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1 CHAPTER 1 The Problem and Its Background Introduction Unknown to many, the Manila Hotel is one of the attractions

that the government can offer to both local and foreign tourists. It is a showcase of Filipino Ingenuity and the uniqueness of artistry that only a Filipino can do. Most of the Filipinos, particularly those in the provincial areas are not aware of the beauty of Manila Hotel. Lucky are those who have visited and toured citadel and personally viewed the eye-catching designs and the fantastic interiors. The Manila Hotel is a 570-room, five star hotel in Manila, Philippines, located in the heart of the Manila Bay area. It is the oldest premiere hotel in the Philippines, built in 1909 to rival the Malacaan Palace, the official residence of the president of the Philippines, and opened in 1912. It was built on an area of 35,000 square meters along Roxas Boulevard. Filipinos should be aware of the wealth and resources that abound in the country. It may not only refer to natural resources but also includes those that were created or built for whatever purpose it may serve. The manila Hotel can be taken into account as one of them. However, only few have knowledge about this fortress; most of them are well-known personalities and government functionaries who have access to the place. Common or ordinary Filipinos have no information, unfamiliar and not interested on this important asset. Gracefully standing in one nook in the Bay Area is the Grand Dame of all Philippine Hotels, the Manila Hotel. Built in 1909 and opened to the public 3 years later, the Manila Hotel

2 is a good reminder to the countrys colonial past as well as of days of a bygone era, of knights and maids, of gentlemen and ladies, of taste and temperance, of quality and urbanity. It was in the tenure of Governor General William Howard Taft when the beautification and planning of Manila were undertaken under the supervision of top architect and DC city planner, Daniel Burnham. Tasked of overseeing the development of Manila and Baguio, Burnham prepared a master plan for Manila that was slowly implemented. Some of the remnants of this master plan are the restored Neo-Classical corridor found along Roxas Boulevard (formerly Dewey Boulevard). In the same plan was the proposed construction of the Manila Hotel. However, it was Architect William Parsons who would make the Manila Hotel a reality. A graduate of Paris Ecole des Beaux Arts and a former professor of architecture at Yale, Parsons led the construction of the Manila Hotel. Built in the California Mission style, the Manila Hotel was basically a large, whitewashed concrete house with a pitched roof colored green. Designed for the tropics, the steep roofs were built for the good interior ventilation as well as the easy run-off of rainwater. As one drives up the circular driveway leading to the main entrance, the guest enters into the grand lobby. Its original lobby (which is presently the restored Manila Hotels fore-lobby) was huge during its time and was gracefully appointed. The entire lobby was white and was accentuated with lush tropical green plants. Supported by twin white Doric columns, and separated by exquisite arches, the lobby showcased two grand stairways. The two grand staircases led to the mezzanine where a music room, guests parlor, and Childrens dining room were found. The Childrens dining room was a very Victorian hallmark, which helped the adults in having comfortable and worry-free meals.

3 Nevertheless, Filipinos should be the first to know and should be the first to visit, see and experience the place. Unfortunately, majority can only see it on magazines, televisions and hear it from the radio. This study will help us learn more on the details of its design and on the manner of its preservation. Parallel to that is to discover its relevance to the Philippine history, culture and Tourism industry. The present study will pursue in attaining a wider-range of awareness to make the Grand Dame of all Philippines better well-known and be accessible to every Filipino. Background of the Study The great American writer Ernest Hemingway once said "It is a good story if it's like Manila Hotel. Next year will be the 100th anniversary of the Grand Dame. All things considered, her story has been epic. The story of Manila Hotel begins with the American architect and urban planner Daniel Burnham, author of the 1905 City Beautiful plan for Manila. At the heart of his proposal was a government center, a broad lawn or mall that extended from a radial cluster of buildings towards a park that faced the sea. In order to strengthen the parks connection to the sea, Burnhams plan called for land to be reclaimed from the sea, so that nearby South Harbor would not sully views of the sunset. Conceptually, this plan organized Intramuros, the emerging suburbs, and the crescent shaped coastline into a poetic composition that marked a citysand a peoplesconnection to the sea.

4 The coastline was to be marked by a new shore road first called Coastal, then Dewey, then Roxasthat would intersect the mall. At this juncture would stand an honor guard of two important buildings, what would become the Army Navy Club and Manila Hotel. ( http://www.domgalicia.com/2011/10/old-manila-hotel-and-sea.html, Dominic Galicia) The Manila Hotel was also the first Asian hotel to sport electric elevators. There were two elevators in the lobby, one for each side. There were also two private elevators and a servants elevator. The main dining room of the pre-war Manila Hotel spanned from the left end of the lobby towards the direction of the bay. It was semi-circle in order to insure each guest of an uninterrupted view of the majestic bay. Surrounded by an open veranda, the room was high and was witness to many lunches and snacks to so many of the old hotels guests. Parsons also employed traditional Filipino materials, a manifestation of his respect for the local beauty of native things. The floors consisted of wide planks of local hard woods. The windows made resembled the traditional provincial Filipino house, with four-inch squares of natural capiz. These were used to soften the vicious tropical suns rays (unfortunately, these were later replaced by conventional steel and glass windows). The beds had metal frames but many pieces of furniture such as chairs and tables were made of rattan, bamboo and grass fiber. The lobby was full of peacock white-painted rattan chairs, comfortable chairs that also gave a sense of grandeur to anyone who sat on those chairs.

(http://hechoayer.wordpress.com/2010/08/11/before-shang-and-pen-the-manila-hotel-granddame-of-philippine-hotels/, Hecho Ayer)

FIGURE 1 MAP OF MANILA

FIGURE 2 MAP GOING TO MANILA HOTEL

FIGURE 3 MAP GOING TO CENTRO ESCOLAR UNIVERSITY

8 Setting of the Study The study was conducted in Centro Escolar University which is located at Mendiola Street San Miguel, and Manila. The researchers had chosen the school because it is the most accessible locale for both the researchers and the respondents. Centro Escolar University is one of the most well-known schools in Tourism Management. Furthermore, a group of tourism students recently had their tour at The Manila Hotel. Conceptual Framework The study focused on the perception of tourists on the Manila Hotel and its significant contribution to the tourism development and the Filipino culture. The researchers have identified the factors that influenced them to visit the destination. The result of this study will help promote the Manila Hotel become a tourist destination. It gives them knowledge on how to preserve and improve the certain destination to attract more local and foreign tourist. It would be a great help in knowing their evaluation regarding the location, facilities, amenities, safety, security and affordability, so that the government would know what are the strengths and weaknesses of the particular destination. Statement of the Problem This study aimed to determine the perception of tourist on Manila Hotel and its contribution to the Filipino culture. Objectives of the Study Specifically, it sought to answer the following questions: 1. What is the profile of the tourist, in terms of 1.1 Age

9 1.2 Gender 1.3 Nationality 2. What are the perceptions of the tourist on the Manila Hotel to the Filipino culture, in terms of: 2.1 Architectural Design 2.2 Filipino Artistry 3. What are the perceived contributions of the Manila Hotel to the Filipino culture, in terms of: 3.1 Modernization
3.2 Values

Scope and Delimitation This study is focused on the perceptions of tourists on the Manila Hotel and its contribution to the Filipino culture. The Manila Hotel as an edifice constructed during the time of Commonwealth, initiated by Governor General William Howard Taft and under the supervision of top architect and DC city planner, Daniel Burnham. Both local and foreign tourists shall be considered to determine their perceptions on the status of the coconut palace and how it affects the Filipino culture. Its focus shall include social and economic development in the country which the Manila Hotel has contributed and how it affects the history, modernization and traits of the Filipinos. More importantly, how it influenced the development of tourism industry in the Philippines by including the hotel as one of the most notably tourist destination. Significance of the Study The findings of this study will benefit the following:

10 Tourism Industry, This study may provide insights to the tourism industry in their promotion of the Manila Hotel as an essential and meaningful tourists destination in the Philippines. Department of Tourism (DOT), It will provide feedback to the Department of Tourism as to the effectiveness of considering the Manila Hotel as one of the government assets which upholds Filipino ingenuity and the uniqueness of an architectural design which makes a difference in the field of structural construction Centro Escolar University, This will further strengthen the foundation of the University in the field of tourism tutelage, which would be comparable with other educational organizations. College of Tourism Management, It could be used as a centerpiece in the College of Tourism Management of CEU as tourism students and professors will be enhanced in executing and directing the academic and applied requirements of the course. Tourism Students, Of CEU and other educational establishments could be given accurate report on the account of the Manila Hotel as an important asset and as an expressive t\tourist attraction. Future Researcher, They could be used as future reference especially to those who would make a research in line with this study. Definition of Terms Difficult terms are used in this research. For further understanding the following are enumerated: Age. Refers to the age of respondents to the research.

11 Architectural Design. This refers to the uniqueness and artistry of the Manila Hotel that only Filipino can do. Contribution. It refers to the history, modernization and traits of the Manila Hotel has contributed in the identification a distinct Filipino culture and tradition a manifestation of inspired originality. Culture. It refers to the behavior and beliefs characteristics of a person or society that arises from a concern for what is regarded as excellent in arts and manners. Filipino. Any citizen of the Philippines. Filipino Ingenuity. This refers to the originality of the Filipinos and construction from the Manila Hotel. History. It refers to the hotel, located ate One Rizal Park, 0913, Manila, Philippines. Tourists. In this study, it refers to the people who stayed in the Manila Hotel. Traits. In the research it means the characteristics feature or quality of a particular person.

12 CHAPTER 2 Review of Related Literature This chapter covers the review of related local and foreign literature and studies which have added relevant ideas of the study. Local Literature The entire Local Literature article is related to the study because it discusses the importance of different techniques in order for a business to succeed and gives an example of specific establishments that successfully adopted this technique over the years like the iconic The Manila Hotel. According to the Hotel and Restaurant Association of the Philippines, The Hotel and Restaurant Association of the Philippines was founded on September 12, 1951 by executives from 10 of the leading hotels and restaurants in Manila and nearby areas. Its main goal was to upgrade the caliber of the local hospitality industry by improving management, skills, personnel services, and overall standards while keeping abreast of trends and developments abroad.(n.a).(n.d).History. Retrieved May 14, 2013, from

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manila_Hotel To ensure the organizations own level of excellence, it is affiliated with the ASEAN Tourism Association and the ASEAN Hotel and Restaurant Associations, while having a working relationship with the International Hotel and Restaurant Association. In the Philippines, it has linkages with all government agencies, particularly the Departments of Tourism, Labor and Employment, and Trade and Industry, and maintains active partnerships with a number of private associations nationwide.

13 When the HRAP was founded in 1951, it counted only a handful of hotels & restaurants as members. The post-war hospitality industry was not the dynamic one we know today. Fine-dining restaurants existed only in few establishments. There were no casual dining restaurants in the country then, only family-run eateries. There were very few tourists visiting post-war Philippines, other than journalists and photographers interested in documenting Manilas devastation. These few tourist fall into prey of touts who would steal guests from competing hotels. To counteract this practice HRAP instituted a Meet-and-Assist service at all main ports of entry in Manila, a service now common to all hotels in the country. HRAP also standardized the imposition of a 10 percent service charge at all hotels and restaurants to cover losses due to breakage and other incidentals. The decade of 60s, tourism wasnt a priority of the national government. With no real tourism infrastructure in the country, tourism arrivals were low. Despite this, the local restaurant industry was burgeoning with the full service concept restaurants & the Association started a series of seminars to expose its members to the seminars focused on topics relevant to the management of hotels and restaurants in the country And along this line, in the 90s, HRAP implemented its grand plan for a professional hotel & restaurant school that would serve as a training ground for hoteliers and restaurateurs in an actual setting. The initiative known as Hotel and Tourism Institute of the Philippines (HTIP) was a first, and was an initiative between the HRAP, DOT and the Singapore Hotel Association Training and Education Center (SHATEC), an elite training school run by the Singapore Hotel Association.

14 However, funding for the endeavor dried up in the mid-90s, and the Institute has since folded up. During that period, HTIP did graduate a number of students who would move on in the business and later opened up their own restaurants. In the early 70s, HRAPs started an annual project Chefs on Parade It became the Associations flagship annual event as it grew bigger and bigger each year. It has became the only longest running competition that gathers thousands of culinary professionals and students from the Philippines and the rest of Asia. The annual culinary event encouraged and nurtured talented chefs and culinary artists to seek improvement in their craft and become world-class experts. It influenced the way hotels and restaurants have aspired to reach high world class standards in the way they prepare and present food. Chefs on Parade also inspired succeeding competitions by independent culinary organizations in the country, making the playing field for new talents healthy, vibrant,and dynamic.(n.a).(June 14, 2012). Celebrating 100 Years of Filipino Hospitality and World Class Service. Retrieved May 14, 2013, from http://www.manila-hotel.com.ph/news/content/43 While HRAP membership has grown through the years, the Association has addressed slowly several numbers of concerns some of which are thorny issues that were affecting the members such as government requirements on hotel staffing among others. Environmental issues are also being addressed via regional workshops and hopefully other concerns thru partnerships and linkages with government agencies. With the rise of new hotels before the year ends and blossoming of dining establishments, HRAP continues to exercise its leadership as the single voice of the Industry

15 promoting goodwill, understanding and fellowship within the hospitality industry both national and international. When the United States took over the Philippine Islands from the Spanish in 1898 after the Spanish-American War, President William McKinley began Americanizing the former Spanish colony. In 1900 he appointed Judge William Howard Taft to head the Philippine Commission to evaluate the needs of the new territory. Taft, who later became the Philippines' first civilian Governor-General decided that Manila, the capital, should be a planned town. He hired as his architect and city planner Daniel Hudson Burnham, who had built Union Station and the post office in Washington. In Manila, Mr. Burnham had in mind a long wide, tree-lined boulevard along the bay, beginning at a park area dominated by a magnificent hotel. To design the hotel Taft hired William Parsons, a New York architect, who envisioned an impressive, but comfortable hotel, along the lines of a California mission, but grander. The original design was an H-shaped plan that focused on well-ventilated rooms on two wings, providing grand vistas of the harbor, the Luneta, and Intramuros. The top floor was, in fact, a large viewing deck that was used for various functions, including watching the American navy steam into the harbor. (n.a).(n.d) History of HRAP. Retrieved May 14, 2013 from http://www.hrap.org.ph/history.html During World War II, the hotel was occupied by Japanese troops, and the Japanese flag was flown above the walls for the entirety of the war. The hotel survived the bombing of Manila and was later reconstructed. The political party of Ferdinand Marcos held its convention at the Manila Hotel before the February 1986 presidential election, and Corazon Aquino delivered a speech at the hotel that was a turning point in the campaign. In the following two decades, Mr. Marcos's wife, Imelda,

16 could frequently be seen at the hotel. When she visited restaurants there, a red carpet and garlands were put out and the air was sprayed with deodorant. The hotel was remodeled in 1976 and expanded to 570 rooms, as well as including executive services, language translation, a business library and color television and closed circuit movies. The hotels spartan interiors in simplified Mission style gave way to more lavish furnishings and, for some sections, major renovations by Paris-trained Filipino architect Andres Luna de San Pedro (son of Juan Luna). On July 6, 1986, a group of military officers loyal to deposed President Marcos took over the Manila Hotel and declared Arturo Tolentino, who was Marcos's vice presidential running mate, as President. However, they surrendered two days later. Most recently, the hotel received international attention in 1999 when Imelda Marcos, former First Lady, celebrated her 70th birthday in this hotel. More than 1,000 of Manila's elite turned up to attend. (n.a).(July 8, 1986). Hotel With a History, MacArthur to Marcos Retrieved May 14, 2013, from http://www.nytimes.com/1986/07/08/world/hotel-with-a-history-macarthurto-marcos.html The Manila Hotels website stated that it is defined by its history, elegance, and worldclass service, the Manila Hotel maintains to be the choice hotel of the most distinguished clientele. Over the years, Manila Hotel continuously provides the best services and amenities for a truly memorable experience. In 2008, Manila Hotel underwent a series of dramatic renovations in time for its grand centennial celebration on October 2012. .(n.a).(n.d).Manila Hotel Now. Retrieved May 14, 2013, from http://www.manila-hotel.com.ph/now

17 Foreign Literature The New York times made an article about The Manila Hotel. The article stated that The Manila Hotel, opened in 1912 and extensively remodeled in the 1970's, is a Philippine landmark, home to high society and to political intrigue, and often a scene of historic events. The Japanese flag flew over the hotel during the occupation of World War II. It later became the residence of Gen. Douglas MacArthur, for whom an entire floor was added. The political party of Ferdinand E. Marcos held its convention there before the February presidential election, and Corazon C. Aquino delivered a speech at the hotel that was a turning point in the campaign. In the last two decades, Mr. Marcos's wife, Imelda, could frequently be seen at the hotel. When she visited restaurants there, a red carpet and garlands were put out and the air was sprayed with deodorant.(n.a).(July 8, 1986). Hotel With a History, MacArthur to Marcos. Retrieved May 14, 2013, from http://www.nytimes.com/1986/07/08/world/hotel-with-a-historymacarthur-to-marcos.html The physical reminders of the American colonial period in Asia are unremarkable, some lovely parks and a few war memorials. But then there is the Manila Hotel, a green-roofed, white edifice resembling a California mission that sits on the curve of Manila Bay. (n.a).(November 7, 1982). COLONIAL COMFORT IN THE PHILIPPINES.Retrieved May 14, 2013, from http://www.nytimes.com/1982/11/07/travel/colonial-comfort-in-the philippines.html?pagewanted=2

18 Built in 1909 to rival the Presidential Palace, where Ferdinand E. Marcos, the Philippine president, now lives, the Manila Hotel was such a favorite of Gen. Douglas MacArthur that he lived there for seven years and made it his command post in World War II. For a time, the general even served as chairman of the hotel's board of directors, prompting some cynics to note that his famous vow, ''I shall return,'' proclaimed during the Japanese occupation, meant primarily that he fully intended one day to return to his suite in the Manila Hotel. Indeed, in his memoirs, he told of joining the patrol to recapture the hotel from the Japanese High Command, writing, ''I was anxious to rescue as much as I could of my home atop the Manila Hotel.''(n.a).(July 8, 1986). Hotel With a History, MacArthur to Marcos.Retrieved May 14, 2013, from http://www.nytimes.com/1986/07/08/world/hotel-with-a-history-macarthurto-marcos.html When the United States took over the Philippine Islands from the Spanish in 1898 after the Spanish-American war, President William McKinley began Americanizing the former Spanish colony. In 1902 he appointed Judge William Howard Taft to head the Philippine Commission to evaluate the needs of the new territory. Mr. Taft, who later became the Philippines' first civilian governor-general, decided that Manila, the capital, should be a planned town. He hired as his architect and city planner Daniel Hudson Burnham, who had built Union Station and the post office in Washington. In Manila, Mr. Burnham had in mind a long wide, tree-lined boulevard along the bay, beginning at a park area dominated by a magnificent hotel. To design the hotel Mr. Taft hired William E. Parsons, a New York architect, who envisioned an impressive, but comfortable hotel, along the lines of a California mission - only grander. His monument still stands.

19 An oasis from the tropical heat, the Manila Hotel was restored in 1976 and expanded to 570 rooms. Though the hotel now offers executive services, language translation, a business library and color television and closed circuit movies, it still remains uncompromised in its original intent - to provide an elegant retreat for travelers from around the world. (n.a).(October 31, 2012). Phls oldest premier hotel among Cond Nast Travelers Top 20. Retrieved May 14, 2013, from http://goodnewspilipinas.com/2012/10/31/phls-oldest-premier-hotel-among-condenast-travelers-top-20/ All the rooms have carved mahogany four-poster beds and marble bathrooms. Handmade traditional materials are used throughout. The Duke of Windsor's favorite wicker chair is part of the standard furnishings. The idea behind it all is to enable visitors to slip into the past comfortably and provide them with a quiet luxury that for all sorts of reasons is becoming rare in Southeast Asia. Unfortunately, many of the historic hotels not already slated for demolition or conversion, suffer from neglect, the result perhaps of a deep resentment of the years of foreign domination, but also because small hotels, those with less than a thousand rooms, are out of fashion in Asia. Of the remaining colonial hotels, the Manila Hotel stands out as one of the few that have been lovingly preserved, modernized and uncompromised. In style and prestige, the Manila Hotel is much like the Plaza in New York. Like the Plaza, it sits at the end of a large city park, and horse-drawn carriages are seen as often under the hotel's broad portico as black Mercedes limousines or sports cars. The Manila Hotel is a festive place, still the best place to have formal balls and to enjoy a leisurely lunch. The lobby was designed for sitting as well as for making grand entrances. Measuring 125 feet long by 25 feet wide, the lobby is lined with white Doric columns. The floor is

20 Philippine marble, the chandeliers are made of brass, crystal and seashells, and the furniture is oversized and carved out of Philippine mahogany which is used liberally throughout the hotel. A red carpet invariably denotes the arrival of a head of state or that President or Mrs. Marcos will soon be on hand. Movie stars, statesmen and other celebrities stay at the hotel, as do many tourists. One of the mementos that new arrivals receive is a scroll listing some of the famous guests, among them Douglas Fairbanks Jr., Henry R. Luce, Sammy Davis Jr., James Michener, four United States Presidents and a host of world leaders. Among the names I spotted were those of John Wayne, Sir Anthony Eden and Aldo Gucci. If you stay long enough - that is, a week or more - the daily gifts of candy and fruit begin to give you the impression that by being a guest here you are someone special. At one point, guests even receive personalized stationery and books of matches with their names engraved in gold. This is one of those hotels where everyone remembers your name, independently of what you tip. Because wages are low in the Philippines, you may, in fact, find yourself a little overwhelmed by the service. Even for an ordinary order of hamburger and french fries, there may be a half-dozen waiters or waitresses hovering around the table. And one legacy of the American influence is that it's very easy to get bacon and eggs for breakfast. General MacArthur's favorite food at the hotel was the lapu-lapu, a grouper fish native to the Philippines, wrapped in banana leaves. My favorite is adobong sugpo sa gata or prawns, which are often 10 inches long. Living well has become costly in most parts of the world. But, the Philippines is a developing country, with inexpensive labor and a depreciating currency. So, the best surprise about the Manila Hotel is that it is difficult to spend $25 a person for any meal, unless you drink

21 wine, which is outrageously expensive (as high as $55 for a Pouilly Fuisse). Single rooms start at $65, doubles at $80. A one hour massage is $9 and a tennis lesson about $8 an hour. The three-bedroom MacArthur suite, which has a large formal dining room, a spacious parlor, kitchen, study which includes some of the general's books, pictures of his family and mementos of the war, plus a terrace facing Manila Bay, rents for $650 a night, including a butler. The penthouse, the most expensive suite (with a private swimming pool) on the 18th floor, has a view of the Bay, of Rizal Park and the 16th-century ruins of the Spanish walled city of Intramuros, opposite the hotel. Like the Presidential Suite, which costs $900 a night, the $1,200a-night penthouse is decorated with rare paintings, Asian antiques and Filipino crafts. (n.a).(July 8, 1986). Hotel With a History, MacArthur to Marcos.Retrieved May 14, 2013, from http://www.nytimes.com/1986/07/08/world/hotel-with-a-history-macarthur-to-marcos.html The Philippines inherited its religion and lifestyle from the Spanish. The American colonial period from 1898 to 1942 did not change that. The country is still 95 percent Roman Catholic. So, though Filipinos seem very American, and every Filipino you talk to has some member of his large extended family in the United States, there is a Latin spirit in the country. For this reason, religious holidays are very special in the Philippines and if you happen to be in Asia during Christmas, there is no better place to spend it than in the Philippines, the only Christian country in Asia. It is generally 80 degrees on Christmas Day, but the streets are decorated with lights resembling snowflakes and a giant Christmas tree stands in front of the Philippine Cultural Center, about a 20-minute walk along Manila Bay from the hotel. All the churches are decorated and the children stage Yuletide pageants at every turn. On Dec. 30, Rizal Day, bands march through the city to awaken residents for early-morning mass.

22 At the Manila Hotel, where every year pine trees are flown in from Washington State, carolers stroll the lobby, and among the Yuletide delicacies in evidence are marzipan, pralines, German stolen and fruitcakes, normally unheard of in Asia. The tropical garden beside the lobby is transformed into a Nativity scene. The Manila Hotel still believes that people who live in hotels are part of a community. That is the fundamental difference between the old colonial hotels, and the new modern skyscrapers in Asia. The staff adheres strongly to the policy that the Manila is a home away from home. (n.a).(November 7, 1982). COLONIAL COMFORT IN THE PHILIPPINES.Retrieved May 14, 2013, from http://www.nytimes.com/1982/11/07/travel/colonial-comfort-in-the-

philippines.html?pagewanted=2 Local Studies Manila Hotel reflects the creativity of the Filipino people. This reflects the rich history and culture of the Filipinos and this can be use by our economy to promote tourism in the country. With this we show to the foreign and local tourist the culture of the Filipinos. Related to this study, the Department of Tourism aims to strengthen the domestic tourism by launching an information drive that will enable Filipino travelers to learn beautiful places in their own country and increase their senses of nationalism. Philippines are an archipelago of wonders which every explorer enjoys and experiences a diversity of destination activities and events. Krista Danielle Yu, An economic Analysis of the Philippine Tourism Industry, DLSU Business and Economic Review 22.1, De La Salle University (2012), 119-128

23 The archipelagic nature of the Philippines, as well as its colonial heritage, offers a wealth of scenic views that invite both local and foreign tourists to participate in tourism related activities. According to Department of Tourism (2011) the industry is one of the three largest industries in the country. The past government administration applied holiday economic to help boost the tourism domestically. The current administration may choose to consider continuity of the program. The site can be positions as tourism destination through the development of its potential tourism assets; particularly those based on environment, history and culture, the rehabilitation and restoration of existing tourism attractions, improvement of access infrastructure, and provision of basic facilities and services required easing travel movements. Angelie Marie L. Viconde, Sevilla S. Felicen, Tourism Industry of Batangas Province, Philippines: Basis for improves tourism program. Lyceum of the Philippines University, International Peer Reviewed Journal, January 2012 Vol. 3 Foreign Studies Manila Hotel is located in Metro Manila. Metro Manila is the richest and the only administrative region in the Philippines, that is one hundred percent urbanized. It is also the only administrative region in the Philippines that is directly under the supervision of the Philippine President which receives both local and national funding. Metro manila is the smallest administrative region of the Philippines, in terms of land area. It also has limited natural resources; however, Metro Manila is the most important region of the country. Not only is it the melting pot of various local and international cultures, it is also the

24 seat of political power in the country. Maria Aileen G. Guzman. Qualifying the current and future sustainability of Metro Manila, Philippines. State University of New York, March 2010 According to the study of Sumartono their royal palace in Yogyakarta, a former autonomous state is now part of the greater Republic of Indonesia, after this country has gained independence from Dutch in 1945. Due to important role that the Ninth Sultan had played during the political and military struggle to expel the Dutch from Indonesia, the royal palace, (Kraton) of Yogyakarta has enjoyed a better social and financial position compared to other kratons in Indonesia. Culturally it has also been more active than other royal palaces in Indonesia. Today, the kraton of Yogyakarta (from now on Kraton) can properly be called a museum, since it exhibit objects. There are three separate museums in Kraton: the PagelaranSitihinggil Museum, the Carriage Museum, and the Central-Kraton Museum. Like other museums in the Western countries and those in Indonesia which in general attempt to meet Western requirements here art works and other objects are arranged in such a way to offer knowledge different from that commonly offered by Western museums. Sumartono incorporates insights taken from post phenomenology which considers perception as important. Instead of limiting itself to micro perception (concerning primarily physical phenomena of objects), post phenomenology considers that this level of perception can be extended to the level of macro perception (incorporating cultural, historical and anthropological contexts). In this level, perception is taken into understanding and interpretation. This is a part of knowledge offered by the Museum of the Kraton to the visitors/viewers. To make the environment of a royal hotel still perceivable, the Central-Kraton Museum offers the presence of palace retainers dresses in traditional attire. In this central museum, objects are

25 either displayed, undisplayed (occasionally displayed), or are forbidden to be seen and, the knowledge offered by the Kraton incorporate all of these interdependently. Information about the forbidden objects is usually provided by the hotel guides or retainers who function as living labels. Sumartono, A Museum under the Settings of the Kraton and Power. The displayed, Undisplayed, and Forbidden Objects in the Royal Palace of Yogyakarta (Cornell University, 2011.)

26 CHAPTER 3 Methods and Procedures This chapter includes the research methods, the subject of the study, procedure of data gathering and statistical technique utilized in the analysis of interpretation of the data. Method Used The researchers used the descriptive method of research in this study for it deals with opinion of the respondents. Descriptive method is purposive process of gathering, analyzing, classifying and tabulating data about the practices, beliefs, process, trends and cause-effect relationship to make adequate and accurate interpretation about such data with use of statistical method. The descriptive approach is the most widely used research method. It is frequently used to describe the status of a situation once a solution suggested by experimental analysis has been put into effect. It can provide an input regarding the effectives of the proposed solution, as well as hypothesis about how or more effective solution could be reached. Subject of the Study The subjects of the study were mainly 50 local tourism students who had visited the Manila Hotel. They were randomly selected by the researchers. Some were chosen based on their openness, receptiveness and quick response to the invitation. Interviews were conducted for verification of the data. Sampling Technique The study used the purposive sampling technique. The respondents served as sample of the research. This technique tends to discover the people who visited Manila Hotel and the

27 marketability of the said place was used in the questionnaire in order to get the assessment and perception of the people towards the place to become a potential spot for tourism recreation. Procedure of Data Gathering The researchers constructed a questionnaire in gathering the data. This involves getting responses from the respondents through a written medium. They made a questionnaire that is to be checked and finalized by their professor. After it has been checked they will proceed to having multiple pieces of the final questionnaire and distribute it to the respondents. It would be tallied after conducting the survey. Statistical Treatment To determine the validity and reliability of the researchers instrument and to give meaning interpretation to the data, the researchers used the following statistical formula: 1. Percentage. This formula was used to determine the profile of the respondents, as for their age, gender, nationality and civil status: The Percentage Formula used as follows: P= 100

Where: P= percentage F= frequency N= number of respondents 100= constant For the remaining problems, the researchers used the weighted mean in presenting the gathered data. 2. Weighted Mean

28

X = Where: F =frequency of each class X= the class mark N= the total of the observation in the sample 3. Standard Deviation. It is used to determine the weighted mean of the total number of the respondents and it gives interpretation to the mean of the respondents answer. The researcher purpose for this is to give each data their proper degree of importance. SD =

Where: W= total frequency X = class mark X = weighted mean F= frequency Instrumental Used Questionnaire. The main tool used in data gathering was the questionnaire. It is composed of three parts. Part I includes the respondents profile. Part II the perceptions of the tourists on the Manila Hotel in terms of architectural design of Filipino ingenuity and Part III the perceived contribution of the Manila Hotel to the Filipino culture in terms of history.

29 CHAPTER 4 Presentation Analysis and Interpretation of Data This chapter includes the presentation, analysis, and interpretation of data gathered from the respondents regarding their perceptions about the Manila Hotel. This contains the responses to the specific problems raised in this research. Based on the results of the data gathered, the following tables are presented: Profile of Respondents Age. The respondents of this Study were mainly local tourists who visited the Manila Hotel. Table 1 Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the Respondents According to Age Age 15-17 18-20 21-23 Total Frequency 2 35 13 50 Percentage 4 70 26 100

Table 1 show that the most or 70 percent of the respondents range from 18-20; 26% 2123 and 4%, 15-71 years old.

30 Table 2 Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the respondents According to Gender Gender Male Female Total Frequency 6 44 50 Percentage 12 88 100

The Table 2 shows that most or 88% of the respondents are female while 12% are male.

Table 3 Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the Respondents According to Nationality Nationality Filipino Chinese Others(Please Specify) Total Frequency 50 0 0 50 100 Percentage 100

Table 3 shows that all or 100% of the respondents are Filipinos.

31 Table 4A The perceptions of Tourists on the Manila Hotel according Architectural Design Architectural Design 5 4 3 2 1 X SD Verbal Interpretation 1. The Manila Hotel is 18 a Showcase of Philippine History 2. The Hotel is a 17 blueprint of Structural variables 3. It is a portrait of 23 Strength 4. It is a representation 29 of uniqueness 5. It is a symbol of 22 effectiveness 26 5 0 1 4.20 0.78 Agree

25

4.14

0.81

Agree

21

4.30

0.81

Agree

16

4.44

0.81

Agree

19

4.22

0.86

Agree

Table 4A shows that the respondents agreed on the following: The Manila Hotel is a showcase of Philippine History which got a mean of 0.78; the hotel is a blueprint of structural variables with the standard deviation of 0.81; it is a portrait of strength with the mean of 0.81; a representative of uniqueness with the standard deviation of 0.81; and a symbol of effectiveness which got a mean of 0.86.

32 Table 4B The perceptions of tourists on the Manila Hotel according to Filipino Ingenuity Filipino Ingenuity 5 4 14 3 1 2 1 1 0 X 4.62 SD 0.63 Verbal Interpretation Strongly Agree

1. The Manila Hotel 34 characterize the originality of the Filipinos 2. The hotel exemplifies 31 the Filipino resourcefulness 3. It is a platform of 30 talent 4. It is a motif of 26 Filipino Fashion 5. It promotes 21 inventiveness of Filipinos

16

4.50

0.81

Strongly Agree

13

4.42

0.84

Agree

15

4.30

0.89

Agree

19

4.20

0.81

Agree

The table 4B shows that the respondents Strongly Agreed on the following: The Manila Hotel characterizes the originality of the Filipinos with a Standard Deviation of 0.63; and the hotel exemplifies the Filipino resourcefulness with a mean of 0.81. The respondents agreed on the following: It is a platform of Filipino talent which got a mean of 0.84; the hotel is a motif of Filipino Fashion with an SD of 0.89; and it promotes inventiveness of Filipinos with the mean of 0.81.

33 Table 5A Contributions of Manila Hotel to the Filipino Culture in terms of Modernization Modernization 5 4 12 3 6 2 2 1 0 X 4.40 SD 0.86 Verbal Interpretation Agree

1. The Manila Hotel 30 competes with the other notable hotels in the country. 2. The Hotel reminds our 25 culture despite of modern technology 3. It helps the youth to 25 appreciate our culture 4. It shows innovation in 24 service delivery 5. it is perfect for movie 16 shooting place

16

4.20

1.13

Agree

17

4.26

0.95

Agree

14

4.12

1.04

Agree

23

4.01

0.87

Agree

Table 5A shows that the respondents Agreed on the following contributions of Manila Hotel to the Filipino Culture in terms of Modernization: The Manila hotel competes with other notable hotels in the country with a mean of 0.86; the hotel reminds of our culture despite of modern technology with an SD of 1.13; it helps the youth to appreciate our culture with a Standard Deviation of 0.95; it shows innovation in service delivery which got a mean of 1.09; and it is perfect for movie shooting place having a Standard Deviation of 0.87.

34 Table 5B Contributions of the Manila Hotel to the Filipino Culture in terms of Values Values 5 4 17 3 5 2 2 1 0 X 4.34 SD 0.82 Verbal Interpretation Agree

1. The Manila Hotel 26 signifies that Filipinos are hospitable 2. The Hotel creativity of Filipino people shows 27 every

19

4.38

0.90

Agree

3. It is a relation of every 18 Filipino people 4. It shows peace and 21 order 5. It cooperates in the 23 Tourism Industry

25

4.20

0.73

Agree

21

4.18

0.92

Agree

20

4.26

0.85

Agree

Table 5B shows that shows that all the respondents agreed on the following Contributions of Manila Hotel to the Filipino Culture in terms of Values: The Manila hotels signifies that Filipinos are hospitable which got a mean of 0.82; the hotel shows creativity of every Filipino people with an SD of 0.90; it is relation of every Filipino people with a Standard deviation of 0.73; it shows peace and order with a mean of 0.92; and it cooperates to the Tourism industry having a mean of 0.85.

35 Chapter 5 Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations This chapter presents the summary of the findings, conclusions and recommendations of the data gathered by the researchers. Summary of Findings Based on the data gathered, the following findings are presented: 1. Profile of the Respondents 1.1 Age. This research showed that most or 70% of the respondents ranged from 18-20 years old. 1.2 Gender. Most of them were female. 1.3 Nationality. It showed that most of them were Filipinos. 2. The perceptions of tourist on Manila Hotel according to architectural design and Filipino Ingenuity 2.1 According to Architectural Design. The top most answer was the Manila Hotel is a representation of uniqueness 2.2 According to Filipino Ingenuity. Majority of the respondents strongly agreed that Manila Hotel characterizes originality of the Filipinos. 3. The perceived contributions of the Manila Hotel to the Filipino Culture in terms of modernization and values. 3.1 According to modernization. The majority of the respondents agreed that Manila Hotel has much contributed to its distinguished majestic structure. 3.2 According to values. The respondents replied that Manila Hotel is a spectacle of creativity to the Filipinos.

36 Conclusions Based on the findings, the following conclusions were drawn: 1. The study showed that most of the respondents ranged from 18 to 20 years old, were female and were Filipinos. 2. According to architectural design, all parameters were agreed by the respondents while they strongly agreed that Manila Hotels characterizes the originality of the Filipinos and exemplifies Filipino resourcefulness, and they agreed on other parameters of this Tourist Spot. 3. As regards to identification of a distinct Filipino culture and tradition, the respondents agreed that its prominence, configuration of grandeur and a manifestation of inspired originality. Recommendations Based on the results of the findings of the study, the researchers would like to recommend the following: 1. The University must encourage other Tourism students to visit the Manila Hotel, regardless of age, gender and nationality. 2. The government should promote the Manila Hotel which tourism schools consider as an activity center to uphold the effort and product of the Filipino. 3. The Filipinos should maintain the honor and dignity of Intramuros as place of attraction.

37 APPENDIX A Letter of Request to the Respondents

Dear Respondents: We, a group of Bachelor of Science in Tourism Management and Bachelor of Science in Hotel and Restaurant Management students of Centro Escolar University, Manila is constructing a research on, PERCEPTION OF TOURISTS ON MANILA HOTEL AND ITS CONTRIBUTION TO THE FILIPINO CULTURE among NHM students of CEU, Manila. In this connection we would like to ask your help by answering our questionnaire. Rest assured that all your answers will be kept confidential. Thank you for your cooperation and support.

Respectfully yours, The Researchers

38 APPENDIX B QUESTIONNAIRE Part I. Profile of the Respondents. Direction: Please put a check on the space provided that corresponds to your answer A. Age: a.) 15-17 b.) 18-20 c.) 21 and above B. Gender a.) Male b.) Female C. Nationality: a.) Filipino b.) Chinese c.) Others (Please Specify Part II. The perception of Tourist on the Manila Hotel along architectural design and Filipino ingenuity. Direction: Rate the given table by using the legend below: Legend: 5 Strongly Agree 4 Agree 3 Minimally Agree 2 Disagree

39 1 Strongly Agree

A. Architectural Design of Manila Hotel 1. The Manila Hotel is a showcase of Philippine History. 2. The Hotel is a blueprint of structural variables. 3. It Manila Hotel is a portrait of strength. 4. It is a representation of uniqueness. 5. It is a symbol of effectiveness.

B. Filipino Ingenuity 1. The Manila Hotel characterize the originality of the Filipinos 2. The Hotel exemplifies the Filipino resourcefulness 3. It is a platform of Filipino talent. 4. It is a motif of Filipino fashion. 5. It promotes inventiveness of Filipinos

Part III. The perceived contributions of the Manila Hotel to the Filipino culture in terms of modernization and values. Direction: Rate the given table by using the legend above:

40 A. Modernization 1. The Manila Hotel competes with other notable hotels in the country. 2. The Hotel reminds our culture despite of modern technology. 3. It helps the youth to appreciate our culture. 4. It shows innovation in service delivery. 5. It is perfect for movies shooting place.

B. Values 6. The Manila Hotel signifies that Filipinos are hospitable. 7. The Hotel shows creativity of every Filipino people 8. It is a relation of every Filipino people 9. It shows peace and order. 10. It cooperates to the Tourism Industry.

41 CURRICULUM VITAE Name: Katrina D.U Yanga Birthday: February 12, 1990 Birthplace: Quezon City, Philippines Parents: Mother: Maria Antonette Yanga Father: Celso Yanga Academic Achievement: Elementary School: St. Matthew College Place: San Mateo, Rizal Secondary School: Roosevelt College Marikina Place: Lamuan, Marikina City College/Course/Year Level: NHM/Bachelor of Science in Tourism Management/4th year Motto: It is better to take the hardship of education than to taste the bitterness of ignorance. Year Graduated 2007 Year Graduated: 2003

42 CURRICULUM VITAE Name: Alireza Rose B. Estolano Birthday: October 2, 1992 Birthplace: Saudi Arabia, Jeddah, K.S.A Parents: Mother: Annaliza B. Estolano Father: Romeo A. Estolano Academic Achievement: Elementary School: Cainta Catholic College Place: A. Bonifacio Ave. Cainta, Rizal Secondary School: Cainta Catholic College Place: A. Bonifacio Ave. Cainta, Rizal College/Course/Year Level: NHM/Bachelor of Science in Tourism Management/4th year Motto: Why do you need to impress the world if youre confident about yourself?. Year Graduated: 2009 Year Graduated: 2005

43 CURRICULUM VITAE Name: Desiree C. Santos Birthday: May 30, 1992 Birthplace: Tondo, Manila Parents: Mother: Rowena C. Santos Father: Edgardo V. Santos Academic Achievement: Elementary School: Cembo Elementay School Place: Cembo, Makati City Secondary School: Guadalupe Catholic School Place: Guadalupe Nuevo, Makati City College/Course/Year Level: NHM/Bachelor of Science in Hotel and Restaurant Management/4th year Motto: To live creative life, we must lose our fear of being wrong. Year Graduated: 2008 Year Graduated: 2004

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