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Alfred W. McCoy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Alfred W. McCoy
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Alfred William McCoy (born June 8, 1945) is a historian of Southeast Asia. He is the J.R.W. Smail Professor of History at the University of Wisconsin–Madison. McCoy graduated from the Kent School in 1964. He earned his B.A. from Columbia College, and his Ph.D in Southeast Asian history from Yale University.
1 Thesis 2 Recent work 3 Grant Goodman Prize 4 See also 5 References 6 Partial bibliography 7 External links
McCoy has researched and has written about Philippines history, and about Southeast Asia, and in particular about the Golden Triangle drug trades of opium and heroin. His book, The Politics of Heroin in Southeast Asia (1972 first ed.),documented the interactions between the CIA and drug cartels in that region. The principal thesis of McCoy's work is that organized crime in both America and Europe collaborated in a wideranging conspiracy to establish new centers of opium production, heroin refining and distribution in Southeast Asia. This collaboration occurred following the effective suppression of the heroin trade in America during World War II and the subsequent decision to stamp out opium growing by Turkey which had been one of the main sources of raw opium. The collaboration was greatly facilitated by the Central Intelligence Agency and by the unstable political situation created by the ongoing Vietnam War. McCoy points out that the French SDECE military intelligence agency during the First Indochina War (1947–1954) was in need of money for its covert operations. Its officers contacted opium producers in the Golden Triangle, and set up an international system of smuggling aided by intelligence and other aid from SDECE. This system persisted past the war, and became the French Connection. McCoy asserts that the "French Connection" conspiracy arose from an alliance between the Corsican Mafia, who had an historical presence in South Vietnam dating back to the French occupation, and between the leading members of the American and Sicilian Mafia under the leadership of Lucky Luciano who had been imprisoned in the U.S. during World War II for racketeering but who was asked also to provide assistance to American military intelligence about Axis infiltration of Mafia-controlled, waterfront in American ports as well as assisting Allied forces in their invasion of Sicily and Italy. According to McCoy, Luciano reportedly used his contacts in the Sicilian Mafia to assist U.S. forces by gathering intelligence and identifying both fascist collaborators and Socialist/Communists in the Italian resistance movement who were then systematically eliminated.
. leader of the Hezbi-i Islami guerilla group._McCoy 2/5 . and at the end of the war he was deported back to Sicily. claiming that "the boom in the Pakistan drug trade was financed by BCCI. CIA contract airlines had carried opium. but these methods appeared a complete waste of time. McCoy argues in favour of an "alternative strategy. supplied an estimated 30 percent of America's heroin. including Australia. Recent work In his book "A Question of Torture: CIA Interrogation.org/wiki/Alfred_W.7/9/13 Alfred W. underlying a "conflict between the drug war and the cold war. McCoy suggests that the CIA assisted drug lords in Burma in 1950 in operations against China." The CIA's actions were more specifically described by him thus: "In most cases. Hebb. supporting for example the drug and warlord Gulbuddin Hekmatyar. against bilateral agreements between the US and other nations (Colombia. which he considers a failure ("The repression creates a shortfall in supply which raises price and then stimulates production everywhere around the world. including the infamous use of LSD on unsuspecting soldiers and civilians. the free encyclopedia In return for his assistance.Southeast Asia's Golden Triangle grew 70 percent of the world's illicit opium. As an indirect consequence of American involvement in the Golden Triangle until 1972. [t]he CIA did not handle heroin. and drugs. embassies had covered up involvement by client governments..wikipedia. ." Furthermore. arms. In sum... it was found that sensory deprivation was far more effective in brainwashing subjects than beatings or physical pain. McCoy ." Between a repressive policy (the "Drug war").. opium production steadily increased. etc." McCoy believes the CIA recruited drug lords in the frame of the Cold War. You don't repress commodities. He also alludes to the BCCI. Luciano was covertly permitted to run his crime operations from prison. spent billions of dollars developing psychological tools for interrogation. the CIA's role involved various forms of complicity. and individual CIA agents had winked at the opium traffic. Furthermore "self-inflicted pain" (for example forcing an uncooperative subject to stand for many hours with arms outstretched) were more effective means of en.A. tolerance or studied ignorance about the trade. hypnosis.I. and was capable of supplying the United States with unlimited quantities of heroin for generations to come.Wikipedia. McCoy shows how from the start of the Cold War to the early nineteen-sixties. where he immediately began a major expansion of his drug operations. retired head of the CIA. "American involvement had gone far beyond coincidental complicity. psychosurgery. although they were of dubious legality. the CIA's role in the Southeast Asian heroin trade involved indirect complicity rather than direct culpability. first the Castle Bank which was then replaced by the Nugan Hand Bank. Early on. but it did provide its drug-lord allies with transport." For instance. which seems to have played the same role as the Nugan Hand Bank after its collapse in the early 1980s. the C. and political protection. Drawing on the sensory deprivation work of Canadian neurological scientist Donald O. He also alleges similar drug trafficking from 1965 to 1975 in Laos and through the 1980s in Afghanistan. not any direct culpability in the actual trafficking . which he considers "politically impracticable"." "regularization": "I favor regulation because if cocaine and heroin are commodities let's deal with them as such. you regulate them. Bolivia. which had as legal counsel William Colby. McCoy wrote in the book. He also uncovered money laundering activities by banks controlled by the CIA. McCoy argues in favour of multilateral policies under the direction of the United Nations. forging alliances with Corsican Mafia members in South Vietnam and organised crime figures in other countries.") and a full legalization of drugs. from the Cold War to the War on Terror".see coca eradication campaign by the US). the emphasis was on electroshock.
resulted in the torture of tens of thousands of suspected Viet Cong and sympathizers and caused the deaths of more than 26. the Association for Asian Studies awarded him the Grant Goodman Prize for his career contributions to the study of the Philippines. Army School of the Americas (SOA). used by the FBI. McCoy also demonstrates. Scapegoats have been tried for these offences. and then used in a series of U. the CIA made widespread use of torture of suspects.S. the powerful often turn to torture in times of crisis."[citation needed ] Grant Goodman Prize In 2001. "Empathic Interrogation" used against fanatic Japanese has been found to be far more effective.7/9/13 Alfred W. maintaining military secrecy. and controlling the population. not only does torture produce psychotic effects upon the tortured. and. He concludes "In sum._McCoy 3/5 . McCoy showed. They were also used in the Philippines during the Marcos years and in Iran by the Shah's notorious Savak.[citation needed ] McCoy shows that since the time of the Roman author Ulpian torture has never been good at eliciting information. sexual humiliation. it historically has led to violence afterwards perpetrated by torturers. has resulted in a number of successful prosecutions. and special training in these torture methods was given at the U. not because it works but because it salves their fears and insecurities with the psychic balm of empowerment. recruiting and retaining spies.S." dated July 1963. producing no useful information that could be used in any criminal court against any suspect. and undoubtably contributed to the fall of the Marcos and Shah of Iran's regimes. and often invent information they think the torturer wants to hear.Wikipedia.000 of them. See also Air America (airline) Barry Seal CIA transnational human rights actions Claire Sterling – specifically the following books: Octopus: The Long Reach of the International Sicilian Mafia (1990). Augmented by fears of physical abuse. "KUBARK Counterintelligence Interrogation. in Project Phoenix. Crime Without Frontiers (1994). Those tortured will confess to anything to get the pain to stop. McCoy . that from World War II. The manuals provide detailed techniques for infiltrating social movements. He also demonstrates that not only is the evidence that torture fails to work.org/wiki/Alfred_W. surveillance. using torture to interrogate suspects. and Thieves' World: The Threat of the New Global Network of Organized Crime (1994) Gary Webb Iran-Contra en. Throughout the Bush administration Dick Cheney retained personal copies of the training manuals. the free encyclopedia breaking prisoners. These methods were used during the Vietnam War. and through extraordinary rendition. and other psychological attacks on personal and cultural identity. citing evidence in both the Philippines and with the OAS in France after its use in Algeria and Vietnam. McCoy has explained how the US government produced exactly the system on display in the Abu Ghraib abuse photographs These were regularised in the The first manual.[citation needed ] In Guantanamo and Abu Ghraib. Army and CIA interrogation manuals. it in fact increases hatred of the regimes that use it. a joint CIA and Vietnamese counterinsurgency operation.wikipedia. that were widely distributed to right wing dictatorial anti-communist regimes around the world during the cold war.
htm) University of Wisconsin Press Fall 2009 Torture and Impunity (Critical Human Rights). 2012. McCoy with Cathleen B. ^ a b c d e f g h Interview with Alfred Mc Coy.mp3. Alfred W. Heyman.wisc. ISBN 971-550-128-1 Closer Than Brothers: Manhood at the Philippine Military Academy. 385 of The Politics of Heroin: CIA Complicity in the Global Drug Trade. and the Rise of the Surveillance State (http://uwpress. McCoy . pp.html) by Paul DeRienzo 4.edu/books/4454. the Philippines. 2003. 24–111.H.salon. Josiah McC. University of Wisconsin Press Spring 2009 Policing America's Empire: The United States. National Insecurity: U.S.org/library/books/McCoy/default..Wikipedia.htm) 2. 1972. 129–67. 9 November 1991 (http://www. A Question of Torture: CIA Interrogation. pp. CIA complicity in the global drug trade (http://www. University of Wisconsin Press." in. 1998.1949-1951" 6. ISBN 0299288544 External links en. ^ a b p. 2000). McCoy. Adams II. pp.htm). 118–48. "The Stimulus of Prohibition: A Critical History of the Global Narcotics Trade.com/bookrev/nugan_hand. eds. and Kent Mathewson.com/news/feature/2009/05/18/torture/index.edu/books/4453. ISBN 08050-8041-4 Colonial Crucible: Empire in the Making of the Modern American State (http://uwpress. Read and Leonard P. Berger in his study: "The Use of Covert Paramilitary Activity as a policy Tool.org/wiki/Alfred_W.edu (http://history. by Alfred W. Adams II. by McCoy. Joseph J. 2006." in. Alfred W. Dangerous Harvest: Drug Plants and the Transformation of Indigenous Landscapes (New York: Oxford University Press..com on May 18th 2009 Partial bibliography Laos: War and Revolution. co-editor._McCoy 4/5 . ed. ed.au/rn/podcast/2011/04/lnl_20110408_2205.bearcave. Michael K.. (2006). with Cathleen B. ^ pg 383 5. July 20. ^ http://mpegmedia. accessed 14th April 2011 8.drugtext. 1999.html%7CRetrieved from Salon. 1970 The Politics of Heroin in Southeast Asia. 1999).7/9/13 Alfred W. Alfred W. Intelligence After the Cold War (Philadelphia: Temple University Press. ^ http://www..wikipedia. Craig R. McCoy. From the Cold War to the War on Terror. "Requiem for a Drug Lord: State and Commodity in the Career of Khun Sa. ISBN 0-300-07765-3 Alfred W. States and Illegal Practices (Oxford: Berg. Steinberg. ISBN 0-06-012901-8 An Anarchy Of Families (state and family in the Philippines). ^ McCoy.wisc. Read and Leonard P. Eisendrath..abc. Hobbs. ^ See Wisc. "Mission Myopia: Narcotics as 'Fall Out' from the CIA's Covert Wars. "A Question of Torture: CIA Interrogation. Scarano). from the Cold War to the War on Terror" (Holt) 7. ISBN 1-55652-483-8 3.net.. McCoy.htm) (edited volume co-edited with Francisco A.wisc. 2004). the free encyclopedia United Nations Convention Against Torture References 1.edu/people/faculty/mccoy. ^ This is confirmed by USMC Major D." in.