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# 1st National Iranian Drilling Industry Congress.

## A new criterion for drillpipe multiaxial fatigue damage

Gholamreza Rashed Assistant Professor, Faculty of Petroleum Engineering, Petroleum University of Technology, Khalil Shahbazi Assistant Professor, Faculty of Petroleum Engineering, Petroleum University of Technology,

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## 1st National Iranian Drilling Industry Congress.

dD = 2 k1 (TFS 1) 1 + f
where,

dWt

(1)

dWt = dW p + dWe

(2)

In Eq. (1), the symbol D represents fatigue damage, the prefix d denotes infinitesimal increment, the symbol k1 is a material constant, TFS is a triaxiality factor for stress state [13],

is the

## Wt is total plastic strain energy per cycle. The TFS = ( 1 + 2 + 3 )a S eq introduced as

where 1 , 2 and 3 are principal stresses, the subscript a refers to amplitude of stress, and

2

S eq = 3S ij
defined as:

## fully-reversed in-phase multiaxial stress state and

TFS reduces to the triaxiality factor of Davis and Connelly [14]. The constant

k1 may be determined from two sets of test data with different stress states, for
instance, axial and torsional data or axial and equibiaxial data. The critical plane is defined as the material plane where the fatigue damage accumulation first reaches a critical value.

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In Eq. (2),

## W p denotes the amount of plastic distortion strain energy (or plastic

W p is defined as:
p ij d eij where ij and ij are stress and strain tensors cycle

W p =
and

strains

eij

defined

as

eij = ij eh ij

and

## strain. Details concerning the computation of

We denotes the amount of elastic distortion strain energy (or elastic work) recoverable during a cycle. We is defined as:
We =

(S

cycle

(S

' ij

de

' e ij

' ij

de

+ ' e ij
e

' S ij = 2

' eij 2

S ij = 2
' ' e

eij 2

' ' e

gives S ij deij

'

' e

## for S ij deij 0 and zero for S ij deij < 0 .

' ' denote the deviatoric stresses and elastic deviatoric strain calculated S ij and eij

ij ij , m

## modified by the mean stresses

ij ,m

where the

subscript m indicates mean component of the stress. The fatigue model implies that the total strain energy, Wt on a material plane is the major cause of fatigue damage. The first term on the right side of Eq. (1) is used to consider the stress state effects. The second term on the right hand side of the Eq. (1) is designed to account for the mean stress effect. Such a consideration of the mean stress effect is consistent with the experimental observation that the normal stress on the critical plane is responsible for the mean stress effect. For proportional fully reversed constant amplitude loading, the stress surface size is stabilized after a number of loading cycles, and the mean stress effect is zero [13]. As a result, the second term on the right side of Eq. (1) can be removed. The model can be re-written in the following form: D = D N f (3) where and

D = 2 k1 (TFS 1) W

(4)

W = Wed + W pd =

cycle

## ' ' S ij deij +

cycle

S ij deijp

(5)

In these three equations, D represents the fatigue damage over a loading cycle, N f is the cycles to failure, Wt is the total strain energy on the critical plane

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## 1st National Iranian Drilling Industry Congress.

over a loading cycle or fatigue parameter, and D is a constant representing the critical damage accumulation when a material fails. The constant D can be determined directly from fully reversed uniaxial or torsion fatigue test results. To make damage assessments for a particular plane, the stress and strain need to be expressed in the local coordinate system of the plane. The global coordinate system XYZ is fixed to the body. The local coordinate system xyz is fixed to the plane of the crack. The two rotations are defined the plane. A rotation about y is , and is a rotation about

z . When = = 0 , the plane is coincident with the surface plane and xyz is aligned to the global coordinates XYZ .

A general

## R rotation leads to the following transformation matrix

sin cos cos sin sin sin 0 cos
(6)

## cos cos = R R = sin sin cos

R applies the rotation about z first, then y . The stress and strain can be written for any material plane, represented by the xyz coordinate system, using the
coordinate rotations:
= R R
T

## cos cos sin cos sin sin 2 sin

(7)

and

= R R T =
2 2 2 2 sin + cos cos sin 1 (1 + )cos2 sin 2 2 (1 + )cos cos sin

)) (

1 (1 + )cos2 sin 2 2

))

(8)

Where and

are

## the local stress and strain. Note that R

is the transpose of

R .
It should be noted that the first term in the right side of Eq. (1) does not depend on the orientation of a material plane. For fully reversed loading, the mean stress effect vanishes. Therefore, for fully reversed tension compression and torsion, the critical planes are determined by dWt . We use Eq. (1) to calculate the fatigue damage

D on all planes.

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D = Max dD ( )

]
of t ,

( 90

## < < 90o .

biaxial

Damage

accumulation:

D = D N f
general

For

x = xm + xa sin( ) xy = m + sin ( t )

forms

sinusoidal the

y = ym + ya sin( t )
S eq
can
1 2

stress be

states

such to

as and be

shown

2 S eq = xa xa ya cos + ya + 3 2

## where it can be seen that

S eq is a

function of stress amplitudes and the phase difference between the normal stresses only, and the phase difference between the normal stresses and shear stress is not involved. From the relations
e e (1 + ) in the elastic range, the elastic S ij = 2Geij = Eeij

## distortion strain energy

2 2 2 2 2 2 Wed = (1 + ) S xx + S yy + S zz + 2S xy + 2S yz + 2S zx 4E

## (9) under the general form of out-of-phase sinusoidal stresses becomes:

2 2 2 Wed = 2(1 + ) xa xa ya cos + ya 3 + xya E

[(

(10) where it can be noted that the mean stress components do not appear in the above parameter

Wed . The Wed is the same as the Von Mises criterion for in phase

loading. Verification of the fatigue damage model : The experimental results are used to verify the fatigue model (Eq. (1)). The fatigue data of 304 stainless steel, 1070 steel and EN15R steel reported by other investigators [7, 9, 10, and 15] are used to evaluate the new multiaxial fatigue damage model. The constants in their references are used in the model, for example, f = 1114 MPa and E = 205 MPa for EN15R steel materials. Multiaxial fatigue data are used to verify the model. The process of estimation of accomplished by means of a MATLAB Code. TFS gives a unique number for each cyclic stress state, for example, zero for pure torsion, +1 for uniaxial tension-compression, +2 for inphase, in plane equibiaxial stress state and a constant unique value for each nonproportional cyclic loading, since 1 + 2 + 3 a and S eq in TFS are defined uniquely as a number under

those loadings. The value of k1 was determined ranging between 0 and 1.45, for example, k1 was 0.3 for 1045 steel and 1.0 for SS304 steel. Therefore, it appears that the degree of the effect of stress state on fatigue depends upon test material, loading condition, definition of failure adopted for fatigue tests, and other factors.

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## 1st National Iranian Drilling Industry Congress.

References [1] J.A. Bannantine, D.F. Socie, in: ESIS 10, K. Kussmaul, D. McDiarmid, D. Socie (Eds.), Fatigue under Biaxial and Multiaxial Loading, Mech Eng pub, London, 1991, pp. 35-51. [2] G. Lanza, Transactions of the ASME. 8 (1886) 130. [3] H.J. Gough, H.Y. Pollard, Proceedings of the IME. 131 (1935) 3. [4] J.J. Guest, Proceedings of IAE. 35 (1940) 33 and 146. [5] D. Socie, in: ASTM STP 1191, D.L. McDowell, R. Ellis (Eds.), Advances in Multiaxial Fatigue, 1993, pp. 7-36. [6] A. Fatemi, D.F. Socie, Fatig. and Fract. Eng. Mat. and Struc. 11 (1988) 149. [7] C.H. Wang, M.W. Brown, ASTM J. Eng. Mat. and Tech. 118 (1996) 371. [8] G. Glinka, G. Wang, A. Plumtree, Fatig. and Fract. of Eng. Mat. and Struc. 18 (1995) 755. [9] Y. Jiang, P. Kurath, ASME J. Eng. Mat. and Tech. 119 (1997) 161. [10] Y. Jiang, H. Sehitoglu, ASME J. Applied Mechanics. 63 (1996) 720. [11] F. Ellyin, ASME J. Eng. Mat. and Tech. 107 (1983) 1l9. [12] E.H. Jordon, M.W. Brown, K.J. Miller, in: ASTM STP 853, K.J. Miller, M.W. Brown (Eds.), Multiaxial Fatigue, 1985, pp. 569-585. [13] J. Park, D. Nelson, Int. J. Fatig. 22 (2000) 23. [14] E.A. Davis, F.M. Connelly, J. App. Mech., Transactions of ASME series E. 26 (1959) 25. [15] T. Itoh, M. Sakane, M. Ohnami, D.F. Socie, ASME J. Eng. Mat. and Tech. 117 (1995) 285.

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NP

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## 1st National Iranian Drilling Industry Congress.

Figure (1): Comparison of experimental data and predicted fatigue lives for 304 stainless steel using the model.

(a)

(b)
Figure (2): (a) The fatigue damage parameter vs. cycles to failure, (b) The total fatigue damage obtained by using the model for 304 stainless steel under step loading condition.

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## 1st National Iranian Drilling Industry Congress.

Figure (3): The observed life vs. predicted life obtained by using the model for EN15R steel under variable amplitude loading.

Figure (4): The total fatigue damage obtained by using the model for 1070 steel under multi-step ratchetting loading condition.

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