Electrical engineering is a field of engineering that generally deals with the study and application of electricity, electronics, and

electromagnetism. This field first became an identifiable occupation in the latter half of the 19th century after commercialization of the electric telegraph, the telephone, and electric power distribution and use. It now covers a wide range of subfields including electronics, digital computers, power engineering, telecommunications, control systems, RF engineering, and signal processing. Electrical engineering may include electronic engineering. Where a distinction is made, usually outside of the United States, electrical engineering is considered to deal with the problems associated with systems such as electric power transmission and electrical machines, whereas electronic engineering deals with the study of electronic systems including computers, communication systems, integrated circuits, and [1] radar. From a different point-of-view, electrical engineers are usually concerned with using electricity to transmit electric power, while electronic engineers are concerned with using electricity to process information. The subdisciplines can overlap, for example, in the growth of power electronics, and the study of behavior of large electrical grids under the control of digital computers and electronics. Power Power engineering deals with the generation, transmission and distribution of electricity as well as the design of a range of related devices. These includetransformers, electric generators, electric motors, high voltage engineering, and power electronics. In many regions of the world, governments maintain an electrical network called a power grid that connects a variety of generators together with users of their energy. Users purchase electrical energy from the grid, avoiding the costly exercise of having to generate their own. Power engineers may work on the design and maintenance of the power grid as well as the power systems that connect to it. Such systems are called on-grid power systems and may supply the grid with additional power, draw power from the grid or do both. Power engineers may also work on systems that do not connect to the grid, called off-grid power systems, which in some cases are preferable to on-grid systems. The future includes Satellite controlled power systems, with feedback in real time to prevent power surges and prevent blackouts. Electronics Electronic engineering involves the design and testing of electronic circuits that use the properties of components such as resistors, capacitors, inductors, diodesand transistors to achieve a particular functionality. The tuned circuit, which allows the user of a radio to filter out all but a single station, is just one example of such a circuit. Another example (of a pneumatic signal conditioner) is shown in the adjacent photograph. Prior to the second world war, the subject was commonly known as radio engineering and basically was restricted to aspects of communications and radar,commercial radio and early television. Later, in post war years, as consumer devices began to be developed, the field grew to include modern television, audio systems, computers and microprocessors. In the mid-to-late 1950s, the term radio engineering gradually gave way to the name electronic engineering. Before the invention of the integrated circuit in 1959, electronic circuits were constructed from discrete components that could be manipulated by humans. These discrete circuits consumed much space and power and were limited in speed, although they are still common in some applications. By

electrons. since the heat capacity differs according to whether or not constant volume or constant pressure is specified. and therefore depends on the temperature (see heat capacity for discussion of this phenomenon). or any other energy-changing processes. Usually. the heat capacity cannot be used define thermal energy unless it is done in such a way as to insure that only heat gain or loss (not work) make any changes in the internal energy of the system. latent energy). Macroscopically. and as potential and kinetic energy in normal modes of vibrations in intermolecular or crystal lattice vibrations. this vibrational part of the thermal energy is stored equally partitioned between potential energy of atomic vibration. into a small chip around the size of a coin. As noted. intermolecular interactions associated with phase changes that do not influence temperature (i.. It originates from the individually random. the thermal energy is the kinetic energy of a system's constituent particles. mainly transistors. Thermal energy is thus equally partitionedbetween all available quadratic degrees of freedom of the particles. and the nuclear binding energy that binds the sub-atomic particles of matter. and not been subjected to work input or output. in rotational states. molecules. the thermal energy of a system at a given temperature is related proportionally to its heat capacity. THERMODYNAMICS Uses of thermodynamics •enables one to derive relationships that quantitatively describe the nature of the conversion of energy from one form into another •can be used to predict the equilibrium state of a reactive mixture as well as the natural direction of change in a system not at equilibrium Thermal energy is the part of the total potential energy and kinetic energy of an object or sample of [1] matter that results in the system temperature. The internal energy of a system. namely forms of potential energy that do not influence temperature. includes other forms of energy in a thermodynamic system in addition to thermal energy. also often called the thermodynamic energy. this means constant volume heat capacity so . thermal energy is entirely kinetic energy. This quantity may be difficult to determine or even meaningless unless the system has attained its temperature only through cooling. integrated circuitspacked a large number—often millions—of tiny electrical components. motion of particles in a large ensemble. such as the chemical energy stored in its molecular structure and electronic configuration. the availability of any such degrees of freedom is a function of the energy in the system. or particles in plasmas. and kinetic energy of atomic vibration. these degrees of freedom may include pure translational motion in gases. due to quantum mechanical reasons. However. or disordered. This allowed for the powerfulcomputers and other electronic devices we see today. In ideal monatomic gases.contrast. In general. Microscopically. which may be atoms.e. In other substances in cases where some of thermal energy is stored in atomic vibration. or phase changes permitted.

can be neglected. under conditions of constant pressure. and when it is oxidized. although liquids also tend to evaporate at temperatures well below their boiling points. If the molecules in a solid increase their motion sufficiently. This is why sweating cools people down: as sweat evaporates. in engineering and other disciplines.that no work is done. when this is true. Since the molecules in a gas are moving more quickly than those in a liquid. or a property of a system. a gas has more energy. This change in energy is change in internal energy of a chemical reaction. Thermal Energy and Matter Thermal energy can bring about a change in the state of matter. thermal energy is process-dependent except in systems in which processes to change internal energy other than heating. as in a closed rigid container such as a bomb calorimeter. as some molecules will be moving fast enough to escape the liquid. it takes heat away from the body. its caloric content is similar (though not assessed in the same way as a hydrocarbon fuel — see food energy). unless all forms of work and chemical potential change in the system are zero or negligible. The internal energy change of a process is equal to the heat change if it is measured under conditions of constant volume. since the total thermal energy needed to warm a system to a given temperature depends on the path taken to attain the temperature. because pressure-volume work also releases or absorbs energy. A further increase will cause the liquid to boil and become a gas. Breaking or making of chemical bonds involves energy. Food is similar to hydrocarbon fuel and carbohydrate fuels. . in this case the enthalpy of formation). the measured heat change is not always equal to the internal energy change. Chemical energy is the potential of a chemical substance to undergo a transformation through a chemical reaction or. Examples include batteries and light bulbs. which may be either absorbed or evolved from a chemical system Energy that can be released (or absorbed) because of a reaction between a set of chemical substances is equal to the difference between the energy content of the products and the reactants. Another useful term is the heat of combustion. (The heat change at constant pressure is called theenthalpy change. Thermal energy is not a state function. as in reactions in vessels open to the atmosphere. it will melt to become a liquid. However. Thus. thermal energy and heat capacity may be a useful concept in the study of heat transfer in solids and liquids. Nevertheless. Chemical energy In chemistry. which is the energy released due to a combustion reaction and often applied in the study of fuels. and also the heat capacity of a system for such purposes must not include heat absorbed by any chemical reaction or process. to transform other chemical substances. Where is the internal energy of formation of the reactant molecules that can be calculated from the bond energies of the various chemical bonds of the molecules under consideration and is the internal energy of formation of the product molecules.

same is the case with digestion of food metabolized in a biological organism.. As it burns in the fireplace. Batteries. chemical energy. spatial transport. The dry wood is a store of chemical energy. Energy stored in the bonds of chemical compounds. and electrical energy can be converted to chemical energy through electrochemical reactions. and for chemical transformation an equation most often used is the Gibbs-Duhem equation. be it in the form of a chemical reaction. biomass. often in the form of heat. Molecules in our food are broken down into smaller pieces. and coal are examples of stored chemical energy. when an explosive goes off. The chemical energy in a battery can also supply electrical power by means of electrolysis. a chemical reaction will occur. The similar term chemical potential is used to indicate the potential of a substance to undergo a change of configuration.In chemical thermodynamics the term used for the chemical potential energy is chemical potential. particle exchange with a reservoir. This energy is released during digestion. This arrangement may be the result of chemical bonds within a molecule or otherwise. For example. Reactions that require an input of heat to proceed may store some of that energy as chemical energy in newly formed bonds. As an example. Such reactions are called exothermic. Chemical energy of a chemical substance can be transformed to other forms of energy by a chemical reaction. Chemical energy is released in a chemical reaction. chemical energy is released and converted to thermal energy (heat) and light energy. oxidation occurs almost instantly. and new compounds are created. Let's see one good example in the fire-place illustration below. Chemical potential energy is a form of potential energy related to the structural arrangement of atoms or molecules. when a fuel is burned the chemical energy is converted to heat. such reactions are called exothermic. When the bonds break or loosen. The chemical energy in food is converted by the body into mechanical energy and heat.. Chemical energy may be released during a chemical reaction. Green plants transform solar energy to chemical energy through the process known as photosynthesis. As the bonds between these atoms loosens or breaks. Food is also a good example of stored chemical energy. Chemical energy Chemical Energy is energy stored in the bonds of chemical compounds (atoms and molecules). petroleum. natural gas. chemical energy stored in it is transferred to the surroundings as thermal energy. often in the form of heat. sound energy and kinetic energy. . The chemical energy in coal is converted into electrical energy at a power plant.

and under-vessel maintenance. avoiding the emission of about 2. maintain and repair bodies. Wind. Chemical reaction causes that. and nuclear fuel cycle. Let's look at these types of energy in the diagram below:  You will notice that water. The others do not exist by themselves. which is stored and transported to our homes for use. called NON-RENEWABLE) With this in mind. Three main product lines support this capability: advanced reactor technologies.Our field services team provides outage management. and will run out one day. This is why some people call itGreen Energy Renewable energy includes Biomass. nuclear services. nuclear energy supplies 16% of the world's electricity. Some of them exist infinitely (never run out.In the example above. Renewable energy can be converted to electricity. it is a lot easier to lay any type of energy source in its' right place. The energy produced keeps us warm. Biomass  . we shall take a closer look at how renewable energy is converted into electricity. notice that new compounds are formed from the breakdown of other molecules or atoms. excellent economics.responsibly. and operational flexibility for better plant security Integrated fuel cycle offerings. in. and will not run out. Features & Benefits      Advanced performance reactor technologies with simpler designs for our customers . reliably and economically New evolution technology offers improved safety. Geothermal andSolar sources. A chemical reaction is involved in this breakdown. GE Hitachi has provided advanced and sophisticated technology for nuclear energy for over five decades. power uprates. the rest have finite amounts (they took millions of years to form.5 billion tons of carbon dioxide every year that would otherwise be generated by fossil fuel solutions. In this lesson. stability analysis and consulting services  What is renewable energy? Energy exists freely in nature. and makes us able to move about. wind. innovatively and seamlessly Outage Excellence . life extensions. more location options. inspections and advanced tooling Performance services .Capacity optimization. Energy in food is measured in kilocalories (or Calories). sun and biomass (vegetation) are all available naturally and were not formed. aligning proven core competencieswith key strategic partners reliably. Nuclear Energy Today. called RENEWABLE). Renewable energy resources are always available to be tapped. they were formed. such as supercritical pulverized coal. reliability improvements. Different foods store different amounts of energy. Hydro-power.

Electricity can also be generated from Biomass and stored to be used in homes. driven by heat energy from the Sun. The steam turns a number of blades in the turbine and generators. Wind turbines are usually sited on high hills and mountain ridges to take advantage of the prevailing winds. The moving air (wind) has huge amounts of kinetic energy. When the plants are cut or die. The electricity is sent through transmission and distribution lines to a substation. mostly for cooking and heating. the energy stored in biomass fuels came originally from the Sun. 3. then on to homes. and aquatic plants. 1. we will always have wood to burn. business and schools. Just like a windmill. there will be wind. and this can be transferred into electrical energy using wind turbines. wind energy turbines have been around for over 1000 years. The wind turns the blades. dried vegetation. which spin a shaft. Energy from the sun is transferred and stored in plants. As long as we continue to plant new trees to replace those cut down. Just as with the fossil fuels. It is such a widely utilized source of energy. This is burned to heat water in a boiler to release heat energy (steam). or if the wind speed is so high it would damage them.  Biomass fuels come from living things: wood products. Wood is a biomass fuel. which is sent to homes by cables Wind Power Wind is caused by huge convection currents in the Earth's atmosphere. The energy/power from the steam is directed to turbines with pipes 4. probably due to its low cost and indigenous nature. straw and other plant matter is delivered to the bunker 2. crop residues. which are made of coils and magnets. windmills have been used for pumping water or grinding grain. This memans as long as the sun shines. Wind turbines cannot work if there is no wind. Water power . wood chips. that it accounts for almost 15% of the world's total energy supply and as much as 35% in developing countries. From old Holland to farms in the United States. The charged magnetic feilds produce electricity. 5. which connects to a generator and makes electricity. Let's see this simple illustration of how biomass is used to generate electricity.

. where its' energy can be used to drive turbines and electricity generators. Hydroelectric power (HEP) schemes store water high up in dams. It returns to the surface as hot water and steam. The Dam is built to retain the water. Did you know. this stored energy is transferred to kinetic energy. which is regulated by a transformer. This can be transferred into useful energy in different ways. the fullest effect of the waters kinetic energy can be tapped. . As the water rushes down through pipes.. To build a dam there has to be valleys and rivers that flow all year round. The water has gravitational potential energy which is released when it falls. More electricity is produced if the water is more in the reservoir Sluice Gates: These can open and close to regulate the amount of water that is released into the pipes. Deep wells can be drilled and cold water pumped down. This will help with the building and success of the dam. This is then transported via cables to homes and factories.Moving water has kinetic energy. The force and high pressure in the water turns a series of shafts in a generator. This way. Let's see a good example of how water can be used to generate electricity. which turns electricity generators. Spinning shafts in the generator charges millions of coils and magnets to create electricity. The water runs through fractures in the rocks and is heated up. Geothermal In some places the rocks underground are hot. Hydropower is renewable energy source that doesn't cause global warming because it doesn't releases dangerous greenhouse gases. Potential energy in the retained water is transferred into kinetic energy by water flowing through the pipes with high speed.

and the heat is continuously produced by the earth. Solar power Solar power is energy from the sun. The water is heated by heat energy from the Sun and returns to the tank. A pump pushes cold water from a storage tank through pipes in the solar panel. Instead they heat up water directly. and even larger arrays are used to power satellites in orbit around Earth. Solar energy is considered as a serious source of energy for many years because of the vast amounts of energy that are made freely available. Solar panels do not generate electricity. Solar panels Solar panels are different to solar cells. if harnessed by modern technology.Geothermal energy is called a renewable energy source because the water is replenished by rainfall. there will be no life. You may have seen small solar cells on calculators. Larger arrays of solar cells are used to power road signs. Solar cells Solar cells are devices that convert light energy directly into electrical energy. "Solar" is the Latin word for "sun" and it's a powerful source of energy. . Without it. They are often located on the roofs of buildings where they can receive the most sunlight. Solar cells are also called photovoltaic cells.

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