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Many climbing plants enhance vertical space in the garden, but some can become a serious nuisance for

you and your neighbours. The traits that initially make these plants an attractive proposition are the same traits that later turn them into a source of annoyance. Typically, people want a climber to hide an ugly fence, create shade, form a privacy screen or soften the appearance of a wall, and they want that plant to perform rapidly. However, plants which grow fast and vigorously are often hard to control unless regularly pruned. When established, they may be extremely difficult to remove, particularly if they have invaded buildings and boundaries or escaped into a neighbouring property or the bushland beyond.

interest or expected DISADVANTAGES 1. Polythene is not biodegradable, and if dumped in the soil causes harm to the plant life, as the toxic substances of polythene get blocked among the soil particles. 2. Polythene threatens the life in the water bodies. The chemicals in polythene affects the survival of flora and fauna of the aquatic and marine Eco-systems. 3. Polythene is also likely to clog the drains causing problems in the water flow of the pipes. The pipe blockages would cause flooding and the free flow of water is disturbed. 4. Polythene is harmful for animals if swallowed. It solidifies inside the abdominal cavity which ultimately becomes lethal to the animal. 5. In most households poly bags are used to preserve food items. It has been found out, the colourful poly bags contains lead and cadmium which are toxic and cause adverse effects to human health. 6. If polythene is burnt in open air Hydrogen cyanide which is carcinogenic (cancer causing) is released. 7.Hydrogen cyanide causes environmental pollution and health hazards. _of_polythene Harmful Effects of Polyethylene Bags Pollution

Why some climbers cause problems Once a climber is well established, it can develop great mass and cause considerable damage as well as nuisance value. The spread and volume of growth may smother shrubs and trees, robbing them of light and eventually killing them. The weight can force fences to lean and collapse. A colourful suburban scene fraught with problems. The owner planted only the dark red Rangoon creeper (foreground) which is not invasive - and the coral vine, which does run out of control. The pink trumpet vine and bougainvillea are from next door. The yellow snake vine (near foreground) also belongs to the neighbours, but is not rampant. However, disentangling them all is almost impossible. Dense tangles of plants are the perfect hiding place for rats and paper wasps. Thick growths of evergreen climbers near windows or on pergolas prevent light and warmth entering rooms or courtyards in winter. Shoots can invade roofs and block gutters, creating fire hazards in dry weather or pools where mosquitoes breed during wet periods. Aerial roots exude a substance that etches brickwork and weakens mortar. This Gardennote describes some of the climbers that may cause problems. The problems listed are not necessarily exclusive to these individual climbers. Climbers that require discipline Some climbers are so well-loved that it would be unreasonable to suggest people avoid them altogether. However, to lessen the chances of problems developing, take care when locating these plants and prune them regularly. Tempting though it may be to let climbers intermingle, it is better to keep them separate. If later you decide one must be removed, it is inconvenient to have to unravel mixed plant material, particularly if a thorny plant is involved. Examples of popular climbers which frequently become rampant are cape honeysuckle (Tecomaria capensis), Japanese honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica), orange trumpet creeper (Pyrostegia venusta), Chinese trumpet vine (Campsis x tagliabuana), coral vine or Mexican rose (Antigonon leptopus) and black-eyed Susan (Thunbergia alata). Also capable of causing problems are the four climbers listed below. They have been singled out for further description in this Gardennote simply because so many people are won over by their beauty but later may regret having planted them in the wrong location. dpw/climbers.pdf Polyethylene plastic bag ADVANTAGES 1. Polythene film is one of the most lightweight and durable packaging mediums available. 2. Plastic packaging makes an important contribution to reducing food spoilage rates. 3. Polythene ducting is compatible with most fans, heaters, air conditioners, air handling units, etc 4. Polythene Bags use less energy and resources to create than glass or paper. 5. Clear polythene allows recipients to view the contents (such as a magazine cover) prompting them to open immediately if the item is of

According to data cited in National Geographic, of the more than 500 billion polyethylene bags used each year, millions never make it to the landfill. The wind catches them, and they travel remarkable journeys only to land snagged in a tree, caught in a chain-link fence or stuck in a drainage ditch. Such extended use and subsequent litter led several countries around the world to ban the use of polyethylene bags. Environmental Impact

When polyethylene bags block drainage ditches, they can cause widespread flooding. Bangladesh banned the use of these bags in 2002, citing that they had contributed to severe flooding in 1988 and 1998. Both land and sea animals mistakenly ingest them, causing illness and death. Some animals become ensnared in these bags or their residue, and either die from being trapped or become permanently disfigured. When these bags finally do decompose, they deposit chemicals into the soil, rivers, lakes and oceans. Sponsored Links DY pcb circuit boards Manufacture Top Quality PCB, Offer Customized & One-Stop Service. Transport of Alien Species

Small, nonmobile marine species such as bryozoans, barnacles, polychaete worms, hydroids, crabs and mollusks colonize on plastic and are transported with the ocean current to new locations---where these new species can potentially upset and destroy the ecosystem. Carcinogens

Polyethylene is a suspected human carcinogen, or cancer-causing agent. In studies with mice, polyethylene has been linked to cancer of the colon. When these bags come in direct contact with food, as in packaging, chemicals within the bag can leach out into the food and contaminate it.


fluorescens, with the help of Sphingomonas, can degrade over 40% of the weight of plastic bags in less than three months.[11] In 2009 it was discovered by a resident of Hawaii upon returning from a ship race that degraded plastics are a major cause for marine life destruction, being mixed in with plankton, comparable in size and weight but in much larger numbers.[12]

Petroleum, a valuable and nonrenewable natural resource, is used to make polyethylene. Manufacturing polyethylene bags releases harmful chemicals into the environment, only to have the product being manufactured end up as one of the top sources of litter throughout the world.

Read more: Polyethylene (abbreviated PE) or polythene (IUPAC name polyethene or poly(methylene)) is the most common plastic. The annual production is approximately 80 million metric tons.[1]Its primary use is in packaging (plastic bag, plastic films, geomembranes, containers including bottles, etc.). Many kinds of polyethylene are known, with most having the chemical formula(C2H4)nH2. Thus PE is usually a mixture of similar organic compounds that differ in terms of the value of n. Physical properties[edit] Polyethylene is a thermoplastic polymer consisting of long hydrocarbon chains. Depending on the crystallinity and molecular weight, a melting point and glass transition may or may not be observable. The temperature at which these occur varies strongly with the type of polyethylene. For common commercial grades of medium- and highdensity polyethylene the melting point is typically in the range 120 to 130 C (248 to 266 F). The melting point for average, commercial, low-density polyethylene is typically 105 to 115 C (221 to 239 F). Chemical properties[edit] Most LDPE, MDPE and HDPE grades have excellent chemical resistance, meaning that it is not attacked by strong acids or strong bases. It is also resistant to gentle oxidants and reducing agents. Polyethylene burns slowly with a blue flame having a yellow tip and gives off an odour of paraffin. The material continues burning on removal of the flame source and produces a drip.[2]Crystalline samples do not dissolve at room temperature. Polyethylene (other than crosslinked polyethylene) usually can be dissolved at elevated temperatures in aromatic hydrocarbons such as toluene or xylene, or in chlorinated solvents such as trichloroethane or trichlorobenzene.[3] Although ethylene can be produced from renewables, polyethylene is mainly made from petroleum or natural gas. Biodegrading plastics[edit] One of the main problems of polyethelyne is that without special treatment it is not readily biodegradable, and thus accumulates. In Japan getting rid of plastics in an environmentally friendly way was the major problem discussed until the Fukushima disaster in 2011. It was listed as a $90 billion market for solutions. Since 2008 Japan has rapidly increased the recycling of plastics, but still has a large rate of plastic wrapping which goes to waste.[10][10] In May 2008, Daniel Burd, a 16-year-old Canadian, won the CanadaWide Science Fair in Ottawa after discovering that Pseudomonas

In 2010 a Japanese researcher Akinori Ito released the prototype of a machine which creates oil from Polyethylene using a small, selfcontained vapor distillation process.[13] Bio-derived polyethylene[edit] Main articles: Bioplastics and Renewable Polyethylene Braskem and Toyota Tsusho Corporation started Joint marketing activities for producing polyethylene from sugar cane. Braskem will build a new facility at their existing industrial unit in Triunfo, RS, Brazil with an annual production capacity of 200,000 short tons (180,000,000 kg), and will produce high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and low-density polyethylene (LDPE) from bioethanol derived from sugarcane.[14] Polyethylene can also be made from other feedstocks, including wheat grain and sugar beet. Retrieved from cane sugar, i.e. plant biomass renewable feedstock; Brazil is the first country to develop the product[15] These developments are using renewable resources rather than fossil fuel, although the issue of plastic source is currently negligible in the wake of plastic waste and in particular polyethylene waste as shown above.