27 1

State-of-the-Art Carrier PWM Techniques: A Critical Evaluation
Abstract-With the introduction and wide acceptance of gate turn-off power devices (e.g., bipolars, power FET's, GTO's, etc.), the switching behavior of converters has reached the point where further improvements in firing and switching networks bring only marginal benefits. Consequently, the research interests in the area of static converters have been shifting toward improving the process of power conversion through a combination of new circuit topologies and improved voltage and harmonic control PWM techniques. As a result, several such techniques have been proposed lately. Although these techniques are clearly superior to the original sine PWM technique, little or conflicting data is available about their merits relative to each other. Consequently, selection of the best PWM technique for most applications is accompanied by uncertainty, which can lead to less than optimum results. A critical evaluation of the aforementioned PWM techniques on the basis of application is provided, thereby giving the framework and guidelines for the selection of the best technique for each area of application.

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A . General N power electronics, pulsewidth modulation (PWM) is an operation performed on "raw" voltage and current waveforms to shape their spectra in a way beneficial to the application under consideration. Spectra shaping typically means the creation of a "dead band" between wanted and unwanted spectral components. For a given switching frequency it is desirable that the dead band be as wide as possible. To illustrate this point, Figs. l(a), l(b), l(d), and l(e) show a typical inverter line-to-line output voltage waveform and its respective spectra before and after it has been pulsewidth modulated (PWMed). Figs. l(c) and l(f) show the resulting line current waveforms obtained with a load PF = 0.8 lagging. In particular, Fig. l(f) shows that PWM allows static inverters to generate close to ideal output waveforms while providing variable-voltage and variable-frequency operation. Further investigation of the results shown in Fig. 1 also reveals that PWM has several disadvantages, which include



E -.5

2 -




i) attenuation of the wanted fundamental component of the PWMed waveform, in this case from 1.1-0.866 pu; ii) drastically increased switching frequencies (in this case from 1 pu to 21 pu)-this means greater stresses on associated switching devices and therefore derating of those devices:
Paper IPCSD 87-29, approved by the Static Power Converter Committee of the IEEE Industry Applications Society for presentation at the 1986 Power Electronics Specialists Conference, Vancouver, BC, Canada, June 23-27. Manuscript released for publication June IO, 1987. The authors are with Concordia University, 1455 de Maisonnueve Boulevard West, Montreal, PQ, Canada H35 1M8. IEEE Log Number 8717547.

Fig. 1. Inverter voltage and current waveforms with six-step and sinusoidal PWM (SPWM) operation. (a) Square-wave output line-to-line voltage. (b) Line-to-line voltage spectrum (square wave). (c) Output line current (square wave). (d) SPWM output line-to-line voltage. (e) Line-to-line spectrum (SPWM). (f) Output line current (SPWM).

iii) generation of high-frequency harmonic components previously not present. However, in addition to the importance of spectral shaping, the main advantage of pulsewidth modulation is that it allows linear amplitude control of the output voltages/currents from

0093-9994/88/03OO-O271$01 .OO 0 1988 IEEE

Authorized licensed use limited to: Universidad de Concepcion. Downloaded on October 13, 2009 at 10:18 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.

The main advantage of this converter is that because of the 1) voltage and current source inverters for nature of its switches it can function either as an inverter a) variable-speed ac motor drives. in the evaluation that follows. selection of the best PWM technique for dc term gains. 2009 at 10:18 from IEEE Xplore. or current sources. logical advances the programmed PWM techniques could only Previous work related to these improved techniques has partially replace the carrier PWM techniques discussed in this been focused on converter output spectra. It is noted that the advantages of all these improved PWM techniques over the original sine PWM technique are obtained at the “cost” of generating third line-to-neutral voltage harmonics. thereby providing the framework and guidelines be taken to present relevant results with clarity. The expertise required to design such hardware is not available to most small to mid-size companies. C. comparison of each technique under rectifier and inverter operation. the switching frequency and an unregulated dc bus. a generalized bridge converter (Fig. important criteria such as input spectra. it appears that even with projected technoorder voltage harmonics are neutralized. v) Reliability of VLSI technology in high-current switching environments is still questionable. ii) For ac motor drives. As a result. finally. Authorized licensed use limited to: Universidad de Concepcion. Consequently. . which include the following. and at low operating frequencies.of the bridge is kept constant to provide a common ground for tages. resulting in a simpler and cheaper power conversion system. 2 . Other Improved P WM Techniques or c) the input line current of a controlled rectifier (CR). switching frequencies and hardware implementation A . For this for the selection of the best technique for each area of purpose. third-harmonic currents cannot flow and thus the thirdConsequently. 24. Since there are four PWM techniques and all the aforementioned PWM techniques on the basis of three types of converters involved in this evaluation. the harmonic most applications is accompanied with uncertainty. (VSI). b) the output line current of a current source inverter (CSI). CHARACTERIZATION OF IMPROVED PWM TECHNIQUES factor. the respective switching pattern cannot be reproduced accurately by the inverter due to delays associated with the inverter switches and their respective base drives. MARCH/APRIL 1988 within the converter. Another class of improved PWM techniques that are not included in this paper are the so-called programmed PWM and the dc terminal (dc term) waveforms to represent techniques [7]-[9]. the resulting ac and ers. These features power supplies. (voltage or current source) or as a rectifier by simply applying b) UPS power supplies. neglecting other paper. and rectifier-inverter type frequency chang. inverters can be supplied from diode (instead of thyristor) rectifiers. 2 ) comprised of application. Downloaded on October 13. The Original Sine P WM Technique patterns. NO. the proper gating signals. another focus of previous work has been inverter applications neglecting in the process some The main features of the improved PWM techniques treated other equally important areas such as dc drives. iii) When a large number of harmonics needs to be eliminated. Restrictions apply. utilization and lower switching frequencies when employed b) the input voltage of a CSI. Furthermore. These techniques offer even better voltage a) the input current of a VSI. Consequently. care must application. when these techniques are employed with variable-frequencyivariable-voltageinverters Also. and lead to less-than-optimum results. [6] either b) power supplies.include the derivation of switching points. a considerable research effort has gone into minimizing the PWM disadvantages mentioned earlier. which can distortion at the converter input and output terminals. a) the line-to-line voltage of a voltage source inverter 3) high-performance rectifier-inverter type frequency changers. B. iv) Associated hardware becomes practical and cost effective only through VLSI implementation. Preliminary considerations.272 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS. the degree of difficulty of hardware implementation For these reasons this paper provides a critical evaluation of for each technique. even with mainframe computers. the resulting frequency spectra. under balanced and open neutral operating conditions. VOL. However. This technique [ 2 ] has been included for the purpose of using it as a “benchmark” to evaluate respective improved the number of switching points becomes too large to evaluate analytically. several specific PWM techniques that focus on improving source utilization and generated input/output harmonic content have been proposed lately [2]-[4]. they have a number of disadvan. Also the number of units produced must be large enough to justify initial development costs. rectifier in this paper are brought out in this section. i) Quite sophisticated control hardware is required to store and access the required large number of switching B. However. The generalized converter thus 2) rectifiers for permits the ac terminal waveforms (ac term) to represent a) dc motor drives. Specifics of PWM Techniques Treated in this Paper Since the advantages of PWM clearly outweigh the respective disadvantages. or with inverters supplied from independently regulated voltage c) the output voltage of a CR. input/output distortion 11. The applications considered include six ideal four-quadrant switches has been employed.

(g) CSIKR switch #1 gating signal. -1 tV v v v vi v v v v 90 180 2 0 w 0 w t 270 360 wt (b) r w t 90 180 270 360 (e) .BOOST AND ZIOGAS. Its main intrinsic features are shown in Fig. 2009 at 10:18 from IEEE Xplore. STATE-OF-THE-ART CARNER PWM I I 273 I 7 RC TERMINRL ( D C TERM1 TE R M I N R L ( R C TERM) I I Fig. The main advantage of this Authorized licensed use limited to: Universidad de Concepcion. 3 . (a) SPWM scheme. For many applications this low Gac value means the use of a voltage-matching transformer. techniques.866 and Gdc = 0. (f) DC term spectrum.26 . (d) AC term spectrum (e) DC term. .26 .75. 3. (b) VSI switch #1 gating signal (SWI). 1 Generalized bridge configuration. 2 . (c) AC term. The main disadvantage with this technique is that the maximum possible ac term and dc term gain values are only Gac = 0. where i) ac term gain is the ratio of maximum value (peak) of the fundamental component of the ac term to the amplitude of the unfiltered pulses comprising the same term. Restrictions apply. and ii) dc term gain is the ratio of the maximum value of the dc component of the term to the maximum amplitude of the unfiltered pulses comprising the same term.31 e 0 ie 24 42 360 FCpu) (f) 90 1B 0 270 w t (g) Fig. Sinusoidal PWM (SPWM). Downloaded on October 13. respectively.

4. C. 3). 3(e). 5(a)) allows overmodulation (with respect to the original sine PWM technique) while maintaining excellent ac term and dc term spectra. The Third-Harmonic Injection P WM Technique This improved technique 121.0. 24. Furthermore. The particulars follow. The variation is obtained by injecting additional harmonics in the respective reference waveform. 4(d)) and substantially higher than the one obtained with the original PWM technique (Fig. The resulting flat-topped waveform (Fig. 4(a) and 4(b). the input voltage of CSIs and the output voltage of CRs (all three represented by the dc terminal waveform). only the first and last 60" intervals (per half-cycle) of the ac term waveform are directly defined through intersections of respective sine reference) and triangular (carrier) waveforms. the three quality indexes used to evaluate these waveforms are defined as follows: D. where DF. The Harmonic Injection P WM Technique This technique (Fig. and 6(c). However. However. 3) through the addition of the 17-percent third-harmonic component to the original sine reference waveform. and the input (dc link) current of VSIs. 5(a). this technique provides a substantially higher ac term gain as compared with the original sine PWM technique (Fig. M = I). respectively. 2. This allows the use of neutral-toneutral connections (if required) and decoupled (individual) control of each one of the three inverter phases. 4(d). in most applications. The particulars follow. 2. OF3 dc terminal distortion factor for first-order dc-side filtering. H ( n ) amplitude of the nth harmonic. 2009 at 10:18 from IEEE Xplore. H(0) maximum dc gain Gdc.. 5(c). 3(c). 4(c)) on a lineto-line basis for VSIs and on a line basis for CSIs and CRs. E. 5. b) As shbwn in Figs. a) The analytical expression for the reference waveform is y = 1. VOL. In particular. 3(d)). 6(e)) obtained with the generalized converter shown in Fig. and 6 provide an accurate characterization of the evaluated PWM techniques. c) As shown in Fig. 4(e). as shown in Fig. 7.274 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS. F. Downloaded on October 13. Also.029 sin (9 wt). 5(e). b) The ac term again (Fig. this technique generates a substantial (2 1-percent) ac term third-harmonic component on a line-to-neutral basis. Its main intrinsic features are shown in Fig. in order to maintain the same switching frequency. 5(d)) is equal to the respective gain obtained with the modified sine PWM (Fig. DFZ ac terminal distortion factor for first-order ac-side filtering. Restrictions apply. 5) has been derived from the original sine PWM technique (Fig. 3. output converter power is controlled by varying the respective modulation index value. They include the lineto-line voltages of VSIs output line currents of CSIs.27 sin (3 wt) . NO. they also have the disadvantage of showing respective harmonic spectra at only one modulation index value (i-e. respectively. For this technique spectra are shown for VSI and CSIKR operation. and 9. 4(c). 6(a)) again allows overmodulation while improving even further the resulting frequency spectra of the ac term and dc term waveforms. The resulting flat-topped waveform (Fig. 6(d)) is equal to the one obtained with the previous two improved PWM techniques while the harmonic spectra of ac and dc terms are clearly better. a) This technique defines the ac term (Fig. Again. this technique also generates a substantial ac term third-harmonic component (17 percent) on line-to-neutral basis. b) The ac term gain (Fig. Authorized licensed use limited to: Universidad de Concepcion. the hardware implementation of this technique is as simple as with the original sine and the third-harmonic injection techniques. respectively. ac terminal distortion factor for second-order ac-side filtering. these waveforms are the ac and dc terminal waveforms (Figs. from the aforementioned b) it follows that hardware implementation for this technique is rather complex. [4] (Fig.15 sin (wt) + 0. MARCHiAPRIL 1988 technique is that it generates line-to-neutral ac spectra with no low-order third harmonics. The Modified Sine P WM Technique This is the first of the improved PWM techniques [3] treated in this paper. Furthermore. as shown in Fig. 6) is a variation of the previously discussed third-harmonic injection technique. . H(1) maximum ac gain Gac. a) The analytical expression for the reference waveform is now y = 1.19 sin (3 wt). The particulars follow. and input line currents of CRs (all three represented by the ac terminal waveform). 4. However. the hardware implementation of this technique is quite simple. The 60" to 120" intervals are obtained by "folding" the first and last 60" intervals around the 60" and 120" points. Therefore it is also necessary to investigate the quality of the various converter (voltage and current) waveforms obtained with each technique for all modulation index (M index) values. 8. 6(a). The variations of these three quality indices as a function of the M index are shown in Figs. Waveform Quality Under Variable Modulation Index Conditions Although the waveforms shown in Figs.15 sin (wt) + 0.

'E 360 ' wt - -_ 1 0 90 270 360 w t 1 0 90 180 I IIIII I 270 360 I) wt -AI . .I4 0 0 A . 2009 at 10:18 from IEEE Xplore.BOOST AND ZIOGAS: STATE-OF-THE-ART CARRIER PWM 275 1 0 -1 w t 90 180 270 360 w t (b) l .- I I 0 - 1 Ig 98 -I 180 a. Restrictions apply. Downloaded on October 13.I4 c 30 36 F(pu) Authorized licensed use limited to: Universidad de Concepcion.

2009 at 10:18 from IEEE Xplore. which is equivalent to dividing the amplitude of each harmonic by its respective order. VOL. 8 and 9 are applicable to ac and dc motor drives and any other application that uses an actual or equivalent first-order filter. Moreover.. 10 as a function of Authorized licensed use limited to: Universidad de Concepcion. to stress emphasis on the input spectral content of each technique. The rms current rating Ici of the dc link capacitor for VSI operation and the rms voltage rating V. data shown in Fig. (b) VSI switch # I gating signal (SWI). Similarly. which is approximately inversely proportional to the square of the order (n) of the harmonic. (g) Harmonic injection sinusoidal PWM (HIPWM) (1st and 3rd). load voltage) and any other static power supply that employs a second-order filter. NO. (g) CSIlCR switch # I gating signal.e. and OF3 have been defined in ways that reflect actual levels of harmonic distortion experienced in practical applications. a quality index is defined for the rms ripple value that the input filter must tolerate or support.. For example. Such filters provide harmonic attenuation. Downloaded on October 13. MARCHIAPRIL 1988 -1 tV v v v r v v v v WNY v v v V ! 2 0 90 0 wt I80 270 360 w t (b) 1 0 -1 1 1 0 lh 90 180 270 360 W t (e) 90 I88 270 360 w t Fig. These inductances provide first-order attenuation to voltage harmonics. 24.276 1 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS. (d) AC term spectrum. (c) AC term. ac and dc motors supplied from PWM static converters utilize their respective leakage and armature inductances to produce quasi-sinusoidal and quasi-dc input current waveforms. DF2. 2 . Restrictions apply. practical static uninterruptible power supplies (UPS) employ a second-order LC filter between respective inverters and loads. Therefore the OF. (f) DC term spectrum. 5.i of the dc link inductor for CSI operation is shown in Fig. (e) DC term. 7 are relevant to UPS (i. It is noted that DF. . Therefore the DF2 and OF3 data shown in Figs. (a) HIPWM scheme.

1 I I) Fig.BOOST AND ZIOGAS: STATE-OF-THE-ART CARRIER PWM 277 1719 2325 3537 4143 4749 F(pu) r IY 90 270 360 WT. 2009 at 10:18 from IEEE Xplore. (e) MSPWM CSI/CR operation.6 I ' . Harmonic injection sinusoidal PWM (HIPWM) (lst. (c) MSPWM VSI operation. Downloaded on October 13. (e) DC term. (d) AC term spectrum. and 9th). Restrictions apply. (a) SPWM. (b) HIPWM (1st and 3rd).2 ' ' . (c) AC term. Second-order filter distortion factor (ac term). . (a) HIPWM scheme. 3rd. El ' . (d) HIPWM (lst. and 9th). 7 . 3rd. 6 .4 I ' . @) VSI switch #1 gating signal (SW1). Authorized licensed use limited to: Universidad de Concepcion. (9) CSIKR switch #1 gating signal.8 ' ' I H index Fig. (f) DC term spectrum.

VOL. IC. NO. 9. DF. Inverter dc terminal rms ripple. It is finally noted that although the exact DF. and DF. Rectifier input capacitor rms ripple current.278 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS. (b) HIPWM (1st and 3rd). and Zcj. Zci v/i 81 ' . 3rd. 7-9. The rms current of the input capacitor Zcr for controlled expressions for IC. 4(d). DF2.. all improved PWM techniques are a) better than the original sine technique. (a) SPWM. 3(a). 4(f). careful investigation of the modified sine PWM technique shows [3] that for the same ac term and dc term waveforms. the switching frequency variable has been eliminated by using the same switching frequency for all PWM techniques. 7-11 are valid for only one particular common-carrier frequency (shown in Figs. (e) MSPWM CSI/CR operation. 4(i). and 9th). A. DF. CSI rms input ripple voltage. 24.E 1 ' 1 M index 1 Fig. V/i. EVALUATION OF IMPROVED PWM TECHNIQUES ICl/VII pu . Restrictions apply. 6(d). 4(a). ZIi. (c) MSPWM VSI operation. DF3. and 9th). 7-10. 11.2 1 ' . and 9th). V.. (c) MSPWM VSI operation. 3rd. Because of this asymmetry.375 2 - . The variation of these performance indices as a function of modulation ( M index) and rated load current conditions is shown in Figs. 10 and 11 (for all four PWM techniques treated in this paper). CSI operation-inductor ripple voltage (V. 3rd.. From this table it is obvious that regarding ac/dc gains. (d) HIPWM (lst. It is noted that these gain values are independent of switching frequency and are directly proportional to the respective modulation index values ( M index). modulation index.). their shapes and their relative position are independent of carrier frequency.4 1 1 .. (b) HIPWM (1st and 3rd). 5(d).). 2.75 r Fig. These figures show that Authorized licensed use limited to: Universidad de Concepcion. A C and DC Term Gains Respective ac term and dc term gains for all four PWM techniques are shown in Figs.. and 6(f) and are summarized in Table I. (c) MSPWM VSI operation. The variations of DF. 5(f). For the meaningful interpretation of evaluation data. In this section the previously discussed and analyzed techniques are evaluated by using relevant data obtained in previous sections. . (d) HIPWM (lst. Downloaded on October 13. (d) HIPWM (lst. Vin(n)/Zin(n) rms magnitude of n th harmonic. as a function of M index are presented in Figs.. CSIs. DF.6 ' ' . this technique has been represented twice in Figs. 1 1 1 .. (a) SPWM. and IC. these data can be used for the general evaluation of the subject PWM techniques.. Consequently.. 3(f).(a) SPWM. where VSI rms input ripple current. Quality Factors DF. 3(d). VSI operation-capacitor ripple current (Ic. and 6(a)). (e) MSPWM CSI operation. However. 4(h). and Zcr are I m B. 2009 at 10:18 from IEEE Xplore. First-order filter distortion factor (dc term).ZCr values shown in Figs. b) equivalent among themselves. (e) MSPWM. I - r B&D 8 " " " " ' ~ Fig. and CRs require lower switching frequencies than VSIs. 10. (b) HIPWM (1st and 3rd). 5(a). MARCHIAPRIL 1988 Irns pu 7- . Icr CR rms input ripple current.

the variation of IC. 3rd. 2009 at 10:18 from IEEE Xplore.9.8. HRRWONIC INJECTION (flg.BOOST AND ZIOGAS: STATE-OF-THE-ART CARRIER PWM 279 TABLE 1 MAXIMUM A C AND DC GAIN VALUES Gac AND Gdc (rn = 1) I I TECHNIQUE ORIGINRL S I N E PWM ( f l g . Samples of these results are shown in Authorized licensed use limited to: Universidad de Concepcion. iii) for CR operation. (c) Input current. Next. C 7 1 C83 [ 9 1 F I G S . Because of the apparent importance of this subject. similar conclusions can be drawn for CSI-based UPS. IV. From the figures it can be seen that i) for VSI operation. 10 and 11. It is noted that the maxima of the I. and CSI-based motor drives.758 I I I I I I I I MODIFIED SINE P W W (f I g . 12. Experimental waveforms for VSI using H I P W M (1st. (b) Output line-to-line voltage spectrum. SELECTION OF OPTIMUM PWM TECHNIQUE ACCORDING TO APPLICATION As stated earlier.5. detailed information is given in Table 11. 6 8.866 I 0. By following the same approach. from the DFI definition given earlier and the results presented in Fig. curves occur around the M = 0. etc.ll F I G S .9. HIPWM and MSPWM offer the best results.9. . 6 8.065 (approximately).V. V. This fact should not be overlooked when considering the ratings of respective filter components. 4 ) T H I R D HARMONIC INJECTION ~ ~~ I I ctcg.. C7 I C8 I C 9 I F I G S .i.10 SEE R E F S . 7 it is justifiable to say that for UPS VSI applications (without a dc Fig. as a function of the M index is shown in Figs. ii) for CSI operation. Therefore it is possible to use respective analytical data from Figs. (a) Output line-to-line voltage. (d) Input current spectrum. and DF3 reflect actual levels of harmonic distortion experienced in practical applications..10 SEE REFS.65 (approximately) while the modified sine technique becomes increasingly better for M > 0. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS The validity of selected results predicted in previous sections has been verified experimentally on a 1-kVA laboratory prototype system. and I .866 I Gdc 8. Restrictions apply. voltage control stage) the harmonic injection technique is the best choice.866 T A B L E I1 OPTIMUM P W M TECHNIQUES ACCORDING TO APPLICATION RPPLICRTION V S I BRSED RC MOTOR D R I V E S OPTIMUM P W W TECHNIQUE LOW SPEEDS: HRRWONIC I N J E C T I O N TECHNIQUE H I G H SPEEDS:PROGRRWMED HARMONIC E L I M I N R T I O N TECHNIQUES ( P H E T s ) C S I BRSED RC MOTOR D R I V E S H I G H PERFORMRNCE: M O D I I F I E D S I N E PWM TECHNIQUE TYPICRL: PHETt PWM R E C T I F I E R S FOR C S I INVERTER RND DC WOTOR DRIVES UPS ( W I T H UNREGULRTED DC B U S ) UPS ( W I T H REGULRTED BUS) HARMONIC I N J E C T I O N TECHNIQUE HRRMONIC I N J E C T I O N TECHNIQUE PHETs REFERENCES F I G S . C 7 3 [ E l C91 i) for voltage source inverter (VSI) applications the harmonic injection technique offers the overall best quality ac term waveforms. and 9th). quality factors D F I . the harmonic injection PWM (HIPWM) technique demands the lowest ripple current from the input filter capacitor. Downloaded on October 13.18 DC SEE R E F S . 7-1 1 to select the optimum technique(s) for each of these applications. For example.DF2. modified sinusoidal PWM (MSPWM) produces the lowest ripple voltage across the link reactor. VSI. and V.6) I 8.6 point instead of the M = 1 point.. ii) for current source inverter (CSI) applications the harmonic injection technique is best for M < 0. .7 3. 3 ) I I Gac I I I I 0. 6. 4.

Canada. no. Montreal. Tokyo. G . where he is engaged in teaching and research in the area of static power converters He also has participated as a Consultant in several industrial projects Authorized licensed use limited to: Universidad de Concepcion. Fig. Appl. [2] R. 3. program at Concordia University. The theoretical results for the same operation are shown in Fig. and 1978.Eng. “Improved three phase pulse width modulation for overmodulation. 1983 IPEC. Sept. Toronto. 4. ”Generalized techniques of harmonic elimination and voltage control in thyristor inverters: Part 11. no. 1974. (a) Output line current. Toronto. Record.S.” in IEEE-IAS I985 Conf.” IEEE Trans. /Oct . Ind. Schonung and H. Chicago. Japan. “Present trends in variable speed ac drives. 13. PQ. “Time domain functional model for three phase PWM inverterirectifier converters. P. The theoretical results for the same operating conditions are shown in Fig.280 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS. [6] E.” in Conf. CONCLUSION In this paper a critical evaluation of state-of-the-art carrier PWM techniques has been presented. [7] H. 5 . A. The close agreement between the analytical and experimental results prove the validity of the theoretical evaluations made. Grant. SeptJOct. 1. 12 shows the experimental terminal waveforms and the associated spectra of a VSI operating with HIPWM (lst. Tokyo.. R. vol. Stephanovic. Patel and R . ON. 141 J. vol. R . Detailed information has been presented in Tables I and 11. Appl. vol. 1984. Onishi and H.” Brown Boveri Rev. 1974. Hoft. Canada. (c) Input voltage. [5] A. IL. IA-16. “Static frequency changers with subharmonic control in conjunction with reversible variable speed ac drives. Ind. P. “Generalized techniques of harmonic elimination and voltage control in thyristor inverters: Part I . Bonnert and R. 1984 IEEE-IAS Annual Meeting. S. Wiechmann. 13 shows the experimental terminal waveforms and the associated spectra of a CSI operating with MSPWM at modulation index = 1 and a carrier frequency of 33 pu (results in 22-pu switching frequency). and H. Stefanovic. vol. 12 and 13.. 6. In particular. Through the use of relevant theoretical and experimental results it has been shown that for each major area of application there is a specific Micliael A . 1980.. in 1973. no. “The use of harmonic distortion to increase the output voltage of a three-phase PWM inverter. Stemmler. A. 24. degree in 1983 and is currently enrolled in the Ph. Fig. S. 1A-10.” IEEE Trans. D. Jan. Canada./Feb. . Aug. Wu. 2 . respectively Since 1978 he has been with the Department of Electrical Engineering of Concordia University in Montreal. “A novel PWM technique for three phase inverter/converter. Ind. Canada He has participated in several industrial research and development projects in the area of mediumpower UPS Phoivos D. 1964. [9] W. MARCHIAPRIL 1988 optimum PWM technique. vol.” IEEE Trans. Appl. Houldsworth and D. and Ph D degree\ from the University of Toronto. M. harmonic elimination. Experimental waveforms for CSI using MSPWM. S.” in Conf. Muller-Hellmann. Downloaded on October 13. Restrictions apply. 1 Fig.” IEEE Trans. Hoft. C. Figs. Japan. 3rd./Sept. 5 . Okitsu. Ziogas (S’75-M’78) received the B S . Rec. Skudelny. REFERENCES [l] V. (b) Output line current spectrum. Boost (S’82) obtained the B. O N . voltage control techniques. . “Power converters for feeding asynchronous traction motors of single phase ac vehicles. Ziogas. Appl.” presented at IPEC 1983. Lienau.. Rec. (d) Input voltage spectrum. VOL. [3] T. MayiJune 1973. Patel and R. [8] H. PQ.. and 9th) at modulation index = 1 and a carrier frequency of 21 pu. A. VI. IA-20. G. NO.D. and V.. 2009 at 10:18 from IEEE Xplore. LA-9. Ind.

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