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1st National Iranian Drilling Industry Congress.

Performance, Economy and Waste Management of an Emulsion Glycol Mud Formulation to Replace OBMs While Drilling Asmari Formation in Maroun Oilfield
Sajjad Jafary Chegny University of Calgary, Petroleum University of Technology Dr. K. Tahmasbi Pars Drilling Fluid Co., Petroleum University of Technology Niloofar Arsanjani Pars Drilling Fluid Co.

Abstract: Oil-based invert systems are the most reliable drilling fluids while drilling troublesome shales. However, due to environmental problems and economics, efforts have been made to replace invert systems with less-toxic, and most cost effective water-based fluids. Glycol muds are one alternative. Low toxicity to the environment, high degree of inhibition, lubricity, anti-bit balling properties and polymer stability are the main advantages offered by glycol muds. Also compared to OBMs, typical glycol muds are cheaper to prepare which would become of economic significance in areas with high rates of mud loss to the formation. Oil-based drilling fluids are quite popular in Iranian drilling industry. Considering environmental acceptability, domestic availability, economics and performance criteria, glycol muds have the highest prospect to replace oil-based muds in the Iranian oilfields. The possibility of the replacement was considered in a laboratory research, conducted at Pars Drilling Fluid Co. (PDF) in 2006. Present study further considers this possibility, focusing on weight optimization and contamination effects. The main objective of the present work was to design a low-density glycol mud to replace the OBMs currently used to drill the Asmari formation in Maroon oilfield. An emulsion glycol mud with a density of 60 PCF was designed and compared with the oil-based formulation of similar density. Overall, the results were convincing. The performance of the system was acceptable. Its diesel content was recoverable to meet disposal requirements. Savings up to 40% in initial fluid cost are also expected with this replacement. Considering high rates of loss to the Asmari formation in this field, reduced initial costs from this replacement is an important economic achievments. The emulsion glycol system was proposed to NISOC to meet their economic and environmental requirements while selecting the proper mud to drill subnormally-pressured Asmari formation in Maroon oilfield. Keywords: OBMs, WBMs, Shale Inhibition, Glycol Mud, Cloud Point Engineering, Emulsion Muds,WeightOptimization,DrillingMudEmulsifiers,Contamination , emulsification Waste Management, Economy

1st National Iranian Drilling Industry Congress.

1-Introduction: Since their introduction in the 1930's, OBMs have played a major role in drilling troublesome shales. Their development was a milestone in drilling fluid technology as they help to maintain a smooth trouble-free drilling operation through shales. However, their toxicity to the environment and high initial cost has limited their application in favor of environmentally-acceptable inhibitive WBMs. Both OBMs and cuttings contaminated with them are classified as class I toxic discharge to the environment by US Environmental Protection Agency. Regulations restrict the way cuttings contaminated with OBMs can be discharged which may render their disposal uneconomic. This has paved the way towards replacing them with WBMs which are much more environmentally friendly. However, it is practically impossible for any WBM to match the performance of OBMs. Excellent shale inhibition, wellbore stability, lubricity, anti-accretion properties, contamination resistance and possibility of reuse are the main advantages of OBMs over WBMs. To replace OBMs, WBMs should have acceptable inhibition, lubricity, filtration and anti-accretion properties while having low toxicity to the environment. Inhibition is of prime importance for any alternative. Calcium, potassium and sodium salts, PHPA, polyglycols, silicates, amines and formats are examples of chemicals which can be used to boost the inhibition properties of WBMs. As inhibitive WBMs, KCl/Glycol and KCl/Silicate muds have inhibition properties comparable to the OBMs. Weight optimization is one of the challenges when replacing OBMs with WBMs. Density in WBMs can be manipulated by oil-in-water emulsifications, glass beads or aerating the mud. Oil-in-water emulsions have the advantages of operational ease and economic viability as compared to the other two methods of weight optimization though a compromise is required to keep the system safe to the environment. The diesel content of the WBMs should be handled prior to discharge in such a way as not to question their environmental preference over OBMs. OBMs are popular in Iran for drilling shales, reservoir sections and coring. Providing more flexibility in mud weight adjustment, OBMs are often used to drill low pressure/depleted reservoir sections in southern Iranian oilfields. With increasing environmental concerns over their discharge, especially offshore, alternative WBMs have recently been tried. Another reason to replace the OBMs with cheaper water-based alternatives is the cost effectiveness. OBMs are expensive mud systems to prepare, though possibility of recycling may reduce the associated total fluid cost. However, as it is the case with Asmari formation in Iranian Maroon oilfield, high rates of mud loss to the formation may render their use uneconomic. A less expensive inhibitive WBM would better suite the economy in such formations. Due to their environmental acceptability, domestic availability, economics and low initial cost, acceptable inhibition, temperature stability and good lubricity, "glycol muds" have the highest prospect to replace OBMs in Iranian oilfields. This report will present the result of experimental study conducted to design a low weight glycol mud with the aim to replace OBMs in low pressure shales and shaly reservoir sections (Asmari formation) in Iranian Maroon oilfields. The density of the glycol mud was optimized by emulsifying diesel in the system. Standard laboratory procedures were then implemented to compare the performance of the system with an OBM of similar density. Rheology, filtration properties and shale inhibition were

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the main performance evaluation parameters. Like any other WBM, the system is prone to contamination. Effects of various contaminants on the system performance were evaluated next. Contaminations considered were OCMA clay, lime, and seawater. The effects of pH variations were also studied. To justify its environmental preference over OBMs, the diesel content of the emulsion glycol mud was to be separated. This was done by breaking the emulsion with a suitable demulsifier and separating the diesel content through gravity effect. 2-Glycol Muds: Concerns over the economics and the environmental impacts of the conventional inhibitive drilling fluids raised the profile of glycols as shale inhibition additives to water-based systems in the late 1980s. First documented use of glycols was back in 1940 by E. Cannon to control swelling shales. [6] Through 1970s and early 1980s glycols were in occasional use as lubricants, pipe releasing agents and even shale inhibitor; but it was in the second half of 1980s that the glycols gained a reputation as a shale inhibition additive. Glycol concentrations as low as 3% in the water phase can contribute significantly to the shale inhibition performance of a drilling fluid. The combined effect of glycol inhibition, the cationic exchange from potassium salts and the shale encapsulation by polymers can practically raise the shale recovery performance of a water-based mud close to that of an oil-based mud. Nowadays, water-based glycol muds are quite common in drilling industry with claimed improvements in shale inhibition, temperature stability of polymers, lubrication, penetration rates, releasing stuck pipes, dilution rates, contamination resistance and prevention of differential sticking and BHA/bit balling. Excellent properties of glycol muds are due to their special chemistry. As shown in Figure 1, polygycols used as drilling fluid additive have repeating ethylene oxide and propylene oxide units in their structure (n & m = 0,1 10) attached to an alkyl group (R= H, C1,C2 C6). The hydroxyl group (s) have strong tendency to form hydrogen bonds with available oxygen atoms. This strong affinity for hydrogen bonding accounts for inhibitive properties of glycols. Chemical adsorption of glycols to the surface of clay platelets, where they form a hydrogen bond with the oxygen of the silica groups, is thought to be the main inhibition mechanism by glycols. Shale swelling happens when water molecules hydrogen bond to the silica sheets in the clay structure, but hydrogen bonds with glycols are stronger. This way the swelling by water is minimized.

Figure 1: Glycol Chemical Structures

1st National Iranian Drilling Industry Congress.

Another interesting property for most of glycols is their inverse solubility with temperature. As the temperature increases the hydrogen bonds become weaker and the solubility in water decreases, until a certain temperature is reached at which the glycols come out of solution as small droplets which gives the solution a cloudy appearance (Figure 2). This temperature is known as Cloud Point Temperature which is a function of salinity of the solution and glycol type and concentration. This property can be engineered to prevent pore pressure transmission through the shale sections which tends to destabilize the shale structures. The solution containing glycol invades shale pores where the change in temperature and chemical environment causes the glycol to cloud out. Clouded glycol droplets effectively block the pore throats reducing the permeability and preventing further invasion. To mention, not all glycols have a cloud point (e.g. low molecular weight polyethylene glycols). Also cloud point is affected with the presence of any oily chemical in the system and other clouding materials shift the cloud point of glycols. Both clouding and non-clouding glycols are effective in preventing shale swelling and dispersion through chemical adsorption.

Figure 2: Cloud Point Phenomena

3-Emulsion Muds: Oil-in-water emulsions are common as perforating and completion fluids, plugging and diverting agents and also as a transport medium for very viscous crude oils. In drilling industry, O/W emulsions are generally recognized as a method of improving the performance of water-based muds. [9] Emulsified muds favor lower mud weights, higher penetration rates, lower filtration rates, longer bit life and more stable wellbores. Formation damages induced by emulsion blocking are much more severe with invert W/O emulsions than O/W emulsions. As concluded by the API Southwestern District Study Committee on Drilling Fluids, the emulsification of refined or crude oil in water-based muds results in faster drilling and less hole problems. [9] Major improvements from emulsion muds were reported to be reduction in torque and drag, less sticking and bit balling and an engaged wellbore. No further adverse effect due to emulsification was observed on cores and electric logs. Many drilling fluid components, like lignites and lignosulfonates, clay particles, starch and CMC, to some degree help in preparing oil-in-water emulsions. An emulsion mud can be designed to have low viscosity, low weight and, at the same time, low fluid loss.

1st National Iranian Drilling Industry Congress.

Oil-in water emulsification requires use of an emulsifier to help create emulsions and maintain them after shearing ceases. Anionic-nonionic surfactants with an HLB number between 10 and 12 are effective oil-in-water emulsifiers. A good example is ethoxylated nonylphenol which is a commercial drilling mud emulsifier. Though effective at lower oil-water ratios, any slightly water-wet fine particle (clay, calcium carbonate, starch, CMC, et. ) would be effective in stabilizing an already created emulsion by improving the toughness of the interface. 4-Requirements and Properties for the Proposed System: A previous study for obtaining optimum formulation of glycol mud for Iranian oilfields was done by Tahmasbi and Samaei in 2006 [10]. The objective of the present study was further modification of their recommended formulation to optimize its density for drilling shaly reservoir sections in Marun oilfield. The Asmari formation in this field is composed of limestone-shale-marl sequences. Oilbased drilling fluids with a density of 58-62 PCF are used to drill this formation. Temperatures encountered are in the range of 210-220oF. 80-100 bbl/hr rates of mud loss to the formation are significant economic concern. National Iranian South Oil Co. (NISOC) was then interested in any cheaper inhibitive water-based alternative, with a density of 60 PCF and temperature stability up to 210oF, which can perform similar to the OBMs in this section. An emulsion glycol mud with a density of 60 PCF is a suitable replacement for OBMs in this section. The system was to be designed to withstand 16 hours of hot rolling at 220oF. Soda ash and caustic soda were used to control the hardness and adjust the pH in the range of 9 to 11. PAC R and calcium carbonate were the fluid loss controlling agents in the system. The rheology and low shear rate viscosity were adjusted by XC polymer. To reach the desired density, no NaCl salt was used in the formulation and the KCl concentration was decreased to the minimum acceptable levels required for effective inhibition in combination with glycol. Possible use of calcium carbonate was also restricted to minimum amounts required to control fluid loss. Small concentrations of fine calcium carbonate proved to be very efficient in reducing filtration rates. Also, calcium carbonate, to some extent, was effective in stabilizing the emulsion. Volumetric and mass balance relations were implemented to quantify the required amounts from each chemical. A 40/60 oil/water ratio could establish the desired density. Oil-in-water emulsions with this oil/water ratio require effective emulsifiers to remain stable at elevated temperatures, saline environment and long rolling time. Several commercial Drilling Mud Emulsifiers (DMEs) were tested for the stability of the mud system and the best was selected. Selected DME was capable to exhibit such property to be effective at low concentrations. Due to the low salt content of the system, it was difficult to engineer the cloud point. Also commercial DMEs are ethoxylated compounds which tend to shift the cloud point temperature. Presence of oil in the system is a further complication. In fact, above the cloud point, glycols tend to come out of solution and adhere to the oil droplet. To avoid all these complexities, a non-clouding glycol better fits the purpose as they are usually less expensive and the higher cost is not justified by the ability to engineer the cloud point. Glycols with no clouding behavior at all are also

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very effective in providing shale inhibition. Non-clouding polyethylene glycols are common glycol additive with good shale inhibition in combination with KCl. All mud samples in this study were prepared with a commercial polyethylene glycol. Subsequently, concentration of XC and PAC LV was optimized for optimum rheology and filtration rates. The system was called GLYMUL. Typical properties of the system are summarized in Table 1. These properties were measured after hot rolling the mud for 16 hours at 220oF. 5-Comparing GLYMUL System with OBMs: In order to evaluate the performance of GLYMUL, an oil-based mud with a density of 60 PCF was prepared. The properties of this mud were then to be compared with the GLYMUL. Typical properties for the OBM is reported in Tables 2. Readings were taken after 16 hours of hot rolling at 220oF. 5.1-Rheology: As concluded from the data in Tables 1 and 2, the rheology of oil-based mud is much preferred over the GLYMUL system. Lower plastic viscosity, apparent viscosity and yield point and higher gel strength values are favored for optimum hydraulics and sufficient hole cleaning. Though by decreasing the XC concentration one may improve the rheology of the GLYMUL mud, still the performance can not match the oil-based system. Introduction of solids into the GLYMUL system further increases the viscosity. High viscosities increase the frictional loss in the system and, consequently, pumping requirements. For oil-based muds, the effect of introduced solids is less pronounced. Overall, low shear rate performance of GLYMUL mud is comparable to the OBMs, though at higher rates OBMs are clearly preferred.

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Table 1: Typical Properties of GLYMUL Mud Table 2: Typical Properties of OBM

After Hot Rolling @ 220oF for 16 hrs PV (cp) YP (lbf/ 100 ft^2) Apparent Viscosity (cp) RPM6 (lbf/ 100 ft^2) RPM3 (lbf/ 100 ft^2) GEL10S (lbf/ 100 ft^2) GEL10MIN (lbf/ 100 ft^2) PH MW (PCF) API FL ( cc in 30 min) HTHP FL (cc in 30 min) 35 22 46 7 5 5 6 9.75 60 1.6 5.5 x 2 = 11 PV (cp) YP (lbf/ 100 ft^2) Apparent Viscosity (cp) RPM6 (lbf/ 100 ft^2) RPM3 (lbf/ 100 ft^2) GEL10S (lbf/ 100 ft^2) GEL10MIN (lbf/ 100 ft^2) ES (V) MW (PCF) HTHP FL (cc in 30 min)

After Hot Rolling @ 220oF for 16 hrs 17 11 22 6 5 7 9 430 60 1.8 x 2 = 3.6

5.2-Filtration Properties: With GLYMUL mud, PAC LV, calcium carbonate and emulsified oil droplets contribute to fluid loss control. Filtration rate is low as compared to other WBMs and filter cakes are thin and oily in appearance. OBMs on the other hand, have very low filtration rates which are achieved by special fluid loss control additives and capillary effects. Though acceptable for a typical water-based mud, the HTHP filtration volume of GLYMUL mud is more than double the volume obtained with OBM. 5.3-ShaleInhibition: Two different test procedures were used to evaluate the inhibitive properties of GLYMUL system as compared to similar OBMs. First procedure was a shale swelling test as required by NISOC. Shale wafers were aged with the system, possibly at elevated temperatures, and studied for their integrity and any apparent swelling after aging. Figure 3 shows the result of this test for a shale sample from Abteimur Oilfield, Well No. 37 at a depth of 2700 meters. As shown in Figure 3, wafers integrity was acceptable after exposure to both OBM and GLYMUL mud systems. Though the swelling was slightly higher with GLYMUL systems, GLYMUL seems to be as effective as OBM to inhibit shales.

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Figure 3: Shale Swelling Test

Second procedure was the API-recommended procedure for shale particle disintegration test. The shale recovery of the GLYMUL system was compared with an OBM of similar density and a blank emulsion with a density of 60 PCF. Among available core samples, shale from Maroon Oilfield well No. 281 was selected for the recovery test; it was recovered from a depth of 3782 meters. 20 grams of this shale was added to 350 cc of each of the GLYMUL, OBM and emulsion systems. After 24 hours of hot rolling at 2200F and 24 hours of static aging, recovered weight is reported as the weight percent of the original 20 gr. The result of this test is presented in Figure 4 from which one may conclude that the recovery of the GLYMUL system is comparable to the OBM.
100 98% 90% 80

Percent Recoverd Weight








Figure 4: Shale Particle Disintegration Test

5.4-WasteManagementandEnvironmentalAcceptability: Cuttings contaminated with the mud and their diesel content are environmental concerns upon disposal. Though no attempt was made to quantify their diesel content, cuttings exposed to GLYMUL system are much cleaner than those exposed to OBM (Figure 5). The continuous phase of the GLYMUL system is water and oil droplets are just in partial contact with water-wet cuttings. This reduces the possibility of a cutting contamination with emulsified diesel.

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Figure 5: Cuttings Contaminated with Mud

In order to dispose off the GLYMUL mud, its diesel content should be removed prior to discharge. A proper method should be implemented to break the emulsion. The diesel content of the mud is then separated by gravity. Various methods were tried to break the emulsion of the GLYMUL system. pH reduction and strong cationic compounds (AlCl3) failed to effectively break the emulsion in a reasonable time. Commercial demulsifiers were then tried to evaluate their efficiency. Figure 6 shows the result with one of these commercial demulsifiers. 6% vol/vol of the demulsifier was added to the GLYMUL mud sample. The diesel recovery was effectively complete after 24 hours. Based on the above discussions, demulsified GLYMUL and cuttings contaminated with this mud are both much safer for discharge than OBMs.

Figure 6: Treating the GLYMUL System for its Diesel Content

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5.5-Economics: One of the main advantages of OBMs is their possibility of reuse which will reduce the total fluid cost in drilling operations. However, OBMs are expensive to prepare and high initial cost becomes of special concern in areas where there is high risk of lost circulation. Initial cost of OBM systems is affected by diesel price which is affected by rising oil prices. Water on the other hand, is available at a much lower cost. In fact many WBMs are prepared at considerably low cost. Glycol muds are prepared at around 60% of the initial cost of OBMs. 6-Contamination Effects on the Performance of GLYMUL System: Contaminations considered in this study were solids (OCMA Clay), seawater, lime and acid gas (pH reduction). Mud samples were mixed with the contaminant and hot rolled for 16 hours at 2200F. Results are summarized in Table 3.
Table 3: Results for Contamination Test Contaminan ts Added to 350 cc Mud Sample PV (cp) YP (lbf/100ft^2) AV (cp) GEL10S (lbf/100ft^2) GEL10MIN (lbf/100ft^2) PH MW (PCF) API F.L.(cc in 30 Min.) No Contaminatio n 35 22 46 5 6 9.75 60 1.6 OCM A Clay (35gr) 45 39 64.5 10 30 8.5 63.5 1.2 Lim e (10.5 gr) 16 4 18 2 3 12.5 6 61.5 6.2

Seawater (10% vol.) 31 25 43.5 7 9 9.29 61 2.7

The net effect of dilution and introduction of ions into the solution determines the response of GLYMUL system to the seawater contamination. A reduction in plastic viscosity and apparent viscosity is caused by dilution whereas ion contamination, and consequent polymer flocculation, increases the yield point and gel strength values. Overall, the effect of seawater contamination on GLYMUL properties is not significant. Contamination with reactive solids (OCMA Clay) increases the plastic viscosity, yield point and gel strength value. Too much reactive solids in the system can contribute to progressive gels which significantly increase with time. There is a significant drop in the rheology of the GLYMUL mud system after contamination with lime. The net effect of flocculation and pH will determine the degree to which the mud is affected by lime contamination. In the present case the effect of pH is much more pronounced (Figure 7). Depending on temperature and rolling time, polymers fail to properly function in the system above a certain pH. Lime contamination can raise the pH well above this limit and cause the polymers to

1st National Iranian Drilling Industry Congress.

break. This in turn, decreases the plastic viscosity, yield point, gel strength values and apparent viscosity and increases the filtration rates. In order to evaluate the GLYMUL resistance to pH variations, pH of a number of samples was adjusted and the system was then rolled for 4 hours at 2200F. Figure 8 shows the effect of this pH variation on the rheology of the system. As one concludes from this figure, the system is quite resistant to pH variations in the range of 8 to 11. One may also conclude from Figure 7 that the GLYMUL system is quite resistant to contamination by acid gases.
pv YP App. Vis. RPM 3 G.S. 10 Sec.


PV & App. Vis. (cp), YP (lbf/100ft^2)




G.S. 10 Min.

40 6 30 4 20 2


0 8 8.62 9.17 10.33 pH 10.45 11.67 12.23

Figure 7: Effect of pH Variations on GLYMUL Rheology

Conclusions: An Emulsion glycol mud was designed with a density of 60 PCF. The system was stable after 16 hours of hot rolling at 220 deg. F. Ethoxylated DME and diesel content interfere with cloud point engineering in the system. Less expensive non-clouding polyethylene glycols in combination with KCl provide sufficient inhibition. There was considerable foam in the system, therefore it is recommended to use suitable antifoam. Compared with an oil-based mud with the same density, the rheology needs some modification which can be achieved by adjusting the XC polymer concentration in the system. Dispersed oil droplets and small concentrations of calcium carbonate will help further reduce the filtration rates controlled by PAC LV polymer. Compared to oilbased muds, filtration rates were higher. However, filtration volumes were acceptable for a typical water-based mud and filter cake was thin and oily. Shale inhibition of the system was comparable to oil-based muds. Based on the initial cost, the system offers more than 40% cost savings as compared to an oil-based mud with similar density. After treating the proposed system to separate its diesel content, the mud and contaminated cuttings are safe for discharge. Solid contamination results in high PV, YP, AV and progressive gels. The effect of seawater contamination on the properties is not significant. Lime contamination causes sudden drop in the rheological properties and increase in filtration rates

RPM 3, G.S. 10 Sec. & 10 Min. (lbf/100ft^2)

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which is due to an increase in pH causing the polymers not to function properly. The System is resistant to pH reduction brought about by acid gas contamination. Though the performance of GLYMUL does not match that of oil-based muds, it can replace them to meet environmental and economic requirements. The proposed drilling fluid system is suitable for drilling low pressure shale sections. The system can also replace oil-based muds as drill-in fluids to drill low pressure shaly reservoir sections.

References: 1) American Petroleum Institute, Recommended Practice Standard Procedure for Laboratory Testing Drilling Fluids, API Recommended Practice 131, 6th Edition, May 2000; 2) Aston M.S. and Elliot G. P., Water-Based Glycol Drilling Muds: Shale Inhibition Mechanisms, SPE 28818, Presented at the European Petroleum Conference Held in London, UK, 25-27 October 1994; 3) Bland R. G., Smith G.L. and Eagark Pasook, Low Salinity Polglycol WaterBased Drilling Fluids as Alternatives to Oil-Based Muds, SPE 29378, presented the SPE/IADC Drilling Conference held in Amsterdam, 28 February-2 March 1995; 4) Balnd R.G., Quality Control in Selecting Glycols as Alternatives to Oil-Based Drilling Fluid Systems, SPE 27141, Presented at the 2nd International Conference on HSE, Jakarta, Indonesia, 25-27 January 1994; 5) Brady M. E., Craster B., Getliff J. M. and Reid P. I., Highly Inhibitive, LowSalinity Glycol Water-Base Drilling Fluid for Shale Drilling In Environmentally Sensitive Locations, SPE 46618, Presented at SPE International Conference on HSE in Oil and Gas Exploration and Production, Caracas, Venezuela, Jnue 7-10, 1998; 6) Dareley H. C. H. and George R. Gray, Composition and Properties of Drilling and Completion Fluids, 5th Edition, Gulf Professional Publishing, Houston Texas, 1988; 7) Firman P. and Kahlweit M., Phase behavior of the ternary system H20 - oil polypropylene glycol (PPG), Journal of Colloid & Polymer Science, 264:936-942, 1986; 8) Lawhon P. Charles, Evans William M., Simpson Jay P., Laboratory Drilling Rate and Filtration Studies of Emulsion Drilling Fluids, SPE 1695-PA, Presented at SPE 3rd Conference on Drilling and Rock Mechanics, Austin Texas, Jan. 25-26, 1967; 9) MI-SWACO, GLYDRIL Brochure; 10) Tahmasbi K. and Samaei S. M., Possibility of Replacing Oil-Based Mud with the Environmentally Acceptable Water-Based Glycol Drilling Mud for the Iranian Fields, SPE 106419, To be Presented at SPE E&P Environmental and Safety Conference, Galveston, Texas, March 5-7, 2007; 11) Yan Jienian, Wang Fuhua and Jiang Guancheng, A Solid Emulsifier Used to Improve the Performance of Oil-in-Water Drilling Fluids, SPE 37267, Presented at the SPE International Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry, Houston TX, Feb. 18-21, 1997;