This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
History of trigonometry - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
History of trigonometry
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Early study of triangles can be traced to the 2nd millennium BC, in Egyptian mathematics (Rhind Mathematical Papyrus) and Babylonian mathematics. Systematic study of trigonometric functions began in Hellenistic mathematics, reaching India as part of Hellenistic astronomy. In Indian astronomy, the study of trigonometric functions flowered in the Gupta period, especially due to Aryabhata (6th century). During the Middle Ages, the study of trigonometry continued in Islamic mathematics, whence it was adopted as a separate subject in the Latin West beginning in the Renaissance with Regiomontanus. The development of modern trigonometry shifted during the western Age of Enlightenment, beginning with 17th-century mathematics (Isaac Newton and James Stirling) and reaching its modern form with Leonhard Euler (1748).
1 Etymology 2 Development 2.1 Early trigonometry 2.2 Greek mathematics 2.3 Indian mathematics 2.4 Islamic mathematics 2.5 Chinese mathematics 2.6 European mathematics 3 See also 4 Citations and footnotes 5 References
The term "trigonometry" derives from the Greek "τριγωνομετρία" ("trigonometria"), meaning "triangle measuring", from "τρίγωνο" (triangle) + "μετρεῖν" (to measure). Our modern word "sine" is derived from the Latin word sinus, which means "bay", "bosom" or "fold", translating Arabic jayb. The Arabic term is in origin a corruption of Sanskrit jīvā "chord". Sanskrit jīvā in learned usage was a synonym of jyā "chord", originally the term for "bow-string". Sanskrit jīvā was loaned into Arabic as jiba. This term was then transformed into the genuine Arabic word jayb, meaning "bosom, fold, bay", either by the Arabs or by a mistake of the European translators such as Robert of Chester (perhaps because the words were written without vowels), who translated jayb into Latin as sinus. Particularly Fibonacci's sinus rectus arcus proved influential in establishing the term sinus. The words "minute" and "second" are derived from the Latin phrases partes minutae primae and partes minutae secundae. These roughly translate to "first small parts" and "second small parts".
however. Theorems on the lengths of chords are applications of the law of sines. in the strict sense of the word. but in their equivalent chord form. much debate as to whether it is a table of Pythagorean triples.org/wiki/History_of_trigonometry 2/12 . or the run-to-rise ratio of its face. used a primitive form of trigonometry for building pyramids in the 2nd millennium BC. Based on one interpretation of the Plimpton 322 cuneiform tablet (c. Although there is no trigonometry in the works of Euclid and Archimedes. there are theorems presented in a geometric way (rather than a trigonometric way) that are equivalent to specific trigonometric laws or formulas. sin α/sin β < α/β < tan α/tan β en. on the other hand. respectively. as pre-Hellenic societies lacked the concept of an angle measure. The Rhind Mathematical Papyrus. and the solar and lunar eclipses. the free encyclopedia Development Early trigonometry The ancient Egyptians and Babylonians had known of theorems on the ratios of the sides of similar triangles for many centuries. in modern notation. In other words.Wikipedia. 1680–1620 BC). To compensate for the lack of a table of chords. they were limited to studying the sides of triangles instead. A chord's perpendicular bisector passes through the center of the circle and bisects the angle. The Babylonian astronomers kept detailed records on the rising and setting of stars. However. the chord is the line that subtends the arc. the quantity he found for the seked is the cotangent of the angle to the base of the pyramid and its face.7/8/13 History of trigonometry . written by the Egyptian scribe Ahmes (c. The chord of an angle subtends the arc of the angle. the motion of the planets. what is its seked?" Ahmes' solution to the problem is the ratio of half the side of the base of the pyramid to its height. The Egyptians. a solution of quadratic equations. mathematicians of Aristarchus' time would sometimes use the statement that. Given a circle and an arc on the circle. contains the following problem related to trigonometry: "If a pyramid is 250 cubits high and the side of its base 360 cubits long. a number of trigonometric identities and theorems that are known today were also known to Hellenistic mathematicians. propositions twelve and thirteen of book two of the Elements are the laws of cosines for obtuse and acute angles. There is. One half of the bisected chord is the sine of the bisected angle. Due to this relationship. that is. some have even asserted that the ancient Babylonians had a table of secants. 1900 BC). Greek mathematics Ancient Greek and Hellenistic mathematicians made use of the chord.wikipedia. And Archimedes' theorem on broken chords is equivalent to formulas for sines of sums and differences of angles. and consequently the sine function is also known as the "half-chord". or a trigonometric table. For instance. all of which required familiarity with angular distances measured on the celestial sphere.
Ptolemy's table of chords gives the lengths of chords of a circle of diameter 120 as a function of the number of degrees n in the corresponding arc of the circle.Wikipedia. It seems that the systematic use of the 360° circle is largely due to Hipparchus and his table of chords. or the Mathematical Syntaxis.wikipedia. he established a basis for spherical triangles analogous to the Euclidean basis for plane triangles. Book II of Sphaerica applies spherical geometry to astronomy. the zodiac had been divided into twelve "signs" or thirty-six "decans". en. And Book III contains the "theorem of Menelaus"." Hipparchus was the first to tabulate the corresponding values of arc and chord for a series of angles. A special case of Ptolemy's theorem appeared as proposition 93 in Euclid's Data. for n ranging from 1/2 to 180 by increments of 1/2. He further gave his famous "rule of six quantities". a division of the day that may have been suggested by Babylonian astronomy. the free encyclopedia whenever 0° < β < α < 90°. and astronomy relies on trigonometry. that the sum of the products of the opposite sides of a cyclic quadrilateral is equal to the product of the diagonals. 260 BC). since he measured an angle in terms of a fraction of a quadrant. but he did not distinguish between congruent and symmetric spherical triangles. Hipparchus may have taken the idea of this division from Hypsicles who had earlier divided the day into 360 parts. that two spherical triangles are congruent if corresponding angles are equal. The first trigonometric table was apparently compiled by Hipparchus of Nicaea (180 – 125 BCE). Ptolemy further derived the equivalent of the half-angle formula  Ptolemy used these results to create his trigonometric tables. It is due to the Babylonian sexagesimal numeral system that each degree is divided into sixty minutes and each minute is divided into sixty seconds. it is known that the systematic introduction of the 360° circle came a little after Aristarchus of Samos composed On the Sizes and Distances of the Sun and Moon (ca. Ptolemy's theorem leads to the equivalent of the four sum-and-difference formulas for sine and cosine that are today known as Ptolemy's formulas. A theorem that was central to Ptolemy's calculation of chords was what is still known today as Ptolemy's theorem. 168 AD) expanded upon Hipparchus' Chords in a Circle in his Almagest . A seasonal cycle of roughly 360 days could have corresponded to the signs and decans of the zodiac by dividing each sign into thirty parts and each decan into ten parts. now known as Aristarchus' inequality. He establishes a theorem that is without Euclidean analogue. The Almagest is primarily a work on astronomy. The thirteen books of the Almagest are the most influential and significant trigonometric work of all antiquity. although Ptolemy himself used chords instead of sine and cosine. but whether these tables were derived from Hipparchus' work cannot be determined. 90 – ca. who is now consequently known as "the father of trigonometry.org/wiki/History_of_trigonometry 3/12 . 100 AD) wrote in three books his Sphaerica. Menelaus of Alexandria (ca. In ancient astronomy. In Book I. Claudius Ptolemy (ca. Although it is not known when the systematic use of the 360° circle came into mathematics. Menelaus' theorem Later.7/8/13 History of trigonometry . Another theorem that he establishes is that the sum of the angles of a spherical triangle is greater than 180°.
He developed the concepts of the power series and Taylor series. and otkram jya for inverse sine. and discovered many trigonometric results. kojya for cosine. and produced the power series expansions of sine. known as the Siddhantas (of which there were five. His works were expanded by his followers at the Kerala School up to the 16th century. collected and expanded upon the developments of the Siddhantas in an important work called the Aryabhatiya. The words jya and kojya eventually became sine and cosine respectively after a mistranslation described above.wikipedia.7/8/13 History of trigonometry . In the 7th century. The Siddhantas and the Aryabhatiya contain the earliest surviving tables of sine values and versine (1 − cosine) values. Bhaskara I produced a formula for calculating the sine of an acute angle without the use of a table. diameter. Brahmagupta redeveloped the formula (also derived earlier. Another later Indian author on trigonometry was Bhaskara II in the 12th century. Bhaskara II developed spherical trigonometry. Soon afterwards. Indian mathematics See also: Indian Mathematics and Indian Astronomy The next significant developments of trigonometry were in India. although descriptions by other ancient authors leave little doubt that they once existed. Aryabhata (476–550 AD). in 3. Bhaskara II was the first to discover and trigonometric results like: Madhava (c. en. radius. cosine. versine.org/wiki/History_of_trigonometry 4/12 .9%: Later in the 7th century. and inverse sine. which had a relative error of less than 1. Influential works from the 4th–5th century. while also defining the cosine. the most complete survivor of which is the Surya Siddhanta) first defined the sine as the modern relationship between half an angle and half a chord. He also gave the following approximation formula for sin(x ). and arctangent. 1400) made early strides in the analysis of trigonometric functions and their infinite series expansions. to an accuracy of 4 decimal places. utkrama-jya for versine. he produced a sine table to 12 decimal places of accuracy and a cosine table to 9 decimal places of accuracy.Wikipedia. and circumference of a circle in terms of trigonometric functions. He also gave the power series of π and the θ.75° intervals from 0° to 90°. They used the words jya for sine. the free encyclopedia Neither the tables of Hipparchus nor those of Ptolemy have survived to the present day. another Indian mathematician and astronomer. as mentioned above) and the Brahmagupta interpolation formula for computing sine values. tangent. Using the Taylor series approximations of sine and cosine.
Islamic mathematics The Indian works were later translated and expanded in the medieval Islamic world by Muslim mathematicians of mostly Persian and Arab descent. Series sin x = x − x 3 / 3! + x 5 / 5! − x 7 / 7! + . AD 820) five sides were known. in principle. S. However. though this method proved to be clumsy and difficult. there was an obvious challenge to find a simpler trigonometric method.." In addition to Indian works..7/8/13 History of trigonometry . Hellenistic methods dealing with spherical triangles were also known.wikipedia. particularly the method of Menelaus of Alexandria.. its sides and angles. by applying Menelaus' Balancing by Muhammad ibn Mūsā theorem it was possible to solve one of the six sides. tan−1x = x − x 3 / 3 + x 5 / 5 − x 7 / Madhava's arctangent series 7 + ..org/wiki/History_of_trigonometry 5/12 . repeated applications of Menelaus' theorem were required. who enunciated a large number of theorems which freed the subject of trigonometry from dependence upon the complete quadrilateral. by use of the table of chords and Menelaus' theorem. E. astronomers initially used Menalaus' method to calculate the place of the Page from The Compendious Book on moon and stars.. The Indian text the Yuktibhāṣā contains proof for the expansion of the sine and cosine functions and the derivation and proof of the power series for inverse tangent. For medieval Islamic astronomers. The Yuktibhāṣā also contains rules for finding the sines and the cosines of the sum and difference of two angles. en. To tell the time from the sun's altitude.. S.Wikipedia. In order to observe holy days on the Islamic calendar in which timings were determined by phases of the moon. discovered by Madhava. the application of the theorem to spherical problems was very difficult in practice. Kennedy points out that while it was possible in pre-lslamic mathematics to compute the magnitudes of a spherical figure. the free encyclopedia No. who developed "Menelaus' theorem" to deal with spherical problems. Kennedy. Name Western discoverers of the series and approximate dates of discovery Isaac Newton (1670) and Wilhelm Leibniz (1676) Isaac Newton (1670) and Wilhelm Leibniz (1676) James Gregory (1671) and Wilhelm Leibniz (1676) 1 2 3 Madhava's sine series cos x = 1 − x 2 / 2! + x 4 / 4! − x 6 / Madhava's cosine series 6! + . it was after this development in Islamic mathematics that "the first real trigonometry emerged. for instance. in the sense that only then did the object of study become the spherical or plane triangle. According to E. but only if the other al-Khwārizmī (c. It Calculation by Completion and involved setting up two intersecting right triangles. as was the case in Hellenistic mathematics due to the application of Menelaus' theorem.
and produced the first table of cosecants for each degree from 1° to 90°.Wikipedia. Muhammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī produced accurate sine and cosine tables. in the work of Abū al-Wafā' al-Būzjānī. see above) In his original text. Nasīr al-Dīn al-Tūsī was the first to treat trigonometry as a mathematical discipline independent from astronomy. the Egyptian astronomer Ibn Yunus performed many careful trigonometric calculations and demonstrated the following trigonometric identity: Al-Jayyani (989–1079) of al-Andalus wrote The book of unknown arcs of a sphere. the free encyclopedia In the early 9th century AD. and his "definition of ratios as numbers" and "method of solving a spherical triangle when all sides are unknown" are likely to have influenced Regiomontanus. Biruni himself introduced triangulation techniques to measure the size of the Earth and the distances between various places. if we want the sine of the difference. who applied it to practical uses such as surveying and Islamic geography. we add the products. Abū al-Wafā' states: "If we want that. Habash al-Hasib al-Marwazi produced the first table of cotangents. Abū al-Wafā also established the angle addition and difference identities presented with complete proofs: For the second one. In the 13th century. Abu al-Wafa had sine tables in 0. we take their difference". By the 10th century AD. It "contains formulae for right-handed triangles. the text states: "We multiply the sine of each of the two arcs by the cosine of the other minutes. In 830 AD. If we want the sine of the sum. which is considered "the first treatise on spherical trigonometry" in its modern form. and the first table of tangents. He was also a pioneer in spherical trigonometry. to 8 decimal places of accuracy. the general law of sines. Omar Khayyám (1048–1131) solved cubic equations using approximate numerical solutions found by interpolation in trigonometric tables." This treatise later had a "strong influence on European mathematics". as described by Abu Rayhan Biruni in the early 11th century. and the result is half the sine of the double". In the late 11th century.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_trigonometry 6/12 . Muhammad ibn Jābir al-Harrānī al-Battānī (Albatenius) (853-929 AD) discovered the reciprocal functions of secant and cosecant. we multiply the given sine by the cosine minutes. and the solution of a spherical triangle by means of the polar triangle.7/8/13 History of trigonometry . and he developed spherical trigonometry en. and accurate tables of tangent values. Muslim mathematicians were using all six trigonometric functions. He also developed the following trigonometric formula: (a special case of Ptolemy's angle-addition formula. He also discovered the law of sines for spherical trigonometry: Also in the late 10th and early 11th centuries AD. The method of triangulation was first developed by Muslim mathematicians.25° increments.
[citation needed ] Chinese mathematics In China.wikipedia. However.Wikipedia. Needham states that: Guo used a quadrangular spherical pyramid. Jamshīd al-Kāshī provided the first explicit statement of the law of cosines in a form suitable for triangulation. the length of which he approximated as Sal Restivo writes that Shen's work in the lengths of arcs of circles provided the basis for spherical trigonometry developed in the 13th century by the mathematician and astronomer Guo Shoujing (1231–1316).org/wiki/History_of_trigonometry 7/12 . Hellenistic. he created an approximation of the arc s of a circle given the diameter d. early forms of trigonometry were not as widely appreciated as in the earlier Greek. Although the Chinese excelled in other fields of mathematics such as solid geometry. sagitta v .[citation needed ] Ulugh Beg also gives accurate tables of sines and tangents correct to 8 decimal places around the same time. The polymath Chinese scientist. the basal quadrilateral of which consisted of one equatorial and one ecliptic arc. together with two meridian arcs.By such methods he was able to obtain the du lü (degrees of equator corresponding to degrees of ecliptic). He also gave trigonometric tables of values of the sine function to four sexagesimal digits (equivalent to 8 decimal places) for each 1° of argument with differences to be added for each 1/60 of 1°. and the cha lü (difference between chords of arcs differing by 1 degree). the ji cha (values of chords for given ecliptic arcs). In the 15th century. where Chinese mathematicians began to express greater emphasis for the need of spherical trigonometry in calendrical science and astronomical calculations. mathematician and official Shen Kuo (1031–1095) used trigonometric functions to solve mathematical problems of chords and Guo Shoujing (1231–1316)  arcs. Instead.7/8/13 History of trigonometry . and length c of the chord subtending the arc. Katz writes that in Shen's formula "technique of intersecting circles". binomial theorem. one of which passed through the summer solstice point. He listed the six distinct cases of a right-angled triangle in spherical trigonometry. and the secant were known.[citation needed ] In France.. he stated the law of sines for plane and spherical triangles. Victor J. compiled in 718 AD during the Tang Dynasty. Gauchet and Joseph Needham state. and provided proofs for both these laws. discovered the law of tangents for spherical triangles. en. Guo Shoujing used spherical trigonometry in his calculations to improve the calendar system and Chinese astronomy. Indian and Islamic worlds. Along with a later 17th-century Chinese illustration of Guo's mathematical proofs. and complex algebraic formulas. this embryonic state of trigonometry in China slowly began to change and advance during the Song Dynasty (960–1279). while practical use of plane trigonometry in using the sine.. the early Chinese used an empirical substitute known as chong cha. and in his On the Sector Figure. the tangent. Aryabhata's table of sines were translated into the Chinese mathematical book of the Kaiyuan Zhanjing. the law of cosines is still referred to as the theorem of Al-Kashi. As the historians L. the free encyclopedia into its present form.
wrote On Sines. Leonhard Euler's Introductio in analysin infinitorum (1748) was mostly responsible for establishing the analytic treatment of trigonometric functions in Europe. Chords and Arcs. Regiomontanus was perhaps the first mathematician in Europe to treat trigonometry as a distinct mathematical discipline. Levi ben Gershon. In the 18th century. in particular proving the sine law for plane triangles and giving five-figure sine tables. Isaac Newton in a 1702 portrait by Godfrey Kneller. A simplified trigonometric table. Also in the 18th century. unnamed. with tables for all six trigonometric functions. The works of James Gregory in the 17th century and Colin Maclaurin in the 18th century were also very influential in the development of trigonometric series. See also Greek mathematics History of mathematics Trigonometric functions Trigonometry Aryabhata's sine table Citations and footnotes en. another substantial work in Chinese trigonometry would not be published again until 1607. as well as his later Tabulae directionum which included the tangent function. the free encyclopedia Despite the achievements of Shen and Guo's work in trigonometry. to calculate navigation courses. and laid out in the 1436 atlas of Venetian captain Andrea Bianco. and cosec. The Opus palatinum de triangulis of Georg Joachim Rheticus...org/wiki/History_of_trigonometry 8/12 . In the 17th century. It is described by Ramon Llull of Majorca in 1295. was probably the first in Europe to define trigonometric functions directly in terms of right triangles instead of circles.wikipedia. defining them as infinite series and presenting "Euler's formula" eix = cos x + i sin x .. European mathematics In 1342. Prior to this. with the dual publication of Euclid's Elements by Chinese official and astronomer Xu Guangqi (1562–1633) and the Italian Jesuit Matteo Ricci (1552–1610). Isaac Newton and James Stirling developed the general Newton–Stirling interpolation formula for trigonometric functions.. a student of Copernicus. cot. Euler used the near-modern abbreviations sin. cos. known as Gersonides. was used by sailors in the Mediterranean Sea during the 14th-15th Centuries. tang. in his De triangulis omnimodus written in 1464. Roger Cotes had computed the derivative of sine in his Harmonia Mensurarum (1722).Wikipedia..7/8/13 History of trigonometry . sec. this work was finished by Rheticus' student Valentin Otho in 1596. the "toleta de marteloio". Brook Taylor defined the general Taylor series and gave the series expansions and approximations for all six trigonometric functions.
are the laws of cosines for obtuse and acute angles respectively. ^ a b c Boyer (1991). the ancient Egyptians and Babylonians. such a study might better be called "trilaterometry." A cycle of the seasons of roughly 360 days could readily be made to correspond to the system of zodiacal signs and decans by subdividing each sign into thirty parts and each decan into ten parts. and it is likely that Eudoxus had used ratios and angle measures in determining the size of the earth and the relative distances of the sun and the moon. pp. Included is a theorem without Euclidean analogue – that two spherical triangles are congruent if corresponding angles are equal (Menelaus did not distinguish between congruent and symmetric spherical triangles). We have seen that Archimedes' theorem on the broken chord can readily be translated into trigonometric language analogous to formulas for sines of sums and differences of angles.org/wiki/History_of_trigonometry 9/12 . In the works of Euclid there is no trigonometry in the strict sense of the word. The second book of the Sphaerica describes the application of spherical geometry to astronomical phenomena and is of little mathematical interest. than "trigonometry. each of these latter into sixty partes minutae secundae. ^ Joseph (2000b. of chords in a circle." or the measure of three sided polygons (trilaterals). he seems to have confused this with the word jaib (perhaps because vowels were omitted)." 7." The Hindus had given the name jiva to the half-chord in trigonometry. where the zodiac had been divided into twelve "signs" or 36 "decans. the Latin word for "bay" or "inlet. Theorems on ratios of the sides of similar triangles had been known to. pp. hence.] It is not unlikely that the 260-degree measure was carried over from astronomy." When Robert of Chester came to translate the technical word jiba." The Hindus had given the name jiva to the half-chord in trigonometry. 158–159. ^ a b c d e f Maor. "Greek Trigonometry and Mensuration".'" 4. Propositions II. and the Arabs had taken this over as jiba. With the Greeks we first find a systematic study of relationships between angles (or arcs) in a circle and the lengths of chords subtending these." 2. it was natural for Ptolemy to subdivide his degrees into sixty partes minutae primae. hence. then chord A' en. 163. ^ a b c Boyer (1991). Princeton University Press. stated in geometric rather than trigonometric language and proved by a method similar to that used by Euclid in connection with the Pythagorean theorem. Properties of chords. ISBN 0-691-09541-8 3. ^ a b c d e f Boyer (1991). pp. and so on.4 we should write that chord AB is twice the sine of half the central angle AOB (multiplied by the radius of the circle).Wikipedia.383–84). "It should be recalled that form the days of Hipparchus until modern times there were no such things as trigonometric ratios. as we have seen. and after them the Hindus and the Arabs. he seems to have confused this with the word jaib (perhaps because vowels were omitted). or nation. "In Book I of this treatise Menelaus establishes a basis for spherical triangles analogous to that of Euclid I for plane triangles. p. In the circle in Fig. These at first took the form... 10." the measure of parts of a triangle. In the Arabic language there is also the word jaib meaning 'bay' or 'inlet. like other branches of mathematics. "Greek Trigonometry and Mensuration". and it became incumbent upon Ptolemy to associate numerical values (or approximations) with the chords. It undoubtedly was the sexagesimal system that led Ptolemy to subdivide the diameter of his trigonometric circle into 120 parts. In view of the pre-Hellenic lack of the concept of angle measure. the free encyclopedia 1. 5. Our common system of angle measure may stem from this correspondence. ^ a b O'Connor (1996). ^ Boyer (1991). contains the well known "theorem of Menelaus" as part of what is essentially spherical trigonometry in the typical Greek form – a geometry or trigonometry of chords in a circle. and the Arabs had taken this over as jiba. The Greeks.' When Robert of Chester came to translate the technical word jiba. page 252: It was Robert of Chester's translation from the Arabic that resulted in our word "sine. and the theorem A + B + C > 180° is established. Menelaus and his Greek successors instead referred to AB simply as the chord corresponding to the arc AB. Eli (1998). Trigonometric Delights. the last. It is from the Latin phrases that translators used in this connection that our words "minute" and "second" have been derived.12 and 13 of the Elements. "Greek Trigonometry and Mensuration". 20. 166–167. ^ a b c Boyer (1991). he used the word sinus. and used by. Moreover since the Babylonian position system for fractions was so obviously superior to the Egyptians unit fractions and the Greek common fractions. used trigonometric lines. he used the word sinus. for example. as measures of central and inscribed angles in circles. 8. p. page 252: "It was Robert of Chester's translation from the Arabic that resulted in our word "sine. was not the work of any one man. "Trigonometry. were familiar to the Greeks of Hippocrates' day. Theorems on the lengths of chords are essentially applications of the modern law of sines. each of these he further subdivided into sixty minutes and each minute of length sixty seconds. but there are theorems equivalent to specific trigonometric laws or formulas. If BOB' is a diameter of the circle. Book III. [." 6.wikipedia. In the Arabic language there is also the word jaib meaning "bay" or "inlet.7/8/13 History of trigonometry . the Latin word for 'bay' or 'inlet.
the first trigonometric table apparently was compiled by the astronomer Hipparchus of Nicaea (ca. p. pp. pp. 10. "Greek Trigonometry and Mensuration". [. "Instead we have an Aristarchan treatise. 21. 17. [. ^ a b O'Connor and Robertson (2000). assume that he was born at the end of the 1st century. "It is not known just when the systematic use of the 360° circle came into mathematics. "The theorem of Menelaus played a fundamental role in spherical trigonometry and astronomy. It is clear that in astronomy Ptolemy made use of the catalog of star positions bequeathed by Hipparchus. G. ISBN 0-691-00260-6 ^ a b c d Boyer (1991). 159. 16... "For some two and a half centuries. leads to the result sin(α − β) = sin α cos β − cos α sin Β . p. more accurately. but the extent of the indebtedness cannot be reliably assessed." Aristarchus had known that in a given circle the ratio of arc to chord decreases as the arc decreases from 180° to 0°. perhaps composed earlier (ca. "Greek Trigonometry and Mensuration". therefore. Princeton University Press. Trigonometric tables not having been developed yet. Similar reasoning leads to the formula [. 13.wikipedia. chord of the difference – that Ptolemy found especially useful in building up his tables. for 0° < β < α < 90°. Ptolemy's Almagest. Volume 3. the free encyclopedia 9. 12. 209. 18. It was the formula for sine of the difference – or.)" More than one of | a u t h o r =and | l a s t =specified (help) a b ^ Boyer (1991).. 210 ^ Boyer (1991). 215 ^ Joseph (2000a." ^ Boyer.. 162. 164–166. presumably during the second half of the 2nd century BC. the sum of the products of the opposite sides of a cyclic quadrilateral is equal to the product of the diagonals.7/8/13 History of trigonometry . but by far the most influential and significant trigonometric work of all antiquity was composed by Ptolemy of Alexandria about half a century after Menelaus. a writer who lived in the 10th century. 19.] Of the life of the author we are as little informed as we are of that of the author of the Elements.285–86).] Ptolemy's theorem." More than one of | a u t h o r = and | l a s t =specified (help) ^ Boyer (1991). therefore. who earlier had divided the day into parts. a subdivision that may have been suggested by Babylonian astronomy. However.] Central to the calculation of Ptolemy's chords was a geometric proposition still known as "Ptolemy's theorem": [.Wikipedia. (1998). (The systematic introduction of the 360° circle came a little later.org/wiki/History_of_trigonometry . J. p. Ptolemy's Almagest is presumed to be heavily indebted for its methods to the Chords in a Circle of Hipparchus. the angle between the lines of sight to the sun and the moon is less than a right angle by one thirtieth of a quadrant. 15. [. Suidas. reported that Ptolemy was alive under Marcus Aurelius (emperor from AD 161 to 180).. Another formula that served him effectively was the equivalent of our half-angle formula.] that is. In this work Aristarchus made the observation that when the moon is just half-full. 14. Then. 208. "Greek Trigonometry and Mensuration".. In trigonometric language of today this would mean that the ratio of the distance of the moon to that of the sun (the ration ME to SE in Fig.. p. p. Aristarchus fell back upon a well-known geometric theorem of the time which now would be expressed in the inequalities sin α/ sin β < α/β < tan α/ tan β. Greek mathematicians had studied relationships between lines and circles and had applied these in a variety of astronomical problems. We do not know when or where Euclid and Ptolemy were born. "Greek Trigonometry and Mensuration".. ^ Toomer. from Hippocrates to Eratosthenes. ^ Boyer (1991).. 10. 10/12 en. pp. On the Sizes and Distances of the Sun and Moon. 162. is twice the cosine of half the angle AOB (multiplied by the radius of the circle). 158–168. 125 BC). 127 to 151 and. 108. it appears that not until Hipparchus undertook the task had anyone tabulated corresponding values of arc and chord for a whole series of angles. p.. It is possible that he took over from Hypsicles.1) is sin 3°. 260 BC).. but no systematic trigonometry had resulted. 20. 180–ca." More than one of | a u t h o r =and | l a s t =specified (help) ^ Needham. but it seems to be due largely to Hipparchus in connection with his table of chords. We know that Ptolemy made observations at Alexandria from AD. but whether or not Ptolemy's trigonometric tables were derived in large part from his distinguished predecessor cannot be determined.." More than one of | a u t h o r =and | l a s t =specified (help) a b ^ Boyer (1991). ^ Boyer (1991). tending toward a limit of 1. 11.] A special case of Ptolemy's theorem had appeared in Euclid's Data (Proposition 93): [.] These four sum-anddifference formulas consequently are often known today as Ptolemy's formulas. who thus earned the right to be known as "the father of trigonometry. which assumes a geocentric universe. ^ Boyer (1991). p.
ISBN 0-415-13159-6) 25.). p. ^ a b Pearce (2002).1017%2FS095742391000007X). History of Islamic Philosophy. The Indian and Persian background. MacTutor History of Mathematics archive. ^ a b c d e Needham. in Selin. ^ Needham.mcs. ISBN 978-0-691-11485-9. 30. Mathematics Across Cultures: The History of Non-western Mathematics.. 68. Edmund F. 41. "The History of Trigonometry". ISBN 0-41513159-6) 27.. University of St Andrews. Retrieved 2008-05-18 28. "Islamic mathematics". Volume 3. (2000). Volume 3. "Islamic astronomy" (http://faculty.google. Retrieved 2008-07-21.1017/S095742391000007X (http://dx. Springer Study Edition Series (3 ed. ^ Boyer. Owen (April 1986).sa/PHYS/alshukri/PHYS215/Islamic_astronomy. 40. 274 46.uk/Biographies/Al-Jayyani. University of St Andrews. The Mathematics of Egypt." 26. ^ Gingerich. 52–70. 109–110. 34. the free encyclopedia 22. Lennart (2007).st-andrews.math. Washington DC) (cf. Mesopotamia. John J. Edmund F.st-andrews.britannica. 44. India.7/8/13 History of trigonometry .standrews. "Abu Abd Allah Muhammad ibn Muadh Al-Jayyani" (http://wwwhistory. ^ a b O'Connor.ac. Volume 3. doi:10. 36.mcs.com/books? id=6DYVAAAAIAAJ&lpg=PA413&pg=PA413#v=onepage&q&f=false)'. "Mathematical Methods in Abū al-Wafāʾ's Almagest and the Qibla Determinations".pdf) (PDF). Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science. "Engineering". 205. ^ "Why the sine has a simple derivative (http://www. History of Islamic Philosophy. ^ a b Boyer (1991) p. MacTutor History of Mathematics archive. pp.usma. The historical development of the calculus. Frederick Rickey (http://www. the Ralbag" (http://web. ^ Kennedy. 238. Routledge.edu/people/rickey/hm/CalcNotes/Sine-Deriv.. 52–70. 518. 45.math.html). Syed Nomanul. E. p. MacTutor History of Mathematics archive. pp. in Historical Notes for Calculus Teachers (http://www. University of St Andrews. 31.ac. 108–109. p. ^ Needham. 35. 23. Syed Nomanul. "Book 3 deals with spherical trigonometry and includes Menelaus's theorem. Robertson. ^ a b c d Moussa. in Roshdi Rashed. "Abu Arrayhan Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Biruni" (http://wwwhistory. eds. ISBN 978-0-387-94313-8.org/wiki/History_of_trigonometry 11/12 . S.html). Springer.edu/people/rickey/) en. 39. Shai. 32. The Indian and Persian background.htm). ^ Restivo. 110. 'An Historical atlas of Islam (http://books. and Islam: A Sourcebook .mcs. China. Retrieved 2009-06-22. 109. ^ a b c "trigonometry" (http://www.html). ^ Donald Routledge Hill (1996). ^ Kennedy. 151. ISBN 1-4020-0260-2 29.wikipedia. in Seyyed Hossein Nasr. D'Ambrosio.413 33. p. Haq. p. Washington DC): 337 (cf. John J. Volume 3. Scientific American 254 (10): 74. Springer. 31st Yearbook (National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.edu. (1969).pdf)". 38. Haq. E. 31st Yearbook (National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. ^ Charles Henry Edwards (1994). John J. 37. Princeton University Press. 24. 32. Robertson.Wikipedia. 42.htm) by V. 308.edu/people/rickey/hm/CalcNotes/default.usma. "Menelaus of Alexandria" (http://www-history.ac. ^ William Charles Brice. Robertson. ^ Katz. in Seyyed Hossein Nasr.. pp. "The History of Trigonometry". (1969). Helaine. "The Mathematics of Levi ben Gershon. p.uk/Biographies/Menelaus. 60–3. ^ Needham. Edmund F. S.edu/compsci/Shai_papers/MathofLevi. Routledge. "Mathematics in Medieval Islam". ^ Simonson. Vol. Oliver Leaman (1996). ^ O'Connor.uk/Biographies/Al-Biruni. ^ O'Connor.doi.usma.stonehill. 751–795 .kfupm.math.org/10..com/EBchecked/topic/605281/trigonometry). p. ^ Gauchet. Arabic Sciences and Philosophy (Cambridge University Press) 21 (1): 1–56. Ali (2011).. ^ a b Jacques Sesiano. Ubiratan. ^ Berggren. 3. J. Oliver Leaman (1996). 157. 43.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.