Lecture 17 : The Digestive System I. Overview of Digestive System A. Functions 1. ingestion 2. moving food along 3.

digestion - breakdown of foodstuffs a. chemical - breaking chemical bonds b. mechanical - churning, breaking, tearing 4. absorption - passage from GI tract to blood 5. defecation - removal of waste from the body B. Organization 1. gastrointestinal tract (alimentary canal) GI a. mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine 2. accessory digestive structures a. teeth, tongue, salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, pancreas II. General Histology A. Overall Structure - 4 layers INSIDE mucosa l submucosa l muscularis OUTSIDE serosa (adventitia) B. Mucosa - innermost lining of digestive tract 1. epithelium - stratified in mouth, esophagus simple throughout the rest 2. lamina propria - l. connective tissue with vessels a. contains vessels to absorb nutrients from above b. lymph tissue protects against infection 3. muscularis mucosae - smooth muscle C. Submucosa - dense connective tissue 1. attaches mucosa to underlying muscle 2. submucosal plexus - autonomic innervation of muscle D. Muscularis - skeletal and smooth muscle 1. mouth, pharynx, upper esophagus - skeletal muscle 2. rest of GI tract - smooth muscle a. one layer - circular around GI b. second layer - longitudinal along GI

tooth structure a.beneath the base of tongue 3. lesser omentum .between skin and masseter muscle 2. visceral peritoneum . lips (labia).above the level of the gums .anterior part of roof of mouth 4.lubricate. myenteric plexus .autonomic fibers to smooth muscle E. palatoglossal arch & palatopharyngeal arch a.between parietal & visceral a. hard palate .covers most of the organs 3. retroperitoneal . Teeth 1.kidneys & pancreas ("behind") 5.conical. palatine tonsils between arches B. uvula . Oral Cavity (Mouth) A. extrinsic muscles & intrinsic muscles 3. parietal peritoneum . ascites . attaches small intestine to the wall 6. skeletal muscle covered with mucous membrane 2.attach teeth to bone 4. saliva .projections of lamina propria (bumps) a.below the tongue itself 4. periodontal ligaments .connective tissue for teeth/bone 3. papillae . mesentery .hanging portion of soft palate 6. fungiform papillae . falciform ligament . dissolve.over intestines a. parotid . greater omentum (fatty layer) . no tastebuds b.mushroom. labial frenulum (attach to gums) 3. insert into alveolar processes of maxilla/mandible 2. peritoneal cavity . Tongue 1. sublingual .sheetlike peritoneum a. circumvillate papillae .serous membrane around GI tract 1.3. crown .lines the wall of abdomen 2. tastebuds c. cheeks 2.posterior part of roof of mouth 5. filiform papillae . many fat cells and lymph tissue III. Salivary Glands 1. Serosa (peritoneum) . soft palate .attaches stomach/duodenum to liver 8. Principle parts 1. begin digestion D. submandibular .lined in V posterior C.fluid buildup in peritoneal cavity 4. gingivae (gums) .attaches liver to diaphragm 7.

Function 1. Esophagus .tear iii. cuspids . lamina propria . body .upper portion. g.non-keratinized squamous epithelium 2. connective tissue root canal . pyloric sphincter .junction with duodenum 5.passage through roots to the pulp i.one to three projections into socket neck .HCl acid c. rugae . deciduous teeth (baby teeth) i.hard shell of tooth pulp cavity .folds of mucosa when empty 2. nerve. c. muscularis .long thin tube from pharynx to stomach A. zymogenic cells . eneteroendocrine cells .central.center of tooth pulp .loose connective tissue b. blood. f.where different glands/cells reside a.secrete enzyme "pepsinogen" b.covers the dentin on the crown i.hormone "gastrin" 3.grind b.skeletal: skeletal/smooth : smooth 4.opening at the base h. vessels.directly under the diaphragm.simple columnar epithelium a.chisel shaped ii. near esophageal sphincter 2. Histology 1. Stomach . apical foramen . fundus . dentitions . mucous cells . molars . Anatomy 1. cementum .loose connective no mesothelium cover B. e. submucosa . mucosa . secretes mucus and transports food to the stomach 2.lymph.mucus d. lesser curvature / greater curvature B.covers dentin on the root 5. adventitia . cardia .root . incisors . pylorus . mucosa .between crown and root on gumline dentin .valve controls flow to duodenum 6. NO absorption V. submucosa . major portion of the stomach 4. enamel . parietal cells .above and to left of cardia 3. . Histology 1.sets of teeth (20) a. J-shaped A. glands 3.connective tissue. d. permanent (secondary) teeth (32) IV.

circular layer . pancreatic islets (of Langerhans) (1% of all cells) a. hepatic artery . --> common bile duct 9.brings nutrient blood 12. head .innermost B.derived from the umbilical vein 5. pancreatic duct . --> common hepatic duct --> cystic duct (gall bladder) 8.terminal part near the end 4. bile capillaries (canaliculi) --> ducts 6. accessory duct . quadrate lobe .outer b. joins pancreatic duct at hepatopancreatic ampulla 10.(99% of the cells in pancreas) a.all smooth muscle a. left lobe a. hormones: glucagon.posterior to great curvature of the stomach A. oblique layer .below diaphragm. most of Right Upper Quadrant A. muscularis . caudate lobe . ducts --> right & left hepatic ducts 7. Anatomy 1.oxygenated blood 11. Histology 1. insulin. right lobe 2. Function .enlarged portion in C-curve of the duodenum 2.tapers off beneath the stomach 3. lobules (make up each lobe) . Liver . body . somatostatin 3. tail . acini .merges with bile duct to duodenum a. made of glandular epithelial cells 2. ligamentum teres .empties into duodenum.inferior b. Anatomy 1. Pancreas .in between c. falciform ligament . longitudinal layer .mechanically and chemically digest foodstuffs VI.posterior 3.4. smaller B. hepatic vein . hepatic portal vein . mixture of enzymes called "pancreatic juice" VII. Histology 1.divides left and right lobes 4.return of blood to the heart B. hepatopancreatic ampulla (merging of both) 5.

Function .secrete intestinal juice b.fingerlike projections of mucosa itself 2.pits lined with glandular epithelium a. vermiform appendix .visceral peritoneum B. NO submucosa 3. outermost layer . goblet cells . simple columnar epithelium .fingerlike projections of cells e.first ten inches after stomach 2.dangles from the cecum 2. Gall Bladder .opening to outside a. sinusoids .connects small intestine and anus (5 ft) A. ileocecal sphincter . jejunum . stellate reticuloendothelial cells phagocytose material C. hepatic cells around a central vein b. Bile .long tube (most of the large intestine) a. mucosa .pear-shaped sac on inferior liver surface A. Histology 1. descending colon . villi . microvilli . duodenal glands .small pouch at beginning of large intestine a.spaces between plates. sigmoid colon . (involuntary) . ileum . intestinal glands .last twelve feet. musculosa .about next eight feet 3.a. to large intestine 4.terminates at rectum (~S3) 3.valve to large intestine B.rugae like the stomach 2. anus .along length of entire tube X.secrete mucus c. circular folds . Large Intestine .connects stomach & large intestine (2l ft) A.secretion protects wall d. Anatomy 1. rectum . Small Intestine . transverse colon .smooth musc.on left side d. duodenum . cecum .molecules to help emulsify (digest) fats VIII.across to the left side c. blood flow c. ascending colon .on right side b.terminal eight inches of GI tract 4. Histology 1. colon . internal sphincter .smooth muscle fibers 4.store and concentrate bile IX. Anatomy 1.

longitudinal smooth muscle b. Function . Histology 1.similar to rest of GI 3. muscularis a. internal layer .skeletal musc. external layer . NO villi or circular folds b.circular smooth muscle C. simple columnar epithelium and goblet cells 2. external sphincter . (voluntary) B.b. submucosa . mucosa a.water resorption/ electrolyte balance .

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