007) Understanding Criminology: Current Theoretical Debates.
Best wishes Paul
. R. M. Walklate. Wincup. Note: This is only a brief guide as to how you may effectively gather and search for information and also how to reference correctly. Wahidin. C. Hayward. Oxford: Oxford University Press.. K. and Morgan. If there are any further issues or questions you may have or if there is anything you may be unsure of I will do my best to address these concerns. Reiner..Further Key Texts:
Hale. Maguire. Maidenhead: Open University Press. A.