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ART OR SCIENCE

STELLA EYENAM DAVENPORT UNIVERSITY

ART OR SCIENCE MGMT - 530 DR MADELINE LEWIS

ART OR SCIENCE ABSTRACT Communication can be retrieved and disseminated in different forms which depend on the individual. New technologies have made communication a lot easier and caused interaction with members of an audience much effective. This paper focuses on how much science has changed many modes of communication.

ART OR SCIENCE COMMUNICATION AS A SCIENCE. Both art and science are creative activities that allow humans be more cognizant of their surrounding worlds. Dennis, Murphy (2010) pointed out that science is particularly important in the conduct of strategic communication as means of producing the intended information effects. Communication requires series of messages, going back and forth through words and actions. It requires deep understanding of the other person, their culture, how they react to emotions, and behavioral change driven by attitude. Communication in another culture can be very difficult sometimes because it takes a while for people to learn other values, beliefs, religion and even language and on the other hand, communicating from a scientific point of view may require visualizing objects like graphs, tables, etc. to be able to decipher information.

Lucky, Robert (2001) demonstrated that after the development of written language, the next stage of communication was the emergence of postal systems which could transport recorded language farther than the loudest voice. The science of communication began in 1837 when telegraph was invented. Lucky also points out that before the invention of the telegraph, information could move as fast as the physical means of transportation would allow. Communication in its current state via telephone, email, internet, video chat etc., has become possible because of science. Nobody would have believed the extent to which invention interact with a wide audience. Therefore, the presence of telecommunication will continue to improve, a better substitute for interacting face to face. It has helped improve communicating experience from afar. People do not have to write letters and

ART OR SCIENCE wait for the recipient to respond, the use of smart phones to send text messages and emails has replaced the long wait. Communication between humans and computers can be improved by speech technology, natural language understanding and machine implementation of common sense reasoning. Lucky, Roberts (2001).

Science via new technologies has helped to transform the way people view the media as a means of communication and there are now many modified devices that help the the speaker interact well with the audience. Nuela et al., points out that framing is an unavoidable reality of the science communication process. They are interpretative packages that help to communicate some of the questions that arise about any issue. Many individuals and organizations are becoming aware that for communication to be effective, the frame must be switched. There is no need to rely on personal experience as thorough research on the audience is necessary. Communication can either be an art or science, depends on the view from which it is looked at and to better understand science communication the area of research must be broadened to include digital media and internet without forgetting the methods of traditional sources for news.

PATTERN OF COMMUNINICATION TECHNOLOGIES As stated earlier, science is the reason communication with business clients and interaction with one another has become so effective because lot of communication modes can be conducted via breakthrough devices like smart phones, social networking, teleconferencing, email, etc,. According to Ortt & Schoorman, technology show an erratic pattern because when they are introduced, they can be withdrawn from the market

ART OR SCIENCE due to disappointing results. At the long run, these technological forms of

communication has come to stay with even more still to come as it has really changed the way we communicate and exchange information and I do not think people will be so into the traditional way of interacting with one another. Technology in communication develops at every stage from when someone brings up an invention to the implementation stages and when the rights are granted to introduce these products to the market. The hope it stirs in the hearts of consumers and businesses causes them to wait patiently for what will later be known to many as a breakthrougn in technology. Allen (1971) demonstrates that technology is consumer information. It basically modifies what someone has said to another person in a digital form which can also be stored for future purposes. For example, these days during a job search submitting your resume on the internet via a website reduces the strenuous wait of being invited in person to tell a prospective employer about yourself and convince them if you are right for the job. New innovation in technologies has made it easier for individuals and business to communicate with each other conveniently. Mode of communication can be divided into two groups. The first group consists of memos, letters and emails while the second group includes telephone and face to face interactions. The groups have show how customers perceive the impact of how useful the information is. The first mode of communication is a lot easier to disseminate. The bottom line according to Eun Ju, Lee et al. (2001) is to examine how the different modes of communication influences consumers perceived usefulness of information via technological innovations, and consequently their decisions to adopt. One of the major

ART OR SCIENCE difference is that written communication is direct- from the speaker to the audience while conversation allows two people to interact, agree and decide upon an issue. Interaction via different modes of communication or sources influences how individuals diffuse the information. Realistically, I think that interaction via video chat and texting seems more interesting as it keeps the individual more involved in the conversation than reading a traditional media e.g. newspapers. Information can be downloaded on smart phones, tablets and customers can interact and communicate their feedbacks on some of these websites.

DISADVANTAGES OF SCIENCE IN COMMUNICATION As much as consumers enjoy the benefits of using new technologies in communication, some of them choose to ignore some of the risk involved in these new innovations. Rumors spread everyday about some of this information are stored and used to track individual activities. The point is that there is an atom of truth to this rumor because for consumers to have access to any information or interact, it becomes mandatory to create an account that request for personal information before proceeding. The fear that some of these websites will be hacked becomes a thing of concern for some consumers. According to Rogers, (1995, p. 5) the internet can be regarded as a technological innovation that needs to gain acceptance from individuals in order to diffuse into a social system. In conclusion, I say that communication is a science.

ART OR SCIENCE REFERENCES

Dennis, Murphy. In search of the art and science of strategic communication. Vol.39, iss. 4. Retrieved from:http://search.proquest.com.proxy.davenport.edu/docview/198051064?accountid=40 195

Lucky, Robert. 2000. The quickening of science communication. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.proxy.davenport.edu/docview/213572305?accountid=40195

Ortt, J Roland, Schoormans, Jan P.L. The pattern of development and diffusion of breakthrough communication technologies. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.proxy.davenport.edu/docview/211857259?accountid=40195

Allen, Thomas J. 1971. Technology transfer and the dissemination of technological information within the R & D organizations. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.proxy.davenport.edu/docview/198051064?accountid=40195

Eun-ju, lee: Lee, Jinkook, Schuman David W. The influence of communication source and the mode on consumer adoption of technological innovations. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.proxy.davenport.edu/docview/195895712?accountid=40195

Rogers, E.M (1995). Diffusion of Innovation. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.proxy.davenport.edu/docview/213351123?accountid=40195

ART OR SCIENCE