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Allama Iqbal Open University Islamabad

Assignment: Computer Science Name: Jabina Kanwal Roll No: AS335677 Class: XI

Q: No: 1. Describe The Role Of Information Technology In Promoting Primary Education? Information technology plays a prominent role in the primary school curriculum and is present throughout subject areas and grade levels. Teachers often find the instructional technology tools, such as whiteboards, video games, and cooperative sites, extremely beneficial. Students also benefit from the interactive component, which increases interest in and transfer and retention of the material being studies.

Computer Literacy

Information technology should be incorporated into the primary school curriculum to give the students a head start with computer literacy, which is increasingly significant in later years. At this level, however, computer literacy typically focuses on typing, internet use, basic computer infrastructure, art applications and various computer games. It is often incorporated into the library studies portion of the primary school curriculum.

Reading Readiness

Information technology also plays a role in the portion of the primary school curriculum devoted to reading readiness. Various applications for digital whiteboards (also known as SMART boards) are dedicated solely to whole language and phonics instruction. Various interactive PC games also often are employed to help primary school students acquire the essential reading skills that they need.

Science Projects

Information technology is frequently used in primary schools as part of the science curriculum. Particularly, teachers and students enjoy the interactivity that is made possible through computer and Internet tools. Robotics projects using Lego Mind storms, as well as three-dimensional modeling, often can bring to life science phenomena that was traditionally taught only through the use of textbooks and slides.

Project Portfolios

Many primary school teachers find that using project portfolios and tracking them on the computer, is a more effective way of assessing their students' performance than the traditional standardized exams. Project portfolios allow teachers to see a more wellrounded representation of each student's abilities and knowledge, and information technology makes this approach easily manageable.

Interactive Learning

Teachers across all grade levels are constantly trying to bring more interactivity into their learning. Students, especially in primary school, can greatly benefit from the interactivity that is available through the use of various instructional technologies. For example, students and teachers can use applications like Flash and Photoshop to create dynamic lessons and projects; they can chat with tutors and peers using social networks; they can view instructional videos online through websites like YouTube. There are many possibilities for students and teachers at the primary school level.

Q: No: 2. What is Computer Memory? Explain various Units of Computer Memory in Detail. The computer memory is a temporary storage area. It holds the data and instructions that the Central Processing Unit (CPU) needs. Before a program can be run, the program is loaded from some storage medium into the memory. This allows the CPU direct access to the program. Memory is a need for any computer. Following are the main memory storage units: Sr. No. 1 2 3 Description A binary digit is logical 0 & 1 representing a passive or an active Bit (Binary Digit) state of a component in an electric circuit. Nibble A group of 4 bits is called nibble. A group of 8 bits is called byte. A byte is the smallest unit which Byte can represent a data item or a character. A computer word like a byte, is a group of fixed number of bits processed as a unit which varies from computer but is fixed for each computer. Word The length of a computer word is called word-size or word length and it may be as small as 8 bits or may be as long as 96 bits. A computer stores the information in the form of the computer words. Unit

Few higher storage units are following Sr. No. 1 1 1 1 1 Unit Kilobyte (KB) Megabyte (MB) GigaByte (GB) TeraByte (TB PetaByte (PB) Description 1 KB = 1024 Bytes 1 MB = 1024 KB 1 GB = 1024 MB 1 TB = 1024 GB 1 PB = 1024 TB

Q: No: 3. What is Difference Between Input & Output Devices? Eleborate

Ans:- Any information or data that's entered or sent to the computer to be processed is considered input and anything that is displayed from the computer is output. Therefore, an input device such as a computer keyboard is capable of having information sent to the computer, but does not display (output) any information. An output device such as a computer printer can print information from the computer but does not send any information (input) to the computer.


Input Device
An input device is any peripheral used to provide data and control signals to an information processing system. Input devices are physically interacted with by the user and have buttons, keys, a lens or some other component that is responsible for the actual data input. Input device works before Output Device Usually, Input devise cheaper than Output Device. It converts commands to Binary digit User to CPU via input device

Output Device
Any device that outputs information from a computer is called, not surprisingly, an output device Output devices are never contacted, are usually larger, and typically have a screen or set of speakers for data output. Output device works after input device. Usually Output Device price higher than input device. It converts binary result to our language. CPU to User via Output Device






Data flow Picture

Q: No: 4. What is Main Purpose of Operating System? How you differentiate it from other types of Software.
The operating system is the layer between the hardware and the programs you run. It gives programs a standard interface to the hardware, otherwise every program would need to include its own device drivers. It keeps track of the file system and provides security measures to protect data. The operating system also manages memory allocation, protects one application from overwriting the memory of other applications, etc. It gives each program an address space so programs don't need to know exactly where everything is in physical memory. The OS maps that address space to real memory or even to virtual memory on disk, as needed. It also manages process scheduling. While it looks like you can run many programs at once, the operating system is actually just rapidly switching between each process and giving each one a little time slice. If you have multiple CPUs or cores, the OS manages which processes run on which CPU.

Differences between Operating System and Other Software

The Operating System is the System Software that makes the Computer work. We can say that an Operating System (OS) is Software that acts as an interface between you and the hardware. It not only contains drivers used to speak the hardware's language, but also offers you a very specific graphical user interface (GUI) to control the computer. An OS can also act as an interface (from the hardware) to the other software. Examples: Windows 98, Windows Xp. Application software is the software that you install onto your Operating System. It consists of the programs that actually let you do things with your computer. These Applications are written to run under the various Operating Systems. These include things like your word processing programs, spread sheets, email clients, web browser, games, etc

So, the Operating system of a Computer is the Software that allows the Computer work. It provides the framework under which the Applications run. An operating system is the type of Computer system you have such as Window XP or Window 95, 98, Mac, etc. The Applications are the Software that actually allows the user to do something with the Computer. Without the applications, all you can do is change settings and navigate among the folders.

Q: No: 5. Describe the shutting down and booting up process of computer system?
Ans:- When you press the on switch it sends a signal to your motherboard which instructs it to use the power from the power supply unit. The motherboard then sends power to all connected components and transfers data to and from your central processing unit (CPU), graphics card and hard disk drive (HDD). The Bios (basically all the settings you config when you enter setup upon booting your pc) which is stored permanently on your motherboard then sends info to your cpu which is then processed to start up the computer, as this happens the motherboard communicates with the graphics card to tell it to draw pixels to show the image of the screen, this is then transferred to the monitor which shows the end result. The motherboard then checks for a small file (boot record) on your HDD which tells it that an operating system is installed (or more than one if this is the case) If this file is there it loads up the operating system (or if 2 are installed it shows a menu asking which one you would like to use) if no operating system is installed it checks for other boot methods (customisable in the bios setup) these are usually floppy disk drive, cd/dvd/bluray rom, usb HDD and network boot. There are also loads of other checks performed during startup, a computer performs many yes/no checks everytime it does any processing whatsoever, such as; is this component plugged in? and if the mhz selected in the bios for a certain component is stable upon boot. Upon reaching the operating system and logging in the system then loads kernel (core of the operating system) processes and then the ones selected to load upon startup in the systems config file. Usually antivirus and firewalls load early to try and detect any unwanted boot processes. Upon shutdown, the system checks for any currently running processes and attempts to close them if it is safe to do so, if after a long period of time the process still has not closed most operating systems will ask the user if they want to close the process or keep waiting. When only kernel (core operating system) files are left, the operating system can then safely shutdown the computer.

Exercise No 2
Q: No: 5. Describe the shutting down and booting up process of computer system?

Modes of Data Communication System: A simplex connection is a connection in which the data flows in only one direction, from the transmitter to the receiver. This type of connection is useful if the data do not need to flow in both directions (for example, from your computer to the printer or from the mouse to your computer...). A half-duplex connection (sometimes called an alternating connection or semi-duplex) is a connection in which the data flows in one direction or the other, but not both at the same time. With this type of connection, each end of the connection transmits in turn. This type of connection makes it possible to have bidirectional communications using the full capacity of the line. A full-duplex connection is a connection in which the data flow in both directions simultaneously. Each end of the line can thus transmit and receive at the same time, which means that the bandwidth is divided in two for each direction of data transmission if the same transmission medium is used for both directions of transmission. Q: No: 6. What is Network Topology? Write Note on any three network topologies. A network topology describes the arrangement of systems on a computer network. It defines how the computers, or nodes, within the network are arranged and connected to each other. Some common network topologies include star, ring, line, bus, and tree configurations. Three topologies are defined below:
1. Bus Topology Bus networks (not to be confused with the system bus of a computer) use a common backbone to connect all devices. A single cable, the backbone functions as a shared communication medium that devices attach or tap into with an interface connector. A device wanting to communicate with another device on the network sends a broadcast message onto the wire that all other devices see, but only the intended recipient actually accepts and processes the message.

2. Star Topology Many home networks use the star topology. A star network features a central connection point called a "hub node" that may be a network hub, switch or router. Devices typically connect to the hub with Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Ethernet. Compared to the bus topology, a star network generally requires more cable, but a failure in any star network cable will only take down one computer's network access and not the entire LAN. (If the hub fails, however, the entire network also fails.) 1. Tree Topology Tree topologies integrate multiple star topologies together onto a bus. In its simplest form, only hub devices connect directly to the tree bus, and each hub functions as the root of a tree of devices. This bus/star hybrid approach supports future expandability of the network much better than a bus (limited in the number of devices due to the broadcast traffic it generates) or a star (limited by the number of hub connection points) alone.