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Authors: Jorge Morales, Raymond Valenzuela, Ignacio Cordova, Felipe Sanzana.
The female space; jumping from the private to the public
Introduction. This paper aims to track and analysis of the jump to the private audience of women in their urban environment (empowerment) and the dilemmas of gender based on raids you have done. Our analysis will focus on the development and inclusion of women in politics, (in addition to the importance of these activities and in social groupings), to appreciate how this went from the margins of home representative to the plane occupied by men and their patriarchal structures. Since this last point is where they show existing power relations (even today) between the company and our prevailing social movement to which we are giving our full attention to the development and scope of our investigation. At first we will focus on as it was revealing the long journey of women and the genesis of their spectrum of inclusion. Because from this point we can see clearly the problems which were encountered, especially power relations dominate the paternalism of machista society (both inside and outside their margins private and public later). Voting and the subsequent presence of these in the press also as its evolution (which at first were not critical of the established order) are crucial for understanding when and why we began the movement of women into the spectre of politics as public roads in urban community. In a first stage of the report we will focus on analysis and historical explanation of the women's movement, referring to issues such as voting in which integrates women, the press by them, the achievements in legislative matters, among others. To demonstrate its evolution and in its organization and its demands. Already taking a perspective of the movement we propose to continue to expose our thesis, which is focused on the social impact that pushed the cohesion of women and their organization, starting a long struggle marked by gender inequality, as also the problem which until today is present; their subsequent integration, will be marked by inequality. So far, we have the clear focus of the first delivery of research work, then these problems will deepen in alluding to the formation of a space of women in the arena of public affairs, an area marked by inequity and inequality gender. Previously we have raised the focus of our work and the objectives that we considered. Now we will proceed with the contextualization and characterization of our theme to investigate later in this aspect will present our argument for us to mark the way forward to carry out a second time our theoretical framework. Contextualization and characterization. To understand the passage of the exclusion of women to their inclusion in society, it is necessary to examine the context to be analysed, which was beginning to see affected by various factors, both economic, political and social rights, which are vital to rise in the territory a metamorphosis in their traditional structures, which will be collected and used by women to take part in public circles. Taking as a last result, the transition from the private to the public because of this metamorphosis. What you will see reflected in the new spaces began to conquer, being relevant to our work the press, and feminist movements of the period. These are the bodies that will enable us to identify the
evolution of women and their participation in public spheres in society. However, is also of paramount importance along the contextualization, analyze and characterize both the concept of private space and public space, two concepts that are being used throughout the analysis of research. Indeed, our research work, analyse the evolution that took women in society, thus leading to its gradual inclusion in the political, social and economic factors behind the country. Thus, the period will be analysed in the early twentieth century, and end in our current era, where we bring to the fore the status of women in our country. Therefore, the twentieth century, will see immersed in a transformation of their traditional structures, both at the political, social and educational advancement, which will be vital for the subsequent inclusion of women. Characterization of key concepts. Thus, taking into account the context of the period, and changes and processes that lead to the inclusion of women in society, such as the modernization processes in the field, economic, political, social, employment and educational , It is necessary to characterize the concept of public space and private space.
Private space and public space female. Clearly to discuss the specialty of women, we must define both the private spac 1 e as public space feminine, in order to appreciate better the process of conquering women, which marked the transition from the private to the public . First to define female private space, we portray women as a secondary player, which for the past-the-twentieth century, was in charge less dominant tasks, all this in the context of a society where the man was the center of everything, or even better graphics, where man is subject and object women 2 . Is this the limit of women; their own environment, as he is known in this private space. This is one private space where women should perform their daily tasks, namely the home environment or space that in some cases is further reduced because there were certain places to which the woman did not have free access. The second type of female private space, is represented by the gatherings, or "circles of tearooms," in which women - a profile of upper class and with some degree of education, shared topics they cover. Thus defined these two types of female private spaces, we can appreciate the rigid demarcation that existed because women did not have access to such basic rights as their own freedom or full expression. By contrast, the new orientation of the economies in crisis and the appearance, overcrowding and high acceptance of feminism and its subsequent tendency to break into politics as an option, worldwide in the first half of the twentieth century, will make
It is noteworthy that in the quest to define the private space of women, we find two types of this, the first portrayed by the household, which was itself the profile of women in lower class, usually immersed in rural areas. The second is represented by one's own home, plus certain types of relationships, typical profile of upper-class women, who had moments where they shared with their peers.
Idea M. Angel Baeza, expressed in his book-The Other Half of Chile, which represents very well the subordination of women to men, in times where the struggle for the cause of women was unthinkable.
women achieves set new limits of their small specialty, through its struggle for the legitimate rights and active participation, they were blocked by centuries. It is the conquest of public space, which will transform a woman in what should have always been, a major player in society, namely an active subject and not a passive object subject to man. This new specialty conquered, is opening up new fields that were hitherto little or no explored by women, among these are politics, media, education-both in schools and in open university which were blocked for women, organizations of all kinds, and so on. If we refer to the Chilean case, we appreciate as women gradually achieved the full conquest of public space. This action begins in the early twentieth century, women succeed in certain areas where together with other creates bonds, where express their opinions, demands, etc.., So public. It is certainly the cultural sphere which says the first women's organizations in public, then it will be the press-through the creation of newspapers and magazine-female, and then continue in the political arena, where arise Matches feminists, some transcendence, as women represent, as it says the book title of M. Baeza-Angel; half of Chile. Lastly, the passage of private space to public space, which would entail the metamorphosis of women and their own space, is the continuing struggle to achieve their ideals conquest of land always belonged, but it was vetoed; public space, an area in which women are undoubtedly involved, but nevertheless it poses the great challenge of achieving full gender equality, something which has not yet been fully achieved. Historical Context. The first two decades of the twentieth century, are characterized as being an era in which lived the modernization process in Chile, with a time of economic changes, political and social rather accelerated, which resulted in the metamorphosis of the territory, and evolution and inclusion of women. In the space that we are involved-as mentioned by the process of modernization by developing, for example, urbanization, communications and education-according to some authors, "women are participants of these changes as subjects and objects modernization "(Amorós. C, 1990, p. 89). Therefore, to the author-that process is turned on them disrupt many aspects that deal with lifestyles and activities that it offers modernization. So many of the measures provided by the state Chileno significantly impacted their lives. Being the major advances in education and work, then acted as a bridge of access to new spaces within society "(ibid., p. 95). In turn, these same tools enabled her potentiation as social subjects. Secondly, the process of national modernization and growth was felt in the workplace for women. For some "from 1900 were altered patterns of female employment, observing a greater diversification of economic activities, and a boom in educational reforms by the State" (Galvez, T. and Bravo, R, 1992, p. 123 ). Thus, the nascent industries employed female workforce to develop manufacturing activities in the area of communications and transport. Therefore, women were recruited for these middle-class public services. Thirdly, those economic and social changes were complemented by the development of educational policies by the state, encouraging the creation of educational centers, allowing greater literacy in the middle, giving initiate a process important for women, as it was the mental development, and awareness by them.
Therefore, the Chilean State strengthened female education at different levels according to social classes. It accepted women in some academic careers, were opened technicalvocational schools and expanded the coverage of basic and secondary education. In this way, "women who accessed the various educational institutions, found elements that allowed them to break into the world public, disrupting the social scheme" (Lavrín, A, 2005, p. 230). Thus, the author-as-appeared several types of female social subjects, for example, some women who are elite professionalized, created public spaces where intellectual discussion questioned the cultural differences between males and females. Alongside them are middle-class women, who were strengthened through the professionalization and fought for civil and political rights. We can observe in creating the Women's Civic Party in 1922. Moreover, we found that women acquired a popular office through technicalvocational education, which enabled them to publicly visibilizarse sector employees, which opened spaces for their specific demands. Thus begins to visualize a change in mentality and the old structures which were chained to women, creating a major public space opinion, which was subsequently reflected in the creation of feminist groups and occupy an important agent of disseminating information; press. Therefore the beginning of the twentieth century, which came accompanied by changes in the country, in both described above, will the inclusion of women in the spaces and public spheres of society, transforming the structure of the private , To become a public servant, which will see clearly reflected in the press, and in subsequent feminist movements that began to create spaces of resistance, which struggles for equality and immersion of women in a traditional society and macho. Indeed, this period will be a key point for publications, since they diversify both the social origin of those producing press himself as the objectives it pursues. Therefore, the press found a public space that is complex to be involved in new social subjects, where women accounted for its specificity in terms of sex and gender in addition to its religious stance, which undermines the very beginning in his own speech . In this context, the press allows us to explore space to note that women were created in the public world, since newspapers, articles intended to move in different circuits of view, we bring new perspectives on this same process, highlighting the involvement of women in areas mainly political, social, and economic. So these newspapers will be listed and analyzed, through our research work. To show how it was occupied and endorse this new public space for women and the characteristics and nature that they possessed. On the other hand, was also very important the establishment of feminist movements in the country, which began to fight for women's rights, and integrates its insertion into society. In fact, feminism is considered one of the key players in the struggle for social intervention, whose ideals will be reflected in Civic Women and MEMCH. Thesis. "Women who agreed to various educational institutions, found elements that allowed them to break into the world public, disrupting the social scheme" (Lavrín, A, 2005, p. 230). This statement suggests we go to where our course to pursue in the investigation. Thus, our work aims to analyse the process of modernization in the country, which was carried out during the early twentieth century, which was vital to lead the changes to generate the metamorphosis of the territory captured through what Lefebvre called "Practiced space; which refer to the ways in which we generate, use and perceive the space (…). The other side of space these practices are closely linked with the
experiences of everyday life and the collective memories of different ways "(Ulrich. O. 1999. P. 5). In effect these changes in the social, economic, political, educational and labor, began to transform these traditional structures, which at the beginning of the century were limited in two respects, which separated the lives of men and women, the public sphere and private. Therefore, these new changes in the territory and in the fields mentioned above, began to create new spaces within the territory, new places that are called "representation spaces, spaces that are lived, and change occurring in over time. They represent ways local knowledge and less formal, which are dynamic, symbolic, and saturated with meanings. These spaces are articulated in the daily lives and constitute what you Lefebvre called 'resistance' sites. These spaces are a variety of speeches against `in the sense Foulcaut presented by actors who refuse to recognize and accept the hegemonic power. Thus, daily life occurs within the dialectical relationship between space and capitalism. "(Op. cit. P. 6). With regard to new speeches produced in logic and dynamics of popular expression through newspapers and magazines also the subsequent admission to education. Thus, women begin to undergo major changes as to criticize and reflect on their society, because due to the changes brought by modernization in Chile, will begin to learn new roles within the country, which will result in the creation conscientious about their class, so you can then analyze the problems afflicting their country, then think and criticize them in a way informed and autonomous. This can be framed within a logic that regards women were able to "Experience is overcome the dangers. The word comes from experience the same Latin root (per.) experiment, expert and dangerous. For experienciar in the active sense, it is necessary to venture into the unknown and experience the illusory and uncertain. The become expert involves risk confronting the dangers of the new or the unknown why someone is able to take risks? The individual is driven to it "(Yi-Fu Tuan, 1977, p. 6), and well able to cope with a patriarchal society dominated by machismo and sex discrimination. Thus, women head the genesis important strategies for disseminating information, and on the other hand, new forms of organization such as newspapers, and feminist movements, which will be relevant at the time of fighting for equality and integrates its insertion in their society. Previously has been the pillar on which theoretical underpinning the social movement in which we are working also Ulrich Oslender is of great support, as this author shows us and focuses on the core of social movements, which are generating spaces and identities. Also knew that this social movement fighting the logic of power, towards obtaining merit claim through slogans of public and private space, which pushed women to fight and appear to the fore of society. It is no longer as a housewife subjected to power structures, but as a character and entity capable of displaying its organizational capacity, as also to modify its space and social environment. There has already mutated. So far we have presented how to take the issue, we will be discussing all along this report and its subsequent deliveries. This will focus on how women were affected by their environment and power relations that prevail, that at first relegated to the margins of the private, assuming a position of importance of social actor, as François Hainard said that the woman was able empowerment of cities in a battle of strategies for social change (François Hainard, 2004). This has implications to the present day where we appreciate the intervention and a
reflection of the long struggle of women, who returns to smile again after so long with a woman president, an event that is spread through the globe.
Theoretical framework. At this stage of the report we propose to specify the theoretical proposal that will be the mainstay of work. To achieve this it is necessary to identify the perpetrators who will form the backbone and chart the way forward on the issue taken to the social movement for women. Social Movement: • François Hainard and Cristine Verschuur, "Cities and empowerment of women; struggles and strategies for social change", 2004. Hainard and Verschuur, in his book relate primarily in the context of the area which is part of the unfolding social movement of women, this is also identified as the "City" and more specifically the "city and its relationship to the environment ". The study is in the framework of MOST (Management of Social Transformations) of Unesco, which put on show the crucial problems faced by women in environmental management and its negotiations with those responsible technical and political. Apart from putting to the fore the great importance that women entering making policy decisions, both in the administration of cities as in policies to combat poverty and social segregation. Alluding that feminists are more efficient than men to develop strategies and projects that reduce these problems. For us and for our research is of importance this problem, and determining the gender issues that exist in what is termed as "an initial expression of power relations" (François Hainard, 2004, pp. 31) due to the subordination of women appears in the domestic or community and society as a whole. In its residents and aid organizations that at first were organized by women from political power secondary, as in the case of "First Ladies (wives of presidents", but which were never regarded as crucial to the Auditor solving problems of poverty in his background, measures were only "patch or momentary." These points allow us to appreciate that the emergence of women as a social actor, was not a spontaneous occurrence, but that his organization and mobility at first step unnoticed in the eyes of power structures, in a quest for social invisibility . And that struggles with the dominant male power were detonated because they made, more efficient, problems with the environment, such as health, hygiene, poverty, etc.. Understanding that they are faced daily with these problems. But calls us more attention than the proposal of these authors is not the highlight of the women more than men. Sino seeking gender equality, both of which, in a joint effort, will be able to achieve an optimal development Urban and the end of segregation also as urban poverty. From the viewpoint of "Cities and empowerment of women; struggles and strategies for social change," is where we will start our investigation and analysis. Since supplemented with context and characterization, which show women's groups and their ways of expressing the struggles and fight for their demands, showing the struggles and changes in their environment both socially and politically. Therefore we will raise the issue of this problem the concept of "Topofilia" which is described as "every human being's emotional ties with the material environment." In this sense, means that unique
experience that figure ties between the person and the place they live, whether the city, the suburbs or the countryside "(Yi-Fu Tuan, 2007). • Ana Martinez Sabaté, "Women, Feminism and Geography", 1984. Sabaté Ana Martinez in his work offers a critique about how, in the social sciences, there has been a series of investigations that focus on women while geography has remained outside this process. Further analyses the process of acquiring space for women, marked by the emergence of numerous published research (and these developments regarding the importance of progress in the journals that publish geographical) among which showed deficiency women in positions at American universities. Despite this geographical productions about women are locked by means of difficult access, which not only confined to a small number of edits, but also a small number of readers. This points clearly to the thesis of the author que se basa that the woman has been postponed in this science, the main reason that geography has been built by men and has been subjected to a position sexist [what is can add, "the concept of space has been saturated with political and a complex network of relationships of power / knowledge that are expressed in landscapes materials speeches of domination and resistance. Here they have been forged on patriarchal structures "(Ulrich. O, 1999, p.1)]. Despite participation in this science of women, there is (from the perspective of the author) work on the area of women, nor shown any feminist approach, despite the fact that incited modes of analysis more "sensitive and feminine" . The text mentions that geography should worry about resolving the "social inequalities and the problems of society, studying the distribution of power within it" (Eyles, 1971), but does not consider, within this integration, removing Gender inequalities, despite the assumption by Harvey: "Expel her discipline of racism, ethnocentrism and condescending paternalism" (Harvey 1974). Following the issue of discrimination to women can appreciate the contributions within this text authors to postulate that "it must find a solution for a more just society" and although concerned about "the apparent unconcern of geography to this point" (Peet, 1972, quotes gathered by Capel, 1981, p.428). Pat Burnett (1971) also is present in this issue and mentioned that despite the position of geography in terms of social discrimination of space, science does not take this to women with regard to the latter. And merely framed within a global thus eliminating the singularity, an element which could be key to characterize a phenomenon or to assert any relevant geographic theory within the margins of society. Geographic Area: • Brunhes, Jean, "The character and the complexity of the facts of human geography" (without background editorials). Jean Brunhes in his book tells us about man's relationship with its environment, as it is able to modify it according to their action with the medium. Among these were the facts of conquest, land use and destructive economy. The latter is what will lead to social problems, because this form disorderly and inefficient in the rational utilization of the territory, will lead to the migration of those subject to places that provide optimal benefits of subsidence. As the man, for their physiological needs, you need to stay in touch with half render and fill all their shortages. This is reflected in each human group that defines his place of residence focusing on the economy and resources of the territory, which is bounded to fulfill this function depending on changing the group on
human conduct. Specifically we are interested in the aspect in which the author refers to "men as agents geography," as it refers to "an isolated event can be susceptible to contradictory interpretations so that should not be considered in isolation, it must be re-positioned in the flow of life that has created "(Jean Brunhes, pp. 255-257). What strikes us is how this author explains the problems of unproductive land uses, because of a bad organization State, and the problems that these triggers, which directly affect the social group we are investigating. • Oslender, Ulrich, "spatialization resistance: prospects' space 'and' place 'in investigations of social movements" Oslender, Ulrich in his book tells us about the concept of space, which provides primarily as a politician, which trigger different junctures of the logic of power, in which essentially the stand of domination and of resistance. These two points are relevant to our work because we intend to clarify that this metamorphosis of space has a clear and genesis is not an event that appeared overnight. This is how the women's movement brand positioning in the logic of struggle, resistance, for bringing about change or modification of pre-established structures of territory and space. This is understood by the spaces of expression that organization and structure, which broaden the spectrum of the fight to the public clearly in terms of the remoteness of proclamations and actions no longer reduced margins neighborhood. Oslender expressed as stated by Lefebvre that "Space is not an object separated from ideology or politics, has always been political and strategic. If space is appearance of neutrality and indifference its contents, and therefore seems purely formal (…) to what continues: "(…) has already been the focus of past processes whose fingerprints are not always evident in the landscape. The space has been formed and shaped by historical and natural elements, but this has been a political process. Space is political and ideological. It is a product full of literary ideologies. " (Oslender, Ulrich, pp. 4) then the author continues, "… This conceptualization of space makes clear the presence of conflicts in the use of space. These responses are often articulated by social movements in the political and economic (Op. cit, p. 4). These linkages being made by the author that we clarify the social movement for women, in which we are focused for conducting its analysis, offers a resistance to a state of logic "Patriarchal and gender discrimination," and then move on to form part of this structure according to their achievements claim. This resistance struggle of women must be covered under a logic that has been pushed by the social problems of their environment nearby, caused by bad policies and wrong handling of the state. The which will lead to overcrowding and a force of the movement that will see reflected in their contacts with other movements counterparts in neighbouring countries such as Uruguay and Argentina. • Yi Fu Tuan, "Space and place: the perspective of experience" Yi-Fu Tuan mentions in his book, which rise as much space can not be defined independently of one another. That From the security and stability of the place "we are aware of the extent of freedom and the threat of space, and vice versa. Besides, if we think about space as something that allows movement then place is pause, each pause in the movement becomes possible when the location is transformed into place. "Subsequently continues;" (…) In accordance with this approach, while human is
marked by stages, as well as the movement of man in space is marked by pauses. In the same way as the weather can be represented by an arrow, circular orbit or a path of a pendulum swinging, and also movements in space (…) ". We have seen throughout this surrender as is the space where they have the power relationships, while appreciating where approximates the women's movement. Also take place as the holder of this high power, is also the place where he finds the existence of any brands that have been surpassed and overlay over time. This also consists of meaning and a legacy. Thus, for the social movement for women and their struggles demands in the urban setting up of resentment toward the power structures, which have shifted work to minors. Where are they who have the experience and understand the true reality of the inhabitants of cities and their respective environmental conflicts. In addition to the place and this environment, for women has been charged with an entity in which these sentiments shared their hardships and social problems, joys and sorrows pass done, it is also the place where they created a family and educated their children. Also this environment became a place where the vehicle is overloaded with emotions and memories which these are prepared to defend and improve.
Positioning Theoretical The line of our work, we have chosen to be guided by the text of Ulrich Oslender: "spatialization resistance: prospects for space and place in investigations of social movements" in order to begin to explain our work with serious backs, and we found that within this writing, the author proposes the appropriation of space as the primary engine of the entire social movement resistance, and we believe that that was the strategy used by women's movements studied. In addition, we need to look at this author in regard to his vision of local and global in order to argue the importance and dimensions that I am presenting the motion, we are also left with some of the foundations raised by Lefebvre we used to settle even further development of this investigation. A second author is Ana Martinez Sabaté, which in his words "Women, Feminism and Geography", 1984, portrays unbeatable way of geography remains on the sidelines of a new research topic: Women. We occupy Ana Sabaté, since this somehow gives us an example of how the changeover will occur from the private to the public, as it is with bringing women to geography, that the spatiality female achieved transformed into theme investigative the same geography. By moving forward with the development of theme is that we have decided to include what has been done by Hainard and Verschuur, who in his text "" Cities and empowerment of women; struggles and strategies for social change ", 2004, portrayed as women -- in the context of social development in the urban environment, achieves more accurately detect social problems afflicting the people of this area. This will serve as a way to illustrate that the transition of women from the private to the public meant progress, since women to access certain administrative positions in urban cities, achieved quickly and provide better solutions to social problems . Another author who helps us both the definition of private space, public space as feminine, is M. Angel Baeza, which portrays a very good way in his book "The other half of Chile." We need to define the space private and public space female, as is the shift from the private to the public, which will set and mark a milestone in women's lives. It is for this reason that in seeking to define the private and public space, we opted for the correct definition of M. Angel Baeza, which becomes an unbeatable source, as is
its status as his wife which will provide great strength of its definition of spatiality of women. The author who helps us poorly, when power reaffirm our theme, is Jean Brunhes, who in his text "The character and the complexity of the facts of human geography," gives us little in the process of arguing and reaffirm what is stated in the issue that we investigate. There is no doubt that the first four authors reveal clear and interesting background and views of the spatiality of women and is seen as being at the juncture that marked the great shift from the private to the public, all this from the perspective how will be a reconfiguration of the spatiality of women, due to the shift from private to public sphere. We seek to achieve explicitly reaffirm that this step was a major step forward, not backward, it is this new configuration of space performed by women, which opens new areas for development, however, we caution that this development is not complete because ,-Authors as M. Baeza Angel Martinez and Ana Sabaté, indicate that by implication in their respective works-there are areas where little progress has been made; speak specifically of gender equality, at least in the Western world shows little glimmers of existence.
Analysis and Development. The transition from the private to the public. The transition from the private to the public undoubtedly represented an uphill struggle as regards the process of our study, the voice of women presented a lengthy process that mixed self-interest with the need to translate to other sectors of society, was then The time for action and occupy spaces that so far were not for this genre. The steps meant that such a process can link to the postulated by Ulrich Oslender the link that provides in development of space endurance. The process meant to establish a development of the deprived the public relates to what was seen by the author in his writing because… "then it is important to recognize that these structures have been created by the same human subjects, and although they may present obstacles to social actors, can also train the human agency, be adjusted, changed or even defeated by the same social actors. Oslender, Ulrich, Pp. 3). In other words, with the above we can make it clear that the process or social movement first female needed a solid foundation that enabled the obtaining of a real prominence as the same ownership and awareness can generate changes that are themselves in process of obtaining a result, without the foregoing, the social structures in the area had not been touched by women. Thus, taking into account the prominence of actors, it is important to add that this process has not been embraced in such proportions if they had not been present the logic of domination and subjugation. The first word we go back to patriarchal arguments that were present in most of society, such a state of domination naturally generates subject or relations between the dominant and dominated (submissive) making it even more favorable maturity that any movement for social needs the appropriation of space became even more quickly with this development process. In the space sector is important to emphasize that we identify with the tenets of Ulrich as the creation of space is a process that is not objective, since Lefebvre cited as "space is not an object of separate scientific ideology or politics; has always been political and strategic "and later
noted" the space has been formed and shaped by historical and natural elements, but this has been a political process "(Oslender, Ulrich, Pg. 4). With the earlier events we want to unite the vision of women's movement with the participation they had in building a space itself, since the demands and their voices are linked to buildings that are demanding power and an area of consideration in society, historical elements in this process, as well as the tools used are suitable for ownership of public space. Understanding this initiative as a female space endurance, it is important to note that the dynamic of space women manage to position itself as an issue of importance, the tools used in this aspect are able to be a useful weapon for positioning in this area. It is also important to note that the balance achieved in the space between the fields intellectuals and bases more equity within the same movement. In this way women will begin to transform and create new spaces, through the amendment of the private sphere, to move into a public one. This process is of vital importance for further integration into society. Because, as we raise at the beginning of work, private space that was inserted at the very beginning women, had to charge less dominant tasks, all this in a context of a society where man was the center of everything, or better graficado even where the subject is man and woman object. The second type of female private space, is represented by the gatherings, or "circles of tearooms," in which women - a profile of upper class and with some degree of education, shared topics they cover. Thus defined these two types of female private spaces, we can appreciate the rigid demarcation that existed because women did not have access to such basic rights as their own freedom or full expression. Indeed, the shift to the public spheres will be the beginning of a new social class, which will mark a before and after in the history of Chile According to the foregoing, it is necessary to identify and analyze the sites and strategies that began to win and to use women, in order to be inserted into society, due to factors already raised earlier - modernization and metamorphosis of the area. Therefore, such strategies and spaces, will press on the one hand, and on the other feminist movements, which marks the resilience of women in their struggle for equality and integration in the various public spheres of society. In fact - as already mentioned-the beginning of the twentieth century is a key point for publications because of the metamorphosis that takes place in the country, on the one hand literacy and education of women, and its subsequent inclusion in universities, and on the other, their inclusion in the economic aspects, namely in the workplace. These processes will result in diversification of both the social origin of those producing press himself as the objectives it pursues. In this way the press observes a public space that is more complex to be involved in new social subjects, where women accounted for its specificity in terms of their gender sex. Thus, the development of education will allow increased demand for publishing products: newspapers, magazines, folletines, novels, etc.. Also mentioned at the beginning of the twentieth century, "the press is being developed as an industry, taking advantage of new technologies that widespread styles and products, defined as specialized public tastes and interests" (Ossandón. C, 2001, p. 78). Hence the intensity of production journalistic became clear the emergence of public opinion, an area of discussion where reason is the element validated as a means of expression. So despite limited space feminine, public space was clearly spoken by women. Women's participation in the Chilean press has as its first contribution to the history of the country with various media articles and letters, both for women as elite and middle class workers. However, newspapers run by women have since 1865 with "The Ladies of the Eco de Santiago". Between 1900 and 1926, found 22 publications run by
women holding public objectives and ideological frameworks diversified aimed at the public desmoralidad (alluding to Enrique Mac Iver-in his "Discourse on the moral crisis of the Republic"). In so doing, we understand that the press of women from the early twentieth century is within what is defined as "modern media" (ibid., p. 80). Here is a diagram showing the various newspapers that came to light during the late nineteenth century, and throughout the twentieth century, in Chile, which gives us an overview on the level of coverage earned by women in public opinion And the new space beginning to have within the society.
Periódicos editados por mujeres (1865-1926)* Periódicos El Eco de las Señoras de Santiago La Familia La Mujer, Curico La Aurora Feminista La Alborada, Valparaíso La Palanca El Eco de la Liga de las Damas Chilenas La Sindicada Católica La Cruzada La Voz Femenina La obrera Sindicada Vida Femenina La Mujer La Sindicada La Unión Femenina Nosotras Revistas editadas por mujeres (1900-1925) Revistas Selecta Revista Industrial Femenina La Silueta o Silueta Magazine Alma Femenina, San Felipe Acción Femenina Cine y Magazzine Pantalla y Bambalinas Año 1909 – 1912 1912 – 1914 1917 – 1918 1919 1922 – 1939 Principios siglo XX Sin fecha Principios siglo XX Sin fecha Año 1865 1890-1891 1897 1904 1907 – 1905 1908 1912 – 1915 1915 – 1918 1915 – 1917 1916 1917 1919 1921 1922 – 1926 1926 – 1927 Principios de siglo XX s/d
Revistas sin editor específico donde participan mujeres. (1910-1928)
Revistas donde aportan La Familia La Revista Azul
Año 1910-1928 1914 – 1918
Source: Article "Press Women 1900-1925: Opening spaces for interpretation," by Carola Agliatti and Claudia Montero. http://www2.cyberhumanitatis.uchile.cl/19/agliatimontero.html
Characteristics of the most important newspapers According to the article, among the largest newspapers and their characteristics include: The Alborada (1905-1907) was a regular working women and Women's Action (1922-1939), both are "used as an organ of dissemination of Civic Women, who represent clear examples of development of women of the press in early Twentieth Century "(Salinas. C, 1987, p .46-47). Both publications have continuity and regularity, and also allow a cross between the variables of ideology and social class. These two newspapers, despite being generated in various social sectors, (and this is what interests us to develop our research) realize that women write that they are beginning to form social subjects such as female that is, as people involved in its social space, with the potential to transform, and conform as parts of the courses from a viewpoint active. The Alborada, This newspaper represents the expression of a wide variety of subjects female workers. This publication, managed by workers of a sewing workshop in Valparaiso, represented an area where workers were uniting all workers sensitive to the problems of the time, hence, each contribution meant a unique position in this struggle and a establish itself as a particular form of social subjects aware of their need for transformation of material constraints and generic sex. In the following quotation, which draws the newspaper Alborada-heard one of the voices of women who call the organization, and developing awareness of the true role that women must have: Guided by sound principles, burdened by the weight of slavery, I strongly protest the oppressors against the culprits that women vejete in ignorance. (…) Women have as much right as men to enjoy complete freedom. (…) Where is the equity that should prevail between man and wife? Did not we strive for existence? (Zegers. P, 1998, Pág.198) From another room, Women's Action for being the means of expression for women who are in social subjects through a political party, we see a voice that brings together women who write in it, elite women and educated middle class forming part of a political party. For example "say they want not only equality before the law, respect of man, but also wants to intervene in the discussion of the law, whose rule has to undergo the same as men." (Ibid. p. 205). The New Women This publication in magazine format was produced by the "Movement of Emancipation Pro Women" (MEMCH), in the years 1935 - 1941, whose function was to publicize all the achievements and activities of the MEMCH, which stands out as grouping achieving the approval of the entry of women to vote municipal Legislative Decree number 320, which regulates the conditions for electoral registration to women (although with some restrictions such as excessive aged 25 and over, and possess
property) and that might be candidates for Corregidor. Also important are other achievements in this field as the decline in voting age to 21 years among others. Therefore we see a kind of female subject defined by membership of the political party that convenes, and displayed the conscience of the demand for female public space from a specific place. Indeed compared with women who are questioning the exclusion generic-sexual, are recognized as having the intellectual tools necessary to take its rightful place. Movements of Resistance: Feminism. Undoubtedly, one of the most important aspects that reflect the integration of women in public spheres, political and social relations in society, are so-called resistance movements, which in the case of the country, were vital to such integration, It was this organization, which began to create a class consciousness, and fight for women's equality in a traditional society and macho. It is therefore important to analyse feminism, to understand their ideologies, strategies to be followed, and the ultimate goals to be achieved. Feminism is the ideology that gives substance to the claims of women who propose Civic Women, therefore, is also known that make women writers of Women's Action, aimed at defining "the resolve what they call female problem, not is something else than the recognition of civil and political rights for women "(Lavrin. A, 2005, p. 259). An appointment that we can illustrate how complex the real goals and ideologies of Latin American feminism, not knowing what gives one of the many women in favour of this motion by saying: "I consider myself Feminist because women who aspire to acquire an identity intellectual who does not recognize today: because I want, whenever recognized this capacity he was not excluded from the active part of society, because she must take part in the government and all public spaces of society "(ibid. p. 270) This appointment is inferred that the fight would begin to make women of the twentieth century, to achieve equal political, social and economic order to benefit once and for all that yearned public space, that queues at the same height in rights and duties in society. Therefore the strategy used to achieve this purpose, is to speak in public opinion that the problem for women is considered within the political agenda of the country. For example, as a strategy, Women's Action "publishes a survey every month, which aims to provoke reflection in those taking readers / as on issues that are within the objectives of the organization" (ibid. p. 275). Some of the questions presented in these surveys include: 1 - What do you think you. on the skills of women to manage their property? 2 - What have you believe. on divorce? 3 - What do you think you. In general on justice that the civilized world's wife asks for her greater intelligence on all activities of life? (Ibid. p .276) With these questions we explicit the specific objectives of the organization, opinion and raise awareness among women of the era. Thus the appeal of women from the dawn of the newspaper and Women's Action, is to organize at the place where women face and overcome, using the banner of feminism as a struggle. Another important point to get an equal and open space for the deprived the public is the state educational expand coverage, as the theme of education is the most important need that will bring back the solution to the subjection of women. The writers of the magazine believe that the inequality of women is explained by cultural
differences based on the differing conceptions education for men and women, therefore it becomes necessary to create conditions so that women can appropriate to provide them with adequate tools in their action the social space, whether as mothers, workers or professionals. The MEMCH As for the MEMCH, let's say it was a grouping which channelled to the institutions of women on the sidelines of a common purpose, alluding to have the same legal tenets of emancipation, economic and biological. In this way, we can say that the press Chilean women of the early twentieth century was an open space for the same women who gave body. Indeed through the practice of journalism could define themselves, intervening public space, which presented their demands and took the right to interpret society.
But that is certainly the first half of the twentieth century is the era in which women set a new specialty, succeeds in entering the public sphere, which was vetoed by extensive time. However, showing our position with respect to the subject that brings us together is that we affirm that women leave while being subject to men and thus to a patriarchal society, warned that women are still not subject to a patriarchal society, but the prevailing economic system at present, we speak of Capitalism, which somehow tends to value more the work of man, that women's work. True fashioning a new specialty of women brought great strides for feminists, however, is the decay of its highest expression of freedom, regarding the subject of men, which lead to leave a pending challenge for women . It is gender equality which will mark the pattern at present, why this economic system conditional on the woman as well as did men in earlier times? Certainly explain this from the large decline suffered by the movement feminist in general, worldwide. We are clear in stating that gender equality is what must be the great challenge facing women of the twenty-first century, not to call the struggle against capitalism, but we want to awaken that spirit that led the woman to overcome the subordination in this towards the man, this is clearly the only goal that must be women, to achieve complete their fight. It is in the western world where we can see progress in gender equality; presidencies headed by women, ministers, governors, military authorities, etc., are the true reflection of that gender equality can be achieved only lack union a half, how well-known as M. Angel Baeza-and the awakening of the spirit of this half strong. It is only with this will be achieved one of the basic principles shared by men and women; necessarily speak the perfect complement of these.
Concluding remarks Undoubtedly, the figure of women in Chile suffered a vital process in the early twentieth century, a process that would take place, through the metamorphosis beginning to suffer from space, following the modernization that would take macroeconomic out in traditional structures both economic, political, social and cultural rights. Indeed, this is the vital process that will change that forever transformed the social sphere in the country since it began to rise to a new class in the areas of the country; women. Therefore, economic, educational and political, will be responsible for promoting social mobility, that is, begin to move from a private space for women, as we saw, was clearly limited by men, a public space, which will be characterized by this employment,
and educational. Thus, the educational factor was of great importance for the integration of women in public spheres, as it gradually began to literacy and to report on problems both internal and international, encouraging the creation of a critical spirit, thoughtful and analytical on those events. Therefore, women began to create new spaces for organisation, such as the press and the resistance movements, which had a high social value and therefore will be the main agents who sought its inclusion on an equal and integrated. As I mentioned in one of his writings press, which say they want not only equality before the law, respect of man, but also wants to intervene in the discussion of the law, whose rule has to undergo the same as man. "Indeed, the metamorphosis that took place during the first half of the twentieth century, was a vital process, which create the insertion of new social actors to the context and the public spheres of society, which was seized by women, to fight for an insert in an egalitarian country and traditional macho. Thus, the woman was and is a geographical object, since she is clearly a generation of spaces, and beginning to develop and win, gradually new forms of organization, and simultaneously take place the process of empowerment; ie was granted a power to a collective disadvantaged in economic and social policy so that through selfmanagement, improve their living conditions, which in the case of women is reflected in winning for itself through its actions participatory right to be incorporated into public life of the country. This process was reflected in the large number of digital newspapers and magazines beginning to move in the country, whose content is political, because it will encourage women to the country to awaken their spirit of class, through the dissemination of information , To generate discussion among his peers. However, it is necessary to reflect on the current role of women in the twenty-first century in the country, because as we saw earlier in a historical context, the woman reached with the inclusion of large-scale political, social, economic and educational country, whose progress through the constant struggles during the twentieth century, we see reflected in today's world. Already we see a woman autonomous and independent in the various fields, besides every day more women are entering the jobs that previously they were blocked and limited only to men. Thus, it is necessary to acknowledge the struggle that began last century, and so also is relevant to analyse the chains and obstacles that women have today such as capitalism. First and foremost, is to admire the long struggle that began women through the last century, it had the courage and strength to pursue one of the largest movements and relevant processing and generating spaces of the country's history, which resulted in the current election to president of the nation's first woman in Chile, which will be remembered as a success all along history.
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15. Fancois Hainard y Christine Verschuur. “Ciudades y empoderamiento de las mujeres; luchas y estrategias para el cambio social”. Editorial Narcea. 2004.
Internet sites: 1. http://dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/articulo?codigo=86199, Consultada el 01 de mayo de 2008. 2. http://www.lablaa.org/blaavirtual/geografia/osle/pres.htm Consultada el 30 de abril de 2008. 3. http://www2.cyberhumanitatis.uchile.cl/19/agliatimontero.html Consultada el 28 de abril del 2008.
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