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ITEM 100

CLEARING- removal of unwanted objects GRUBBING- removal of trees, shrubs, stumps and rubbish from the future right-of-way of a transportation corridor, cut lines or the footprint of a structure CHIPPING- to chop or cut into small pieces

ITEM 101
STRUCTURES- a body or assemblage of bodies in space to form a system capable of supporting loads. Physical structures include man-made and natural arrangements. Buildings, aircraft, soap films, skeletons, anthills, beaver dams and salt domes are all examples of physical structures. OBSTRUCTIONS- hindrance - obstacle - impediment - barrier - stoppage- any object which rises far enough above the surrounding surface or above a specified height to create a hazard CULVERT- a drain or pipe that allows water to flow under a road, railroad, trail, or similar obstruction DRAINAGE- is the natural or artificial removal of surface and sub-surface water from an area. -emptying something accomplished by allowing liquid to run out of it

ITEM 102
EXCAVATION- process in which soil, rock, and other materials are removed from a site, typically with the use of heavy earthmoving equipment such as excavators and bulldozers. CONSERVATION- preservation - keeping - maintenance - protection - careful management of resources PREWATERING- the process of watering the groundl in a certain site to moisten the soil PRESPLITTING- a smooth blasting technique in which cracks for the final contour are created by firing a single line of holes before the initiation of the rest of the holes in the blast pattern. In pre splitting the holes are drilled slightly farther apart as compared to line drilling and are loaded very lightly and fired before the main blast. The light explosive charges propagate a crack between the holes creating an artificial discontinuity along the final excavation line. In badly fractured rock, unloaded guide holes may be drilled between the loaded holes. The light explosive load is obtained by using specially designed slender cartridges, partial or whole cartridges taped to a detonating cord down line, an explosive cut from a continuous reel, or heavy grain detonating cord. DITCHES- a small to moderate depression created to channel water

ITEM 103
FOUNDATION- the lowest and supporting layer of a structure COFFERDAMS- a temporary structure designed to keep water and/or soil out of the excavation in which a bridge pier or other structure is built PRESERVATION- to keep in perfect or unaltered condition; maintain unchanged BACKFILL- is material used to refill an excavated area for protecting foundations, landscaping or filling of voids to give a more stable environment SHORING- the process of supporting a structure in order to prevent collapse so that construction can proceed CRIBBING- a system of cribs, as for retaining earth or for a building or the like being moved or having its foundations rebuilt

ITEM 104
EMBANKMENT- an artificial bank raised above the immediately surrounding land to redirect

or prevent flooding by a river, lake or sea COMPACTION- an increase in the density of something PROTECTION-defence - defense - safeguard - patronage - security WARPING- become or cause to become bent or twisted out of shape, typically as a result of the effects of heat or dampness SERRATED- having a notched edge or sawlike teeth BERM- a path or grass strip beside a road; a narrow path or ledge at the edge of a slope, road, or canal

ITEM 105
SUBGRADE-Subgrades are commonly compacted before the construction of a road, pavement or railway track, and are sometimes stabilized by the addition of asphalt, lime, portland cement or other modifiers. The subgrade is the foundation of the pavement structure, on which the subbase is laid.

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ITEM 107
OVERHAUL- to examine or go over carefully for needed repairs