Submitted to: Dr.

Gul Hameed Submitted by: Arslan Ahmad Anjum 2010-MM-14

Classification of Aluminium Alloys
This assignment contains the detail of classification of aluminium alloys. These alloys are classified into wrought and cast aluminium alloys and according to the percentage of aluminium in them they are given different numbers and names. Also there are the applications of these alloys.

Aluminum also has a rather high electrical conductivity. Aluminium alloys are alloys in which aluminium (Al) is the predominant metal. for example rolled plate. their strength increases while retaining their ductility. which requires extra precaution and special design when using aluminum wiring in buildings. Some alloys.5 to 2% magnesium and small amounts of copper. brazed. Aluminum is easily machinable and can have a wide variety of surface finishes. brass. weathering conditions. may consist of up to 50% magnesium. It can be rolled. or resin bonded. and can be turned. Aluminum alloys have a strong resistance to corrosion which is a result of an oxide skin that forms as a result of reactions with the atmosphere. silicon and zinc. having a conductivity of approximately 161% that of aluminum. drawn.Classification of Aluminium Alloys 2012 Characteristics of Aluminium & its Alloys Aluminum is a silverish white metal that has a strong resistance to corrosion and like gold. hammered and forged. The metal can be extruded into a variety of shapes. There are two principal classifications. and bored in the machining process. However. About 85% of aluminium is used for wrought products. at subzero temperatures. and even many acids. For most applications. roll-formed. aluminum needs no protective coating as it can be finished to look good. Aluminium Alloys: At extremely high temperatures (200-250°C) aluminum alloys tend to lose some of their strength. nickel. namely casting alloys and wrought alloys. and copper with a specific gravity of 2. Aluminum connectors have a tendency to become loosened after repeated usage leading to arcing and fire. however it is often anodized to improve color and strength. Aluminum is a very versatile metal and can be cast in any form known. Magnalium is an aluminium alloy with 1. however alkaline substances are known to penetrate the protective skin and corrode the metal. It also has good electrical and thermal conductivities and is highly reflective to heat and light. This corrosive skin protects aluminum from most chemicals. magnesium. Alloys composed mostly of the 1 | Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering . intended for particular uses at the cost of poor corrosion resistance. is rather malleable. It finds use in engineering and pyrotechnics. foils and extrusions. and tin. Copper is the more widely used conductor. The typical alloying elements are copper. Aluminum can rivet.7. manganese. spun. milled. welded. nickel. both of which are further subdivided into the categories heat-treatable and non-heat-treatable. making it useful as a conductor. making aluminum an extremely useful low-temperature alloy. It is a relatively light metal compared to metals such as steel. stamped.

x corresponds to a minimum of 99. galvanic corrosion can occur when an aluminium alloy is placed in electrical contact with other metals with more negative corrosion potentials than aluminium.0% to 13%) contribute to give good casting characteristics. Aluminium alloys are widely used in engineering structures and components where light weight or corrosion resistance is required. e. In a wet environment. denoting casting and ingot respectively. specifically its aerospace standards subgroups. Cast aluminium alloys yield cost effective products due to the low melting point. The most important cast aluminium alloy system is Al-Si. Aluminium-magnesium alloys are both lighter than other aluminium alloys and much less flammable than alloys that contain a very high percentage of magnesium. the second two digits reveal the minimum percentage of aluminium.Classification of Aluminium Alloys 2012 two lightweight metals aluminium and magnesium have been very important in aerospace manufacturing since somewhat before 1940. The digit after the decimal point takes a value of 0 or 1.) Types of Aluminum Alloys: 1. Cast Aluminum Alloys 2 | Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering . Wrought Aluminum Alloys 2. although they generally have lower tensile strengths than wrought alloys. Aluminium alloy compositions are registered with The Aluminum Association. The last digit indicates the product form: casting (designated by “0”) or ingot (designated by “1” or “2” depending on chemical composition limits.g. 150. where the high levels of silicon (4. British Standard and DIN have different designations. Classification of cast aluminum alloys. including the Society of Automotive Engineers standards organization. The main alloying elements in the AA system are as follows. The Aluminium Association (AA) has adopted a nomenclature similar to that of wrought alloys.50% aluminium. Many organizations publish more specific standards for the manufacture of aluminium alloy. In the AA system. protective layer of aluminium oxide. and ASTM International. Aluminium alloy surfaces will keep their apparent shine in a dry environment due to the formation of a clear.

. foil.8..4%. Wrought aluminum is in a form of sheet. Wrought Aluminum Numbering System: Aluminum classification numbering system has been established by American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and the Aluminum Association (AA). 1xxx: Aluminum (99% minimum purity)    ductile easily formed corrosion resistant 3 | Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering .13... This strongly influences the strength. and/or aging transform the cast ingot's metallurgic property and crystalline structure. and some forgings.2%).7%).Classification of Aluminium Alloys 2012 1....3%.1. The primary alloy groups are designated by a four digit code.5%). 4xxx Silicon (3.2%. plate.1. and several other properties of the finished product. 8xxx . 3xxx Manganese (0.6. Wrought Aluminum major alloying elements code: 1.0% minimum... thermal treatments. 6xxx Magnesium and Silicon (Mg 0. or tubing and it leaves the mill in the "as formed" condition. bar.. The transformation from ingot to wrought product gives the material its final stated properties. This classification system uses an alpha-numeric code to identify major alloying element and heat treating condition of the material. corrosion resistance. 1xxx Aluminum 99.1. Si 0.5%. Wrought Aluminum Alloys: The term "wrought aluminum" refers to aluminum alloys that have been mechanically worked to improve the grain structure an physical properties. This also includes forms such as extrusions.. rod.9%.8%).5%.. 5xxx Magnesium (0. The first digit indicates the major alloying element as shown below. The forming operations..5%).5%). 2xxx Copper (1.5.6%.. 7xxx Zinc (1%.

3.Manganese alloys  Manganese increases strength either in solid solution or as a finely precipitated intermetallic phase. 5. 4xxx: Aluminum . good corrosion resistance and weldability. 4 | Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering . Alloys of this series have moderate to high mechanical strength combined with relatively high ductility in annealed condition (up to 25%).Silicon alloys Most of aluminum-silicon wrought alloys are not heat-treatable (except alloy 4032 containing 1% of magnesium and alloy 4145 containing 4% of copper).Magnesium and Silicon alloys  Precipitation upon age hardening forms Guinier-Preston zones and a very fine precipitate. 6. It has no adverse effect on corrosion resistance. 2xxx: Aluminum . aluminum-copper alloys respond to solution heat treatment subsequent aging will increase strength and hardness while decreasing elongation. 5xxx: Aluminum .Copper alloys   This is the most common heat treatable alloy. 6xxx: Aluminum . Both of these increase the strength of these alloys. 4. 3xxx: Aluminum .Magnesium alloys    Aluminum-magnesium alloys are not heat-treatable may be strengthened by cold work (strain hardening) Effectiveness of cold work hardening increases when magnesium content is increased.Classification of Aluminium Alloys 2012 2.

The addition of Manganese increases its' strength by 20% over the 1100 grade. 3003: This is a general purpose manganese alloy that is the most widely used of all aluminum alloys.Other Aluminum alloys  Aluminum-lithium alloys were developed for reducing weight in aircraft and aerospace structures.Classification of Aluminium Alloys 2012 7. but the lowest strength aluminum alloy. It is ideal for applications involving intricate forming because it does not work harden as quickly as other alloys. 8. It has excellent corrosion resistance and is widely used in the chemical and food processing industries and other uses where product purity is important. Ductile enough for deep draws. This makes it ideal for foils and lithography plates. This grade cannot be heat treated. Aluminum-lithium alloys are heat-treatable. 2011: This is the most easily machined aluminum alloy.Zinc alloys Aluminum-zinc alloys containing other elements offer the highest combination of tensile properties in wrought aluminum alloys. It is the most weldable of aluminum alloys. It is soft and ductile with good workability and can be polished to a mirror finish. This combines 5 | Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering . 9. 9xxx: Aluminum – Unused. Common wrought aluminum alloys and properties: 1100: This grade is pure aluminum. 8xxx: Aluminum . It responds well to embossed designs and finishes. by any method. It also has excellent mechanical properties. 7xxx: Aluminum .

good forming properties. It is readily workable. it also cannot be heat treated. such as windows. This alloy has several distinct benefits over such alloys as 5052 and 6061. 5005: This alloy is generally considered to be an improved version of 3003. It has excellent workability and it may be deep drawn or spun. It can be welded by all conventional processes. excellent resistance to corrosion and the same economy as in other non heat-treatable alloys 6061 & 6063: This material is an alloy of magnesium and silicon. store fronts and assorted trim items. Some of the benefits are greater design efficiency. Although initial cost of 7475 is higher. 6 | Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering . This alloy is most often found in various interior and exterior architectural applications. It has excellent corrosion resistance. doors. Strength of alloy 7475 is in the range of aerospace alloy 7075. now available for structural applications and designated. It is non heat-treatable. It has excellent corrosion resistance. excellent finishing characteristics and a high degree of resistance to corrosion. better welding characteristics. It offers a range of good mechanical properties and good corrosion resistance. It was developed as an extrusion alloy with relatively high tensile properties. It has the same general mechanical properties as 3003 but appears to stand up better in actual service.Classification of Aluminium Alloys 2012 the excellent characteristics of 1100 with higher strength. 7475: This is a superplastic-formable high-strength aluminum alloy. 5083 & 5086: For many years there has been a need for aluminum sheet and plate alloys that could be used for high strength welded applications. which requires conventional forming operations. It has most of the good qualities of aluminum. finished part cost is usually lower than that of 7075 because of the savings involved in the simplified design/assembly. It can be deep drawn or spun. 6063: This grade is commonly referred to as the architectural alloy. It can be fabricated by most commonly used techniques.either plain or in a variety of colors. It is the alloy best suited for anodizing applications . It is the most common material for extrusions and is the least expensive and most versatile of the heat-treatable aluminum alloys. It is weldable by all conventional processes. Like 1100. It is well suited for anodizing and has fewer tendencies to streak or discolor.

mechanical properties (ductility and strength) and soundness (surface imperfections. awnings. marine and transportation industry parts. containing silver. fittings. For instance. 2024 is primarily used in aerospace industry for aircraft components. decorative and jewelry parts. and hardware. Uses and Applications of Wrought aluminum alloys: 1. pressure vessels and any number of parts requiring considerable strength and formability at reasonable cost. investment casting. 9. quality of parts. Corrosion resistance and weldability are very good.  1xx. Quality refers to both. spacecraft fuel tanks (liquid Hydrogen and oxygen). increased fatigue strength and cryogenic strength. heavy duty cooking utensils and equipment for bulk processing of food. The casting process is selected based on factors such as cost. 2. Seldom used in precision sheet metal stampings. 3003 is commonly used to make cooking utensils. name plates. Requiring extensive machining. Zirconium is added to aluminum-lithium alloys for controlling grain structure during heat treatment. It has better salt water corrosion resistance than 1100. 6061 and 6063 applications include a wide variety of products from truck dump bodies and frames to screw machine parts and structural components and some marine applications.x series are minimum 99% aluminium 7 | Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering . in descending order of quantity of aluminum casting are: die casting. Alloys. These processes. sand casting. 5052 is commonly used for electronic chassis. 8. and window frames lithography plates. siding. 7075 is used where highest strength is needed. 5052 applications include a wide variety of home appliances. 4. and freedom from porosity). and continuous casting. feasibility. cracking. aerospace vehicle skins. large products are made using sand casting. 3. 5005 is used in many of the same applications as 3003. 5. 2011 is widely used for automatic screw machine products and in parts 3. permanent mold casting. The quality factor is also important in selecting the casting process. have also good weld ability. Anodizing may be slightly yellowish. etc. 1100 include light reflectors. decorative trim. 2014 and 2017 are used in a wide variety of screw machined and billet parts. mail boxes. Aluminum-lithium alloys are used for manufacturing aircraft structures. other uses include automotive wheels and other parts for the transportation industry. plaster casting. 7.Classification of Aluminium Alloys 2012 8090: It is a class of aluminum-lithium alloys possessing increased Modulus of Elasticity. high specific stiffness. storage tanks. tanks. 6. Cast Aluminum Alloy Classification: Aluminum can be „cast‟ by every process used in metal casting.

x series zinc 8xx. 8 | Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering . The alpha character can be A356. Three main types Al-Si-Mg. 2nd digit alloys:  A1xxx: It contains 99% of aluminium. Good casting design and foundry techniques must be used to get full mechanical properties and consistent high quality parts.Classification of Aluminium Alloys 2012       2xx. Casting Alloy Designation: 1st digit alloys: In 1st digit alloys have the major element aluminium so we always use letter A to designate aluminium.x series silicon 5xx. Good high temperature strength. Heat treatment is required with these alloys.x series magnesium 7xx. B356. Always A for aluminum in the UNS system. Those with copper are heat treatable. copper and/or magnesium 4xx. Lower corrosion resistance and surface protection is required in critical applications. both copper and magnesium increase strength and hardness in the as cast (f) temper and at elevated temperatures. F356.x series lithium Cast Aluminum Numbering System: The first digit is an alpha indicator of base metal.x series silicon.  A3xxx: It is an alloy of aluminum-Silicon alloy with Copper and/or Magnesium.0. Al-Si-Cu or Al-Si-CuMg.  A2xxx: It is the alloy of aluminum and copper.x series copper 3xx. highest volume usage. The AA system uses the alpha character to distinguish between alloys that differ only slightly in percentages of impurities or minor alloying elements.0. And it is capable of developing highest strengths among all casting alloys. They are in low cost.0 are common examples.

 A360.  A8xxx: It is an alloy with has good finishing characteristics. anodized. These alloys were developed for bearing applications.  A6xxx: It is unused. 3rd & 4th digit alloys:  A319. capable of high strength through natural aging without heat treatment.  Axxx. 5th digit alloys:  Axxx. good corrosion resistance. Tin imparts lubricity.  A5xxx: It is an aluminium magnesium alloy.0: This alloy is used in casting. It is based on the binary aluminum-silicones system and contain 5-12% silicon. High corrosion resistance especially to sea water and marine atmospheres.x: It is a commercial code of this alloy and it is low cost aluminium – silicon alloy. It has moderate strength and high ductility impact resistance. It has moderate to high strength and toughness. It has good casting characteristics.x: This alloy is corrosion resistant.Classification of Aluminium Alloys 2012  A4xxx: It is an aluminium-silicon alloy. It contains 6%tin and small amounts of copper and nickel for strength.  A7xxx: It is an alloy with zinc. can be welded and good machinability.1: 9 | Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering .

and have excellent tensile elongation properties. This alloy yields highly consistent castings that are crack resistant. but with a moderate sacrifice in mechanical properties. Some common casting alloys and their properties: A242: This alloy has good fluidity and shows resistance to hot cracking and shrinkage in the casting process. Both provide better die filling.0: is specified for die cast parts that require good corrosion resistance Special alloys for special applications are available. easy to repair. The common alloys used are 356-T6 for cast wheels.02% copper added for greatly improved strength over the more common A356 material. and aircraft engine pistons. high hardness and good wear resistance of these alloys make them suitable for internal combustion engines. as well as air cooled cylinder heads. The optimum structure of it must consist of fine. These alloys are used for casting generalpurpose die castings. A360.  Axxx.Classification of Aluminium Alloys 2012 It is used to make ingots. 383 & 384: These alloys are a modification of 380. aircraft generator housings. The low coefficient of thermal expansion.2: It is also used to make ingot and it has tighter ingot specifications. such as toughness. Typical applications include: motorcycle. . This alloy does not require heat treatment. It has satisfactory weldability by arc and resistance methods but brazing is not recommended. A355: An aluminum alloy with 0. pistons and cylinder blocks. It has good ingot specifications. A356: Aluminium alloys are characterized by very good mechanical properties and low porosity with a globular microstructure which is fine and uniform. 10 | Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering . A390: This alloy is hypereutectic aluminum-silicon alloy. uniformly distributed primary Si crystals in a eutectic matrix. diesel. The mechanical properties can be further improved through heat treatments such as T5 and T6. but their use usually entails significant cost premiums.

escalator parts. Al-Mg 515 alloy that was used in boat propeller production for over 25 years because 368.0 is commonly found in applications such as frying pans. optical equipment.0 had significantly higher strength and better ductility. A242 alloy is used extensively for applications where strength and hardness at high temperature are required. 3. A518. fine detail and thin sections are difficult and radii must be large Because of shrinkage. especially when machined with carbide tools at maximum speeds.1: A535. aircraft. and bridge railing parts. marine hardware. High pressure die casting is the primary method of forming this alloy. 6. feeding the casting requires large risers proper design. aircraft wheels pump parts. valve bodies. 4. A360. Because of its poor fluidity. 8. 7. marine hardware.0 is an aluminum-magnesium alloy with good combination of strength. instrument cases. A355 has been used very effectively in aftermarket aluminum engine block castings. When heat treated to T6 condition the alloy remains very strong to 300° F which is 100° F higher than A356. A319 is also used in permanent mold casting with applications including watercooled cylinder heads. It is weldable in an inert gas or shielded arc methods. This combination of material properties makes 514 less casting friendly. It has excellent machining properties and an exceptional finish can be produced. It is used in parts that need strength and stability like impellers. .0 replaced the single phase. Uses and application of cast aluminum alloys: 1. A390 is often Selected for special applications where high strength. Named alloys:  Alclad Aluminium sheet formed from high-purity aluminium surface layers bonded to high strength aluminium alloy core material 11 | Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering . High ductility and excellent corrosion resistance is the main advantage of this alloy. 5. A518. The Al-Si alloy 368. fluidity and wear-resistance/bearing properties are required. A356 has largely been replaced by 295 used in permanent mold castings for machine tool parts. It is highly resistant to corrosion and will not need any further surface treatment for most applications. rear axle housings and engine parts. It is commonly found boat propellers where impact toughness is required. . shock resistance and ductility. This alloy doesn't require heat treatment.Classification of Aluminium Alloys 2012 514: This alloy has a relatively poor fluidity and a high degree of directional solidification shrinkage.1 for conveyor components. cover plates. tank car fittings. As a result careful attention to casting geometry is essential. and electronic component frames. 2. It can be polished and anodized. It is used for parts in instruments and tools where dimensional stability is a prime factor.

magnesium) a product of The Birmetals zirconium) a product of Austria Metall AG. Hiduminium. particularly snowboards and skis. alloys: pre-war nickel-aluminium alloys.markusfarkus.php?id=classification_of_aluminum_alloys 12 | Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering . magnesium. used in aerospace and engine pistons. basically equivalent to 5251 Duralumin (copper. Commonly used in high performance sports products. copper. Y alloy. aluminium) Fire-damaged Duralumin cross brace from the Zeppelin airship "Hindenburg" (DLZ129) salvaged from its crash site at Lakehurst Naval Air Station.substech.Classification of Aluminium Alloys 2012        Birmabright (aluminium. for their ability to retain strength at elevated temperature. R. Magnalium Magnox (magnesium. zinc.htm http://www. silicon) Titanal (aluminium. References:   http://www. NJ on May 6. aluminium) Silumin (aluminium.