A.

DICTIONARY
OF

KASHMIRI PROVERBS & SAYINGS
Explained and Illustrated from the rich and
interesting

Folklore

of the

Valley.

BY THE

REV.

J.

IIINTON KNOWLES, FR.G.S.,

M.R.A.S., &c.,

(CMS)
MISSIONARY TO THE
KASHMIRIS.

wise

man

will

endeavour "

to

understand a proverb
J

and the

"
interpretation

Petw

*w

5,

6.

BOMBAY
j

EDUCATION SOCIETY'S
.

PRT-SS.

Til WKKtt,

SPINK A Oo.
cV

LONDON

TBWBM'B

Co

1885
\All righh reserved
\

PREFACE.

THAT moment when
manuscript, and then
its

an author dots the
rises

last

period to his

up from the study-chair to shake
is

many and

bulk-y pages together
lie

almost as exciting an

occasion as v>hen

takes a quiie or so of foolscap

and

sits

down

to write the
lii

first line

of

it.

Many

and mingled feelings
with one another
length the

pervade

mind, and hope and fear

\ie

and alternately overcome one another,
author finds some Might

until at

relief for his feelings

and a kind of

excuse for his book, by writing a preface, in which he states
briefly

the nature and character of the work, and begs the
for his

reader pardon of the

presumption

m undertaking

it.

A
The

winter in Kashmir must be experienced to be realised.
air is

most mugoraling, and the quiet
Irony

is

sublime.
leisure

Even

an ordinarily

mwionury

enjoys

much

through

such a season in thin beautiful country.
I

have now aprnt two long qwct winters here, and
1*

this

"Dictionary
result of

of Kashmiri

Proverbs and Sayings
Bitu'y,

is

the

many

hours of labour,

and anvety, during
arriving in the

these leiBurable mouths.

As a missionary, on

Valley,

I

at once devoted

my
tfikt

attention to the study of the

language,

and believing

Proverbs taught "the real

"the genius, wit and spirit of a people's speech," discovered " current and practical philosophy," jaation," and embodied its

850 square miles * " k that the Kashmiri its The " genius. perhaps. have very my load he Muhammadaa materially helped me in this collection and its arrangement. as he polled said to tell me a thing my head . I believe. and here I again heartily acknowledge their kind and ready ." it and journals interested to advertise the work "What will the little world say. as carrying along before me. the student of folklore. please is permit me to remind you that Kashmir proper vale surrounded but a small country. and the geneial reader regard this which has cost some considerable time and study. sayings now extant among the Kashmiri They have Sometimes the great been gatheied from various sources and learned Pandit instinctively uttered a proverb in my hearing. sometimes I got the barber or two. the ethnologist.IV I quickly began to PREFACE. service. with an area of about 1. make a collection of them * This book. in order that your criticism it may not be so hard as might. and notices have to be posted to the different papers as " in the press. wit and spnit o a nation are discoYered in proveibs 01 nation *' Bacon Piorerbs embody the current and practical philosophy of an age " Fletniinj Proverbs teach the ieal people's speech. m width. and sometimes the poor coolie something worth knowing. contains r early all the Proverbs and Proveibial people. about south-east. tramped and Hindii A few learned fiiends also. and open up the hitherto sealed book of the native mind. otherwise be." John Beames . Dear reader. eighty-four miles long from and from twenty to twenty-five miles . a little by snow-capped mountain north-west to ranges. Actwn est It is done and now the raanuscnpt has to be sent to the publishers. into whose to arrive ? hands may chance How will the philologist. the antiquanan.

been translated as I liter- and with a fairly-trained ear have honestly character what is tried * hard to render correctly in the Roman short interesting account of the origin of this character given in Dr DImsliu's Kashmfci Vocabulary. and spoken differently by different persons the Hmdiis and dialects. scanty. and *' the translations of the Psalms of Daud" and " Proverbs of Solomon. Bellew's and others. all The Proverbs and Sayings have ally as possible . A . form but a stepping-stone. and forgive any whether in the romanizmg. for nine years before publishing other work tion of a it But demands much of my leisure time. of which these proverbs. concerning the manners and customs of the Kashmiri . &c.PREFACE. that the Kashmiri language is is very difficult. Knight's. ised edition of the Old Testament. speaking distinct travel. p 149. " " Horace says somewhere Nonum prematur in annum . However. Drew's. and contradictory. and that this individual is not naturally so com- municative as might be expected from his cheery look and humorous disposition. is very crude. or the or the information. aud the words that contain them. my various excuses style. like information from books of Vigne's r Hugel's. is language virtually minus a Dictionary and Grammar. especially.. the prepara- Kashmiri Dictionary. and * 4 that besides one or two very unimportant works written m the Peisian character." which have been deferred only because of the nonappearance as yet of the re. that Muhammadans. which of the population can properly only a very small proportion itself read. and perhaps it would have been better to have kept by me what I have written. all true Kashmiri books are printed in a kind of mougrel-Devanugari character called Sharada. I trust the reader will accept error. as the case may be.

to is a sound which is something which I have given the name of Idnydli ser. In addition to these there like a very short it is z. . With the or Tchiyah aert I have. but long German o. and drawling. exist in Hungarian. I have always written the exception of this i he (hd. is a dog. but the different dialects made this very confusing work .VI I heard PREFACE. hum by a This sound. &c. is to be In found in Russian. avoided The following is the introducing any Roman-Kashmiri alphabet with the powers of the letters : diacritical points. u as the the German u. except with the following additional vowels : An An An o o as as the the German o. I believe. I believe. These two vowels. by the simple and in order that this i final may always appear. however. and the in that language written as j. but short. ii.e muJchtafi). An u as German but long and drawling. A Ai a ai AU au B b Chch D d . Roman letter character this sound will be represented i. frequently the sign of the instrumental case as hunt dog. and there were some sounds which could not possibly be written like Roman-Urdu".

$h phlegm. 3 r is very com- bonfch and bronth. and fath. J j Jin just. is written Bi "' I i r pronounced as r in ran. something comesin the midanalogous to this dle. distinctly and inva- riably turned into P p Ph ph p injpamt similar to fh.PREFACE. S s pronounced as I 1 pronounced as I in lane. it If the occurs at n in the commencement of a word it is saws. s in sin. bow. seldom heard in pure Kash- eg.ff. H I h pronounced i as h in ftouse . e. N n n French words n in noon end of a word. G- g pronounced as g in ^o.) phakfr and for fakir miri. most o pronounced as o m no. ch in the K Kh k Hi Scotch loch. with its peculiar guttural sound is o fe phatah into phe. . rather there sound. A Scotchman's r is perhaps not met with in pure Kashmirf. and Irish or byor and bror. to be found in Bussian and at the and end of a word. Sh sh sh in shine. middle or at the Til M m pronounced as m in man. The Mu- the final ch of the hammadans r in these generally omit the German schacA and and similar words. except is i. pronounced as i in police. a kind of half perhaps this when or I is hear that letter. The euphonic mon. &c. The Kashmiris turn the Persian in The Arabic letter Jiqam gh.

and t.. kh. and thinks it he mil kindly recommend to others. p. as here written. 1885. g.Yin PREFACE.the point tween English the of the v tongue is press- andw. c. and not allowed one and undivided sanction to facetue. NOTE. I have been through a little them all. I trust fit. but by no means that if of the last importance.s mub. any reader is pleased with this book. February 1th. HINTON KNOWLES. m year." Kashmir. J. And lastly. Bh. until I got their full it. Ts ts pronounced as ts in gefa. k. ed on the upper foie-teeth w) I vw hoth having a power be- T I . the point of the tongue is press- U U V u li o u m top m rwle. gh. . th. and are pro- nounced as one letter. as the whole profits of the work are to be devoted to the sorely-strained funds of the 61 Medical Mission Hospital. in the and have been jotted down interesting to hope that they will be some readers. my explanation of The notes and are such as cropped-up in the course of writing. ph. Z z z in zeal. y ed back on the palate. chh. with council of learned Muhamraadan and Hindu* Kashmiri to pass. KASHMIR. th and tsh are respect tively the aspirates of ch. and t. With regard to the "point" of the different proverbs and sayings. t T pronounced as t in Jake. friends.

i AcJihm ungujeh To strike the eyes with To tease. when that friend said that he would give him only one out of the two things which he coveted A grasping. stream it is emptied. but immediately you take it out of the is like A man. The reply of a very covetous man to a friend. -who a krand m the water. to bother the fingers.KASHMIRI PBOVEM Ab tih toth bab tih loth. Abah tall shrdk. but as soon as he is dismissed. A knife in the water. So long as he retains his employment. A Kashmiri curse. AM. disposition. Abas andar hand ex office is A big basket in the water. he loses that authority and honour. a person of some position and influence. kanijdn tak wat kdni naL way be blind. I love myself and I love ray father. he retains his authority. A traitor m the camp. The basket as long as it floats in the stream is filled with water. AM wafahah tab gdstoh ratshah. Ab is tho word generally used by Mohammedans The Hmd&s invariably say pni or poni. in the valley. May your eyes be opened buFsee nothing. I . Better that the eye be blind than that the He that goes a-borrowing goes a-sorrowing.

. The master gets married. A secret is Adm (concealed) under the skin of a make-up of mystery. A badly-anangod dinner Ayah bodpaharas nauJcar bod waharas. The stmggle for popularity and place. hnt or obtain anything from it who cannot get at it Adm Mash To tah ad^n ash. but theseryant does A contrary serraat. 15 A lets the ram Adi dadi yefahih tah adi dadi retekih Half (the people) are buint wita wishing and half are buint with scandal. not agree to it. Adi Ltir tah adi Dt'r. used for pencilling the eyes Ad&l toll wadal sandnah cJJifii pashch zadal {tfi contraiy woman is like bad giass on the roof Giass not fitted for thatching does not set well. A sharp fallow. Adyav kheyih chunk adyav Jcheyih tdLL Half (the people) ate from the laige dishes and half from the small dishes. xxni. servant is great nr Some months people earn as much in three hours as others do m twelve Agah bardn nethar tah parsun nah mdnfin. the a year. hut thiough tlie roof Cf Prov. half (the people) wretchedness and to half happiness. The master is great in three hours. lalti man. Beware ' SimjiaTiisblacksulphuretof antimony. umr tah ladui Half-life A Kaslimhi curse and great misfortune (be to you). Half at Lar and half at Dar A man of large and scatteied property. Admi Man bastan andar chhuh is sir.slchhuv andaraJi nyih surmah hadit He'll take the (very) antimony out of your eyes (and you'll not know it).

that it docs not much matter whefchci they live 01 die Agar Khan was one of the old Pathdn governors of Kashmir. The youngsters of Ahalamar wore veiy pugnacious. 1 : . resulting irom these fights His Highness the late Maharajah G-ulib Singh pafe an eul to these disgraceful m A 3 . Ahalamar is ono of the chief divisions of the city of Sriuagar In olden daj s it was the regular thing on every Fiiday for the young fight the young people of people of one division to challenge certain place and hour would be arranged. and especially BO respecting the people of Suth. he let whither it pleased. Some people aie so little inspected. In his time afUus amved at a crisis The army had rebelled. a neighbouring division Perhaps " " At any fcb is waa because they got as good as they gave generally Thcs rate these two divisions had many fighte ^itli one another Ahalamar youth would match <J in a ciowd shouting Suthen zachih tah Kuthen nar Alialamanav gand ik IM Ragged clothes to the poaple of Sufch. and generally there wen? saveial broken limbs and sometimes deaths." . but if he hastens conie slowly. agar jald kanh fjir yiyik If he delays he will conie quiqkly. and may fchoir bundles catch nro The people of Ahalamar gave chase to them. taiih no mijis kum-y. and yet all through this parted jewels time of the direst di&tioss he was keeping a favourite elephant When he could no longei feed the pet beast. and the treasury was empty. In wtienns Once Agar Khan was reduced to such distress that he was glad to dke sheltei in a little bioken-down hut and sleep there Agar Khdmw hustu luslu tak lustu. proceedings. even. then never n i. To support his family and servants he with his and othei treasures. More haste -worse speed 5 he will Ahalamari ratah-Jchari.'$i Agar Klun entered into a rat's hole. it lives . and there he did not get.. lustu nah tah kMstu Should Agar Khan's elephant live. and another divi&ion the youths armed with sticks aiid slmgs &c would assemble on At a signal iiom then leaders they would their respective sides join combat. a hran-cake. The quarielsome people of Ahalaraai. and if it does 1 not h\e. Ag&r it go to wander teer knnkjald yiyik.Agar KKdn tjnyov qagar w'tjt.

* As U. what have you brought ? If I come. to you is shame sin. what will you give me to eat ? leyih gdnah.Then the crowd from Suth would meet them shouting Ahalamari ratah-khari 3 Lfyam. leyih konadilh . Chandan chhik nah M? ah naU " The quarrelsome people of Ahalamar They have not a rice-gram in their pots. used to walk through their parish from end to end The boys had willow wands with which they struck the lines of boundary. 11 Oh.&nai foah Mumak T6L" nan nah foahp&Jc. or (as in Persian) S6g. ? beyih talaMnah. M A H) panun mtshoL man loves his own fault." ?" cabbage." They have not a cowrie in their pockets " One is reminded of the English custom of " beating the bounds on Holy Thursday. inantlachhih patah chhai khiydlat. let Heaven's misfortune fall upon you upon shame. " Be sure your sin will find you out " Jjc ai tah If A mercenary individual. (and sometimes the boys of th. when the parish school children. Heugh go and sit on the -window/ f 1 Hdl sometimes called ESk-wak. Ak Unah t untham kydk Yimah ai tah khyuwaham Jtyah * you have come. chhtli no>h latah phali ." ' You are neither salted nor cooked. accompanied by the clergyman and pariah offers. Nak 1 Birav bins/iin bdld-t-tdh. a cabbage or any edible vegetable Whenever the hdk is badly cooked the above quoted lines are sure to b Mumah Tafc was a great greengrocer in Srinagar city. Aibo peytyo yaibuch laUi. wad some power the giftie To gie us " see oursels as others see us. whence came ye From the Louse of Mumah Tak.

another old and bitter. One is byt'k pav nuni yur is a thorough friend. Pejitau 7cu -i-jan. a fact to be attributed rather to its acescent to than any scarcity of the fruit. then myself. will he stretch out his hand towards the dish (to help himself) f Give him a yard. a biead friend. containing Ibs 192 ffftcu The Khoa is the Kashmiri literal meaning of the "word is an ass-load word for an ass (like the Peisian). Pnde dwells in every one. is old and sweet. and he'll take an ell. another JVftnt ydr. calling me) the daughter's hire. and the keeper of a brothel. be he nch or poor " Kashmir is the only part of India where wine is made from the Juice of the grape.e up on an elephant. and the buliush (these thiee) do not last The sheep and the kharw&r arc lub " as a diop m the ocean. byuk ludih tah tethih. tah leyih hastis khdsit.First (they seized) the witnesses. and the bulrush quickly rots or RhanuM. pe'hih gttsah) One sheep meadow. and eater of my A poor prisoner in the hands dish. bard. in the house. my of the policeman. then (I had) to pay then (they abused me. Ak A man angry. begs and then gets " " To mount an elephant is an expression for becoming proud or EhuM Ak One man ludih tah methih. one kharwar (of gram) wafli nah kehh. another with the juice of vegetables. lahih is Ak kot tah beyih k&tis yaravjam. . o a " loafer. then theie's the trouble of making A the gallows difficult and losing game." soon iwallowed up." j> yat-i-ndn Ak gub nenk. aK in a IJiLr Icuchth. beyd suns Inn athah nyun f dining with a great man. First there's the gallows. Ak JJiojas suet When a peison Mywi. byt'ik Ak chhiwyov masah One man is Mkah rasah intoxicated with the juice of the grape." quality Ak goo )&ni ydr. is a diy measuic.

so. He had a large numbei of follow. cis.^i. a. but not is the Hindu god and judge one child left to him.. ^ cos a of life and gieat destruction of In 1874 the Hahai amah's tioops -vcic obliged to be called property the valley tha out to quell the iioteis. the Shi'as detei mined to enact this sacred fea&t. a few miles to the north They valley of 8rinagar.tzid near Kufa.'mism. who managed to conceal his religious* views and to ingratiate himself into his mastei's favour. Bama Singh ( 1830 AD) There was a great Suni living Ul Kashmir in the fifteenth centuiy. A man Jama. the other spends Ah nyuv Yanian tak byt'Jc hhyav braman Death took one and the other was seduced from his own countiy to another country in hope of gam. of tlinst "When 'Ahrln'llft Kl . when the countiy *vas annexed to theBurrdni empire (1753-1819 A D ). who had 1 z nn xau f '. they veiy soon ogam tued to celebrate then* sacied festival. that he might perish like Husain. and one line of stung run through the whole of them. and acoi thinly compelled a Suni boy to eat & j 5 then tantalized him with water . the other licks the miller's dish. whereby tho Shi'a thinks that he is perfectly jubtified m lying and It appeals deceiving to save himself from religious peiaecution that duimg tbe yeai or BO ofBamS Sirgli's governorship m Kashmir. Ak rf'fa A tah beyih gfanah rtfis.' j^rrl and nir. -which occasionally manifests itself \n open fights endib. Peisian Shi'a. where their prinThe cipal mosque is Great bitterness of feeling exists between the Sunfs and the bhi'as. of large family. however. the mill-stone. village Shi'as are the city Shi' as much more snpeistitions and bigoted than Altogether theie are about six thousand Shi'as in the found are chiefly at Zadibal.Ak One hcLs As lewan grattas lyuk lewtn grattawidi sunzih chimh. and that. ^ . and notably in the time of the Sikh 1 ( < 1 . and just as he -was about to dunk it they sbot him to death with m aiiows. they might be conducted through the principal thoroughi'aros of the city Nothing daunted. whose name wasMuqaddam Sfrhib. who >\ ns killed by Y. amongst whom was Shains-ud-diu. lor ILc co ect]Ug (-tall tlio Slii'an in Srinagaj that their noses might be jiidccd. the iivai sects of Huhairnnf'ri. fast as one earns. There are Shi'as and Shi'as. in the descit. of the dead all scattered. taithj and in consequence is much respected by the Shi'as f for theftc governor people have a principle of religious compromise called takU. Shi'a and also a village Shi'a. " ri i ' rf 1> just corqusied thjs 7i immediately gave tLo oi t ^. Dining the Pathan lule About the time Slii'aa weie forbidden to celebiate the Mnhariam.aad at Hasandbdd near to t^o city lake. though all tho timo he was really proselytising Ho thus made many converts to the SM'o. thus fastened together.

wealth to you. another mounted the wall. High and lovr rich and poor . while another will burn rice. and under the fostering attention of royalty this splendid tree with its palmate leives and spreading blanches. a bitch at the door. and tins so enraged the Sums that they fell upon them then and there and slew fifteen of Since then fchpm. taJi byi'tk stthh tumul. God spare the public bcnefa. Two heads are better than Alt wont'm wagim fa % filaiwwun chhus pete. Ak Ah One bachJah tal bihit toft. Akliti Jrjint hashs biynMw khastan dusih One man rode upon an elephant. . te dtya ghoi c rrfnnne AkM lasin sasas maras. Peisian tiadeis have kept at a distance from Kashmir !. Ak wukur . First. is One woman hi&h. The mat -maker could work much better alone Hence the above is quoted when unnecessary help is received. byak chhai bar tal huni is One woman another hundred-bianch plane-tree to you. beyih trakur.when celebrating the Mnlianam purposely spat the Inaction of tlie Muqarldam Sahib's tomb. The Itint or cluiuii (Platanus O/ icntalib) of Kashmiris one of the It was mtioduced by the Mnfinest and most shade-giving tiees hammarlnns fiom tho West.ctoi. zon'inah chhai hat lanjth bunt. Panjabi Hik pinne. another is ruination. by the fire-place and burn chaff. lyufc sallat.he Slii'as m Ak tali ak gav kah one One and one are eleven. has reached the greatest age and attention in Kashmir (hlce) a is like 1 Allih A man gamut yirah tah wirtli mangdn tang. Let one man live for the sake of a thousand houses. you are proud. Economy and extravagance will sit Ak JL saw'ntth ch/iai daulaf. One weaves the mat and another holds out to him the reed. secondly. besides doing ranch damage to their property. is confused and asks for pears from the willow tree. you are unfortunate Pude without reason.

perhaps they were going on a visit to some popular shrme. or say. Aki faat sum tah river sfis One man cut the bridge. beyih latihpahh nahpiy&dah on a horse. very longtime ago a large crowd of people were travelling together . One man's pocketful of money (is no more than) another man's word. will ride nah gum. where another cannot even burn oil. A matter of luck Mi sund dyarah chandah beyih sund katu. until it broke Now what down. anything except that which was evil On seeing a swift and deep stream in front. but. In the midst of the crowd there was a very wicked man who did not seem to be able to think. at another time he will quadr&ta t cechficat mfitat otundis. Good and bad tunes. imttn .8 AJJii latiK khasih At one time he go on Viruri foot. Aki sund dazih (ib tah beyih sund dasik nah til. than with his big hatchet he hacked and hewed away at the supporting beam of the into two and wholo the structure fell pieces bridge. and a thousand people fell into the Punishment visited upon many because of the iniquity This is of one A a saying derived from a true story (so a native friend says). One man can burn water. and at another time the onionskin. and was soon carried away by the angry waters were the people to do ? go they must to this place. dunya tah {man ehhth One man sought the world and another sought for faith . concerning which they had been making preparations many-a-long-day before. gav luhh. or do. They all started together. the world and faith both do not come into the same hand. gave themselves to be carried away by the waters. Akhi waktahprdnahJcnj tah beyih waktah pr&naJi^dyaL At one time the onion-plant. alas when they reached the middle of the water the swiftness and depth proving too much for them they all lost heart. and were drowned . ' dkz tsond dunyd tah beyih ah nah donawai atfah yiwttn. At length two or three of the bolder spirits among them determined to wade the stream and the others encouraged by their example resolved to venture also. this wicked man ran on ahead and crossed the ordinary plank bridge built over it j and no sooner had he himself crossed over. 44 Ye cannot serve God and mammon " .

who wasa veiy famous Mnhanrme<?e. Father.Alva cJtheh dashn flfa is tali Ityflt chhvs wutftanttwun athah. telih. Wetha hcn<ir grazan . will dry up water) . sometimes yours. lid m<'lt?i. and that his raven-black hair had An old was '\ . time of utter irreligion and gieat oppression) A saying of Shekh Nur-nrl-clin. One became two a dove.e . the river . Al>i& ffom sail meffiar . 2 . "who lia rl sent to enquire how he " AVIS now "part anil jmcel of hiir The med/iung is. thai i "" that bis teebh had deseite'i Jj 11.n His shrine w at T^ra:. saint in Kashmir about sis hundi ed yeai s ago a village abouc nlteon miles from Siinagai and every October theie is a gieat mel&. and sometime? mine. Aklah. jour le jour Al Kashmir murdah-pasand The Kashmiri people " To are fond of the dead never speak evil of the dead " is a prominent good feature IE the Kashmiii's character Alagadih bud&n tah Malaga dih wotalan . woman ATeul ohur A single cloud. there in his honour Wetha is the Jhelain liver in its course through Kashmir. Hind& . turned grey Aklah Muni f/art't chlni taL gartt mt/tm. will be the monkey rule (i. a will sink priests call it Vetasta Alah kulis tulali &uL A mulberry tree from a pumpkin plant A mountain from a mole-lull. the base man will rise. it.li . Tuafaithfrl to. friends became enemies the ciow became man's answer to a friend. and auothei man warms To be glad at another's misfortune Ku>i f foe. and it M(\g sew hunui gh&knli tah drf\g san. and it is as the month of January . the sewer will loar (by reason of the much then. on fhe. his One man's beard hands by Panjabi. fcwvas c/dyam Jiulnl . fast. ghat jalC) lot tupe. The great man . a single is as though a famine Av. fist wt'ndur n'j. garrulous. A stupid. the carpenter's wife. gnn sJieihar .

and in other ways annoy people. and leap egg-plants. the fakir has come to dance. There is fiuit to the plough. A pooi man with a lefractoiy family Most people in the valley will remember one-eyed 'All and his two troublesome bullocks Aland fafaidun is Seeking to get at a thing which Gl&iain He hanging out of reach. and rice for the raking. prepare your garden. demands for Ah dite'v t&lihgyav suwavkurus lyav tah lyav. Money in the hands of a worthless person. it qmokl/ . Upon the wrist. The Kashmiris dry it. and the other will not come out of it. To besin a thing and no finish it is kuown in Hindustan by the name of brmjal ( num melonaefia). Ahk drustah ttdik Itgum t$l. AhUnmi One eyed dtadah hawar . ok nah atjan garali. the egg-plant. tah ly&k nah nex'n bar ah.10 Alak ruwuni toungan. Thrift brings its own lewaid aid tah nah maut dlbailas nah Neither understanding nor death to a fat man. All oiled her it all head with and the lice licked and licked up. ghi. Man commences his ti Dubious career as soon as he is born. cule extoi quere Amal gav guhh mal Employment Employment is like dirt is upon the hke dirt wrist. gesticulate. Mas fakir ainje damt'le. one will not enter the house. 1" To soar pumpkins. All. "FiiUr has tome to dance" Fakirs stamp npon the gronnd. uncertain. and eat Wangtin it dm mg the winter Alan chhuh filial tah mndan chhuh di'nik. " " Fat -Shaks paunches have lean pates Ali ''noun sambt'le . if their laigesse are not quickly complied with. In the moment of birth my head was squeezed. Qnoted as a wainmg to piepare for any person's coming. 'All's yoke of oxen.

A desire for raw flesh (is it ? ) Cited to a man wl-o IB impatient for his food. with raw turnips. and asked a passer-by The other man being a good hoiseman was not afraid to mount it to hit the pony and so for the rest of the journey. &o Arms dudas suet dahadab. Anas smt har gayih JMmas suet garah Jiarun. pony went splendidly. To quariel with the common people is like keeping house with a stupid. To To stnve with wrestle with uncooked milk. A bad. chkuk daztin foohg tah this am phukak chhuh and with this- gafohtm pah blow of the breath the lamp is lit. weak fellow. little ditch or such like place caused the pony to thus stop. and ever afterthe words. lazy fellow who requires a lot oi! urging before he will do anything.11 Aniunatas khiydnat embezzle a deposit (is a tremendous sm). a To fight. In this way anger spreads over the breast of an unforgiving man. . Out of the same mouth pioceedeth blessing and cursing " it is Ami ynrabalan chhih Mtiytth nah pkutan'vainati I f How many water-pots this A souice of much evil. Ami With ( phukak. The height of dishonour To Amanul tot. but runs all over and about the turnips. Any . the weak Amis panas darah dar. or bully. linan is a small Kashmiri village A man once purchased a pony from this place. Treasured wrath The oil will not settle. blow extinguished. Eventually the purchaser got off the animal. untaught person (which is misery). ghat has bioken Amm gogalan Like mining til zan pherun. To pull raw thread. Aman's pony. and was setting forth on his way home when the beast suddenly stopped and nearly threw the rider over his head. oil Atnin nattn mdl.

Bung the adah bitchn it. An Weth. supposing that ho has money Anda. hwfie gubai o At the time of eaimag and bnngragj A wife's fuend you aie But when yoa're tired and weary. A pirkle-pot. and spe^d dis dtim. Jog is bometimeai quote those words. a greac sm to store. to sit in the midst The monkey. let Jhclum. karfa^a. Andarah tjhumhas " 6. &c . It is Bnng a maund. ill gom uinh hitnd dudur tali nebarah fodum fjflrtk hund rang. but without continues the colour of the apricot. dunk drowned. may tuin out well for onej but advci se for anothei mas. (fd.12 An mana.iri gam. Outside he said. whilst ontsido. Within me is the rottenness of the willow. It i& . o\ving to hia wcaiiug nice clean lothes.~one man's (pickle) turned out splendidly? another man's (pickle) went bad The same concern. Being outside or on the edge. Andah favrih manzbtiq. T^ho would lain u&o the cat's pa^v to chestnuts oat of the nie pull th6 Andnrcth. dfw'n pt'nah tah nebarah dazln fok. a& long as limde iiiadano. The genteel poor man. . AncMr-mit tikis Unit tah beyis hut.>i thida/t tah nebarah dupun " Gumah ** Inside somebody spat " perspiration upon him. 11 and then the whob Tillage be he An unprincipled man v o has no care can accomplish his o\vn semsh cuds >\ f 01 others. A mother's son you are. and outside the people burn. Poverty and cold are binning him within. the peopld fcurn with envy. Inside he himself burns. richhitn it chhm bod gwah.

" " In truth. tal tah man sat The ostuch hides his head in the sand. I sowed the nettle. Anigntih guli t'lawicm To show Kind affection in the darkness. out of his mastei's Hand. haste.IS Andari. earth and all. The bachelor wishes (to get married) the married man . legiets (that he got mairied). Ingiatitnde In olden times there was a famous fakir Kashmir. who punished himself in the following way. lie hit the nettle. . and no tespect -without. happiness Eetnsing to be comfoitod Andanm Isfo nali tute bih nebarim nahpafo. down behind a pile of stones.d was strong and by reason of this. andan. and lepent at leisure Hairy m Ani ckhur lam A blind that Mnsih dyuthus nah. wot Tsandan gom Secretly. I brought the nettle. strength within. The fakir m 1 . and the nettlo in it The plant giew ai. to the unthankful. ? even after death. he leached the \illage of Tsandar. &c Am simz kulai Khnduyas haivi'lah. secretly. he is in gieat distress Andanm dddi iw washznam mant Nebanrn sMdi Lyah baruh wvim luh I shall never forget the pains of Shall I wish then for outside ? my heart. He uprooted a nettle. planted the nettle therein All the day and all the night for seveial years he held out his hand with the palm uppermost. Anhdhann arm'm tali liahartmuti pashemdn. ivavwn suit layum suL pwasui. Amm sui. and fmng Borne rand upon the palra of his hand. and then the nettle stung me.. who eventually became very jealous of the honour which his master received and one day in a fit of anger. and thought nobody had seen him. and give him alms The fakir had a disciple. Jnetis ai yiyih ladanak tnh mantis w&tis If the ecu er be filled then Think bef 01 e yon leap it holds one pound and a half. thousands of Hindus used to visit the fakir. A blind man's wife is in God's keeping.

" An tan Bring Mwanai. which means Confess and denies pay. who breaks the fast (of Ramazan). . or refuse and swear to it. Anis mu&ht Mwum.14 then spoke the above saying concerning both the nettle and his and uouiished from his infancy disciple. stomach of him. sun wat be-aklas nah hank. Confess and property. Advice is lost on some people " To show the thumb" is a vulgar act amongst children and stupid people in Kashmir Anis rdt tah doh Jiehui Night and day are the same to the blind man. Ams All men show the blind man the way the . where the ]udge and " people sometimes cite the above proverb. nah thumb To show the to a blind chheh gunah. . Apdrih tfaum gidih han. On that side a box on this side a box and a gun to the . Anit nafoanawum f (Enough) to make a cover dance ! A great trouble or surprise. whom he had brought up The sting. yapdnh hurmas ras. s6l Jturum Maltkah Madinas. and then invited all Mecca and Medina. me and I'll show it to you. An angry retort when a man expresses surprise that tah it to his friend has not seen. One man chaigos another man with a debt. the hngam. Apw sanduk yapdnh sanduh duhutt Jthi'was yad bandtik. Anm manz An hitw&n Mm sundar. -who is said to have Hindus plack the leaves. woman is one-eyed beautiful among blind women.nettle is a plant sacied to SmvA. Ankar tah mc7. and here I made soup. and throw them over the first planted it god's favourite symbol. refuse and oath. nah saiotb. man is neither a sin nor a virtue. a certain peison or thing. The other man Then the matter is earned into court. nakfir tah Jtasam. nobody can show man without understanding. . or heard ill * of. From the other bank of the river I brought a small fish.

The different pleasure-gardens arotind the Dal Lake are consfcatitly and Jargely visited by the natives. and especially. same Asas "kuilih ttiiyo When dhi wtddh drdiyo. both wealthy and others. a term applied only to a woman. Anmi Ans punas drahah a healthy body. when the fakfr held the alms-bowls in front of him. A man on that side pressed the grain. adah gayih phulai wuchhuni. but to a man on side a gall became One does the scath. whose one care is dress.e. . One's mouth must blossom before he goes to see the flowerblossoms. another has the harm. Kashmiri people. this A Apih hund gyav. were born) in good health. how can 1 live ? Asas gattfuh phulai dsuni. foolish woman's ghf. } (i. but not one became continued) healthy* kadih nah miy tah phaMrcw daras fasht. and spend the greater part of the day on the excursion " The expression one's mouth must blossom" refers to eating and drinking The natives have also got a proverb in Persian with the meaning. blessing came forth flatters therefrom. when the plnmtrees and roses and lilacs arc in full bloom They take their dinner with them. An di st'ri iah ur gav nah All people Apusis god hyaJi ? Jcahk. came (t e. JJ> i Dal utash numdyad chtin na> Mshad tabb&lch.15 Ap&nmav mun ddnih yaparimm gayih athan Jiaik. The guest and blesses his host. rub their hair with Scented oil is nevei used. The gardener had not dug out the radish. A leech to Asan Snffoung for others ai tah lasah Ititah puthi ? If I laugh not Ride si sajpis. fresh ghi A lie has no beginning. food had entered your mouth. A foppish is person Apih &c.

be (wealthy) teaches. Asmanafi pyav tah samniJi loyifft (tttb> He fell from heaven to earth and is \\oniirlcfl. )>ni llnv "their dinner ai iungemeMl>. not to be (wealthy) makes ashamoif. is like An acquaintance (or kinsman) (z. " " Save me trom my friends svi yas ashrajth r/V/ a dung and refuse boat. Tins (thumb) i^ eating ami drinking ^Sorie people are very mild in speech . Asun chhuh To Jiechhin'honn nah faun mftntfttr/tJitMn. acpowjinif to the is infra dig.is!.e. shame to laugh (immoderately). lit. Just enough to wliet the appetite. High towers fall to the gruum! -\\n-Ij ^n lii '!.16 Asas masah tali A taste 111 the yad daznli-ilazah mouth and a burning in the stomach. is Ashrdfyav sui i/as ashiafi awli. a nuisance). Asmdnah wafjh balai tah Mft/ia i glifiril* liifal * Misfortune descends from hctivcn. -\\litM a^Unl if iln-iu id the thumb as an answer " in the house anything t m t 1 i ' m Ashnav f/av pfoftnfo. who aic of anotlior is way of thinking. OL in t lie uuit are nofc very libeial of Iajgess3 This tlivnib" refers to the vulcrai K. Muh Asun chhuh It is a ' Jtharas JJiasun. . lhasiin. which. Asawai tahgmdawai Loiyav. is a gentleman. kJiym rJtytm rlifuth ijih Let us laugh aiidplay giils. to mourib an ass. And the laiipfli that spoko tho vacunfc ramil "Qnltlsmit h. The man with the gold Another version of tlus the gonflemnn pio\ci] ciLeil ly i. manN From hand to mouth. He.lioo.islnniii rustoni of holrlintf p the negative. and wheie is the poor house. who is gentle.iwl tfif v in nuinipr. Kharas .

whether nch 01 poor. Atkah cfihul tafi metrut tvul. Eight gone. Give me your hand and come in To lend a hand. in which tho guests wash their hands.. AM khyun tvh athz Mnas diharun. fas IvJtwt muhr chhik of the hand . Atti gal sketh gaL Jwn yt'iA/sh peth gai. was forced to take up one stone to the top of the hill Khan Oppression. front of me. hut to be wounded by {unkind) words is not well. wound in the hand is well. Men Panj&b! die but their deeds live Admi tiahin raliindu. As soon as the hands were washed Athah ditaw brohihah yitam.17 Atn Muhamnail Kh'min ffadih begdri Impress for the work of Ata Muhammad Khan's The present (fort). JitUmi wary an pucli na<? shethan wary an puk sreh. A Athak chJiuk lalifi tak katha/i Miik balih nah. The little finger is the smallest of the five fingers and yet the signet-ring is worn upon the The humble shall be exalted. To receivo a man's hospitality and then slander him. To eat out of a vessel and then defile it. friendship ran away. bftnas a . and for sixty years (after the waters had disappeared) the ground remained damp. until the work was complefced. For eight years the river ran. Will the soul desire this beautiful thing ? No. fort of Hari Parbafc was binlt by Aid Muhammad about sixty jeais ago On Fridays. little finger. Athickan p^ntshan ungagan andar melt'n Kisl. every citizen. young or old. it? These five besides gone (what are they ? ). Ml lulih ? naught. What is a little more fciouble to a man aheady overwhelmed with Persian Abe &t &0 sew gusatlit chi yak neea o chi Jiasdr neza Alh *Ubti zu naught. sixty gone. " "It is saith the it is buyer Prov xx 14 . After a native dinner an ewer of water is brought round. par Mmi di al rAh^nndi hai.

e. The Kashmiri Hmdvi belief is that during the sixth month after death the spirit of the deceased haq fo crrws fhn waWn nf fliA A . "When I was in the middle of the way (i e . Coining and going are alike to him. A sugar toy And Wilti and Half pltult A Wet dust. A happy-go-lucky individual. but not a cowrie came to hand. I also went by a way spirit I died). horses. half blowing. Wnchhum chandas tah Mr nah atlie. Ntiwah frhas kyah dwiah buh ? I came by a way (i.. when my was between the two worlds) the day failed. some people is more esteemed than the Yes of others layilt luM. A>ti gatehih 'ie?nn AG If ai tali it yena\ gav a I tali g'tsuv. "What shall I gi\e for crossing the ferry ? saying of Lai DSd." Balthasai Gracian Ayas Semanz wate tak gay as tih wate suthe losum doh . Indifference Av tuhyi'v chhus lart'ibar.IS IvJaJt-laf Aii image made fiom little flour. "Oraculo Manual. layikptfitefh tali is " Nah" "Yes" No of worth Rs 50 and " No" is woith a lakh. A vreuk man Bid&h-bal aie Hie images. I was born) and (i. *' " Awali. ami sweet. fool and his money are soon parted talk Audui muJvr. Spoken core* '"g ba:& food yu talimt/i tjala)ih yd pethimih. &c which children play with.e . I looked in my pocket. but if it has gone then it is as giass. . has come then it ib like wool. who was a very holy Hmdft woman. The^tiour must come out either by the lower or by the upper stone By hook or by crook.

'iiid othrus. btunt on a ]Io of wood in n dingy or small boat. who will ti} to tmn b. but no soouci is it. "tho dead aie kept foi fom days. njatsja. aic so rkrp and &t. a boat will be at once present upon the watcis. buttci. &c . and that the spmt getting into it will be sately The gift-l>oat. was also regarded between tbo uj>por and lower woild. who put some money into his hand. Ohimm'e wind and Deutbclic the waves i(.is ho v. however. small pjooo of money. A m Hollo <T Bscalot oiders that after death.sed ship. preta. whcio the spirit is waiting and praying ior it. is taken conveyed to the oppo&ite side bonus by the Brahman. p 319. was placed in the month of the dead.redt company piet>. and generally tinned into money as soon at of death amongst other things n paisd is placed whoicwith to pay the feny The belief heio expressed is common in one shape or another to and nations but all peoples. close to that poition of the bank oi the rivei. milk. thrown to them. erfioulcl her body richly clres. oi itatJiouH Coeytus. ami km ma aic so strong Accordingly about tins tune the bereaved icutions call the family Biahman. stinted than a ot the boatman c. 3te Ausgabe. but who on having those ghx and rice.sa Vaitaiani. a story is told concerning some monks In fonncr times tho Khme. . too. to the Biahman. at ci-. and in the bo. Achoion. In Scandinavia bodies to pay tho iiire to the Stygian feriynian were bailed in slvipn and boats uudei the bchei that the dead ci ossed that among the mentions them waters tho Colrman.ick the boat. Garrows of Bengal also. yaruadut nulbya.S beforeHyfchologie.it they place ghi. especially to all Inclo-Eui opean In dorian mythology it "was the rivei Sty\:. and "to go to tho Rhine" "A drowsy and "to die" wore mutually equivalent expressions boatman is lonsod up one stormy night by a monk. and Ghaion lowed the whades across in his little boat. placed on the top of a In tho old French romance of Lancelot du Lao the rtemoipile. who icpcats to them the portions appoiiifcorl to bo read on t this occasion Among as standing on the bunk Where othci things the dcpaitcd spirit is represented *' oi' the river andciyiug Whore is my fathei ? there no one to help is my mother ? Whoic aic my relations and my fiicuds ? Is me ovei this nvcr. or copper. and nee The boat is foi the conveyance ot tho spirit acio. ?" This is sometimes recited with much feeling. according to then position. 701. and gicai. who now with sobs and leais present a little boafc and paddle made of gold.s in. or silver.oimy and the opposing powers. and aski'd to be ferned over the nwr At iirst mx monks get into the boat. the crossing the Khine at Spires as the boiui'luy political boundary of Germany. . aic the lamentations ot the bereaved. will at once depart their own \\ay The HmdfiH behove that it this ccromony is performed in a light manner. and that tho ship should be let go to find In.19 except hy special mean-. to the giea/t mcouvemence be placed ma own way . and the provisions are for tho appeasement* ot the coutiary poweis pieLa." Ac the witihin the At moment mouth ol the corpse.

and the passengers having wind disembaikcd. after whom the famous mosque in This was a Siinagar is called met her. ties of Indo-European Traditions. and how that he alighted in the very spot. and that to this day " For remnsnts of this belief arc still to be found among them moie particulais concerning traditions about the dead. their world. whose name has been mentioned befoic. there was no need ot fear. andthej. used to peregrinate an almost mide condition. interesting Kelly's m . into whose shop fche had fled for refuge The baniyd. and hastened after Shah Hamadan. Lai This saying has its origin in a story well-known Did." she said. for certain. and theie weie very few stfch men " about m m One day Shah Ramadan. tho king would hear ot this and punish him However.20 With much difficulty the nver is crossed ." Clu IV Ayih wtm\3 gayih Irindns She came to the bump's but arrived at the baker's. to the place whence it staited and as the touches boat the bank. To miss tiie mark Kashmir. seen a man. Cf . too. and she at once ran away I have strange thing for Lai Dd. but by vntue of Ins holiness would transport himself through the air to K. Note 743 Part XX of " Pauiab Notes and Q aeries " The Kashmiii Mnhammcdan \\ill tell as many and long stories concerning this Shah Hamadan. he accused that monarch of impiety and saiyids said that he would not stay in Ins counhy. and was constantly saying that " He only was a man.ishmk . to the astonished baniyi. and within a few days aftei his amval here converted so many Hindus to Islam that two-and-a-half Khaiwars of Yonis or Biahmamcal thieads were delivered up to m m : m ShSh Hamadfin's mosque is one of the most beautiful as well as one of tho most lamous in the Valley Over duel bo&ide the enhance and upon the nail of the fir&t of the tivc diTibiuiih o the building arc these tluec Pueianmsciiptiioiis . the boat is immediately earned back by a strong More passengeis are waiting there. which at that time T\as fully heated for baking tho bead When tho ' ' him baker saw this lie fell down a swoon thinking that. or Saiyid 'AlS as the Ka&hmiii Pandit will tell about Lai DSd how that when Timui Lung slew all the his country. as Lai DeJ presently appeared fiom the month of tho oven clad clothes of gold. where now the famous mosquu stands in the midst of Srmagar. " on Curiosibook most cf c and the way to it. turned her out Then Lai Did rushed to the baker's house and jumped into tho oven. however. to do > but it was soon explained. who leaiecl God. emboik dnectly the fare into they enter the foremost of the strange company puts Some readers may the ieiryman's hands with his icy -cold fingeis olden times thoroughly believed that not kiioTV that the Germans our own httlp island was the island of souls.

21 Ai medial i flM o//a?rt t jjfaifc to bcw dm sliahansliah t e JETawatto asfc 'Arsh ast dar ash Mfa a%$ 'arsh wMn ast * * * li dar e # e Harfaiz Dar paitaui Skill e sMay fa hM-ti Ai fa Hamaddn Hamaddni dihad ***** KMk lanm dida dar r&ib o hawat i Shah e Rwmodm fat Ha /wad an <wiU Shalmi'h&h e ja/um as* gwndn ctst Mdnfak An e sin % nikm dihad Wne agar huhidat in to i is drz& . adah no Tear. Cocae AdQ)ca$ Az nah Not tah. Kal&hdas. Now (is not the time. . Shdh e Hawadarrf h. when then? is To-moirow clay. Az gav beguh To-day to-morrow wmm wulah paguh. not the time).o. to day.

may be saved. Babam Rishi's child A stupid fellow (i. king. and the above saying was Persian Ab-i 'diuMiagi first spoken. and are amongst the This good saint's followers were most ignorant and stupid people. as well as the Gulmaig. Adam had two sons. Eabah nethar father. me be married thi moment. that " Procure water at once." two.B ffh Father \\as Aflamas sti sah gabar. People gave alms to them only for the sake of their saint and Icadoi..e. father. Aiiawi died about the yeai 1474 A n His shrine. raving mad. One was burnt and the other buried (i e . disciple). "after one will lose their reason from drinking the What shall we do ?" said the king. "and stoie it up in skins the result was that at the time appointed. places of pilgrimage in the vallev . acts and so order to save themselves these two also drank of tlio diseased water and became mad Then it was that the father and m mother ueie mad." " The king did so. become old and serve me The old paicnts are very often the slaves of the family Biibat matyov tah ded tih mateyih The father has became mad and the mother also has become mad A kingdom Duong a or city in a*wretched plight certain king's reigu the gods determined that the people Now the should become mad fiom drinking the ordinary watei king's wazir being versed in astrology disco veied tins mattei and at once told the bug month all your subjects " of it pnvately "0. the people ueie murdeiing one another and doing the moat stianojo At length some determined to slay the king and his wazir. akl rat nwarem leyih ratltabr. ludatham iah Ihidmatah lartam. at all events. when all the people wore water of the country " " we It happened. most frequented. one became a Hiudii and the other became a Muhammedan) Babah. that the whole country being quite beyond governing. and a convent attached to it. and replied the wazii. let zih hamin stat." said he. he and the wazfr were perf ectly sane however. Impatience Stibam Rishin kah. he on the road fiom Baiamula to MM richest.

and they became spoiled and WOIBO and \voisc. uiinl now they are so degenerated as to somelimps nuii-v and pat flesh nnd ama&s money.. who thon^li they did not suffer themselves to be fettered with tiaditicms. JKac/iih dad chhuh tacfah dod. but used to wnndei about the jungles and by the highways. ind oven pu-dwssom in olden da\a Abu'l Fazl in his book lemarks that in AUMi*s time the most ies])cctablo people of Kashmir were the ItisliiR. that theic is not one leal Rishi ni the country. flies rice-water on the edge of the will congregate to it fire- Vli mel. and the true Mohammedan tells you with pnnim fill countenance.ibia.lmt Akbar was thrice defeated by the Chafc kings. as tell out his secrets Kadis ekhat ladni narar High looks to a great man (but not to a mamiikiii). also. p 179.ny to the spirit and pattern of their otiniillv. Yule's "Travels of Marco Polo. or show themselves to men as Rishis. and do other things iou conti." Yol I.m j?'t ivtH to tries" people. a little village of Yemen in Ai. customs have clunged with the times. Muhnmmodans a fukii called Khudja Uwys was the founder of this sect. Badas A wicked man may . A child's sir pam is a hundred thousand pains. weie doubtless worshippers of God. They planted the roads with finifc Ueca to funii&h the traveller with refreshment. when laige land and house Tlio Rishis miwt not be confounded with the peasants. The pio*>eU' \v^i9 i i . the valley Bachluh usih anhiah If there should be a ki'teah machhih Urunas ! r little place how many ibi n. and has not bom binre Akb-ii'a days.jpfi. They did not revile any M*ct." &c. or ancient Hindu sages Vashishta and otheis They aie Muhammedans. 1101 ^Inlummcd. but they are not rovcn'd by the more educated and respectable Muhammedans in Of Col. or ask au> tlim? of any one. . and live on \\htttsoerer they might find Now. luwun chhuh lebih andar sarvf'rachfam. and did not many 01 eat meat.s. and that the Prophet would never maich to thiH place because a flavour of holiness went up thence on account ot HUH lioly faku's residing tliere witli his mother Theio wwo about two thousand Rishis in Kashmir during Akbar's time Now-a-duys there aio peihaps iive thousand. ' believe that it was in response to these holy Bi'shis' intercessions *. when he attempted to take the country According to their account.23 Rishis. as well place a snake in his bosom (he dare not do it). and ho In oil duniitf Muhanuncd's life time at Kurun. howevei. a sect of with the seven Bishis (also Eikhis).

governor of Kashmir under Shah Jahan. yut Uthavptith wtdiwah?" " sesarah How By did the pillais of the great mosque get here?" straightness. the course of his office Bahlol had to ascertain whether the bankeis'. bettei to die under the foot of a great man. than upon the shoulder of a man of small degree. about 1650 A D but he did not caie for the pomp and show of palace life. the distribution of the dinner (After receiving his) share (he asked for) a dish for his grandmother. baniyas'. and others' weights were correct or not . and various devices were lesorted to foi getting Bahlol to accept sonic distinguished office in the service of the State At last they All succeeded. or to his ministers and attendants . "Bettei to be an earl's slave than to go pai bner with a small shopkecpei. that he detei mined to know no more of it. Stiffih bop tab ndmk lok.Badis It is Jthor ta? warnnym tah lukis nali Mndaspcili. &c . each formed of a single deodar tiee about thirty ieet high. . unsatisfied. went back quickly to his house. and testing a stone base There aie tluoc rows upon the north. kashkul and tho fakfc. he was a brother of Ah Mai dan Khan. There are plenty as good and clever as he to prosecute the work* . 3 andah tah kashML Bahlol. m A greedy. upon plain south and west sides. A veiy poor man Bahlol was a genuine fakir According to my informant." The way to accomplish a difficult work The roof of the cloister surrounding the open square in the centre of the great mosque Siinagar is supported by wooden pillars. and an alms-bowl. life again. simply because So and-So" has died. fellow Bahlol. and doffed the grand dress of a Deputy-Inspector for the jandai. until one day it happened that in. and while fulfilling this duty he discovered so much distiess and fraud and tnckeiy. and so laid aside the coint dress for the jandah and kashkul This voluntary fakir life of one so high in learning and position was not pleasing to the governor. but only two on the east side. " " " "Panamh Bajih mashidih hindyav thamav. and Bahlol was appointed Deputy-Inspector things went happily for a while. a ragged habit. their own m Bajih mashidih " *' tealyii lunj nent ? Will the corner of the great mosque tumble out ? " The whole country or concern is not going to rum.

Mc/ir kabul. but I see you always a kuudal Fine clothe? do nob make the lady kimdal la the inner eailhcmvaro part of a k'uigar. or to bring the people (10 prayer) 1 Every man to Ins m\u weak JStiwj/ is the MuUu/minedan coll tu 4 piii) oib. winch conceals tlio kundal's faults. Bdngis chheh dapwi. Another version Banyis cJi/iwi Mng dapmri matth kih nah nch a /nut ? Is the bangih to call the bung. the work of the bungih to cry the is . Arm in the pot (for serving out food) and wood undei the oven (for cooking it) <)l\io PanjabJ Hun tan. from you and prosperity mgh. ? Who is It is (your) fucnd ti\ng (Your) pocket. Bali wuchhithai wdi w&hkah di'ch dithmak kundahd* woman. is like the one is a master awake. b/uig. ivi'danai Dishonour to a beloved daughter A ten iblo \vroug tali B'ddi dur May misfortune be far A Ktislimui bloabing. Band bantlas manyihy agah Lednr tah i For one acquaintance. to ask from anolhei.25 fad chhih Uudei standing is Ihidtuaiffttr butlci to success. . whilst his servant sleeps (t*<> as much a matter of shame as the other) . Band Icus ? Zih chandah. pictty Bunah hatas given (to A hundred co\ eis t$<ih hafus tyah dizih hundred vessels. the Ka&limU Tho outoi pail is generally ot very portable lirc-pKicc baskot-woik. ov relation. you have plaited your hair \cry nicely. but what shall be stop) a hundred mouths dizih thhwh hat tah ? for a Bfaias andar nar iah df'aas andar liar. luJubdA bich aviba hai.

bufc oucis. ho does nothing This is also a Kashiniu riddle. will not see you) " Batah.26 Lfa B>'j)f'nch lad alias Mai mdarah k<li& pw lush. after Having no food and a peon you (because of some debt). unfulfilled do not know Hopes In hope of receiving something from you I have contracted a rkK Kero and there. Ear ditWar nafj'n. To shut the door and put on a terrifying look. of woids m his own house. batah. Batah dag chhat Kfalifan surah dag. Baslili s&n daher Three sers with the skm. so Tradesmen are frequently bankeis. Great distress " tah piy&dah patah. To wear sheep's skin and be ashamed of its rustling. A coward. Earning one's linns is (as hard to bear) as the pain of hoarfrost in the month of October. Natives suffer terribly in their feet from walking out eaily on a frosty October nioinmg Batah ffajih nthun As garlic upou the hearth of a Pandit (so your presence is to . of which the answer a mill-stone Bastah hhunit nM Ishaleirtiyih mandachhun. am the better because of your dmner. swindle badyot> m (The swindler had weighed the Batah I cMnih tah garah snnaii nah tvath. The ass shuts the door and A man voiy spuitcd and full side dances. but now I perceive that I hoped in Vcim j so henceforth I shall not know the way to your house (ie . in Kashmir tradesman's shop is as mucli as Bar dit aohh tovramh. yiit tjitnahas tyiil A is like an earthenware vessel. also. much is got out of it put into it. Don't be ashamed of your real position. skin A as well). but I the way to your house.

lo there was a human head and a knife Of course the poor nifin was immediately maiched off to the OH the nc^t day the court waa assembled and the prison-house T The excitement was intense prisoner brought forth The case was tried. when there came from " heaven the sound of a voice saying. A head from the portion of nee. The poor Hmdil has neither the world nor religion. and at once enquired what was in the ts&lar. quote this -jestingly of their Hmdfi neighbouis Muhammedans Eaiali. as they had devoted themselves to religion." he &aicl. who prayed nnto God for justice Ho had too high an opinion of himself to ask foi grace also "Only " and t shall fare all light " give me my deserts. The Hindu is a mill. lehs chink pethak Jcamk wucMn (to Men look whether Men are into the rice-pot from the top part the food is cooked properly or not). or wrap. The man is not guilty. and. ated with blood. and the whole evidence was against the man. Tho Muhammodanp quote this anyinpc . finding no way by The judge considered which he could possibly acquit the prisoner. judge judged by their speech hir takprt'mah fatjih sfmJc. both of which were satin. when he Jfatah miskin. much and long. Batah gav grattak.it dropped upon the road as he walked along A policeman noticed this. On the way home it happened that the rice and vegetables were changed into a human head and a knife. Tins good man once dined with a friend. which they did not wish to oxpcneuce. Bat ah gar dan. nak dunya tah nali> din. he was about to pionounoe the sentence of death upon him. The holy man without any hesitation opened out liis wrap. but at last. There was a very holy man. To behead another To heap with hospitality coals of fire on an enemy's head. and a knife from the onion Batah lukkank plant. th. let him go ree " liver afterwards fchis good man asked for grace also. and accoi cling to custom placed tho remainder of his dinner within his ts'idar.27 Hindus of the valley will not touch garlic (or These nre onions) eaten only by tho Huhammedans Emdus say that their nncestois not eat them of woulrl because their aphrodisiac effects.

"bi t tliu Pandu cued out Stop. died fmir hesitation. day the Muhamtnedan feasts his big day the Shi'a weeps.ilcndar iiid discoveicd that The Painht *" / ? k i i>n 1 IN iitti iL. he dnied to stop into the \vato"& . A pooi man with gieat desnes. and to the profound lamentation of the Shi'a during the* days ot the Muhanam.indiu ^nJ a MuhmmnfMlan wore travellnic. and his legs began to tiemblo. aslie had to travel a long distance. his big his big M fkrflsah / . &c JBatos bod itoli difii- tah phr'lah 3 Musalw'nas bod dak tah R''Jfza$ On On On To doh tah bukah day the Hmdii fasts . the Stinf) stomach. &o that 1 i \\ Jie ie'1. all the Paudits take up the case. and dished about b} the fierce wateis. the slight" > i->c*>mion . food m T>ilah jinwih tal chhe/i wl*ah WIT Beneath halfa-pound of concealed liiclies covei rice gaib.nnu time However. and iiali tali lab's chhit nnh t<ih at Ins No the house. the Ilindil endurance. let me first loik at niv Xechi-nutier to see whether it is an auspicious time tor me u LI <> i 01 i <>t" Ho consulted the k.}\cn he had icachcd the middle of i^e. ^\as carried awaj . MI On In ti>e middle oi ihe nay ivm a. yet he wishes for sugar .23 fiffd" u i ? /t^. when he commemorates the death of 'All. . stop. a khar (Ibs. If one Pandit is 111 one eiow caws the whole flock caw& cnLy. is One Pandit with another Pandit like a mountain -crow. swrilfc siieam which they nec: !ei d to -na'Io The Munammedan dossed at once without. to fcho Sfini's eating capacity. 192) of sin is a inulcicndo of sins Eofas If Itctiak Mweh baiah. tali rAfaas hud. not even a ragged cloth to his back. the dr\ wns nliei ly lai spent. Hasan and Husam Balas fjM Musalmtnas yad. 7 //*. to A\ But v. and to the Shi'a weeping An allusion to the Hindu's much fasting. to the Musalnun (i e . yet he wishes for satin. a time a P. and pomnii'nnd the^ticim liishoait failed him.

" Btziyaras ckltch Mzigaras. tih will come fiom the harvest will be the result of honest tod).f. zih haliar Among dishes which is the favourite ? Tahar. is sick. Yih ncnli '* My Tho nenh Ihilali anflami" brother monk. Tahai a kind of boiled rice coloured with turmeric tol/i llowtmh antfarah Foi the family distress. Itechanas Mnah Umuni is Tho beggar's pot (in which he collected food) Tho IttBt straw gorio. and the ta*liih t rosary in the hand. In the wife's house TV ho is the favourite ? Brother-in-law. lie-Mr rhhuh wakih har daMr 1 An unemployed man visits every darb..u . Bechtin tah guns khadt ! Eeggmg and riding upon a horse ! A proud boggar. gods give cvcrj tiling for labour (t e. what will come. but for the idols an offering. broken.29 Jlfi'far andarah loth li/ah till ialinr ? ? lyah. idle The unemployed. Icuiili tali. the world yloin is full of such people). garak "patah Not one ignorant man ? Why there are eleven Be-aH nah house in every (z. chkvk lemftr. To the shameless shame is distant. Jte-hayfihas sharm dur. anrfar pMhsi tah athas Let tasbth* The noose (of the executioner's rope) under the arm. Iralb l\sak. or man. ''Bi'tyzh myftmli lalandarai . Hindu tfunt Hath men aw "baghnl wen %>hdhs{. Charity begins at home. A " deceiver deceives himself. Oe' tnoiide esl <lfi/u?ts. ..

Beyi/i sund dod Yas alhis bamh chliui is like lynynl Jnjnh a live coal from be-mune .. "0. I'm Be-muraioat mahnymo clikm zan . and eating Bemali haharav chJmli sah mormitt. were walking nloncf naturally tho greatest enemies chanced to cross then path Tho> did togothei one clay. thank you. la a Bc-sunmb chJiuk dapt'm " MMi " suninb nak hahh* " The unequal man really gieafc man I have not an says equal ". who aio to one another. that a killed Be-mdlas ail ah. but each stood his ground firmly. quar). sleeping. IIIM "It is impossible for any man to toimarigliL judgment of neighbours suffering" Addison. who suffers knows what it is like. " BemAio ds kyut chhui ?" 0. Bichs parutsul. phaliri la-iamah An unmanly fellow is a woman. J) how is " " Nah tjuk tab vak inudnr " Neither bitter nor mouth?" your middling The answer " is equivalent to our English reply. (but the thinks himself less than the least). " < Wandas Jsunah clMt. Another's pain is without meaning. ntlar nrrnn 9 Relal Mhk tyah Ivnnn M*tl? Uanuhi Kttiit . Cardamoms <e for the man. when a lion not ran away. sweet. and backcd-up tho otha. Only he. sick person. )i(intk sund amunat chhui IMraioMiitJi Another's belongings in your chaige the blacksmith's shop. Dupanak. and a couiteous falvii robber. Two brothers-in-law killed a lion (between them). who is not hungry. sister's husband and a wife's brother.so Itc-l tira? clihili traJi Ittr To the idle man theie are three works (viz. it. and the result was that by their united cffoits the lion wis Union is strength The tale is. relling. tai syi zdne.

Kyah " Dt'<nd chhwi dud wahnyuv chhm parattin?" Duyanas. rid of him on dccr>nnt of Vrh. ?" " Can a man Akbar." Akbtii inounaod thit hu vvoultl gno the ordoi. "What weapons they should fight He replied. Muhanmiodan iniuiater faa. 01 perhaps a co. Every cock ciows loudest on his own dunghill Bihehivam tj A sitting spairow. to a child?" She replied. "Janyah wiaik Isyah siit'th " Yih bronthafi peyih" Bir Bal asked Akbai. asked Bir Bal's daughter. "Can an ox give give buth '' milk ? Roland for an Oliver Bir J3sil was Akbav'a gtcat minister The Mnhammcflan unnisfcera Bfr B. it is only to give tiouble fco others " from the Guliatfin 0/itnt la A translation Qtti-dwn a guftand U ?" " Birom na mi&ij4 gujt. the king.ik they hind One d<t7 a.81 Somebody " said to the scorpion.uo gol homo bnllook's milk 1igm itii U. and when he does come ioith fiom his tempoiary grave. when the tune for fighting aiuved?" " " Whatever you find at hand '* Bir Bulamh honk purute Akbar pudMhan. " ? What did I get replied. ba t&ptotunam chi hurmat ast ?" i BMh pethai nkeh tn'tw'n. and A .j(L to 'Vkb. Both times alike are a cuise to me time ? Either miserable oneself or making ofcheis miseidble in the winter " He " Why do you not come out m the spimg- The scorpion lives under the ground daring the winter and spends a niisciable time oi ifc. JJttpantts ? " }ttitv1j Ahbaras. Sitting do\vn in one's chair at home and throwing out a flame.u ''Willyour Mjrsl/y plo.il was often punished hated him and tuod to gel.il. accoidmg fco the natives. oi some boy with a catorpault.t. will notice ifc and kill it Bthit wiuu pom tolyn? WiH the grocer sit and weigh water ? Nothing bettci to do? Bllch manfft'm tah put ranyhn Asking J?/V for A helpless man's wish Balan alms and dyeing his coat. On probation The spaiiow ninst keep a good lookout. diwnn. with.

with all the cine form mid solemnity of a judicial punishment. yet they nevertheless were punished by bcintf caused to ruu down a steep place into the sea. for there was no instance on rccoul of Satin In reply. not. as mentioned Scripture. though the devil did uot make compact with brutes." m Bir Bahn kaL Bir Bal's ram. I have this. wcro mvoluntaiy agents. even as recorded by llammcrare voluminous . foi quoting the following Irom Cham- Bir Bal was exalted to this Book of Days" At Basle. but asked what evil animals had been piovi'tl against his client. and there soaked her tsadtU. cipal pleas . but yesterday Bii Bal was delivcied oi a " " Can a The man boar a child" Akbar said child in the house " Can a bullock give milk ?" auswcied m m ' <f) still greater honor and power on account of shiewdncss of his daughter Readers will probably be disgusted at the iidiculousnoss of this story. washed it went then and and some blood lying about. but at Basle so late as the fifteenth century great excitement was caused by the announcement that a cock had laid an ca# I " may be pardoned. would rather possess a cock's egg than be master of the philosophui 'a stone and that in Pagan lands Satan employed witches to li. tho cock was innocent. and though tho swme possessed by devils. fiom which pioceeded animals most iirjunous to all of the Chiistian faith and race. not punishable bylaw If the crime of sorceiy weio imputed. enquired the reason not muideied any one. we only give tho nieagic outlines of tho prinlem. what injury to man 01 beast had it effected ? Besides. the cock was condemned to deatli. "Never mind. The advocate for the defence admitted the facts of the case.ileh such eggs. or wiap.gitl on the following morning thoio was the paper signal and sealed by the king. but as a soicerer or devil in the form of a. the laying of the egg was an mvoluntaiy act. spread out before Bir Bal. Akbnr noticing the pait of the river opposite the king's palace She replied of the blood No. a cock was tried for having laid an egg Foi the prosecution it was pioved that cocks' eggs wore of inestimable value for mixing in certain magical preparations that a sorcerer beis's <{ . in 1474.is with its egg burned at the stake. suffice it to say. SJio her father in this wi etched state at once devised a scheme went off straight to the butchei's shop. Public Prosecutor alleged that. vubC ami . and so poii&hcd in the waters The pleadings in this case. if Bir B<U ib a llmdu. Akbar said. cock. ordering him fco piociuo some Bu Bal was overbullock's milk within fifteen days. lie sometimes entered into them . and as sacsh. as a cock. lie ib d. rinil w. One day in icply to some mimstcis who were sUuduiing Bii JU1. 01 clso die whelmed with fear and astonishment The minister's. tho having made a compact with the brute creation . daughter soeuu. perhaps.

who has very little work. and some fed their rams one clay and not the nett clay and in various . when all the ministers and their rams were beiorc Akbar. and not at night .e. gatelnh khyun tak bad lath gatjihk wh muck You must eat a big mouthful. when any person counBit Bal's an* teracts whatever good he may have done. but if an ignoble man becomes take out the very hairs of their heads. which^I have in him Shall I piovo to you his wisdom and shrewdness p Call all the " Akbai then gave to each minister a ram. but constantly The consequence was that the poor lam from kept a dog near it very fear did not become any fatter o thinner. other ways tLcy tried to keep them in ihe same condition but at the end of Uio two months. great. half (i. Persian Bod mymd Larani. but was altogether in itdtu ijuo at the end of the allotted time Some of the other mmisteis gave their rams grass in the morning. a. Bod ai faih If a great still jf'oi man becomes is audul tstih ckkuh bodid. Wages to a servant..g. a Kashmir? would cite these words against a man who was especially liberal to a servant one day.33 clever man. and to take care that at the end oC that period." sa^d the kiug. only Bir Bal's ram was found to be the agnin assembled Lt Did I not tell yoii. (Oh. " that no was wiser right weight " all ? and bettci than you " These words are quoted. he will badth man Bod "Who Jsamae kurhak ? zih modyav. and ordered ministers them to feed each his ram for the space of two months... ' i Blthis gi's&h dlyt'r Money for cutting grass to an idle man.np badik of good family becomes great. JftCos na mnnad &w sari modi gai dad kat-KJiudd. . no !) Spoken sarcastically to a lazy dependant 5 do . they should not be heavier or !j*hter than they weio then at that moment He also caused the name of ea/cli IL mister and the weight of his ram to be written down Bir Bal took his ram and fed it in the usual way. made you a great man''" "Death" (i. by performing some evil woik. and flogged him severely in a fit of temper on the following day. he will give pensions in land (to the people) . and worthy of the confidence. comes down in the world) great.e. he tilna non w&taA genus* Bod If a tak tup kadik n'lyir Jcadih . but you mustn't work. Relations died and left you their position and money). e.

and get more and more excited as she increases They remain out all the night and disturb the whole neighbourhood with their shrieks and depredations. as that I could not sleep or do anything. The London Review says The Egyptians worshipped tho cat as a symbol of the moon. The cat's moon. aiid they all are very wealthy As soon as this precious treasure is obtained it IB put into a jar well covered over and kept in the house. Zi roghan Wwrdan e gurbana ndlam.34 Boigavfanibinikgayihtham. lidlam hat hyuh. Tuhth chhto haj. crooked. symbolical of the waxing and waning of the night-goddess. Such excitement. there. Bor Muh jahannamiik por is A burden This saying load a trifle rather against the idea that the coolie thinks his Bosit mr tab disfat un. dshufta. A little paternal seen nothing advice to a child" Be as you had heard and " " Bragas kyah Mum syud ?" dapyulc. They said to the heron. " " Dupanak. A man here. yut Mm at hindi lut gilahwanah." Persian. Be as the deaf " man hearing and the blind man if seeing." Natives say that cats are fond of the moon. not only because it is more activo afU-r sunset. and everywhere no finding him. *' . Brother is t and sister (hard like) a stone. Blessed are tho people m whose dwelling it is placed Bran himd Br&n sun. one of hell's storeys. much as the man's rudeness si and impenitence. atfah nah yiwtin JcnhszL Like the secundme of a cat.. as I " 'Twas not the loss that I minded so am her shaking her tail. but from the dilation and contraction oi its orb. is is (soft as) butter. dum jumbidanash . Your bill is He I not all crooked?" " Hansuti n& t&n t&th Bhojpuri "Am Uhe " Ato apnd gam se" Undi ffyav khenah Mum nah lagan tyut. I am not so angry at the cat eating the ghf. Hindus think that whoever succeeds in obtaining the after-birth of a cat will become exceedingly rich and prosperous Only three or four persons in the whole city have been known to get it. no one can get it." ?" Nah tah replied.

which I now give you and one night after your marriage so arrange that the animal shall the sleeping room at the time. To beat the cat. and a hint from you that she will faro likewise if she is not very careful over herself. martin putoh l& tai as. he sees a cat. tyrannical fellow checked from doing much harm by sickness or poverty.1i is is a sound for driving away cats a sound for driving away dogs Brunsat pakah yehan saran rozahan nah pachhin. ~Bishta.it the cat. will be terribly frightened. You will go to the room as usual. " tah hums nah " tiumh cat. Bror mt'irun. when ho is absent ?" p What is tho Buchih pfauhnnh tah mndanh pathnr." tyut chhuk nek! He has not even a "bishtah" for the ! nor a " durah" for the dog so good is he He would not hurt a worm. and you will draw your sword at onco and DM m Youi wife. and on entering it you will pretend to be very much surprised and annoyed th. dutiful wife that she should bo. and you will special advice wish that your wifo should bo quiet and submissive to you in nil bho Follow Procure a cat. when you and your wiio retire be to rest. Burnt bread for the hungry and the bare ground Appetite is for sleep. . should be found there." When " Bror wuchhit gatshih " bishtah khasun. matters advice. If the cat grew wings. the water-fowl could not live in the lakes. &c Gwba e miskin agar par d&shte. Poitr encouroger lea autres. the sight of fche slain cat. . the best sauce and tiredness the boat bed. Tirhuti A father on the occasion of his eon's marriage gave him a little " You are going to be married. you may depend upon it that she will be the proper.35 &ris nah "bishtah. of course. tukhm i gunjtehkas Persian jah&n bardasbte 1 A cunning Bnmjih chhahtih Walur pfaun Sweeping away the waters of the Walur branches of the Brimy r ! Lake with the Prendre la Iwie nvec test dents." " Why don't you say this boforo the man's fice good of thieatenmg him. my son . and from slay it. he must cry "bishtah.

Bitjih nyiik bar tawn An so she went and took the door of the mosque. Eanings upon the lace of an " * An old lady with a hat on ' stw'n. butkis kanahwSjik old woman. budun tah mashun . pinch (ot snuff or tobacco. &c JBvjifi.) Bddih ktwah juyak yuyah. Buji/i qabih chheh htjan hanzan bastan The old ewe takes salt out of the skin of a weak sheep It is the custom to carry salt. It is a habit of the Kabhniui tiadosman to jnakc up ioi his losses by plundoiing othci . &c about in skinb Sail constantly given fco animals . In Bulwqwi or Bloijnn is a small bro/zon it the tea is made. . person excuses Bujih fabyav kiijih tal tjunf . to . is -vvifch a \udc mouth. Yet is their stiongth Liboin and sorrow " Ps sc 10 Buhogunas chhih bah yuan The Buhogun has twelve attributes. nun habet Budah ashak mohan mushak. prepared. and they always e\pccfc and very ofLon cxptcfc mmc old woman found an apple under the . flour. An old man's. Dancing an old crow (on the hand). not entei the service of the old 01 the young the old will soon die. love . tree. ghi vessel. uyuu viiasMfhh hand old woman's tloor was taken away . huna Uiidmat g'ltjhih nah Jsaram. and the young do not remernbci).36 Bvrhis hum mi's JiaUl It is lawful for a Necet-sitas hungry man liye)>i to eat the Sesh of a dog.1 is worth a guinea a pinch. mm io Bitjih gny\h tjit fas t'v kit An A old woman tumbled down. adah gay ill phut An and afterwards she (always) went (to that tree) v/ith a basket Give onco. &c. b^dun tah uat/tun. to become old and forget . Fussing about anything nnwoithy Sudan tak Do tolatvn. MubhaJ. rice is cooked. and full of she got excused hit. JBudun tak wadun To become " old and to cry become old and decay.

and so she foi her continued for many days without saying or doing anything to the Bnt one night she could not endure the cat's impudence. "it -will be asm.is to whether she should go laid hold of it. and all because of the quarrel between the old woman and the cat Buhchik haldl tah Mr hart'in Bundle lawful. who now had readied the village. The flames spread to the other houses. bub swallowing a camol JBulthfu i gayih )v<$i't) -i-Mna of the house (?. it will be to my heavy loss " Accordingly she deterShe proeiucd some cotton-wool and some mined to only punish it oil. and many received very burns OUR sen Tho governor. Punishment visited upon the wrong persona Theie was a poor old helpless woman. so that they ran about shduting and wildly. The fiie-plice is the ulcer cats up Ihc expenbes. . not knowing wliafc they weie doing. but they only inci eased the damage by other ways exciting the people. but if I kill it 01 not letam it alive. but cowiic prohibited. where it<3 flaming tail ignited the thatch. until after a short time the whole village was in The news spread tai and wide. spoko the above words. and bung then fafc to him. "If I &lay it. when they saw the bears The scene or so who kept then giound wore sum. and sometimes bum& the whole place down).37 Sujik tah brdrih tjuweyik har tak wanahn Mpatan fear tjnyih Idr An old woman and a cat fought with one another. and then set it on iue A\\ay nished the cat acioss the yard up the aide of the window and upon the loof. and soaking the one in the other tied it on to the cat's tail.ir's gicase were applied to tho burns. and thief Sho argued with herself ." &hc said. tint if for tho space of two days be. who used to beg for her Half of this food she would eat food by day and cook it at night After a while a in the morning and the other halt in the evening cat got to know of this arrangement and came and ate the meal Tins old woman was very good and patient. they would perfectly hoal The soldieis woio rather airaid to ventrno their lives in this woik. for tho doctor had said. whilst dying. Straining at a gnat. tit the advice of the doctor. and one poor fellow.e. and came upon the bears of the wood. and the governor of one mighty blaze the city sont tho soLheis . ordeiod the soldiers to much at once for tho ]un$lo and kill as many beais as they could.iy. find set the wholo house on iiie. seeing these poor suttoiors. which m have long since passed into a piovcib Honcc the boars as well a& Eventually many boais weie sLun the poor soldiers weie killed. and not a few of them ra^n aw.

but never for cookmg purposes. and used only by the few wealthiei house. Buzun bror fo'mum. Sun bun wuckhit foun hun nazar. ono of the old F. careful master Suth wuckht bog tah teahj wnchhit t^ng^j. for eleven houses. Wood only is burnt m the bukhari Bumasinui sdmk satuti sums The worm will know the pecking of the lapwing. and so much e^tra for the tika. The face sees the dinner and the backside sees the Suurti tsangij:. as he used to fine them so much a head. a cat for obtained with difficulty.ithan conquerors. He cooks his fish by the sun and eats. but (really) (Apparently) looking below. times. that he listens to nobody. a fire-place in shape like our English stove. Mmum. only one fryingroasting is obtained with These words are said to have been first spoken in the time of 'Azim Khan. seeing in every A shrewd. BUM busi ghdali Uewfm iwi/mai snot. which they wear on their foreheads* . the religious maik. buzun bror A cat for roasting pan Hard difficulty. whoso reign of tenor and oppieseion will long be remcmboied in the v. direction. built of dried classes for warming the mud. A man so full of himself. is kahan garan huni thai). cuiqw is tribuito T^cwgy a round piece of matting for squatting upon.38 Bufehrfn. dig.illey The Hindus are especially bilfcor agamsfc Ins momoiy.

and to get some milk as well done he further commanded her to throw some ashes into the milk. my doorstep yoais. and contains the carbonate and sulphate of soda. boil for half-an-hour. For every tola or rupee's weight of tea the cups of cold water. stir well. Something wrong with the wife There were two friends. and two ways of preparing it. . as they were strolling along the same path together. The good wife without any questioning either by speech or look at . Why argument. but it must be hot.c CMt ham yd yits lekin tafo is It does not matter whether the tea less or more. and a little of the chloride of sodium. are met with in There is the fltwofr clidi. allow to boil for another half -an-hour. straight Why. the celebrated brick tea. 9 you must make some provision CMm Your bardndah "kam chhai nah set. one of whom was wise and the other foolish Upon a certain day. until they both should ascertain for themselves the truth After some few days the wise friend took the other of his statement friend to his dwelling j and no sooner had he arrived there then with a voice of authority he ordered his wife to bring down a melon from This the upper storey of the house. and allow to boil for another half-an-hour Then add milk. which reaches Kashmir vid Ladak. the wise man lemarked to his less acute companion " " The stupid f nend replied in a that his doorstep was not straight " is as as somewhat aggrieved tone. An old servant is an heir (i for his old age). of which this istho recipe Place the required quantity in the tea-pot together with a little soda and cold water Here is the receipt five m pot put and ready for drinkThe salt used in the infusion of tea is called phul. The first way of preparation is called the Mughal method. It is found ing in the Nubra valley in Ladak. Mugul chrf. Two kinds of tea. is boil for half-an-hour Then add milk. which is imported from the Panjub and Ladak ckM. do you Yours is a common stone I paid five rupees for it " * ?' The not wise man boast over me that your doorstep is straight noticing that his friend was a little disconcerted offered to waive the doorstep is not stiaight. and butter. and ehhuh miris-dur. e. and serve round hot to the guests ad l\bvbm The second modus prepwandi is called Sfctrt chai. then add more cold water together with sugar and condiments. when it salt. something like our English the valley and the Sabs tea.

&c. thiew the ashes into the milk. Tea hero stands for the great man and Indian corn for the man of Flame hero means money. and will do what you say ?" It'yih gatjhih augun ('sun. flame is necessary for cooking (both) tea and Indian corn. " Come and see " Tho two friends then went together to the house of the foolish man. she most decidedly lefnsed "Why. "why don't you ?" man Tho foolish now tued go yourself entreaties. his wife had rather waved the sceptie of authority. trembling manner. in the neighborhood. Mi . which Consequently were well known to the dwellers. the woman. " I wonder if your hat my wife has done. don't tilk nonsense. I will not " " Go and bring it down. her only consolation being the thought that her husband had once obeyed wife will do TV m become mad. A nice reply to o-ny nice remark made by another. weeping veiy bitterly. which all classes need small dogiee A. TV ho on ai rival. not. ordered his wife to go to the top of the dwelling and bring down a melon and to bring some milk also ." she cried. ""Was I not correct when I told you. that your " doorstep was not straight ? s Chums dahtnas guUb May roses be to your mouth. and at length Some more time was wasted before all the things wore brought. at this time. as icadily and unquestioniugly ?" The foolish fuend answeied." roared the husband At last she said the woman was fiightenccl into obedience But there were further "I remonstiations bcfoie the milk appeared do not know why you aie giving me all tins trouble. and to sprinkle some ashes over the milk But he issued his order in a doubting. The trial bemg now concluded tho two friends put on their shoes and walked out of the house. tali l&i chheh naJi ItJienas fowV' The Kashmiils say " 2Wiww * e Tea and roasted Indian corn are not worth eating cold. like tho other man. 1 am certain you can not. CJu'nis Mlzas chhuh nehpfit dinuk fo'jat. as on manj other occasions. When they got outside the wise friend said to the other. ? . as was also -manifest his countenance He evidently had not been accustomed to rule in his home . " Now. Does Chhdanah mat chhud atsdn Idh nah nerdn ? ? flirt come or go by washing DOOS knowledge come from studying 01 not.40 The sage then said to his friend. I cannot. Chuyih tah according to their iank. There is no need to cook your cabbage.

He Chfieh ehheh zm stfan. his work was over. what is this Chhanah k[j. saying that the house was his The caipentei replied "Yes. Chhi'v yit batah tah dt'v yit hathali. you lascal. when the owner of the house remonstiated. tumbler." Accordingly the owner had to settle the matter by giving a few moie lupees to the man.41 Chh'nah l>j. and hanged tko man. seciet. which was fixed over the front door He did this for ten days. in order that they may be recalled. and when opportunity offers speak and act. Look . bhziqaras tali shahsawt'was chhai audui itmr. chhuh nak bastih rozdn The sound of the carpenter does not lemain Chkdn'tk Truth thnls will out. washes the wood before he burns it (because it may be A unclean) paiticularly scrupulous conscience. and be able to make a tAU> When the master detects some tault or three days more job of it in the woik and sends again for the carpenter. When it boils dinner is ready. he uses a cabbage-stalk instead of a laige beam (i e. he does work at the smallest expense possible). A word or woik in season. The caipenter's wooden A carpenter was once in sell his little house the buyer was living in nail to very stiaitened circnmstflltce! and obliged After he had disposed ot it <ind although the carpenter went every evening when his wrap upon a wooden peg. Chlidnak tkvkas ckhui ras taiytir. is much and A good carpentei flatteied pampeied by the people in whose employ he is working of couise with a special reason Soup CJihnnas A carpenter. t> . he invariably says to " s * " p here it. is ready at the sound of the carpenter. the house is yours. Caipenters are constantly omitting a nail here or some other woik theie. but not this wooden nail. and horse-bieaker (these three) only live out half their days tali piu)<'<n Ckliunas yehh lu'kah nal ptnas pe ill ylkihk kamh Ugt<n ioosia/i* When the carpenter has to do anything for himself. Honoured men get well treated wherever they go.

Chhenl muf cUeh wa&&n> Empty vessels sound. Chon muhqvli trak son sun ok Your twelve pounds of mung is only one of my meals. and the man was walking with great display m the bazar. smoking. Mung is a vetch or kind of kidney bean. Shodah is a lazy. Amongst other cases quoted. are so gieat). man of humble situation and servant to a small- eyed man. diunken fellow. then Gwash came running after bm asking him to pay Ins debts. when one servant passes on to another and lowoi servant the master's ordei to him The lower " servants m an establishment aie tagged out of heir lives" sometimes. . It is related that a certain man borrowed five mpees fiom Gwash and went and bought clothes with the rooney No sooner uere the clothes made. Youi gift was but as a diop in the ocean. expenses my family. Hindustani Adtyal gaga) i chMkat }de. (My Chunks as cUtikar tahpihtsUmh Servant to a naultar. Gwash Shodah runs Chhetinpdtjin mut/m gatat Gw/ish STiodah patal Idrt'n cfifitis< alter the man who walks (in a pompous fashion) throwing his clothes from side to side.

Ten in the pocket ten in the heart ten in the pillow./^ kaehh ai IMzih tah zyur. " " As many tastes as heads and as different Balthasar Gracian. "Who ate your grapes? Strangers O I thought your relations (would have had some of them). and the plowman did not plow. then let him eat Apaimau kind and eat grass then let him eat zyur . among which dpaimdn is said to be the best Zyw is a kind of caraway-seed Daehh Itamawu Icheyi zih paradev. He that neglects his own is worse than an infidel 1 Dachhun atkah ckhuh chhaUn khowans* tah Kliomr dlhah The chhuh chhalun dackhwis right hand washes the left. if Apawmn There are at least six varieties of giape growing in Kashmir. the heart set A mail Dachh If a upon water-weecta smitten" by an ugly.D Dab Mm lab ? Ib falling-down a father ? Why should I trouble about. " The poet could not write left hand washes tho right. . mek ha dup pananev. 8t Oiaculo Manual " Dah ohandas dah wandas dah . dil lug tak hthhpeth Tumbled into the " mud. he will IMzih tah upaim. . that fellotf f f jM ^ tah rabihpeth. 1 Dah qaz hyur lcyak tah dak gaz lun hyah ? What is the difference whether it is ten yards up down? or ten yards Aiogulai ninny-noddy OULO upon a timo a. . " It the Dah Uto Jtahi rib Ten wives but eleven dispositions. man fell into a woll Ab luck would luve it oherc was another man pasamg by that veiy moment with s>me lopt . No finding out what the man's opinions leally aie. ill-shaped woman ai man will eat grapes.

lie gives pioruise to ten.44 hand Of com so he thiew one end of the rope to the man. that othei boy has to catch hold ot the lope and take his chance And so the play continues Dahan dak manuh f/atjhan nah tah lunib manut poshih nah* Ten manuts are not lequned for ten men. celeTlueo nuuicnst Tnatos this day \Mtlt jj. and no sooner had he done so. -who had saved the other fiom di owning. dozens of yards below Of cour&e he died instantaneously and when the passers-by gathered round the corpse and enquired whether the mnii. like ofchei Hniflu ia]ahs. also. had iaJlen into the well. was passing by a high tree. -when somebody shouied to him fiom the topmost branches.HMt ]>omp and re]oiuug caidbuaid hgurti& stalled \vith jrimpowclcr <ue made to H .it Should'this boy touch one ot the him. marched against Eavaua. the amuvcisiry ot Gangd's bnthday. was mad or a mnrdeier. up 01 ten yards down as long as you save the man " Doh thurungi dit iati pathltvnui. with sticks othci boys without letting go the i ope. but one matiut is One not sufficient for a single man or two more in a big tamily does not make any difference in the expenses Jfflwirf is a weight oqunl to tmce pounds. . On another occasion this man. he said. that he was fixed up there and could 3iot possibly descend whereupon. and told him to fasten it round his which man did and so was pulled up and saved the loins. ho itphed " I have pulled a man up out of a \\ell and now I ha~\ e pulled a man down from a tree. On this day. als-o. -wait a moment catch hold of the rope. What is the diftcience whethci it is ten yards an his ttho .u IT the tenth of Jaith shukl pakoh. Dafutn thawtn sat tah alms nah ftimfa a at'. who had done this deed. Ten dancings-round and yet behind Vam struggling against misfoitune There is a children's gamo in Kashmii called Tgihnl One boy holds a piece of rope in his hand. . for which reason it is. and the othei end ot the lope is fastened by a state into the giound The other bnjg go around him and be." and he threw one end of the rope up to the man The man caught it. when they can. having the same coil of rope hangHeie ing upon his arm. than he was jerked most violently from the branch and pulled to the giounrl. called Dasnmi the Mali 'u 3] r\li of Kaslnnh. hut does not give food to one. "Don't fear. D(thi wahai t DaskaMr Dnshahar after ten \ ears. Long enough about it DnJwlnu 01 Drtsct/int or Das hmd. is is winch Rama Vi-|.

He will give at the door will not give. He will give at the door . If God intends to give. Dai ai dnnh tah bai ah nydsai Dai nai diuili tali ~kruhah sfaah faatit "LyaJi ?" which } " being interpreted is. which they could carry. and Miounad explode with a tremendous noise . earning with them the tree of gold. when at a given signal one of the little "boys. while the other boys discharge their ariows against the other two figures. " They were reminded of their own Kashmiri proveib. and then the guns rattle and the cannon roar. then what is the good of going two " thousand miles for it ?" and therefore they said to one another we have happed upon this golden tree and must take it homo with us and be glad for ever. and resolved to return back to their homes. and His Highness sends all place. determined to leave Kashmir some other country. the troops with tho guns. Kumbhakama. it ? . stsah God Jtyah ? intends to give. &c It is a most exciting occasion Excitement is at the fullest pitch." In this proposition they all agreed but how could they so arrange The tree was high and large it must be felled and cut up into bundles. who is supposed to be Retma.45 Havana. for an account of Rama and Dai If at diyih tak tjiatit larah nyasai Dai nai diyih tah Icruhah . To icprcsent Kama. caused a full-grown golden tree to spring up Seeing suddenly. the tour travelleis were so surprised that they However. taking with them four thousand rupees for the purpose of trading Each of the little company had an equal shaie in this sum of money. according to His mighty power and wisdom. attended by the two other little boys. Havana. steps foifch fiom the palanquin. they soon changed hardly knew what to say or to do their mmds about travelling into a foreign countiy. the Ramdyana . Sifca and Lakshman. Of couise at this moment tho three monsters. and m eventually retire his adventures Ct. but if God will not give. and these are placed at the the centre of a large open space without the pioper time city. Accordingly ifc was determined that two of the party should go to tue ne<uest village and proem e . and they all set forth full of hope that they would prosper and become exceedingly nch On the way it came to pass that God. for but if God a thousand Eour men. Kumbhnkarna and Migunad. about 2.000 English miles) for it. and to bring foith at once nch clusteis ot gold this magnificent tree. and the people shout until they are hoaise. ambitious to become rich. three little boys are splenand earned diessed in a beautiful to the same didly palanquin Ciowds of people gather theie. . then what is the good of going kos (i e . where they could obtain greater wealth n than it was possible foi them to amass in " the Happy Valley Tbey arranged a certain day and started altogether. and fires a small anow at the big figuie lepiesenting Ravana.

" said one. it. neithei is there a any other means of crossing budge o^er it is nor Make to yourself wings and seek ont \oui fnend t fly. pp 47 105. and \\e each shall have a double shaie of the trcasuie ' they did so going ioi the tools.ibbha Jttnk. put on powei." Vol.lifteiH man. then began to take counsel toj( HUM " as to how they might kill then paunois We Mill i HA. yt'-r gn es And your iron will become gold.ibu . and slept a sleep. while the utliei fc\\u \\ould icui.ucnuni ot the Viigm Mhiy and Jesus. and llns clone they soon cut up the blanches and ia&tened them into bundles. and then thoroughly weaned with excitement and then great e\eition<! they laid flown to eat and to sleep Ala> they ate ot the poisoned biead. damanas yitoh dawn Utar. from which they never woke a? am A shoit time atteiwircls some othci travclleis passing by th.ini iu guanl UIL piecious tica&uie The othui M\O Piesently the two selected stauccl toi the toolb who weic left to watch the nee. . tlic who "\\eie ' plotted togcthci b> left -way as to how they might behind bv the tiee " We A\ ill in the tieasure In the couisc of a few hours they ichunec fiom the village with the saws and axes. Now eaily morning cdie O nc 2. Ttdwals nai tah chknL j'<ful mini chhttt snl ink t^ndtnt Grve the heart to the bellows. and immediate!} on an mug at the tree the) slew both of their partneis each slew one "with a single blow 10711 the axe They then commenced to IICAV down the tree. Pis beneath the golden tice II and VII. Now it is early mouung. . take . i/(<?\ Pfj) Itnr Gdflo paidah pnriofs tul 3 winn chkai sul tah t^diidiui ydi hel tah \adam ful Jimhydr 102 ftt'v piuddil . seek out your fuend (i e God) The sea has not a shoie. I. poivni A\ ith then oiead. and in the Vccl. on the aleit.ioi tho Bndcihist 'JVipitakas. which bear a stiiking lo&umblance to this stoiy 1 . Shistcuas snn f/aisht Msrt toutn Mint sul tali t^niidini Sudaras no labl s'hil. ''and thus shall we each have a double shaie Ho'vve'UM. "and then when they eat thcicof they \\i\l And die. the fatal sleep. wlieie incidents in the Ai. ah iat stim lah nali tat tfa . foi cairjing away. like as the blacksmith breath to the bellows. had also get ricl of the tuo slay thorn t\ ith one bti oke paitneis of the a\c." said one. aie desciibecl.it stietched out stilt and cold way found the toui ooipses lying * Ct " The Oiieutalist.a\es and s<iws. the other tf\o. 1 ' Daman baxhh dtto dil. be tind lea\e off \\ickcclnet5S.

The story is. who had two ministers. and cheating A few linos Damas " siwt chhui Good day " namasMr. One day his friend thought within himself " I will kill the prince and become a great king " Accordingly he ordered some men to dig a ditch and to cover over the top of it with grass They did so. that there was a prince. while the enemy was a very cute and wise fellow. at another time 1 saw One moment I neither a flower nor a thorn At one moment I saw the mother another moment I saw a potter's " of the five Paiidavas. Dami dithum nad paltawuni. dami dyulhum gul nah tah dlthum. DMt dushman chhui ntMn metkara/i sandili "khutahjdn. Dami Dami ditkum thar phollawuni. the work o a chapiassij a bad lot.47 If you will not then you are a fool. ki pay e i&n luwad bihtw as an dost Jci Persian widdn bwwcwZ. and if from the fields but an mdiiferent harvest should be gathered (still he is happy. one a friend and the other an enemy The friend happened to be most weak and stupid. honourable man* to the iich or Dainlih ai zen /core tah daunh at bowan hachai. pufitehan Panel awan hanz hhdr. as he generaly mates Piijadil his money by oppression. For a little is better than nothing). The generous person gives and the miser is sorrowful. At one time I saw a bush blooming. nor any other means of crossing. dami dithum sum nah tih tar. another moment saw neither a bridge. morning seek out your friend Now while it is early fiom Lai Dul constantly quoted by the Kashmiii. at wife's aunt. Nothing in this world can last " Quotations from Lai Df'd's sayings. are fully explained in the Mahcibha'rata Dun diw(\n tah prut han'n. Then the stupid minister one day asked the king to go for a walk . If from the womb a daughter should be born. mdj dami ditlium krajl m/ts. and how their mother was reduced by misfortune to profess herself a potter's wife's aunt. lying. A wise enemy is better than an unwise friend Dustman i dana. I saw a little stream flowing. the whole of which will probably soon be in punt The history of the Pandavas.

kl Khan's goveiment Tiku sect " There is begged that he would wait. Hindu adults sometimes. but it tcndeth topoveity" xi " There is and night. 24 Dandah Wiolthvr hammi'in gaje . but found nothing. and the king saw him and cued unto " The country will bo ruined " mmistei. and the wise enemy \\Sth it.D is the tyrant of whom it was said that he killed men as though they weie birds ) My big " In it has been fire-place has ruined me AZ'K! Khan then repeated the order foi He answoied absorbed all my Danah sumbrun chhui ham der surun sund mt'l Danah du darmas rttzah . let me not die him. Theie was a Pandit of the name of Nand Ram and belonging to the He was indebted to the Pathan. revoked the order of the other minister. gathering . .zad Kh&n. (This story from the Makhzan i Asrdr. Ram meant wealth taken out his eyes to be (^. fire-place . place it at the bottom of a basket of . is evidently taken The big fire-place destroyed the great man. who thronged his house to the extent of five l&khs of rupees The goveiment wanted this money. is appiopiiated by m Remember God day . alms. and passing by the way of the ditch lie pushed him into and oidered the attendants to covei him ovei \wth eaith Buc the other minister was at hand. Az.e the state after death) . toothless man (your mouth is like) hammam's go and put your teeth at the bottom of a cow-dung basket. Nand B4m The " They told the fire-place. Dt'nah~mir(M kanj<'nah-mir barbud. but Nand Ram could not pay it. when a tooth has been exti acted. the sick and the distressed. given foi his eyes to be taken out When the man arrived to execute this ciuel order. dand bfoit lubar a paje.48 him. and said. but nearly ahuiyg the childien. danah sumbrun chhid ti chhui Gathering money is like litrun Sdhtb ff/'nin din Isiho rut. money undei the big fire-place Now Nand Rdm's custom had been to feed two hundred people every day the poor. and so soldiers weic stationed and was his the ordei around house. was promoted to veiy great honour. a Peisian work). A. money is as the king's property (i. i<? that Piov. gathering a heap of stones. and had the king pulled out On the following day the stupid inend was executed. The wise minister knowing that such would be the case. and enquired what ho who sent foi Nand soldiers according to diiections well searched beneath the matter to Azad Khan. that scattereth and yet increaseLh and there withhuldeth more than is meet. 1783. you keep it Giving money .

49
" gi or olso throw it into a rat-liole, saying, Gagan hi qcuja-to cJwn tlnnd inch tah my on flaaul Nefc, which moans " biotlici Rat, you take my tooth and give me yoms." Rat, Muhammedaiis koep thoir teeth in a litfclo box, which is buiied with them when they die

" D''nd/t phunlct'm lcilio zili Mule sih inadM " Chhor Liho zili ckhui, zih dorhh ckkum " * " are I am
t

ckkum"
"
proud
afraid."

bull,

"

bull,

A coward.

why why

c

you bellowing?" have you diarrhoea ?" "I

am

Df'ndas chhw licng goban ? Are the horns too heavy for the bullock f (No). No matter how laige the family tho fathei would not willingly pa it with one of his childien

Dtndas

A

good handful of grass
the calf.
Injustice.

lov tah watjilns yed. for the bullock, but sis handfuls for

Dnndan Ishejik patuj panuni Iskeyan manduj. The ox who ate the matting ate his rump whacked for it)
t .

(ze.,

he got

Consequence of

evil

deeds

A man

Dandun muyov tah
people said

dupult

with projecting " He is

incisois

" Asun chhuh" was about to

die,

and the

laughing."

D&ndih sust wayan dohaliL Ddndbh rust wfylm rfoalifi. The owner of an ox ploughs in the day. The man who hasn't an ox ploughs at night (z e , he plans things in his bed, but forgets them with the moiuing light).
t

Danyi suk,

A

A tyrant in his house
Dapakas ai 6ba$ gafahun gafohih Irtmshkas. Dapahas ai IthuihLas gaWiun gahhih Abas. If I tell him to go to the water he will go to the land. If I tell him to go to the land he will go to the water. A good-natuied follow, but who rnvdAiably misunderstands anyfcliing

tiger in the stable.

and eieuuteu

it

iiccordingty.

7

50
Dapayai Mr, "kill viak$ari rdhat-i-jtin Mahamai JMffrL 1 call thee, a celestial virgin or a fairy kangri, what shall You are the balm of my life.

O

!

o pait, haicJiand Ai l&ngii, aildngit, qyuldni tu Peisian Tu an pa,t i nazuk fo? < o wasf&t m&mnatn La,z wasa-f azdn b&lu tan i az &a7<7 1 gul ia'n-d tari Haqqd ajd'ib dil bait

Mr

Dur

mitnwis yetih dudareJi yar gaijihik panels,
(lit.

Imas

mifoih

taljaL

"When the body

wood) becomes old

(lit

the spiut (lit. friend) goes his own way. earthen pot is under the earth.

dry and rotten) The place of this

Daram Ddsim

Jcotri.

Daram Das's chamber.

A

small

loom

Dew am Dds was a very celebrated character among Kaslimfi f He lived in Srmagar near to the entrance of the Lake, and Jogis diod in 1877 A D He built several small houses, the bigge&t of which

was

sufficient f01

only two persons.

mehh taJi halam gatshifi durun. If from the master's house some oil be given, then one must hold up the skirt, wherein to take it. Although the present may be a mean present, and of as much benefit to the recipient as oil in a cloth, which all urns out and is spoilt, yet it is" the duty of the servant to take it humbly and readily. Kashm'rf beggars receive alms in this way.
Darbdr ganh
ai ill

Dard
Love

Meh gavd.
is

as dust

(i.e.)

must show

itself).

To count the waves of the An impossible task.
Persian
*Ali

river.

Mtnc)

*

daiyd sliumat dm.

1650 A D) was a governor under the (cir Kashmir Shah Jahan He had two especial servants, one a Muhammedan and the other a Emdft The Muliammodan worked all the day, but the Pandit, who worked only for one hour, received

Mardn Khan

Emperor of

Muhammodan went away at once, but soon found thai; ho could 1106 On his luturn, when the king asked him how many oblige the king waves there were, he replied, " 1 have forgotten." Then the
king
ordered the
Panclifc

more salary than the Muliammedan The latter petitioned the king, that he would at least give him an equal salary. Tho king pioimsed that he would do so if the Muhammedan would go aixl count the T\ aves of the river and tell him how many they wero. Tho

to

go and count the waves.

The

Fciudit con-

51
ontcd on iho rnnditkm flint HIP king would allow him two thousand one* hunched

noldipis for this purpose. The king gave iipi-ps ami uni ttlnt ho asked ioi, ami jw.iy went, the Pandit to Ins task At or of the timi nvei he tour and a toll passage solclieis vciy placed lous-e, anil oulcrcd them to take four rupees from each boat which The cvcuse to the boatmen, when they dcnmricd, vent, up or (low n. \,is that, they had hmdcrucl the Pandit counting the waves of timl Ihcicforc ,ho river, In this way he they wcio thus fined

m

In reply rupees, and then wont to tho king o tho kintf'fl question how many waves there weie, the Pandit *' Jirow down the bags of rnpeea at the lulci'b feet, saying One lkh, yonr M.qesty." This }\n\(\il uas promoted to a very high post, whilst tho Muham>btniiu#l

a Ukh of

rnt'dan w.isdi'b.ist'Hl The unfit OH sa> that

'Ah Maiiln Khan introduced custom-houses

into K.ishmii at this Pandit's ad\ice.

Dfaktam, (Ksktam chhuh nah Idtfo
halffir.

;

duram, ddram chkuh

What

what
iioiiR,

I had, what I had, is not wanted; but what I have, I liaus is necessary.
fo tlu- xiuni

Qnolud

who

is

constantly speaking of his gioat rela-

or previous wcultluur

ta,tu

chluh yandun izzatah liMtirah wushnerah k
wall.

Men

bind on their turbans

for

honour's

sake,

not for

warmth.
J)(i8fr'rah batluttih c/th<u* fad as

pcth ras

In place of a tmban rope

is

on his head

A

(liHroputahio pcraon.

Dastaran chhnh nah mitl, darbf'ran No worth is attached to turbans, but to professions. Not what a nmn Huoma, but what ho is.

dal tnh
mnrrrnik

nt'da&

int c7*AA mulis ink mujih peth

mzih y<m.
1

To

turban upon the ground, and to tear one's cloak two pieces at the time of a father b or mother's death is good. This is principally a II infill ciiHtom. They romnm tlnis with
flash one's

into

uncovorod head and torn cloak fo> ton dayn iitfr thrir jiairni's doaMi , and if tJioy mi' iic*h tlwy iho givo tho tuiban and doak *way, but ii' thoy aro poor thoy keep tlioiu.

" jama laium chhai zallut I/tir roliet of . Mn which means. A calls many things ATM Mat. ami when he heard the sound of her footsteps ascending the stairs he was to open the dooi of his looin. A piebald dog is not faithful wealthy and his immense wealth was distributed among all lug not get a co\mo of it Theic except the eldest. died.uo that lii others had all the money.it his and he did not c. " So eiowds of the tlieii name may live and be groat in the land the sons' houses The poor and distie<=scd wended their way to giving. only two loaves withm the vessel The few while he took these two loaves and sold them in the bazar When paisasj ^hidi he received for them. when he had However. appropriated The holy sufficiently for it to go to law concerning his puifcion. who did was flfreafc lamentation in the city. enqtmed why he. sons. According to the instructions of his saintly vwifcois. as he was more interested in then cases than they were Theiefoie they went to the house of the eldest son. let hei come in. however. who. and loft. . health.is the* price of a son of o such the t\t loaves. but selfish and haul-hearted and so when they saw the ciowcls of beggars entering then compoundj they at once gave ordoia that they should be tinned ont diul told not to como again. Mai wllat." continued the holy men. Hur Jinn sfo naJt l'msi?i is destruction. ho told them to wait. aud then chain the <looi and on her askni" to be let out again. but especially those the uoild. . "she will promise never to go a^nyj and then you can opon tho door " Saying tins." sn id weie they to do ? To whom should they go now t( lithci's deceased their the sons continue will liberality. would enter his honsp. he was to say to hoi " Banlat sen nah kaii^ih liana. tamed for his goodness and alms- who hnd come into then fothei's piopcrty weic not good men. they knowing that it -\\. the wealthy and good man. then necessities Now it happened that one day some holy men visited this oldest son and asked foi alms They came at a bad time. "I have not got any money I think it a sin to amass wealth and so you will not be iaatliful to me" ''Hut. and money. was in such icduced cncumstances Hetuld them tli.it and sick people when they heard of this good man's death " ? ?ci Imps. Danlat by name. but to go to the eldest son's quarters. following the example of his father. thnl some. did what he could tor tlio sons. aud much clcsacd to compensate thi& unearthly-minded son Accordingly they told him to prepaie one of the looms in his house and sleep in it and it would come to pass thai one night a woman. they Housed him .52 Davht jama Irawn ham \massmg nchcs to any one The Kashmiri fluee. vis . the oldest sou ihoroughly cleaned one of lug rooms and ai ranged it as if ior a . and especially among the poor Wh. menu ere very pleased. ho gave to the holy inon he gave the money to thorn. certain merchant.

and so their lettcis would not be respected In the midst of this difficulty the eldest son of the late niei chant came to the king." he said. again boen turned upon Ins bed i m iind slept the morning he heard that the king had oidered his Ou using troops to march to a distant country against anotl'oi king who had unlawfully seized tome ccitam lands and villages . "I should be so thankful. " Yes. indeed many offered to take it. " you ore a good man .53 j ntirl at m>ht laid down in il to rest Ho hf nalcep foi more than twohouis. nor did it In a minute or two he letiuncd to the leave any mark behind loom. whrn lie was awakened T^jr a So he opened eieakinef on ilic etans It was the woman coming up tlio rtooi io let hci enter No sooner had he opened the clooi then n hUle flame camo floating along the an until it settled upon his forehead. I will send you the money "When the eldest son got the money he put it into a big earthen vessel. which they might cash at the the countiy whither they weie going merchants The kin^ complied with their request and sent the gold mohurs to the lato mei chant's sons. who at once opened it and lead the letter The ne^t day the gold mohurs \vcre paid to the tioops. m .irl into the little flame) he laid down. "if you would please take this " The soldier 'jar of pickles My fuend \\ill bo so glad to get them readily piomiscd to take the greatest care of the -jar. but they replied that they were not able to fulfil the king's wishes. and said that ho would anango foi the payment of the troops if his Ma-jesty would trust him The king said. but he did not feel the heat of the flame. they weie not known by them. or in some other manner . but not scciuq tlie woman who talked with him (for she h. however. Beadily they each one set apait some of the money as i present for then beneiactoi. and gave it to one of the soldiers. while the King made him his pnvato seciotaiy and baukci Eventually ho became as wealthy and as gieit as his late falliei and in the time of his did not forget the sick and the poor m m . moreover. who weic astonished at the shiewdness ot the late merchant's eldest son. they were afraid that they would lose them either through thmos. telling him to give it to a certain metchant on ainval at the -journey's end . asking him please to distribute tlie money amongst them according to the He then closed up the mouth of the vessel -with orders of the king a piece of ordinal y oil-skin. so grateful were they one and all for this man's Ou arimng that convenient arrangement concerning the money country the pot was handed ovci to the mei chant named. as they had no transactions with the mei chants of that country and. and so they returned them to the king with the request that ho would send them to the late rich merchant's sons and get them exchanged tor paper money. . did not like this aiiangcmont. and in the midst of the gold he put a letter foi one of the mei chants of that countiy whither the soWieis wore going. and the king The paid the soldiers their wages bcfoiehand in gold mohurs soldiers.

Tawah Amkam ? diziham wfaah-g/mas* dagah dagafi lihemahah pi'nas . To lose anything is not pleasant. why did you marry me to a foolish man 1 Better that you had given me to a prostitute's cook He would have brought me I would ha\e eaten them scraps of dinner in his wrap . Dedi "kawali difjtkas m'dt'nas khutali. and hef ore his mwtcr Chaias 13 the exudation of thofiWeis oi hemp ' collected with the 01 use as an intoxicating diug Deg chheh The pot is tey a sword (i. dew and prepared the king's porch charas burns Cheeky without shame.. A man's house and lands arc saciod. destiny (Sanskrit) ( An * horah ztyih. possession.e. J}aziJimatjhi?L wuh-njih zulahlitk.54 DnyiJi swulp'ninr. 110 that is the person can take them from him Do. . A good f sharp servant Dazanas dorl There is pain from a burn. and And At I would hare lolled the whole day upon the grass J)edi talai char as dazf'm. makes ravage with one's income). he will not return thence (before fulfilling his woik). she came in Dazah-wnnih narah gajih put phint. Dtilagam dtmahah manz matdnnas mother. ycml yeti/t Wlieiesoerer. Cla-wmg 5ie burnt Unguis in ulc& e liver..i the Deity. muddaUKras Mquni only daughter was born to the plaintiff mamage to the defendant Quoted when an unlikely event happens . whosoever has taken place of the Deity. If he ai dizen dt'rit tatili till yijih nah is cast into the burning fire-place.

55
Defth

M bunk' inuhh chahhiui pet IhtUi.
1

The Delhi
empty.

s\vell

has got a jolly face, but his stomach

is

A Delhi Pandit determined to pay Kashmir a visit. When he reached Veindg he engaged a, man as cook, with whom he had the
following conversation " "

Pandit

Cook

Cook.- "Yea"
Pandit. "Biing about three-quarters of a pound of flour from the market, and make thirty-three loaves. Ten guests will bo piesent at dinner this evening. So that theie will then bo two loaves for each guest, and something foi each to take home with him, if he should wish to do so " " I do not understand " Cook you " Do as I tell you. The first day, when Nevei mind Pandit we onteitain strangers, we do so " The cook brought a vessel full of a water and placed it in front of the Pandit. Pandit." Where is the food P" Cook " It is the custom in this country not to give any food to the sharper on the Jirst day only a vessel-full of watei." " No I am sure yon must be mistaken. Pandit Cook.-" T also think that it cannot be the custom in your country to food ten men with threc-quaiteis of a pound of Hour." a rage. Exit. Cook ) (Tho Pandit
'

m

Deminen hony
Saffron with sheep's paunch. Not worth the caudle.
Saffron, is

used as a condiment, and

is

eaten only witli the best

meat.

Dcwas

iah dratMyilcas dwJi ill tak laftar, Mmi sansih badnazarih nah Jscnh. Oil and rice can he given to (appease the anger of) the ghosts and demons, but nothing can save us from the evil-eye of

man.
Diytimih diwai Nndigt'mh genjih llwai. great melu is at Digara, but the washing of the
at

The

mound

is

a village noar to Shupiyon There is a great mold there oi July; .uwl people, whoso little clnldion have died during tho year, go to the place uud oEcr clutiics and food in the

Nadigam
is

Qig&m

in the

month

Qctmcs of their dccuctsod

cluldi'cii.

56
On tho same day there are iesmvate als,o at Mnnq&m an which me a gieafc distance horn ouo anothei, and both of them voiy ' He who visits each ot those It is wnlten that fai fiom Digam " One man did so, places in one day, shall ascend to etcinal bhss iud alfcei wauls a switfc man, hoise, and everyhoise, luhng upon Auuthoi man by tho ttoiit, up into tho clouds out ot sight thing name
of

Knshna Saraf
one day
;

villages

m

also succeeded in visiting those tlnco but for some leason or other ho was uol

taken up
Diffih pwtjkuv tah dugih Mr. small pais/i for a peck and a cowrie for a blow* The over-hbeial poison

A

dastir. Dili thap toll Seize him and take his pagri

mh

A respectable vagi ant,

who

lives

by "sponging" on others

T)tls M tah manaii dab Met You will not give t (of course you will) much wrangling and quarielimg.

?

;

but

it

will

be after

Thieatening distress for rent Manati dab, lit a strike oi a stone, but hero or giving a man a good thrashing
3

k

'

"

it

moans gomgto law,

Dik wi

You
"

tah paisi'r khet will give I know, but you will eat " "Putting on the sciew to get a debt.

?

your shoes

(first).

Eating shoos
dil

"

is

an expression
;

foi

being beaten with a shoe.

Dil ba

gav tinah

Your

heart and

yut wuchJiavi, tyut wuchhai mine are like a looking-glass ; as

you see me,

so I shall appear to you Be friendly and I will be friendly, and vice vetsd.

Dilah nah tah Idlah di di Not willingly but with a little shoving and pushing,
Dilasphulai gahhih ('sum, gulich phulai tyah yiyih bdl&fo ? There must be blossoming of the heart, and then the flowerblossom will not be needed. Cf. " Asas gatsi" t^c.
Dihltis lagas dut

Adah

dewalb phuli yembursal My %Iant manyanai uvinh hanz Mt>il Maid chhui patah patah tah$il-dar

t

5?
Keep away dnt from the garden of your heait, Theu perhaps the Narcissus garden will blossom.
After death you will be asked for the results of your Death is after you hke a tahsildar.
life.

A

saying of Lai DSd's

Dtluk khur-lchurah met*, Muhh, Mstam, manake kotar wiare, Nanh losam lulah hanzai lank ladfai

Yehh pdnah myanuv kadit mnanai panane gat e. Patah patah neri lukah sasd nanh alawt'ti. Tramt yimnai mam maidunas swrit dachhane lare

Make

far

from me proudness of

heart,

Father,

from the

My

pigeon-hole of my heart. arm is wearied from making people's houses (i e, t from helping others, giving alms, c) When, my body, you are turned out from your house. Afterwards, afterwards, a thousand people will come waving
their hands.

They

will

come and
side.

set

you

in

a

field,

laying

you

to sleep on

verse of Lai DSd's constantly quoted in part, or in toto, time of trouble Hindtis burn the bodies laying them upon the right side, -with their head towards the south, because the gods and good spmtg live in that direction, and Yama, the angel of death also lesides there

A

your right

m

DimwhlvLi diyih dinal byah diyih ? The generous person will give (whether he can spare or not) the prostitute (although "flush with com") will not grve
;

,

Dish dinas tah Skudi Ganai nah. All the people except Shadi Ganai (her husband) will Ihe with her A faithless wife, or a fruit tree, of which others pluck the fruit,
while the real owner gets nothing
Shddi, Ganai

Ditut na, zany ah phutnt ? Has it not been given to me ? Yes, but after breaking my legs. Once upon a time theie was a man \vho was earned away by the " thought that God was The Giver," and that somehow or other He would give food to those who sat all day in the house meditating his house for three days without food upon Him This man sat He became so thin that he could scarcely walk. He then went up to the roof of his house and sat there, thinking that, piobably, God

A

was a butcher's wife, and a veiy wicked woman

m

8

The people heard of this and brought him sherbet and cooked meat The man soon revived. Dizd ytnh yetih gafohih tank ? One should Shall it plant the tree at the edge of the field. A philosopher and A wiseacre. The washerman's house will be known on the great feast-day. Dod nah tah dag nai kawah yiyam ushye ? I have neither pam nor smart. Hindustani Dhobi H kuttd na gha. Dog dit tik btirav \ ? Strike a dog hat till bdrav. a half. but it is very seldom that anything is thrown to the poor animal.r M na gTicta fcd. and rolled off the roof on to the ground. Dodgdtul. roz i 'id maflum shawad to be . clothes. Dobi sund hun> nah g antic tah nah gathuls.58 meant him to live upon air. and said the above words. Dizik benh yetik pherih. Expectations unfulfilled The washerman's dog fares very hadly as a rule. The washerman's dog is not of the house or of the ghat. and strike him a hundred times and he complains (and no greater punishment ensues to the striker). and broke his legs. In a short time he became faint and senseless. which have passed into a proverb Cited when a man has obtained his living or any position with great difficulty. The washerman's family wear the clothes which are sent to them cashed but on the day of the feast everybody takes all their and so the poor washerman and his family are left almost naked (This is not true of every washerman) Persian Khdna i gdzur ba. Dobi sufid gai ah namh iz dok. some scraps. He is always following his master to and fro fiom tho house to the frhdt in hope of getting. where it will spring up fir-tree be planted in the place where the die I grows. complains (before the magistrate). . why should I cry Let every man bear his own burden. where it would be checked and To lend money without interest. A variant of this both in words and meaning IB man and he .

"but you come also and ride. don't. An altogether wretched and bad character Don Strife rains. and then set forth again. especially. The third servant came and found them both astride the horse. But the next morning the animal died. doh chhuh "khyMm goh. Don saUk tran wtihweU. Idtean hunz liar gayih wahrate hund r&d between husband and wife is like the monsoon rains. " The bitter cry. and both of them mount him at the same time. and arrived at their destination. Doholih "khotstm tah rdtahh mandachkan. Pir once sent his horse fco a certain village. snaps with two fingers (not with one).59 Dog dit tih b&rav . and great was the distress of the three servants ! ' Don One It ungajan chhuh nerdn tus. . lamentation with Two are company. Agreement with two people. strikes another. He went and found the man leading the horse. three are not. So he sent a third servant to look after them. dog het tih bdrav. Whether he is struck. but being both of them tired. that it might He particularly told the graze upon the beautiful grass there When the servant to lead the animal and not to ride it servant had gone some distance the Pir sent another servant to look after the first servant. and the horse also tired. (another) day causes to eat manure. "I will explain the whole matter to him. Fearing by day and being ashamed at night. to see that he was not riding it." "Don't." he said. " I will tell the Pir." because of food. The wife of two persons. they rested awhile. fohoh ." they replied. by periodical Don kulai batah wuwah. and. Anything for bread. three. A The Pir was still suspicious about the horse. and we shall have a ] oily time. They all rode the horse at one time." The man consented. both of them riding the horse. thinking that the two servants would perhaps agree together. or whether he himself it's all the same he grumbles. takes two to make a quarrel. visited Although Kashmir is out of the tropics it is which finish about the last week in July. Doh chhuh diw&n (One) day gives rest. It is not always sunshine.

There's nothing that he is not up to Merchants keep such men by them. a brother was nearly dead from want of food. It takes two to make a quairel Hindustani Ek hath se tali nahin tsalih tah will lajti* Diag The famine dug foaUk nah disappear. Kashmir has suffered very much in morals from famines. unprincipled fellow There are two or three kind of Dral luk. Dosti Jchutah cliheh rlstijm. when he suddenly remembered a long-forgotten sister. Truth is better than friendship. bosom was very much scorched by this. but the stains will not disappear. and determined to go to her and see whether she could help him On his arrival his sister She happened to be making bread but she was too sharp for him had scan his coming.60 Doni lulis h'jih-wat A A pestle to the walnut-tree. An . took up the turning hot bread and hid it under her arm. with both hands. Dos fas sestnam tah dushmanas wu&armani. and the merchants' agents. tlieir midst. Those who lend out money at interest. when her son wishes her " '* good-bye before going to his day's work Doyih athak eheh tjar Clapping is ivaetin. Drugas n Mai goyi't Wi Magas nur&hpMh. and guessing the reason of his long-deferred Her visit. A little knowledge of the people and their language quickly convinces one too forcibly of the tiuth of the above words . Driven to extremities the people seem to have lost all sense of self-respect. out of pure good-heartedness The Dral gets a commission on the sale He is a good-for-nothing. and she retained the marks of the burn up to the time of her death. a downcast look to your enemy. At the time of bargaining they come in as if unawares and try to make a bargain for the sahib. A straight open countenance to your friend . Most frequently cited by the mother. those who hue out their daughters for evil. or intending buyer. Employment m time of famine is like the warmth of a the month of January Drulah kunar fire in Mai lyuikhui agent's profession is another matter. During one of the terrible famines that have now and again visited Kashmir. of sharp fellow m whom they are afraid.

" father forbears to beat his child. Dudas kandi Picking thorns or hones out of the milk. Hukfca. Du-zang A Ithaslm fou-zangis. He was a man. and had seen better days. whom some good people in olden times cursed. A sharp.61 Drnti ntilah. " Don't suppose that you're frightening The Diimbs are a plucky lot of fellows They carry the letters at and plain. and " lording it" over others.) to frighten the " children. A very poor man for some time." tyc. of " Qodah dka-u. and so they became stones Guhstan of Sa'dL ast Tarbiyat nd ahl ra chuh girdgdn "bar gumlad Dumb " Stomach and bowels. night through the junglo and over desolate hill DdmVs m . Showing a thing (mask." " " dumb. Extreme envy and jealousy Dum-dumah tah Jumah Bat. Sabo.oner Dumatas runz. &c . he thus replies. because they were troubled by them. <c When a DumM. and another person blames him for his leniency. An ovei scrupulous Brahman Dul ckhui dazun. A stupid workman. Vide Jumah Bat was a town. tah foap "kansih mah dap* Don't tell anyone. and according to the Pandits as old as the Pandavas They aie supposed to be the petrified bodies of wicked men. willing servant Jajir" Taiydr. A dvice to a fool These dumats are very big conical stones (lingams)." Ready. two-legged mounting a four-legged. Jurnah Bat and his drum. The end of (your) garment is burning (with envy). (Like) a marble against a dumat. Sahib " Dwnbah shurinai IMcarbciU Mw&n. good family. A man of inferior rank promoted. Like a sickle to cut meat with.

nakhah chhuh near at hand From a distance black pepper is sweet tlio . but the angry touch. hurt my dear and kind friend Accordingly ho plucked a flower. i^anjih .62 rozan pimteh doh sokh taJipfahh Dunyti chkuh noli dki danjih doh doM. shall I do? " not. so D&rih. and to throw it so skilfully that the people would {Junk Unit ho lind thrown a stone He went to the place of execution and flun^ tho flower at his friend. daughter mother. Tho order \VIIH hut < every man in the city should throw a Bfctmo al the JH IHOIUT. il What How can I throw a stono upon my friend? I imiNt. and can not. A f ritmil of the man heard of the stern order. and determined to throw that -when (ho timo oaint^. is great. Dyntmut hyutnam mjih find tup nint ! "What was given to me was taken away again. hut the Ithairdt man who gives dinners. Dushmanahsandih lagih nah Isaiah poshzh foanjih. sfatkrant . "Dyarahwol cliTiuh nah lod . Distance leads enchantment to view Familiarity broods contempt. The world does not continue in tlie same state . Duragi and as Durag's stick (according to her height) . b&iahwol chhuh hod Not the rich man. and said within himself. dostah sandih lagih The skp of the hand from an enemy will not hurt. will woundA king sentenced a man to death by stoning. hand sugar is bitter. The world and wealth (go Duragi ham lur 3 together). dunk chhuh mamts metMn tethan. from a fiieml. even with a flower. 1/1/5 w/j tifj kitr. who then snoko the above proverb. but there are five days of happiness and five days of sorrow Dunyd tak dynr. Shukr's mother lost a hair or two (that is all) ! phirit. nahhah. .

The " hole of Sir Rat nesfc for He has well feathered his some time " Pandit dug out the hole of rat is always laying up stores. that they can be so easily spared. An asylum for the fish for the maniac a prison for the blackguard a net Gagar*mirani gang. apples. A A wolf in sheep's clothing. bat a good. Gabih luthih rdmah-hun. a rat the other day and tound pieces of cloth. wufah lat A sheep also can lift his tail. after the had been weighed. The smallest woim will turn being trodden upon. fish Seeing whether the scales were correct. The A . martin. little piles of rice.cold it leaps upon the bank. &c . is as (perform) taharat (with one's) spittle. Gt'id When yehh chheh Mewcin handrer. teacher thultah taharat (in one's butt* Affliction is Gddah tashh tah (To carry) rosary if to hand) for loaves (and fishes) ablutions before prayers. enough for several months' provisions. Gad chheh dary&oas andar treshh bupat The fish dies from thirst m the river. guns mshih tak ani ? Are children like manure. The fishes learnt to jump and the boatmen learnt to use the net. bat a wolf at heart. tak adah chheh lagdn the fish feels the icy. is TaMrat the Mohammedan's Gddah tolit parsang. yet he did not succeed. iron. Gabih tik sheep in appearance.G Gabar Mid Mar eik gai. a hard. Without premeditation Gnd(W hechhih ivutah tah Mnzuv kechhh tsul. which people go and buy from the milkman ? Children are not so easily obtained. Every opportunity.

(z e . so money does not continue long of a man in debt mouse m Gagur Midi Jsardn Mtns mut. dudahan c/iowum t&h soiouw^gtiyuii shch Jctirmh. and also caused him a little trouble. A A village tiger and a city dog are equal.kans hketiank lej. and the hands when the mice are by. chickori. the city is like a river (there everything goes on swimmingly). . kachcha . G&mas gar ah lcary& wnd? ? Shall one house give answer to the whole village *' What can I say ? You aro all against mo " Gamuk suh tah shahruJc huti chhuh barnbar. Gdm ckhuh Ih&m . not the place to get anything) . The mouse's khetsanh Khehanh is The a saucepan in winch spiced rice is coolcerl lej is as it does not remain very long very fond of this nee. I put them into a basket . I woke up the baby and gave him a little milk. pajih sur lodum tah trowum yayim trek humih. The rat nonplusses the cat. A rat entered a stock of wood. Cited when anyone or anything small has escaped tho oppression of a greater. as a hen with one I have done six works. and yot two or three people aro to Bharo ' in it' stir kudum. and what did he eat coming out In stdtu.and]then threw them away. and then I I took out the ashes As busy put him to sleep again. I have done three works.pafak het mfy ! rat himself cannot get into his nest properly. faiv Gagur hakinh banih. The village is shakr chhuh mnmndi lakar. from the fire-place. stupid man from tho city is equal to the groat mail of the village. Eel ley ah tjtv sih ? Met him Nothing. Ldlah wuzanowuiTb. quo Gagur wetsih nahpanamh The wt'ij. and yet he takes his mother after him Hardly enough for one. What did he take with going in. lej.

the prostitute becomes old she spins the wheel. his father-in-law's house. When G&htft. Nearly every wealthy family has its quantum of sons-in-law. m 8 . Hinduflt&nf. Ahl Yd. smoking and sleeping at the ospenso of their fathers-in-law. The fat man of the Gar manz Ganga. is son-m-law who lives always like a dog at the door. jdn i sMrin mibardyad fire in one's bosom.r ^ foe/mat apna gJua/r baithe M daulat gdenge to ghar ujdcgci to dhundhne hifiin 'idenge Gmfc Ndnak Ithwah ma Ithwtth. drinking.65 Gf'mi ludfin tak yindar hatun. Building a stable before the horse is purchased. kite the barren know anything woman consider lie by the beggar as of the pain of his prey ? Does the child's pain ? turns away rmhclped from the rich man's No Gunth nah kumh tah gtihtah aul ? kite anywhere. that they cannot bear the idea of a separation. Bid of the offending party. male or female. A lazy master of a house. house. Gar ffundak. but the kite's nest ready. How hawah z/imh $&% sund skiUr ? can the kite know the prey of the hawk ? ' Gtiuth Jsyah zdmh backah dod tah hdnth Jeyak z&mh putrdk dod? ^ Does the Cited door. Gar na bfohad bvbih andar nfoahpMk. In this way they contract the mo&t den>o- A Garpeth z&wwthur barptyk hun. and so the sons-in-law are invited to come and dwell under the same roof. Ganges in the house. the precious certainly fire come out. If there is not the warmth of life will '* Angad. The tanner has run away from the village and the people foul Gawa are relieved of the tanner's smell. Hindus are so very fond of thoir children. gamak tak gam phakah mshik mulwle. Warmth of in one's bosom" refers to the kangar. who generally spend their time in eating.

No place like homo. (only) by constant shoving Garah Jsur amh A blind woman together. meaning c< ALiy yom eyes s( ut out of your " head through tumble and souow Also -whoii . pakanav.1 pornon IB not. can't you see it ?" Gari wanh Pounding A coward dagt'm. -who makes money on purcliasos for Ins father. A selfish man til is mad (so grasping is he. Disagreement moans ruination st'tst't tah Mmh." p. Garah gav fcaleah-ndv. The house is like a manure-boat. and I will never go out from you. " Pounding spices in the house'* hero afraid to stn out means living indoors and Garilas A thief entered fa'tye Mr tah mandinen tarn. daleak daltafi. gaii gojih. people. the house of a poor man. 1 n. " You. . against a nun. A Kashmiri ciuse. but docs not talc up tiny Bpecul wuik foi himself Gari gojih. and they feasted themselves until mid-day.66 ralizing habits. garah rov and a one-eyed woman tried to keep house but they disagreed and brought the place to rum. another porson will sometimes Buy. Garah wandat garah garah nerahah nah zah. and are a scorn and reproach to all right-minded Such are called Gar Zanmtlmr In Bengal they are called Ghar Jamfi'i V^de " Hindus as they are. I offer you a thousand houses. Gari mm Salt and Cifcocl oil in the house. Hitnrp at finding any thing. Tyikah-ndviB a largo baige generally stuffed fnll of vegetable manure gathered from the Dal lake These boats are so loaded that only an inch or so appears above water j consequently a little stopThey aio towed and pushed along to page might cause it to sink their destination. spices in the house. (Like) the kernel of a water-chestnut {singhdrah). home. Garazitiand chhuh dewunah. and pushing (does) it makes progress. and so incessant in his solicitations). 73. and are at once unloaded on their arrival.

but a light in the mosque. fakir which was tfivon to lus wife and children. A haul struggle to koop up appearances. Garth chhukah. these are words often Again quoted when more than fehe invited people are present at the wedding-feast Hearing the sound of music passers-by go in. drink. Cited when ono has the liouso and goes to another person's house and there gets mora tiouble. Darkness the home. " He that is surety for a stranger shall smart for it. or in your disciple's house? Brlhmang and other holy men do not 6at much in their own houses. Garih diyin tah edmn mah Better to give something from the house than to become surety for anyone. and tho childion were taught a trado. became mad from much reading. No oil m the house and the band A man who is obliged to stinfc Ins Garih tih MJe parih iih lu'tk Vegetables m ray own house and vegetables m anothei's house. was distubnted amongst the poor The wite mauiod again. life.67 no use for a poor man to The police only ver complain until he is obliged to bribe them to keep quiet. and eat. dam gammat The bell-striker at the ast. Garih galah tah mashidih foohg. but pleasant enough and liberal abroad A frequent answer to the Mullahs. are lost in the company. e\coptmg a small poiLion family. 15. but save the money. house. Ganh mans chlmh garyul . hour Garih nah lazin tah ncmbat wazin ! ' plays stomach in order to covei his back or feed his horse. and are now oanung a respectable livelihood. A man. and went about the city shouting these words He was of veiy good All his money. When they visit their disciples' houses. you should not have come forth from your trouble in Vegetables hero moans tiouble. afoin. but turned a. when they become importunate in their demands for contributions towards the support of the mosques. xi. U Are you they oat then* fill Cited to a child who is going beyond bounds at the dinner. and steal to their hearts' content till mid-day. nti-hal&ah zitah gari drtfc. breath is as spoil. It is of him more. nab yazmanah handih ? in your own house. ." Prov. m Miserable and misovly at home. . AzunKh&n by name. or pay his e^tra servants.

Kaj& Moti Singh I wish you were at Jericho.68 Garth yelih tjatih. under Gdv diyih nah tah wufo/t cheyili noli. Go tion to Ptfnch and there get ague. and the butcher's dog. who gonorally hate ono another. these three dogs are alike (a wretched lot). Step-mother and step-children.. the river-bed dog. * Give to me by the throat (i <?. then. Feed a servant or an animal well and.. The cow will not give (milk) and the calf will not drink it. To with his bow and arrow. a man escapes from the house. the present Mahauljah ot Kashmir and Jammfin. Father. but each does not like to give the other " notice " to leave Giiwiii The cow chhuh wonamut hahh lam ditam tah latik Jtini dimai. I will supply you with milk. Also cited concerning an old servant and his master Both havegot to dislike one another. ghf. adah M cMui Tasi Bat Mn. and holds a considerable tract of country in hef his cousm. The man in charge immediately sent word to the Court. tali puji Mn. tai SMk sapamh rm . and butter). Ptinch is about five maichos from Srinagar in a north-west direcIt is a compact town and has a good bfwdr resides there. The king of the support himself he hunted man who could shoot an arrow country had promised that the through hia ring at a given distance should receive a robe of honour and other rewards The nng was hanged up in a certain place and a man always stationed by it to see fair play and report to the king. when by the will of God the arrow was whirled by the wind straight through the ring. The poor man was shooting birds one day near to the place where this ring was suspended. and tho poor hunter was When rewarded. and the king is happy. After adversity comes prosperity. and able henceforth to lay live in ease down his bow and arrow and trek Gdtah Kin tah skdtah hun Uhi. I will give to you by tlie tail" (i. got very earnest (about this work). You have .e. feed me) and said. yim hmi The landing-place dog. is Tazi Bat's arrow. they will servo you well* c Ger cfi/iui dmut. Gafoh Prunfo tahh Mai zulah. A man overtaken by misfortune ran away from Ms house.

a will there's a way. 'Grist sund kalehur hyuh. Like a farmer's young untrained ox. lap HIM Me.69 There was a lazy woman. some Envy. The cow here represents the great man and the ox the poor man. let me alone now. who never cared to spin or to do any Her husband spoke to her about her laziness She replied. Gov ssuv wutjh sui me The cow bore a calf. Gil tih chhek d&nye Gil also wants MhchMn. but strike an ox and nobody will say a word. upon the matting.. rice." yet he is not then even to sit A Persian proverb Dihlcdii agar. when I shall be so fond of work. cow and everyone will exclaim. that I shall get through any quantity in no time." One day they were going to Tulamula. and as they were starting. mci mar jde j Na IcaJitm. work. Gil IB a Muhammedan woman's name. Strike a Gov m&r lozan sari tdh d&ndah mar nak lozhn hank. " Ah ' I would himself Gewakak tali gyav hhyom Iranh. fyc. (" what a shame to strike the cow which supplies you with milk!"). to speak or to act for Hindustani Eahun.e. The time is coming. " the wife said to her husband. Persians say Grustu zih hustu. I should like to do some work. with only the first word altered. smg but the cat has eaten my Circumstances are so that a person is afraid ghf. Gel* me a spinning wheel " The husband said the above words. a strong. but he could not at that time obtain a wheel. " ploughman becomes a lord. which Where there's I should have (and will have). big . A useless fellow If the fit Grustu agar auhyd btisliad Uik-i-luriytt nest. The husbandman clumsy fellow)* is like an elephant (e.

too. like those of somo European countries. hourly by your name" moaus she makes great profession of lore f01 you Kashmiris frequently swear by the person or thing thoy most love (f Cuts bridges" is said of mischievous and extravagant wives. great and small The fourth wife there is no one like her for . all manner of a hopeless character. ^ Duyim Itulai thliai go/fill ga/rik drii . city selling garlands t Gudah lorih-kan ah patah konh-han.i Treytm Itnlai Mai The first wife goes mad over her husband The second wife there's something good The third wife is as an axe to the head. Gudanich Imlai Mai Ui tai m . Gudannle sodu gafohih nah rnwarun. bearing a garland of flowers. The second wife swears hourly by your name . His sister. Kashmiri trndors. Treyim Imlai foat&n swnah tah kadal. The third wife cuts bridges. First (he asks for) your walking-stick and then (he wants) your pet daughter. the Maharajah's Court. They will frequently lather lose than allow him to depart without purchasing something. Gudak From horses to asses. are very supeistitious abonl lefusmg tho offer of the day's first customer.70 dr&v Jum Sat dum dumah hU . in her. equally humbled herself by going about the of flowers. . One must . First came out Jum Bafc. A first wife is as jasmine and income . Bolt delte baltrci lend. bringing a drum . his sister. afterwards came out Roshan. wickedness " Swears she is Gudamch Jsulai chhai ram Duywn Jculai c7iha. He became very poor and was obliged to do the mean work of a town-crier. trade). whoaltogether hinder their husbands from crossing ovor to the other The reader will side. UngM pafatrte pahuncM pakarnd.. Tsurwmh badal lagih nah Icahh. patah Myas Roshan benik poskth m&lah kef. where prosperity and peace aro to bo had please remember that Kashmir is a valley full of rivers and streams* . not lose the first offer (lit. Jum Bat was formerly a well-to-do officer in H H. Hindustani.

MW lewt'm. A man with one glaring Gur Icawah ftmih Isur haharit f How (i. lag/in. his milk is sour ? uluiLhh lo khattu kni nahm Itcthtd* Gur <janh Halju'wta wul to ask Leaving the horse its price. " Like blood. know anything not the person about.od over the salo ot . will the outside his milkman know how to marry own class of people). cfion. the hoofs are strong. with tln oflicer and paying him one an'i WiHhing to JVct-Unct^ IH No m Gurjnn sumjr'm. garth gupan Jungle cattle eat salt while the home cattle Chanty should begin at home. Icadmn naL . but the step is bad. lick the wall.. the Ml jun. but at the time of hunger will eat earth. mill-house. such a Crtihffti ffupan nun Jehvwf'm. grain Cited when a wife's iclattons keep her rather a long time. tellk chhu/i khtiiwn. yul }<'<n> The horse is a good one nice..' ' his daughter ? . dapiyt'i) Gur kih tnyon (htd A'pitt cJihuli Ijtoft ? "Will the milkman say that fffh UiiuliiHUni. mitt. also whcnaftiimd bowow* ahorse or anything. m the house and going the naTdus Holl tlio goods without first showing them.ill hoisca in tlio |>ers(iu can Boll a horau without fiist ai ranging the pnco valley the rupee. the mane ig is beautiful. horse does not cat the bulrush.71 GuJi ffrattah-lal. and is not pai ticuUr as to who n ho returns it. and like Make the happiest marriages. yclih Mas biwfah. dunalt Uicyi/i. or to mean affair as that) .t. Cited against a man who after promotion rank Manure by the is reduced to Ms former Guh sumk tali bilchh. like goods. Gur badih son. tho oflicor appomf. whole appearance fault. The dung will know and the spade (but I am to have to do with. Our horse will grow big and wdl eat your Gur The he rhhuJi nak Ichcw'tn pelj .

The cow-herd's cow. Thus ' A very wicked Kashmiri owned a The Kashmiris have a story similar man and his donkey " to our sohool-book story of . Whether on horseback or on foot he is a scamp. will help you The horse said you lead me down the hill." dupamut "I ''Khasawums to IMrat. tah skamsher. cheats the most discerning eyes. Aftor speaks affcor A little child sometimes calf lowed after twelve years in the a long silence gives birth to years of barrenness sometimes a woman many a child. and calling his daughter took hor up with him oil the pony. but the secret walks." Gur A eandnah. his secret. milkman's house. while his daughter was walking on in front. It is not the real man they see walking but his dis- The guise. What is the good of keeping a beast tor mere show ? . tih Gurih hkasit bethchod tak gurih wasit tih leihchod. and a sword. the " Old You cannofc pony.ra$ ffttv bah tosht'm bafas giiv khet roshnn. Gun chhuh wdltam. wasawums ascent. a son of a good and clover fathoc. a wife. these three are unfaithful. One day he was riding upon the animal. and not for People generaly take a man for what he vhat he is. Tho w What a shame What a lazy. horse. seems to be." mount the but Guri garth chhud wufoh ruw'm ? Does any harm happen to the calf in the milkman's house ? A servant of a good master. cruel man '" The man felt a little ashamed of his thoughtlessness. whether she gets a good meal or not. yim irenatoai chhih le-waftt. '* For man He is practised in disguise. Do what you will somebody will speak evil of you. wafofa Jcur Gun ganh The MMi wahari dm. Guri wohawah chhuu wutsh martin ? Does the calf die by reason of the milkman's curse ? A child's reply to a parent's hard threats and words. is a comfort to him but the Pandit's cow eats and is angry. Persian Asp o sam o shwnshei w&fadat - Gu.72 horse does not walk. passers-by on seeing this cried out.

whereupon the exclaimed. because people Here it means Attib-g&t corresponds to the Hindustani dna-jand. as if results would happen so quickly as that) ! . run about hither and thither in time of Atalirgat is also the name of that money which the Hindti father places in the hand of his married daughter when she goes on a visit to her husband's family. to the foal trouble. and to refuse more. To eat httle when dining out.73 they proceeded for some distance. Going to work a man calls after his mate to come along as well. To Gurih sawdri tah Hdrachih atah-gat. they are ready for sale m case of need.e . He can't manage the horses. and until then they are useful ornaments). " What is the like the foal running after its mother. but hiding the vessel behind him. and copper ornaments) like is a cooked mouthful (i." The good ? I should only be trouble. the mare ndmg. Seek not what is beyond your position. and so he beats their manure. he was getting Eating ghi and then feeling his neck (to see if fat. when other people met them and " Bather a big load for a small pony". man and his daughter both got off and led the pony along by a string for the rest of the journey. Gunas mil Wishing tah tjud hetpatah It am. latter replies as above. and the donkeys put out their hoofs (for shoeing). drink 'the butter-milk." and therefore he oppresses the poor. Gurmutp&hsah tah runmut myimd. lezphalin choi. Too weak to trouble the " big guns. horses got shod. The " going and coming" pay Gurin The Vigil* ntte tah lihar gai padar dant. the fool. Money made up (into gold. Gurin nahposhftn. yet all the while to Gyav Tchew&n tah gardamh Tcun alhah Ugin. silver.

H used on the following 5 A man wnn Is u \voiihl and the poison whom lie asks iui tins loan. then. or when a servant upphuH ir inc rMHt'< f.iil condition. tumour ! wulu. wtualuug Uitiu- .ivonr MacMmah is a company dial i consisting of rice. deliver HuLah Uuras yalih chapdt. colouring matter. . "Who will mount him 7 Mahidin. tah hdldinas nishth rachhtam "Kliwlnjo.LIU! IIIM name a piovorb. Hachivis ffims xaehuv sin. not now. Tas IMS Tskast/i ? MaM-Din A saddle of rags for a wooden horse.' when sluill I gt lend ifc yon willingly. Both Muhainrnudans and ]JiwlfiH nro fii'({iH'utJy tins prayer as they solves. (for removing it) Opportunity passed. wlion any poraon \\milf* :L RJH itI from another person. I ( I. irplies Ha. Ithcnah 1jt(tnyd ? me some dinner 1 Is to cat ? it any trouble % ( for you &c This is replied sometimog. Jio Iwi. 17fl/m?m all Lot a fool have to do with foolish ihiii#8 wa a grei.'i loan. mother ' Among othei occasions .it all uvt'iils. IIP ^\. me from Bquatby the gUJ-t m the luomuig. ]jaLho alluwud Uieoi)[HLuiiity easily have Ibeeu rcmovcLl atouctimc. was the time Hahbah Shah.inu mini . but father.i ni. Lig ngly tumour on his foivlioafl vliicli inii^lij. Littlo punishment for a small thuit. ' ifc again Edbbalb sMh tohi tUili noli tab. the doctor and the ruler.ibuL ihu ciLy in . and everybody does linn honour Haji B<iba. and sugir.iys Lh:if. give Bdbffh machnmah. as a slap on the cheek. Lla mayi. J]ailah to go by.i*i wHl-ii|i ID languages md relipuiiR.fc fitmlont llojjorff g. A cabbage to a thief is Hatimas God. wnm. wdih. His son now \uiHlorfl . jS/w/4 had n.

A A ITmnst'iyah wandiyav. MiihannnoiLwis cat the locust. Mstdn Ihurd mai dum vialaMk. but destroying the rice. and extravagant dining. ILtlnlns Jiwib iah harfanas az'tb A reward for things legal and punishment for things illegal. I will make an offering to you of To Li y nutl pass one's misfortune on to the head of another. <lar MtilaJJi of Sa'di. a rich man can burn it. wealthy man can build a bath-room and a poor man can make it hot . is indispensable for the help and comfort of the other. for dented saucepans and like men for like Ilamvy'tm Jtarih rfaaft iah tdwis yarib . The seller would then reply as above. then UK! hem into powdoi. smoking.and afterwards make cakes of them They i m *iio logniilctl . gambling. make pain (e. KulMri fatnh garlb tah tfiwis ruzah. house.75 f nah yx'tthih iah infon ! and yet he gives me a reward ! people give a little moie than they intended. and the priests Jiu aflsi'mbleil ami fed. accustomed to make are trouble In time of bickriossand people olTmn^H mill) the house Sometimes a ram is sLtm. They dry them the sun. I'ic not got When Kashmui my rights. for any article. pxovoi'b witfhud to oiler aoiueihing belonging m . each member of which. ]Jul<rv gafim wl tuh d/ines duk Jvtrit ? The locusts wll certainly decrease. (meanwhile) they are i ILni dies hut lus inflaence remains Small numbcis of locusts visit Kashmir almost oveiy year. No. Mi sribzt na dai o . . or think right.g a habit of drinking. neighbour. j Dented covers men. Halcrt Umn wvlmn thnn fuhen hihi samakki'm. they aio apt to tell the shopkeeper that the overplus is largesse. and special woishipis paid to the gods tho IiiHU-a/d of anything at his own expense the man my ollernig to his neighbour.) habits is to . "hugh slialh . garo.is JJiisLlii great rlohcacy. poor man can build a fire-place and The whole world is onogioat iamily. To foim ckheh pnl gafahuni. &c. Somenw*a a jiMt anny of them invades the valley and does terrible fc/io injiuy to gi < cro])s. bo he over so lowly.

Huhhh A barren zfyav gubar shitulipajih dttrydv 6s.. will something). Kawah yiyem aushye ? I am independent of you. long-legged mother-in-law. but a dull. A man in trouble knows not what to do. an outcry is raised). much pain rather than give up a work. While these words are being written there is Sapi hdyun in the For some reason or other rice is city of SHnagar concerning rice scarce and dear. with a little tact will cook a maund (i. difahan d&rit Jeuhk. and from the Hapi-Myun. The barren woman fastened her door and went. ignorant person will do nothing. on the river the boatman rushes from the hinder-part of the boat. No heir to look after the property. Why Hdnfh gayih bar as glmt dit. he devours it most greedily. No love should I weep ? between mothers-in-law and their children-m-law. It became a weight upon the boatman's bosom. Ttachal tnik bank nah Taenh. because he cannot afford to do the right thing. It is said that when the bear gets this grass. woman bore a son. Hamas chhuh yelih chhuh daryuvas andar w&v yiw&n. putk namah namah. When a storm arises the fore-part to hinder-part to the fore-part. Jeardn tah brohtk namah chhuh broM puth namah kardn.e . bnfc after all dies in the midst of carrying it out Hunzas gubeyih luhh. and so he threw it into the river. ashud hyuh gomut suh chin n&yab. is lost siM hashye. Scarcity (lit. and the small-pox swallowed suffers A man who him up. There is Hangah nah t ah Tangah nah zangah no pain or agony to me. Cited when a man of some family marries his son to a daughter of lower birth. JIttpat . A person do Dod nah tak dag nah. and becomes unconscious for sue months aftorwards. Like the bear's ashud that thing has become scarce. or does anything else equally ignoble.76 Hand tnih mand ranih.

but killed the man Of. his starling eats sort of dung and then shakes head in a pleased A shameless man. also the Makasa Jataka. Mtil t Twwcim bud &cya e Jwrdm lafi. a stint. Har&muk mdl hardmacUk watik . the pain of a sting. The bear may be sometimes seen smacking his paws together natives do when they are making chapatfs.77 A bear's friendship. A bear formed friendship The stone frightened away the bee. Journal 1 Asiatic Society. A cowrie thief. Ear rangdh mustbat Mid ak diwdnagi. all har wimh sur kar. Httpatas ai aut foiheh tah suh Itariheh n& tmckih ? If the bear had flour would he not make bread ? Cited against a poor man with extravagant ideas. his jungle H&pat ydraz. Every kind of misfortune is a madness. also the story of the " Notes who got its head into the pot on some Sinhalese Proverbs and stones in the Atita-Yakya-Dipamya. and so he went and fetched a great piece o rock and aimed it with all his might at the place where the bee was. tales calf A stupid friend. Norwegian Folklore. Hfoah four. M. the getter . Fight by means. While asleep a bee attracted by the sweetness alighted upon his mouth. 1883 . which had been previously thrown over it . Vol. but at the time of fighting be careful." by the Kev C." by A. Itkewdn gus tah Mr mdri mdri. LII . Fart 1 . Bengal. One day the man fell asleep after eating the honey. nor takes it with him. Persian. where a son broke his father's bald head to kill a mosquito. The friendly bear seeing this thought that he would save the man from. A mean fellow." is discovered by a f riend beating her husband's head with a mallet in order to make a hole for the head in a shirt. of wickedness Ill-gotten wealth goes in the way neither eats it himself. "Folkfrom the Upper Punjab. with a man who was passing throngh For some time he brought his friend large quantities of honey. nah Jsheyikpdnas tak nah . m Sennayaka. aft Har Hdr The har. my. har bar. which had where a goody settled also the story given in "Dasent's upon it. Swynnerton.

is aot easily digested. sontdk gurus shtitrtes. The autamn grass quently the milk is is Autumn much better than tho spring grass . but place for sweetmeats f l "The doctor ciders this and that. He has only a cowrie to spend. of course. (May as well) speak to An inattentive person. You righteous man. a starling (or a parrot).78 Hffrdah gurus metros. and spring butter-milk for the enemy. think him a you for a Et'inh ffov m'v 1\>yali ? is the name to a Har ? liar. conse- better in the autumn. what can he done ? Nothing can be done -without money H(frjk ani bfaarah /canti f^ch chliid syud boranah yiwun. "What immo tn Hank hank samih IsoL Gradually fiom chippings a mountain Many a little makes a inuckle. from II 31. you stupid !" Hdr is a black and white cow People give a spucidl eveiy cow except this ono. If the pear cost only a cowne it should not be peeled . Htiri iang tah sulahnai > mwkuri tjsoht tah sulit. but if the apple cost a muhur it should be peeled. Natives of Kashmir. hut he would sell cowrie in the market. appointed ovei every village and llf'tnh ai A If an elephant wvnih famwi tsih talk ht'r mi <'sih tah IZrisis lyah ? is to be sold for a cowrie. j witness against (my) words hut a sharer in (my) mouthful. tho Maharajah down to tho humblost subject. but he rushes ahout and makes a stir all over the bazar. . butter-milk for the friend. they say. but how can I afford 3 it i" Hurih soda tah buzaras Jskalbali. seldom over skm a poar. Apple-skin. is made. f< What's a table ? A tablo. Uilnh No nahjtii > nabad phalis shiii place for a cowrie. and there is nut a cowne. Tlic man who is always "loafing" about like tl'C mnlulladai oi district in Kashmir spies. Rank tali iotas wanun. but always skin an applo. Harafas f/awnk taJi mandis skarih.

Every day for twelve years he climbed to a ceitam height. that lext morning. as he was. The Jogi knew that that the supposed perhaps. One day. a h^atme is ing applied between tho heart and the wound.79 JTftrkat kar tali Irirkat Itari. was. The jogi of Earamukh. and then they throw somo tikd upon his tace. LB $ while music is played to cheer up Lar is a paxganah of tho Kdiruaz district mm " . Be up and doing and God Pcisia-n will bloss you. whose bito generally fatal Some say it has a black back awl yellow belly. because he thought that it was unholy. thick. At any late every morning ho found himself icposing quietly in the very spot. whence he had started on the pieviona morning. and is like tho Jogi. and they were milking a bitch with a human head. the last clay of these twelve years. "When a person is stnnj> on tho arm or le. Hat amuleh is a mountain 16. was there now swcepei and his wife were none.905 feet high. The shepherd replied that he had leached the top of the mountain. and every night foi tho samo space of time he descended as fai as he had ascended. other than the god and goddess Shiva and Parvati. when he comes to appear before the schoolmastci.iko bitos is amusdistrict of Lar. and had seen a sweeper with his wile. round-headed serpent. and so he went closo up to tho shepherds face and licked off the tikd He was then caught rip into the clouds nuch to the astonishment of the poor shepherd Tho reason the shepherd was able to climb the mountain and tho A the shepheid went up heedlessly and totally ("An gnorant of the great deities who resided on the summit man f oars nothing ") guorant A boy with a dull memory works haidall the evening. Jvhudd Ilimmat i iiiaiddn madad i Jlaramnlthult Gosnm. to the north of Kashmfr. which he had refused to do. a shepherd was soon by this Jogi coming down from the mountain The Jogi asked him whether he had reached the summit and what he had seen there. . ho inds that he knows nothing. which. which is besmeared %\ ifch foam Tho patient has 'arak anil consul vo of roses given him to cat. and shears he was. How it came to pass he could not tell Poihaps ho was a sonnambuh&t. and they had asked him to dniik that milk. is met with principally in the others that it is ash colour The native method of tieatmg su. "before Htiruch k. A native wbuM not eat a turnip in the month of June on any account Qtfaas (or afa) is a short. ffuffaj tab Ldruch gunas chMh barnbar. on rl the iogi unable. pei SOD with a bad memory There was a Jogi who tried to mount Haramukh. June turnip and a Lar serpent are equal.

but no means of fulfilling it. Easti dareyi nah wiivah tah luyih had Jcapas. the daughter-in-law is also the pot is burnt. Take me into your company. pp 3. A spendthrift's money Hash tih lad tah nosh tik bad lej duz tah walih hits ? The mother-in-law is great. to you . here's a puntehiS. not m use now. These old dames Vide " and the daughter-in- Hindus as they liave great authority over the entire household are." Chap I . . who will take it off the fire ? Somebody mnst do the work. mother. The doctor killed a hundred men. A handful of grass for an elephant's stomach. Hastis yad phat tah langih delih w&ih ! The elephant's stomach burst open and they mended hemp-skin f it with Imperfect repairs* Hatah dedi nthana man dfa. A doctor of some experience. tih hetah maws. A poor. ! Hatah juwah punfahu meh Hie. A man who forces care for him. but to be obtained in the bdzdr. is the twentieth part of* an a small coin. Matah mur hakim. The elephants couldn't stand because of the wind.80 Hasah Matin wasamat. Hash gayih Grandmother (on husband's law got peace. tah Jcheni sum nah ale huj f two and half maunds of onions will be given "0. A mere drop in a bucket. himself upon people who do not particularly nei. insignificant man can often accomplish what kings and others in authority have utterly failed to do. Hasti yad gfaah gyad. " and she has not got a plant to eat Promise of help. tah noshih kur dr&m. Puntshti. 4. Hasah the madman's wealth. sir. but the old woman went out and gathered the cotton from the plant. side) died great .

eleven days of winter. all the same to him. is Be encouraged. is or nothing. though your destination far off. but do not tell any one. A share of the dinner to each of those present. she is only a calf Cited concerning a woman who bcaia her fiiat child late A be aidless man. often iopeafc the&o words as they walk away fiom the poison's house. V promise is a charge to keep. Stc vos non loois. but for no mine. Woikmcn wlio have piomisod to do some work. Patronize and be patronized.81 llatih gav %ih niatih gav. pallah. Hallah karo. Kisses for the chin and an axe for the throat. Heng As nah tak watjhmui chheh ' She has not got horns yet. Hah pants/h dih punish To take five or give five Poco curante bwtibar. man in a difficult -ivoik Hfandyat awn tali Mwum mail payin hdnsih. An eldeily poison without a gicy hair ! in life.ah nah tah nah kahli. and on that promise have received some mpecs advance. but a beating for the cook. Keep your own counsel H&ni Tcemi. Encouraging a pilgnm. A traitor Haziras bog naziras chob. ic^ f m ihe a Ilmdii fcshval held on the mouth Pkl^uu (Fcb nm tcoiiib . Herat tiyih wanduni "When Herat came mained Heiat (Sluia-nihi) of tho dd. Like an insect to the its Sin brings pod (so is sin to a man) own punishment with it fault oi Henah 6$ tak mutt nali n'k. Hdjo. m Hatis khash tali hangam mtki. or taken prisoner. ch/iui dur. there should be harm (to lest the person patronized). Involved in difficulty. The guiltless punished for the guilty.ik ioiLuight 11 l.

il IH o\i-i Slumld Hi< in a bo to little nee but.e. tbat Jittle nee is not oaten. i. Lai always had the nalawat in her plate.LIK! iJn-n liftlti VM ". but ckhulum bantih naHh the dark yU garas wahh stairs in filled I came down waterpot house. with water. Natives are accustomed to cat thoir dinner in tho follrwiii'.yih}tih He will eat a bitch. and he will eat a chinar mi tus post nwmiob. luLL iu t it. Note 743 buth nah." No 20. happen vegetable. clo and washed my face in a This must be done in this If you go to Rome you must as Homo does. A festival without dogs. Homh chon You have (i.. &a. fur s/. but to give away Ibs). Hisnb To themaund (80 tah balJisMsh Ihanounh.tali cMnis IMw&ndah simil IJJt nn ? not a face like a bitch ? Then your husband has all the lot of you are bad). pecuwit pi inium. Unh money by Caieful but generous Honav ratjhui id. Bomfi kht. until tho nicj. manner First they fcako a mouthtul oi nco. Panjab Notes and Quorietf.< table. it was the same. Hardly treated Lai all DSdwas very badly treated by her mothor-ni-law One of the ways in which this woman delighted to tease her was by sending " a stone called nalawat in her dinner Ct. A matked man Isumd myund. no left.. tree with the rial/in leaves.82 Berih wutehas yii aniffatifi. . Hud gav Just a morsel without vegetables left. Fleecing dogs and scratching walls. Homn Hor tah momn taohan.. . take account of every cowrie. Ploughing the seashore kuv> A black and white crow. Quairenda. Pteasuie without difficulty Hond marnn kik nah lcat> LaUh nalawai faahh nak zah Whether they killed a big sheep or a small one. bum lvhMjih<panah sun. and all . and so on regularly.

.ni. without vegetables. Euni hum har lardn taJi sMlah sinzih iwjih Dogs fight among themselves. but at the tune cry they are united. All the previous tirao he has been very prosperous. He means bnsmess. shout. c< Jlttl gandit har karin* To tighten one's girdle and fight. ma l&sh Hun "Who lcu$ nett/i tali four Jsits mangit ? will fleece a A good mairiago JLm nak Not a dog but dog and who is will take and marry a girl not such an easy matter.83 dry and poor food . Him usin May you Persian tali Icnns mah t'<sin. Tlnl gandit batich nafo'cn. a pup only. and dance to any extent. goes and unites in a row" going on close by Kashmiri womou have terrible tongues and most shiill voices At the timo of quarrelling they screech. Enemies are united against ouo common foo w'M lt>v. is JTud The ruler's (i. thawizvn fcandilas andar. Tightening her girdle the duck dances. Cited against a woman. A childish-looking or childish-mannered person. be a dog. .. tatih tih nerih hum tail be set in a kandil. o haleim chkuk and the doctor's ordeis are (like) sudden death they both must be obeyed quickly). there c\cn it will remain a dog's Place dows not altci laco. Younger sons aio generally the and the brother's fag Say Id&li Wyfod. of the jackal's Emi lut ai lutm If a dog's tail. Hnl kyah Jcarift sedis ? What shall a crooked man The strength of do to a straight man ? a good character. who wishing to quarrel.e. but not a younger son father's butt. tak Jwfsnrui. the mother's scoin. &c Cited concerning one who is experiencing a little trouble in his old age.

obliged valley on account of persecutions and famines. and as much as one rupee has been them Rich a feather for hanging fiom the ceilgiven people keep Poor people can only ings of their moms from fear of tho cat There are three or four affoul to hue them for weddings. and let cheerfulness be always upon your face. Hani sund hyuh May you A Kashmiii's blessing sabitr. have patience like a dog. and indeed theso They live people have all tho manner and appearance of gipsies scpaiato from othersj and by leason of their indiscriminate use of and Hindus food are despised by all otheis. wretched. Arabic. The A wicked. laUi dur. The dog took away the piece of leather quarrelling ovei it) (while the men were The dog lepresents the lawyer. Tares spring up where we do not sow them. sweeper dirty Huni neyili bastali "kkalari. selfish fellow.) IB fcho paintod woorfpn or silver bot nbcmfc ft in en cum Fei once in which tho-heiou's feathers 1J tt long and As many as three hundred oTo fixed. dog may as well bark at the moon Hmi'WnsJiJcah yur nah wawnn tur bowfm. acM pur. Let misfortune remain at a distance from you. The A ogre of the deserted mosque. and from which they depend feathers arc sometimes worn. lutfiis nur. Utim-wushkah literally is dog-barley. &c ? heronries in Kashmir Hitni mJzas lo/ttal is the cook for dog's flesh.Kandil (Kandfl.. One may often seo both Ilindfi and Mnhammedan women spreading forth then? hands in a supplicating manner and oileung thia prayer as they squat by the river-side in the early morning Hum worfin The dogs tah "khvaw&nah pakdn. both Mnhammedans It is a moot point whethei the gipsies are not tho descendants of Kashtime and who to the at one leave another wore miiis. dirty deeds Tho Wiitul has been called the gipsy of Kashmir. . A "bark but the caravan goes on. and may your eye keep undimmed. man for bad.

but he to bite. Ihvdus tah lurdus! A beating and smiting ! Such a hullabaloo Jlusih ! wun tah said miisih I'yihpatek it. A string ot pearls {< dog." took and Job i. taken away. given to the dog. passion. You only get manure from hitting a dog. MmSKh. To knead flour by a dog's paw.85 II finis athih ant mdnclanhom. Jlunis mulihtahi'tr. What is the good of a policeman beating a poor man ? will not get a bribe. Ne sutorultiactepidain Shirin o Khusrau. A woman something and she believed Credulity. Sabirah" w'tv. . whom he has come A generally good man. Ki o tyfastw na^ri m dyad Ee Hunis chob dinah nenh gam yo{. ? Who a who gave (God). Casting pearls before swine to a Hmitpyaio 69. linili yas wuthit The name "Patient" has been knows. The Lord gave and the Lord hath. fit father. Ryut lami tah dyut Tsami. 2L . who now &c ley and again breaks out into a of Hurih J&n wurih ah tali d/tnasl What he throw a handful of grass into the fire-place ? Lite a handful of grass in a fireplace is a little money in a big ' will concern soon swallowed up.

. ditak dast&r panah ros tah wiidah nun Beloved. and w. Jandas yatli learisth wavdas rahat. "Who is good f I myself. Suum cwque pulcmm. Blessed be the ragged garment. get purse and bullet. a theatre of love. Tobacco from Jaham Jdh&m tobacco is said Jahan (i. and whim tho enoiny had arrived near to tho king's capital. Cited when a man asks for something winch. give me your turban and you remain bareheaded. too. difficult matters are easily accomplished by their mutual and united Ju n bus chhuk ? Panun pfm.is much money " as there are lice and dirt sticking to yonr gaiinonl ptiri. animal could find there and one night ran away to Hit king's stablo. (theicfore think against an adver- sary) which ho nsod for carrying loads by day. as good as a miracle (i e.I.. Jtinah. all the ruyaJ ass A man had an was leaving out in tho field at 1 ' . to he the imest splendid tobacco). from fighting over the matter before you cntor tho lists . the beggar's ragged cloak.. and ught to pick np what grasa the poor Tho JIBS icbollod ngumsl auch truaLmont. 111 tho valley Muh is asfihm tfiazhar. J. is indispensable to you Jandanui chheh snwah Lice is in ust'm. tamols. A quick reply given to tho importunate mendicant Lice here stands for money Honcc " Yon'vo go! .e. alas a war coinininicod. The world Jm&at gayiJi IsarumaL is A company of men help). which keeps me warm during the winter The poor man's retort when twitted concerning the antiquity of his garment You Jangas maws chhai Ml tih tah puli hk.is tlioro fod rnosfc llo bocawo very fat and liberally along with tho royal horses ebrong and was very happy but.

Mwai ganth laruffi l&ho gav Sfonit IMt chet pingah tJioh thawai . These three are A temble 'Id misfoi tunes. or some gieat event yourself upon God to piosper you Nee Dens inietsit. to have little and sure. I ft ill Sitting at my wheel I will show you my wisdom. a mother dying and leaving a baby . It&run he/to gait. Suhh wulih ffov pdti'hh uinrih thaioai yursah tamamu't Kalik path wati/ipeth btnah phwart'wi . Quickly" you must Thcio lay hold upon God." horses. were turned out and sent forward to the There tlio ass saw one liorso afLer another shot down. . Tim trenaivai L tthah ch/ieh salcht nmsibat. h'noai garah Itaru/i Leho Iseho gav. I will ne\er get the milk at eaily muinmu. You are safe in yom own place. as he galloped back. diynus vmdice nodus HM Jtiyih chhuUo zih sht'yik chhulto. <s " Jat *' " pat is mh Kkiidti rat. the wife of on old man dying. I'll show you the manner of my house. Thou throw fortune. thusih pan Uu'rai ajih dmih tin pi'ntjli Dahanh gas pat pdwah w'wai . stietch the bad cotton to half the height oi the wall. but a step between you and death. where we shall make the fire-place. Jawt'mvs noli ? ozgw . Landed and house property aie sure investments. figlib. luluhs mdj martini* tah budis dshani marani. and beHeio coming afiaid ho escaped hack again to his f earner master " Better is the guli as well as the thil. or some tornble misYon must act at once. but I will keep you all your life waiting for milL . I will get a fhe-yard than foi >ou out of si\ pounds of wool . kmai garah vah tih nov cfwwai . young man without woik. fiom five cows.87 and the solitary ass. Mwai garah IZM un ? Going to 'Id gah what shall we cook Let us take counsel on the road. infy mashrawai ." said he. g<(h wasit sun lyak ranav ? Watih Isarav mashhat Isatih Ivfirav dun ? Yendaras bihit gutah pamin Mivai.

I'll show you the manner of my house. Two men get angry with one another and fight The above saying is generally quoted by the nun who is yetting the worfefc ot tho scimmuge. and six pounds of wool. but everybody knows them and quotes them. The ill may go. like uLiwr otjiudly . but not lie tears and In&anah snnd kimat eJihui safowuh-shat rupayih. and you will forget will give you the strainings of the pot I'll show you the manner of my house. . &e.At a word upon I the road I will break the pot . Knowledge unused is like a toich in the hand of a Hind man. A five-yard than would bo an extremely Tfi&n is a piece of cloth small one . tint in Uio (Uiys of tho Mughils Rupees 2. ill-tempered woman house. . should make a full thn of ten yards or more Illat galih tah adat galih nak. indiscietion. No Muhammoclan observes the fist of the BamazAn 1471 A D with greater strictness than the Kashmiii.i^ar there is a fine old wooden mosque ovci shad owed by some loffcy ehuur trees. and sometimes in song. in whole or pait. Persian 'Ilm i be 'amal earnbfa i be-at.. 'Id Arab (the place of sacrifice). if pioperly spun. I'll show I A lazy. is a beautiful park-like At itg noitheinond plain lying just outside the right of Siin. and wishes to end it T^o leasons have been told mo why this sum especially Lsis been set as the puce of a man Ouo icaboii is. Sonar. about m . the husband 'Id gdh. Knowledge should be brought into use. Man is more fragile than a flower.al Umas gatshih amal asum. or extravahas been brought to rum gance. thai ALba-r. Insnn chhukposhih Ishutah awel tah Jeam/i Uiutak far. The author of these words is unknown. you the manner of my will eat and drink with my fhends.700 was tho Imc mi[)osod upon o\ei y niunleioi in 1 l lieu of his life Another loa&im is. hut keep the millet-seed and straw for you. 2. through whose bad temper. and was built m the time of Sultdn Husam Biklshdh by Kh\\tija Hasii. and yet harder than a stone. The price of a man is Rs. Ilm be-amal goya Jcik an sindis atJtas mashal.700. A man's own pain or trouble affects him. The mosque is called the 'Ah Masjid. against that woman. but the habit will stick. your mother.

and We have youi eye and if you will Yes. "While people from the country come in. Poshas gattfuh I'sum loe Politeness is required in man. an one-eyed man came up to them. and the whole lest of the body at Rupees 300 only ) gieafc lt . had also strayed to the same place. it is quite true leplied. and hencefoithgave no more trouble to the king (So much did the pool man \alne his sight. They met. and that it TV as impossible to tell which particular one belonged to this man. and said to the " You have taken out my eye. lit piayera horn the hand . &o that it might be weighed and moasmed. and while they weie engaged in conversation. and he had them In the put each one {separately into a little wooden box by itself morning the man came again . come to-moiiow moimng. and when he amved he was informed that the king had seveial eyes by him. The Juma Masjid people have ghen up Friday thiough &hops not disappointed Nundz alkali. his favoi ite minister. we will return it to you " The man Bii Bal immediately sent off to the butcheis for agieod and lett some sheep's eyes Aftei sonic time they ai rrred. 12 . Jumah Mashidih handtn nimfa athah. that he estimated each eye at Rupees 1. or as a shopkeeper and sleep by the roadside 01 in a shop One night he wandcied a little farther than usual and found himself in a foreign and uncultivated country Strange to say. praying. and they aie m out of hand gone. is There are no two persons aliko. but Bii Bal was equal to the occasion. Would he kindly allow his other eye to be taken out. sum of Rupees 1. the people living close to the mosque sit the all then hoping foi trade .200 Give me this money. Scent is required in a flower. Between man and man there is as gieat difference as there between God and a sUue.200. Yif* Jhudfya$ tah bandas chheh. Bfr Bal . was accustomed to sleep in secret places Sometimes lie would disguise himself <LS a faqir. so does politeness before men " Gieville Itisunas tah insnnas chkeh titj tafiwat. Insdnas gafoliili t'suni Ihoe.89 and envied monarchs. or icstore to me my " other eye Akbai was nonplussed by the man's sudden appearance uul audacious request. crowds to the great mosque of the city. in that way they would be able to tell which of the mimbei of eyes belonged to him The man was blinded for life. "As chanty covers a multitude of sins before God. which I think to be worth the king.

fazatich A Mr tah be-izzatich Ithur chhvh bardbar. Honour is inside your mouth. cowrie obtained honourably and a kharwar obtained disin value. Take ]icecl to your words.90 hzat chhnh pananis dsas andar. honourably are equal .

' now the house Italian garan Isuni tdv . tot sententm Kakan "kunui shaitun. Kahan mah puturan Isunui stt'ntfh jxtt. that tins man had not coirectly leckoned. eleven e men. and that there was only enough for eleven mouths stoic What was ho to do ? Ho had spent nil his money. Like an eleven month's man. Eleven roads to eleven men. hmmat rav tak wanav . Teas ? . One wicked fellow for Hindustani. Kahan leak watak. so that their houses geneially resemble a small godown Well. to share it A great loss. Only one frying-pan for eleven houses whom shall we speak ^ Time of gieat distress courage gone and to Eleven Eahan gdv rfwmnte men have lost a cow between them. A man who stmts himself now. Accordingly he determined to fast foi ono month. A man hearing that nee was cheap and good. Tot homines. men came to the same unfortunate state they each .K Kftkah r&t sana fa'tsk. that he may be rich hereafta. went and fetched a wife for themselves Cited when several male members in a household are unfortunate. and left eleven months' rice in eleven months. and stupid man like he was. and to borrow he was ashamed. but Eleven many Kahan gayih &uni wam> tiin gayih ram antni. Q&& loin cloth to eleven fatheis and sous Ohmax of distress* . he thought that it would be much better to have the m fast instead of having to look forward to it all though the He had not taith in God to supply his wants heieaiter The consequence was that the man and wife and all the family died pst before the fast was over. tnUli lu ijaiwla Ek intuhldt &u/ km ti liai. and stoied it away in his house Kashmiris are constantly storing something or other. it happened. bought as much as he thought would be sufficient for the next yeai.

lie told the man not to -weep.* but if you do not -woriy.nh Isonh sat. living in Kashmir Upon a ceitim dav one of his disciples came eiymg unto him and saying. are (each one) no more than an ignorant man. Eaining with difficulty 'There was a very godly Hindu. but fiom worry. Ipriu'se it ^\as time that his mother should die The discipk. she might sive one h mdtnl ot food. at all evens.ci)ih han. and bi^tred the Rishi to allow her 10 hve a few years moie. that his mother had died The Rishi enqmiod the age of the woman. Kalwn-zan. 3 it will bring you to the grave. nniilat last not one daughter and not a sciap of food weie left to the -\\onian libkitn Mput. ha\p n little moie to gi\e to the otliei^ But God only gave her sic Attci a while she sen! nnothoi daui^litei away and Kindtnls then then aiiothci. 4 pooi deaf ft oman who had seven daughter*. J\. bart'tbar. you will nevei die. Bieakmg a water-nut upon one's head and eating it. Tis not fiom work. and brothel-keeper. KJ\J and her se^en daughters. Ka&limui patents aic accustomed to flighten their children into good behimoiu by saying "Thcie is a beiu coming* Quiet. did not agiee \\ith this. or. Imucvei. Nothing icdlly to "be afiaid of. shawsher-zan. quiet.c Eal ai Isarak tah laji marals .92 I\<tJiftii llnwhi s He but does not pi onuses elcten people Gitvit prumiSL>s but little deed* throw food to one. Kalas ptih g&riphutarit Miani. n \vaj . "kal nwi Isarals tah maralz nah zah. If you worry. The Ri&hi told him to cm<*h some water- . that half the people die. lirste-zan cMih le-allas mslt A quill-dnver. a Eishi. but still God continued giving one bamlful less foi cadi gi*I dismissed.'* A. whom At last God seeing her l -with the greatest difficulty Aifer I've hoi sovon hnudiuls ot food secietly everyday ft time tlio niothei thought that if she left one daughter to go hei ov. Father's bear. and finding that she was very old. swordsman.

and splendid The host.isfc. God is pleased with the dumb. Mi "Oh. and live as many ye." says the shopkeeper to the customer. syun zili syunui ?" man.ites this saying at the bioalvf. servant take " Oh ' give him another please don't. but little under it Kalis WNfului Khuddi raw. said Kam gatjliih Tchyun Better to eat a little " Any price rather than you should be angry. tah garni gaijhih nah Ichyun than to eat grief. A stuct watch ovci any body 01 anything Rtthtyih lisim {/atlas hardn trek sini tin fingei-nng tuins an egg into three dishes of meat and vegetables A gioat show.93 nul'J (Ttala 1 6?spmo<:a. and so he did so Eleven nuts were biokcn and for eleven ycais longer the mothei lived "Kali sanx bol-lash zfaiih liali surtd mol may Only a dumb man's parents understand a dumb person's . yes. thought to be one ot the most pVasmg creations of Hindu hction. "I'm atwud your " thank loll is not nice." "0 dumb man. salted?" "Yes. . He -was breakiisting out. wTiich e\acfcly illuati. nalai tih raz> A A lope for the head and a rope for the legs. unsalted salted. wlieieupon Mr." he replied.) iipon lus mother's hend . little child's prattle is is a man's speech comprehensible only to the paients nndei stood by his countrymen only and Kulas till taz. stoiy of a noivons young Englishman comes just now to mind. simple man <c JaU mm *0 dumb A " zih nunui ? tl Kali. which turned out to be bad Mi noticed this.iis as theie Now the beieaved son did not like . A speech. and it =slioulcl come s>he would weie bioken water-nuts to pas ^ that ruvive. you. " nnsalted?" "Yes.table the hostess remarked. I like bad eggs. the god of Love. who was took one. Kt'madewan Kamadev cJihus athah dolamut has smoothed that man's face with his hands Cited on seeing any beautiful man or woman KdHiadeu is the Hindu Cupid 01 Eios. and begged him to let the sitting close by Mr and . tlie idea of breaking haid nuts upon lus deceased muthci's head still it was tlio ordei of the Eislu." it away and . "it is " In i little while eggs were placed upon the table.

A brisk trade is carried on between Kashmir and LacUk I have heard that about Ibs 128.94 Kmnas chhuh litiii'J tah tear is chhuh Perfection is to the less . he will probably reply as above The workmen of Kulagom are said to be the cle\cicst Lho m valley. is like the Botan or LadAk trade (i e . A man who KandJi-dol chhui Roiam soddlias bardbar* turns away his ear (fiom scandal. who was very rice into his ears much under the by sfcuflihg influence of drink at the time.. Kanh nah (Going to Jtom Kulah-gom A man going an errand calls a fiionrl. on Kashmii and Jammfi JKanah lea/pas Itaduni. . whom he meets on tho way. &c ). of Dicw's Book joei chants. and then goes and retails his information to lua master Kanas Mas nab my batah ladtin. come along with him to) Kulagom without work. ot this wool. Kaminas Hidmat chkeh zamnas chob. piofitless it is a work). leceives great piofit). fec. all a radish. spaie in speech. If that fiiend doos not wiah to accompany him. expenses.vtaganl in woitls and expenses. &c will come . Some people attempt to do things in an impossible Tvay Cited also against that servant who hoais everything pio or co/? about his mastoi. ear. The same taste to sugar-candy and G-ood or evil. the same to him.000 of kil-phamb (pashm) 01 shawl-wool are imported annually into the valley by the bntahwJ. to mm j . To bung cotton fiom the Impossible.and destruction to tiie more A man somewhat. noble or mean. Kashmiris say that a drunkard. hence the saying Kandas tah mu]ih Isunui sad. I am not such a fool as to try to put the food into my ear instead of into my I know what I'm mouth about).ni 01 Ladak For the preparation. I do not load ear with food (i e. &c will become gieac but a man c^fci. tried to food ninibdf . To save a mean man is like beating the earth (ie.

" ahvajs itJily for miscluct ' Kami. said " tali Nunun dupus " Yusid yul melted We should ncvej complain as long as tlicrc aic others worse off than ourselves. Ktinih ftchh iwmtih tah fanjt/i sangik pai^mak. The slc oiic-c^ed gul i was maiiied hih thtutgun lynl (jos Icui but . Cited . A veij' fcit/ncft watch o\oi i very wicked poison.ilso somctimob when tlieie . to l*oi na i)Uclili(. n'ut.110 a Ui^o number fippuinted to a of people could casilvpnform to bliow the Ono-oycd is . Eleven grooms for a one-eyed marc. Kamh dup Bull gv}is sui gul" The stone stone and a piece of salt fell into the river. I room foi ( An piup. I melted. kmh'ta' Jiuth you cl cunt zrfi titinn Jiatiistit Jab la I bat ajwti c/irtZc. one-eyed man.10 man f Iv'wh l. work one-cjed (Also) at hand.95 Ram lagiyti mir zih z<<nis yiyih dr ? Will the stone bum. in iui M ik-et aiiaug' | men . that " the acquaintance should have mercy " Save ? mo irom my friends Kani A " " nunah pfw/ qav darydvus. tcrha^ Ixirfjmlu Alum./'jff " " Tnill \voik.in expression ^unoKilI> intioducecl r wicked flisj)obitjou (f Uie peisou 01 beast it?c t. JW f Kanih yarak barvn jtin tah Better to in it. cannot be cured must be endured tiLJih will i M A I\in]ibi 9 tah afhus niaii is 1M " " It is O. vhicli 0. " " The salt said " That which melted. fill wrfagitj yarah nah* your house with stones than to have a stranger K&mh yunh Isah mrrah-Mtn .o nk Ltnyol. Antimony for the blind eye and " " Madame Kachol will iccfcify it What wusih l-yah mndarih ? ousc the blind eye from sleep What.she had not a . trouseis fin the lame leg.

u n us seen walking without shoes on The people and aliliough al\\iys aftWHAidfa called him "Baieioutcd Karini. changes. at all c\ents. \el Uie people continued calling him so up to the ' Kan in *ime of hib death . Sling after the stone To send anotlici messenger to get news of the fiist. the hailots used to beat it s but nothing discouraged the dog went agaiu and again bi other his dogs got to heal of this. because sometimes. when the chiei hailot is anc^iy \\itli the* othei f Tins dog shall be yom hutsbatid luulots. &c Kdms Is it chhuti buthis '* " perk Kdnw" man wise to say luttfth dapi'n? " one-eyed in his presence ? Iiuiijttr biothel-kecper's dog. and an unlucky The deed is done. but theie is nobody near to me. is especial^ unfoi a child to be bom in child that time born at is sometimes sopaiated fiom propitious its parents. turning to me " That is the leason. peihaps. No altei native now in child is born the Nechih-putei as unlucky Seveial times aie mentioned One time. she says. Buahna man o <nu l)ii ia pot>tin Sikaudar-iuma Kantk patalichh&itpun. Ka&hmiiiscd fioni the \\ord is gtiu Hindustani kutta 3 The 3 s God knows Kdr-t-JZhudd zdnih JDiudtt* his own work. a bad name and you may as well hang him Kaiim one <l. that it may not bring harm upoi] then house . who day-by-day visited a certain house of ill-taiuo in the city Eveiy time the dog went. nanahwor. Gne a dou. Barefooted Kaiim. and cnquiied \vlij lie Oncda} thus \\ont time after time to a place whciu he geneially got beaten.Kttutfi nalJiah lam tah mch iialshah nah lanh One stone lies close to another. of my euduimg all this abuse is Luttali llindustani the Kashtuiii oidniaiy Kanicu . Kur ffai leant tahphishal gav zet The work is all ovei. because he eventually hopes to get some pioiit out of him Thcie was ouce a dog. it is an object of much caio and expense to its lather and moments A mothei. " 4t " I do not go theie toi what I get to eat but replied the dofif. Mul. lie uoto iJic-e ahocb. Kan^ai Kuttah of couise has been. Quoted ngamsfc the pcisoii'viho beais much humbug and pam at the hands ot another. until its fate.

and at once went to he was much matter Said the prince. 2. " May his hand be paialysed happened accoiding to the Bishi's word. ho shot au arrow at a water-pot. 21. and to beseech him to invoke tlte qods that they might restore the hand of the prince. the boat reached 'AH Kadal (the ntth bridge). IS. and son's houso to enquire fui-ther of the I fired an arrow and broke a little soon. . and Hinduism fiom king Valley. which a little Panditani gn. 13. this number is quite peculiar to the countiy " his most valuable arid interesting Captain Temple. 4." &c &c ot mfoimation at hand. The Eishi heard the king's lequest and piayed. Tibet to Kashmii while he succeeded in turning Rentan Shah. who \\ as &o much enraged with the young prince's conduct. and especially in the last tew pa?eh " . . the son of Kaki. md tfcent tuning to Zamu'l badin said. in Only eleven houses 1'aik days Kasnmu en months' man" " Only one frying-pan for eleven houses' Eleven men have lost a cow between them" " Eleven men ai rived it the same untoitunate state". he himself wont to beg the Eishi's pardon. 5. that then and " It there he cursed him. '"Ele\on grooms for a one-eyed mare". 9. li you >ull Lake one 18 . afterwards I felt that my right arm was utteily powerless " The king then summoned his mmisteis and bade them enquire where the little gul's parents lived. 01 Sultan 1 One day as this youth was going down the river Jhehini. From that moment the "ELyder when prince was unable to move his right liis t{ hand to pass When Zamu'l&badin heard what had come grieved. 7. is that Zamu'li-badin had a most hot-headed son called Sultan Haji. and when after some time they had discovered the abode. 8. and "Only eleven houses in Kjsh~ As IJT as one can asceitam fiom the limited means mir. then Rentan Shah killed all the Hindus except eleven families A vanant of this story leading to the same result. and largei numbeis aie quoted as occurring in several tales. then of the to the faith of Islam. but never the number eleven This is somewhat lemaikable and the oidy reasons suggested for the ele> The loader may have noticed the frequent occuirence of the " Like an number eleven. . instantly tinned into ice. b. which remained perfectly still upon the girl's head The little Pauditdni went home crying to her father. a Kishi. m ' t i cqueney of this number in "Happy Valley" folklore aie the iolowing stories Nearly 800 years ago a faqir named Bulbul Shah AVhen he had been heie a little came via. saying. 14.1 was can \ ing on her head on the bank close by. Survey ot the Incidents in Modern Indian Folktales" (one ot the appendices of * Wide-awake Stones") does not mention thib number The numbers 1. 3. "One \\icked fellow toi eleven men". "One loin-cloth for eleven iitheis and sons". Panditanf s water-pot. The pot was broken to pieces bufc the water was not spilt owing to its having been. "The prayer will be answeied. 12.97 i ItaJuu garah.

'md pl.While in this state tho Jogl \vitli his disciple w. foi wlm h see note to J^nuf M<>1 <tav 1yi" A Kalutnd chlmi. could thus very holy people for none but and puu eis Accordingly. eating yesterday's iood and Btml> iri'jf 'CM M. and then rub the nslies my daughter's grass shoes " The kmj.y t.98 and Irani it. the latter the Jogi said " I am about to take out. many. and the\ \\eic ilso cmnn.id quite gone. hepeiceived that these TTindns weioa the good and iitflitroiifc.is IIP hid been kindness. and did .iiMii'lAb. thp on ot RakS. it some secret place " It was so done .. concerning whom the people sn.!diti died.jppoinled to see displeasme that this latter order was earned out Xi ul ls ^ u ntuient n nno ' tor the functionary called Maliallodli. #0.ill but It wn 1tiiin1ie<t (Another suv K. then itstoimei use was gieat joy in the court that day. and so he continued until .it (or. who lived for many.it. and so vicia killed 01 obliged to lleo the country) Inconsequence of this the Hindus bee nno unholy . and therefore a Jogi went to the king and predicted th.is walking about outside the palace.il. ho could divine and that by virtue of his nrt ho \v<is qmre ceihnn ihaL there was no other leraedy for the king but Iho i(j)lm\intf . nnd \\lieu the kind's wazirs servants came into the room alteiw. which prediction was fulfilled On a certain day the king became very sick and ihe next d. and stiength i can nod Thcio ( ' ^ ' * .iy ho was worse.ind nibbed \ ith the it.it bo "would boon .UI HOTV ever. and telling evuy one ili. Persian were oideiedto learn that laticfuagc . th. .tnd he\ iciruiin so to tins day. cf also noto to At length through threaten nigs nud bubo-s . went away with a glad and no soonei \\as the pnuco's h.liei oi duected . has perhaps been mistaken for Katan Shah. years after this These accounts are most perple^mft Bonlan Sb'ih. iind pnt withm this corpse Take care ot my body aft< i death.h<tfc a famous faqir named Bulbul Shah flew over from BapflulJul in <i night and converted him and all his subjects to the Muhammcdan it The Jogf must take out his own soul fioin Ins body .u o it withm the lifeless body of the king" Presently K. When the king saw this.mdul to eat yestei day's food and pickles undei pen tlty ot (he kiu^s ioifc A band of officers called Tsiali weie .I} S ">it ill but complied with the king's order eleven families refused to obey. my bpn it.mLod the tiishi 1o Ins theieof over the prince's hand hcj. and the Jogi with his attendant was ndmill-ed \ulhm the In a numito oi t\\(i ibe Jo^i palace and conducted to the corpse and his disciple weie left alone the death diamljcr Tinning io * k m m m . afflict and recovei again by their cuiscs of a plan foi icndcimcr them unholy.uds they beheld ^and^ Zamu'labadin sittiug up his bed well and nfcion^ Gieat wtne the rejoicings of the people and groat the gratitudes oi tho king. think to he at once hegan ami the the Hindus into introduced were teachers vallry.ill hope ot Jin K'rmciy h. * 1 I be ill. thorefoie their prayers and cuises weie of no a\il. the sncrcsKor of Raja Ven or Vend of Ventipur. the gods could not lightly pass ovei Una tn. and pul. of the burnt shoe.

especially. Kathih suU wasih weh tah Icathik suU wasMi sreh t A woid stirs up anger ? Bti. &c. and became a Muhaininedan undei the name of Shams-ud-din (tlie sun of the faith). it will be seen that the Kashmiu Hindus. who had been to leave it duimg the oppiessive A tew notes trom A A Kttthik khtfish watih pakawam. Sana 1315 A D. '' Jammu and Kashmii. Rain. and was therefore to Islam by Bulbul Shih converted SulUn Sh<mis-ud-dm easily was the thud rulei of Kashmir alter Sultan Rattanjeo It was during Sikandar's saccessoi's. Sikandar Bntsbjkan. in the second story Zainu'Ubadin has certainly been credited with the evil deeds of his fa. Jihat he did piit to death all Hindus who retnsed to embrace Istim (Cf latter part of stoiy attached to u MattanuK is lotah" &o) Zamu'Libadin geneially lepresentod as a good and " Tawlrikh-i Birbal" says " He was good and kind to merciful king \\ hethei Musalmau or one. fle Rut. reign (1418 1424 D ) that those Hindus who refused to embrace IsUm were obliged to leave the ccnmtiy. Brother^ Bi other ? What is your name ? "Whither are you going. By a word to cause milk to flow from the breasts of a barren woman. and while on theu way out of the country many oi them wero seized and but at alive Whatever the tiuth may be. keen upon bribes and gifts. an imbecile who as a mere child of was into nice Tibet.99 faith on the following morning But again this Rentan may hare son of the kmg of Tibet. A bribe tor a word and bakhshish for just going (to call a friend.thei. JLathih $utt chkuh iv&lin Mtiiln dud.shmir. have reason to remember the number eleven. A story just crops up. . this country brought pi a.) A man. The power of a word m season. of whom it is related.ud so knew nothing of his father's leligion." p 69. m which Raja. Ven is called Ratan Then Sh&h ' compelled isigu of Sikandar" Persian work by the late Diwan Kirpd. Sahh chhum nfo. gatjhal ? Kyah Mui ndv t Sirahom gafohah Sas chhum lastih." aie still more confusing anil entitled Runiun* son of the king of Tibot. " GulziM-Ka. assumed the rule of the count* Deva. who invaded Kashmir in the ]jcen Kunjun. Hindu. or love. B/i. time of y. and he brought back again every to the Valley the Biihmans. Whence have you come. s. is now Sultan Rattanjeo. Sult&n 'Ah Shah's.) (Ot also Diew.

by litfcle children. (a third) crow.100 I have come from Sinn. and watch the crows come home to roost I have &een thousands upon thousand B of crows. These woidb aie the tnst line of a little verse sung. in I shall go to Sirahom is I have some A pulse my sin wallet clie My name Sahh. and the khosati is a man with the lifcUe Kunih Jialu" &c. Why should I give food to my family ?" The one-eyed person says.y and solfish. m called in Tli^ taihoi ot . and a tremendous uoiso they make during the hve nnnutfas or so they are passing Tins is tho song the little A A bad children shout Kdwah ijamhwol Mwddun mol Dihamna-i tas lio>n Kadai tiiulah o. on Kashinfc " I will pull out your nest by the root * account of its tydd nnd selfish c-hauwtpr. cf sfcme. or lather shrieked f01 th. Of which the translation is company of crows Keen altei yonr own If interest little you don't give me a wine 1 The crow. crow. Kdwah. hen. "We do not want to see any " one " The khosah says. wedding airansfoment everything upside down. who gather togethei in different parts of the city at evening time to play. j?oat-lik0 beard who has got a name for affability.ul. ciow's wedding company. day Notice play upon take-oft upon conventionalities of the the lettei cr Kdt^ui dapt'n bdtjsm guts nah dfmah &yu n. (anothei) ciow. Why should any person be angry ?" Ka&hmiils say an ordinary biown-hanac! person is mvauably a one-eyed person is generally disiespected. a hundred crows. lie mci eases as it Of " The Thieo Black Ciows Jfr'fwah goes Byron yanihwol . Khosah dapt'n gosah guts nah Isfatsik gafohun. c/. '* The brown-han ed man (or woman) says. A A l&dwah. "JC/ioW. at least. half-a-mile in length. a procession. Mwak> hat. Kan daptin son guts nah Icanh tih yun." *' . returning past my house.

ule yutun t lalik Isilih Iheyam. Kehlih chhuh dun Mnin peth.101 S<'w r gojih foliar. 1 m A Kdwan A walk. the water in which Hindus wash their hands after a meal) and be off to your work One of the divisions of the city of Srinagai 19 so far removed fiom die Shci Gari (or Sher G-adi. . yim donawai chkii nah pine.. Srlnagai and are employed in marriages to make amusement. she cooks three . JMikih's maunds and boasts 1 lying braggart fiie-place is in the top storey. that the government servants. so as to ainve at then posts in the Sher Gari at the light time. bad dubt l&u) Kdm The crow has cawed fa dv thiow away the tsheinwon (i e.) -where all the state apartments and ltdv zih tjJwttwoni .wood fire and a strange-countryman friend. six maunds. in the lamentations. fc &. sundpalun. or at funerals to join . Cited to a man "who gobbles up his iood quickly hichht'v Icaklu. go vein men i c i offices are situated. Panama pakun miitus. A small A piece of meat m a crow's claws. tutan masfanam nah sitam As long as the buiner of the dead will not poke me (t e^ to arrange my body so that it may bum quickly and pioperly). yrfywr nur A tali yfa . who theio "have to rise and eat tbeu breakfasts early. trek man ranun tak shell man tWn. and forgot his own Kulaql^e tage labal id qo^h la d Tai/e UiicebJitatt ci Jarafmodi katd. these are not lasting pawd two ? Rials tah tdittjfias wyului Isyah What has the kazi to do with an eunuch ? The judge is not for the good but for the evil There me many eunuchs in the valley and they are all Muliammedans Nearly all of them live in TSsha-wan. so long shall I not foiget your tyranny. Si kanclai -nama ) Kdtoas msh natih-han. crow learat to walk like a cuckoo. big basket of kernels for crows (soon gone).

shihij bum. Kenyan fohiimtham mh brahma-hateui Bayuiof'nak chumh gah namasfair To some you gave many poppies (? e sons) . hzarj leraembeis a matter one hour at'tei wards. this is friendship. the Most High. when he can do so safely Kenhah A little for A chon tah kentjak my on. A patiomsmg look fiom those in authority is wortli a large sum . Kentjan ram chhai bar path hmi. bosom upwards Some have drunk wine and some have gone and closed their shops. And some you (with a daughtei) for murdering $ BrAhman (in some formei existence).. a. Jsenteav raeheyih mlak Weth* tulav. nerav nohat shuhul karav. Whom God will. Kenyan zonthwn nah dinas wtr . l&nli gai wlman phidav Some Thou (0 God) Jhelum in their called from lift Thy heaven their eyes j some held the . you and a little for me. Pon't give me anything but let me have your ear. Kenyan dyuttham aurai Kenhan achh Lajih mas dit c/i?t Slav. yut nah tah tut God has given to some (blessing) both worlds).) I adore your haltered gi eat ness. Natives believe that this animal treasures up enmity against man and bites him afterwards. and here or there. (the Deity. . A clihuh pQW''m t ddyih ganh ytid. nvrav nabar takwng Kenftan rani zadal Mai adal tah wadal . He here and there (z. sui gav wsah-pon. e.102 Khth mah tab ditam tah kani tali miam. God blesses Kentean dyuttkam yut Jcyih * hko tut. deed hiend is one not merely in word. Jcentjan. kentsfm ram chkai . has given to some nothing either m Kenfoan iani chhai Mieyiwo. Bhagawant. but also m Kenyan ditlham quUlak yttsui .

but slow to quarrel. like the bitch at the door. good. An avaricious man is a liar. I yom tasalli ch/mik sharah nishih raclmam have got the comfoit of having done good God me from your wickedness. honoured.. Land's End to John 0' Groat' E . will bless JDiai&h-i-zan path despised. (i. but poor by his own "Kkum tama tah wpazyor. but in the evil.103 Some have wives like a shady ehmar.. Some have wives always m confusion. lalti tali bfaar josh* False coin and bazai noise things The consequence of going into the bz6r made at home. Then one may be sure bog tah shwak. let us go aud set our legs bitten. "Eh/in badit Ith&n badt.e. and some have \vhes like bad thatch upon the roof. and in the middle of it ada f half a loaf of chaff' Ostentation Khanaldah KMdam YW.tray. but a man's relations are Ehnrn tama kitchhtmateik avaricious is Irohk (i goes to a dned-up stream fault. e > gets no profit). a big tray. A woman's relations are An man l^haish-i-mard sar-qardtin. as far as one can go in Dan to Beeisheba. Khcmah nah No shaie in the A real fuend lhairas tfyil tah nyfyas tutiL Quick to do good. manzhiff chhes him fj*vt A bio. let us go under it and cool ourselves. It is better to of huve no deception. . Avarice always poor. Some have wnes Lai D&Ts sayings. learn. From Khanbal to Khadan YAr a boat in Kashmir). G-oocl advice.

Undeserved blame . tlie pioper measure uow-a-days on the toi one rapes. II they get nve traks instead of six tidks of paddy. Consequently these weaUly. a shawl-weavci. Khf\nanM)L nak No mwnw I'oj iah patssajtan breakfast lor the son. 01 befoie Biahman to be taught Khar Miunai Ijiwr3tliw t (Called an) ass-eater before he has eaten the ass.104. " the custom in Kashmii to a trifle with the puigive m" i. but a luncheon bar t for the rneanei domestics Khandawuv s load. to do such an act '" My seivant (I am ' 1 Khar bid t&alinm tali ved bud laymai May bad knowledge (lit an ass's undci standing) flee fiom A you and good knowledge (lit of the Vedas) stick to you that denved fiom a study sending him to the Kaslimiii Pandit's prayer before teaching his child. 4 4 contiaiy. Don't be afraid to ask loi tiie foi money. . " Khar UrAyiL Aslinai Jtyah ?" Worked liVe an ass What is fnendship Work is ?" work.! Kak. a false charge. called dastuir. wlio died about eigliteeu yeais n. 6618 ) Khandatodv Defending a shawl-weaver was o\cr the &h. they will not notice thc> have shoit weight ha\e seven traks (A trak IE. he was immediately &innmoiied befoicR^i^K^k and severely punished. whethei done is the labourer a relation or friend. a little light load) Shawl-weavers aie in general a sickly class. " "Who are you. and worthy of his lure.^o It any pcitson in those (uijs look upon himseJf trade in Kashmii to oiclei or harm a shawl-weaver.i\vl Ea]. being the manding others as good as himself seivant ot the sahib he is infinitely supcnoi lo oidinaiy folk. and has a licence to do so Frequently ho rcci'ivcf* the above icply. (z e. ill-paid people then enjoyed such immunity fiom petty tyranny. 01 riofc. they will think that they A shawl-weave r . as they do not experience now sinking and comsorry to say) is constantly " Hu tlnnlvs thai. Tk& colt as a gift after buying a young ass. Khar put is gun put lonahwani Asking a It is chase.

Carpenter with tools. braggart. Khizmat chheh Service is azamat." nali <pttnas. sanan U padaram fart&t ast* Khojah chhuh JJiushi Icarttn lih Itih chhus puuiah diwwi Khojah chhuh pathm tah tfiv ivot bronfL The Khojah is behind. A man who will make money any way. needs constant looking Mind your shop and your shop mind you (of his grand Khew'n pdnas tah thekfm jah'mas He eats to himself. his own but will not pay any one. the son is reproaching his father for his foolishness Klnvdja. even. byuih wan tah degilav sdn* sat his shop among the pots. shares in a radish with Khojah Haji Bandi. though there every chance of making a lot of money quickly To go may be . Batah gums hah wahari dapes ner (service) Never serve a vile Pandit. Khyah The Khoj. lie would eat a Tsrol's money. although sometnnes A very poor Khojah is here supposed. Little people cannot afford to speculate.e . for after a hundied years he will tell you to go away. but news of him has come on News befoiehand Hnji before. A selfish JZheyiheh Tsrths honheh naJi mtihs. and then makes a boast dinner) to the world. cj note "Xasftvt Ttahw garah. The field must be always under the eye of the master after ) will (t. &c Shopkeepeis make a great display of pots. The Kbojah is happy in the thought that his son is wise .ih m nechuv chhmn gntul . nechitv molui chhum be-ald. father For Qiol. greatness.107 Khett tni'liJt sueti. sMdi kundn U farsandam 'dqil ast o Gulistdn. BMiyas suet muyih btjivat. but no work. all there is nothing mtliem of whose pofcs are empty. hut would not pay (even) his father. chap VI pisar tot? no.

he went off straight to the I see that your business is gieengrocer and said. . because he had to conciliate the headmen with a brinjal apiece. " I " cannot." by JvTiOjfl/? . story of the villager who." given in "Notes on some Sinhalese Pioverbs and Stories in the Atita-Yakya-Dipaniya. went to bury him crowd reached the burial-gi onnd.000 and planted Febiuii f came lound. Khojah Mom's egg twehe. " Who " are yon to speak thus ? The Khojah answeied. and she replied. "0 king. going to sell his eight bimjals in a village where theie were nine headmen. and so would like to do something in 'your Will you go paitneis with me ? Will you give me lupees myselt m saw 1 000. and the nmth with the basket. and used to buy '*eggs at the rate of eleven and sell them at the late of twelve Of. and gave him a large piesent in money On the king's return to his palace he told his wife about the relation whom he had met in the cemetery." The alike gieeugiocei agreed and paid the money. ' A A M Sendnayaka Uahar is Kashmui for the Hindustani sdla. and noticing that the othei boy had a nice shawl on. Wi hem tah bah Tcanani.000 and we will share the profits half and half YOJ know how these vegetables pay toi giowing. the Khojah went forward and said. how stupid you are Did you not know that men only have hahars not women 9 " A wealthy mau. little money lomum rate of thul." heard chat.108 SHnagar One day he Khojah flaji Bandi was a great man his son playing with the gieengrocer's son. whilst the wealthy Khojah simply lost a ' radishes. to bell in Srinagar On reaching the customhouse he was obliged to give twelve melons as a tax foi his eleven melons He gave the eleven melons and then went and sold his blanket to pui chase anothei melon to give the toll-takei Things were earned on in a veiy loose way in Kashmir in those days then and down and not Mom went sat a would cemetery by Khojah allow the people to bury then dead without fiist giving him some money In the course of a few days the king's son died and a When the great company including the king. leturns minus vegetables and basket. . he begged the Khojah to peimit the burial of the body. Hadishes were purchased When the month of to the extent oi rupees 2. " I am the queen's " Buh chltus JSutrf hund Tiahar" When the king brother-in-law. alas they weie every one a failure greeurocci was i tuned. allow you to bury the body The king enquired. buy at the rate of eleven and sell at the non-paying concern MoJii once brought up eleven melons with him from Bdramula diiection. and allo'w me to spend the money in radishes ? I also will in pees 1. the two partueis detei mined to take up their give The poor but. "Lookheie line' for thnving. the Khojah now began hading again.

a mat. Khojah. as if to infoiin its master that theie was a mouse about. wulash ^nali patht ah of remains the dinner. take a leap. the people camo as usual to enquire the prices of his goods.109 'Khojah. if he liked to try and catch it. it do himself conceinmg this cat that it would scratch the ground immediately on seeing a mouse. h&yik multtmi'nah. (Another youi Khojah. What is the good of asking him ? ) He himself even picks up (a piece. Death puts an end to all troubles mod li. (give me) man replies." dnjti'itate The Khojah tali teds tik baleyik.) Salva till of my own accord. Look before you leap *' sudah kamth What's the good ? " " " Suh tttlan Shojah. it is a fee a fee. irun bror. what's your salt find oil Cited by people when asked to do something beyond A ' "0 " " Asi trov ptwai" sn fff'wak kan niyihawah Khojah. The poor old man would sit at the back of his shop and cry. and again Lamentation over a corpse I shall never see you Khojah wftgavi." I left it "(Oh. you will not come to me. until his case was thoroughly possessed known. tali lidi tih sama1s7ia> nah zah. and if the Khojah sells Khojahs are Tciy shaip in sinking a bargain wufhti tjiun tah Khojah. A stingy person. it is iali JKhoja/i iragam Tcamh tah mitlcivu'nah If the Khojah buys a mat. died and got relief from his cough. if it falls upon) the ground. tjah tth yilt nah. you were turned out of your little tillage. . " <4 Humph What's your salt and oil ? Khojah. no. Khokhar Mir's Too lazy It is said to cat. however. nun til kahi ? ? their power Khojah through change in the prices of tilings lost all that he Foi some time.

is Not a (chief which must have very much degenerated oi late years Khosali Witn. When a lot of men are hued for one work. he begged that that appendage might be left alono. hence. and pur. Khosah's dirmei. she is tall and well pionoitioncd. ko-vvevei. patten even for her foot. is No shoes for her and yet her name Push a kind of shoe having high iron heels. yet called Padrm'm The PadPad. He ." fiora the beauty of its inhabitants . with a good disposition. her bicathiese* "lesarose.nan is a Hindu female name of great honour mam or PadTOim (Sanskut) are the most excellent of the four Abu'l gin/lcs into which womankind is divided by the Hmdfis Fazl thus descnbcs her "Padmmi. as neaily one hundred people had passed in and were found to be thorough bearded men. and each had placed betoie him a gi oat hay of food of about sis seis in weight The ordei was Lhat oach man was to finish his tiayful on pain of punishment This was a dimcult . but ordered that only men who had boaids should attend.) Eveiybody obeyed. and the uppers lessoning towaids the heels. talks little. lotus" 01 "the place of beauty. worn only by the very respectable class Ptislt is a grand name. an incomparable beauty. the Kho&ahfolk. and commanded them all to appear on a certain day. In this way the royal ouler was fulfilled A variant of this story is as follows by an addition a little goat's hau. a Kliosah. has a melodious tone of voice. except tho one-eyed people and those whohad not beards (t e bigbeaids. The name PAmpur town of the Wilu'i parganah. The host. so when the time came for him to have his beiid pulled. Push ntv. Kunsh K/ioran ndh Ww&v tah Padmtm w'v. sticking goat's hair upon his chm and face. he made an immense feast hundred people.) is supposed to bo " the city of the dein-ed from padma a lotus. determined to go. However. Kashmii. himself stood at the entrance door and tried the beards of the guests as they passed in The Khosnh feaiod the examination." &o. Now the bride's father.no Khoran nali Itimsh tak feet. suggested that they should all gather in small companies around the tiays and eat then contents one after smother. so that the work may bo quickly accomplished. bomg very anxious that his wish should be earned out. people say " fflwiaJi Ihen" style A ceitain king made a gieat feast foi all his sub-jeets. matter. of who had made up was equal toi ln& deficiency A great man had married his daughter. and as is customary on He invited one such an occasion. city. she chaste and obedient to her husband. A Klio&ah. supposing him to be some groat man to the occasion.

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