University of Cape Town

CHE 4049 F
Project 3

Group O
Word Count: 19 320

[Type the abstract of the document here. The abstract is typically a short summary of the contents of the document. Type the abstract of the document here. The abstract is typically a short summary of the contents of the document.]

Contents
1 2 3 4 5 Executive Summary ............................................................................................. 1 Process description ............................................................................................. 3 Equipment list ...................................................................................................... 8 Utility Summary Table ........................................................................................ 11 Process Economic analysis ............................................................................... 13 5.1 5.2 5.3 6 7 8 Summary methods and assumptions used for profitability analysis ............ 13 Standard Profitability indicators summary ................................................... 14 Parameters affecting profitability ................................................................. 15

Environmental analysis ...................................................................................... 18 Discussion of profitability and environmental impact of the process .................. 19 Process Control Strategy ................................................................................... 20 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 Process control diagram ............................................................................. 24 Steady state strategy .................................................................................. 24 Start-up strategy.......................................................................................... 25 Shutdown strategy ...................................................................................... 25

9 10

Control Valve Specification ................................................................................ 26 Plant and Site Layout ..................................................................................... 27 Explanation of strategy ............................................................................ 30

10.1

Appendix A: Detailed Equipment Sizing and Costing ............................................... 31 Appendix A1-Pump sizing ..................................................................................... 31 Appendix A2- Pump Costing ................................................................................. 37 Appendix A3: Reboiler Sizing ............................................................................... 41 Appendix A4: Reboiler Costing ............................................................................. 45 Appendix A5 Condenser and Cooler Sizing and Costing...................................... 47 Appendix A6 Column Sizing ................................................................................. 78 Appendix A7 Column Costing ............................................................................... 84 Determining the cost of a vessel with no trays ...................................................... 84 Appendix A8 Vessel Sizing ................................................................................... 89 Appendix A9 Vessel Costing .................................................................................... 95 Appendix B: Detailed Utility Calculations and Analysis .......................................... 101 Appendix C: Detailed Profitability analysis ............................................................. 103 Appendix D: Detailed Environmental Calculations and Analysis ............................ 110

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Appendix E: Detailed Process Control Analysis ..................................................... 113 Control valve specification...................................................................................... 120

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. 78 Table 21: Gasoline Fractionator sizing calculations .............................. normal and maximum flow specifications ......... 14 Table 16: Shows the emissions associated with the plant operations . 86 Table 25: Summary table of calculations for the distillation cost . 7 Table 3: Equipment list describing the distillation units for the process ................................. 108 Table 33:Gross profit calculations for a 10 year period with inflation rate of 10 % ......... 36 Table 19: Detailed costing for the process pumps ... 120 iii .. 40 Table 20: Pre-distillation column sizing .............. 26 Table 18: Detailed sizing calculations for pumps ................................ 10 Table 9: Equipment list describing the details for the steam injectors ................................................................................................................. 12 Table 14: Summary table of electricity usage of the process ... 6 Table 2: Stream table for the benzene extraction process: (mol basis) ........................................................... 12 Table 15: Profitability indicators for the benzene extraction unit ..................................................... 94 Table 29: Balance Sheet for the benzene extraction process ................................................................... 80 Table 23:Stripper Column sizing calculations......................... 8 Table 4: Equipment list describing the distillation reflux drums for the process ........................................................ 107 Table 31:Variable Cost calculations associated with the process operations ............ 11 Table 12: MP steam utility summary table .............................. 109 Table 36:Control valve sizing calculation table .... 11 Table 11: HP steam utility summary table .................................................................................................................................... 79 Table 22: Extractive Distillation Column sizing calculations ..................................... 88 Table 26:Detailed calculations for process vessels .............. 9 Table 6: Equipment list describing pump details ................................... 119 Table 37:Utilities property table .............. 92 Table 27: Further calculations for process vessels ....................................................................................... 8 Table 5: Equipment list describing the storage tank details ............................................ 9 Table 7: Equipment list describing details for the heat exchanges ..................................Table of Tables Table 1: Stream table for the benzene extraction process: (mass basis) .................................................................................... 108 Table 32:Revenue generated for the operation .................................................................................................................................... 92 Table 28: Detailed breakdown of process reflux drums sizing .......... 108 Table 34: Discounted cash flow calculations for a 10 year period at a discount rate of 10% ............................................................................................................... 10 Table 10: Cooling water utility table .......... 11 Table 13: LP steam utility summary table............................................. 18 Table 17: Control valve specification summary table showing the minimum...................................................................... 81 Table 24: Summary table of variables needed for determining the cost for the distillation towers ................................................................ 109 Table 35:Profitability indicators summary table for a 5 and 10 year period ............... 107 Table 30:Fixed Cost associated with the plant operations .... 10 Table 8: Equipment list describing details for the heat exchanges (continued) ..........................................................................................................................................

..........Table of Figures Figure 1: PFD for the benzene extraction process.................................................................. 28 Figure 9: Side elevation for a distillation tower with pumps................................. 5 Figure 3: Shows the benzene extraction process control loops for Area 100 section A .............................................................................. plant area.......................... 23 Figure 7: Schematic of the site layout showing the tank farms............ The figure shows the two major units the pre-distillation and gasoline columns – Sheet 1 .................. 4 Figure 2: PFD for the benzene extraction process................. 29 Figure A6-1: Estimation chart for steam ejector (IPS...................................... The figure shows the two major units the EDC and solvent extraction units – Sheet 1................................................................................................................................................................................................. 20 Figure 4: Shows the benzene extraction process control loops for Area 100 section B ................................................... 22 Figure 6: Shows the benzene extraction process control loops for Area 100 section D .................................................................... office area and emergency systems location ........................................... 27 Figure 8: Plant layout for the benzene extraction unit showing the location of all the major equipment in the plant ................................................................................... 21 Figure 5: Shows the benzene extraction process control loops for Area 100 section C ............................................................................................................ reboilers and condensers ....................... 1993)……………… 82 iv ......................................

1 . a profitability analyses was done to evaluate the profitability of the project in the short and longterm. The first phase of the project was to synthesize a process based on such a technology and to produce a mass balance for the flow-sheet. The carbon dioxide emissions limit was referred to in the analysis to evaluate if the direct emissions from the process are within the required lawful limits. Safe unit operations and consistent product quality were the variables that were set to have control over by proposing a control strategy for the plant. A detailed drawing of the distillation column with its platforms. capital cost of tanks. Factors affecting profitability were also analysed to see their effect on the profitability of the project. The major profitability indicators for such an analysis were return on investment (ROI). In this phase. pipes and reflux drums. internal rate of return (IRR). A side elevation of the chosen section of the plant was drawn to indicate the key structures. Possible ways of disposing the purge solvent were also explored along with the implications of the proposed solutions on profitability and environmental protection legislature. The second phase involved simulating the proposed flow sheet and getting preliminary sizes for the equipment required to achieve the design specifications The current phase of the project involved estimating the equipment sizes and obtaining the cost of the equipment from the designed equipment. price of solvent and salaries. This was followed by control valve specifications to determine the size and type of control valves which can be used to carry out the control objectives. With the cost estimates. Net Present Value of the project (NPV) and payback period. From the above. Based on safety standards. The selected factors in order of effect were market price of benzene.1 Executive Summary Extractive distillation was proposed as the technology for reducing the benzene content in petrol. adequate maintenance space in between equipment and land usage optimisation. an environmental impact study of the process was made. This was largely based on design and costing heuristics. Environmental protection forms the cornerstone of every industrial process. Utility cost. stairway and man way access was included in the side elevation drawing to indicate how it fit in with the rest of the equipment. Possible solutions for minimizing their effect on profitability were explored. This was based on the direct carbon emissions from flaring vent gasses and indirect carbon emission from the use of utilities which are purchased from utility providers. These structures included platforms for heat exchangers. the site components were placed accordingly. A detailed site layout of the proposed plant was drawn to scale using the dimensions of the land available for the proposed plant. various scenarios on the project profitability were finalised. This was followed by a detailed plant layout to arrange the way in which equipment would be laid on site taking into consideration safety.

The results from the work indicate that the project won’t be profitable at the current price of benzene. Reduction of the operating costs however did not have a marked effect on profitability At the backdrop of this. it is recommended that a more cost effective option for benzene removal from petrol be explored. the price of benzene was forecast to remain stagnant for at least the coming 3 years. the high capital cost of the project means a longer payback period. In addition. 2 . Such an option can be the direct hydrogenation of the gasoline stream to saturate the benzene since the isolated benzene has no feasible economic value. The design team instead explored reducing operating costs by incorporating a steam boiler furnace and cooling water tower to lessen these costs. Based on the historical trends of benzene price.

%) is produced in the distillate at 64oC and is cooled down to 45oC and pumped to storage. 100-CO-02 which operates at 4. The product streams from this column are pumped to 10.35 bar. the raffinate (102oC). It is then sent back to extractive distillation. The core of the process is the extractive distillation unit which uses 4-formymorpholine solvent to separate the benzene from the non-aromatics. 8bar) are fed to the pre-distillation column (100-CO-01) to remove the higher boiling components before sending the benzene rich stream for extractive distillation. This heating is done using a heat exchanger which makes use of heat integration by using the solvent recycle stream.% benzene which agrees with the South African gasoline benzene specifications. is sent to storage.9wt. 100-CO-04 splits the C8s and C9s and operates at 1 bar. In heat exchanger 100-HX-01 the solvent is only cooled from 212oC to 136oC and so it is further cooled down to 40oC using cooler 100-HX-09 and then sent to extractive distillation column. In the distillate the C7s and C8s are retained and the heavies report to the bottoms. 100-CO-04. A 99% recovery of the C8 feed aromatics is required in this column. Because of the composition of the feedstock. The C7+ stream leaves the bottoms at 179oC and is sent to the fractionator. These two steams are first mixed and then preheated to 145oC before fed to the column. 3 . The pre-distillation column which operates at 4.6 bar. cooled to 45oC and sent to storage. 100-CO-03 operates at 0. the feed streams (Naphtha 182oC. The benzene rich stream from the pre-distillation column reports to the extractive distillation column. The solvent. 4formylmorpholine is introduced into the column and is at 4.35 bar is a C6/C7 splitter with C6 and lighter components reporting to the distillate and C7+ to the bottoms.005) and then recycled to heat exchanger 100HX-01 to preheat the feed stream.2 Process description The benzene extraction plant uses extractive distillation (ED) to remove benzene from the catalytic reformates and straight naphtha streams. Four product streams are produced from this process and the resulting gasoline stream contains less than 1vol. 9bar and C5+ gasoline 40oC.6bar and the pressure is kept at this point using a steam jet ejector. In this column benzene is stripped from the solvent and high purity benzene (99.5 bar. The solvent lowers the volatility of the benzene so that benzene together with solvent reports to the bottoms of the column. The bottoms which is rich in solvent and contains trace amounts of C5s and C6s is first purged (purge fraction 0. Thus the distillate contains the C5s and non-aromatic C6s and this stream. The solvent modifies the relative volatilities of the different components in the mixture. The benzene/solvent mixture is sent to the stripper (100-CO-03) for solvent recovery.

Rev 01 I J 9 A B C D E F G Figure 1: PFD for the benzene extraction process.A B 100-HX-01 PREDISTILLATION FEED PREHEATER C 100-CO-01 PREDISTILLATION COLUMN D E 100-HX-02 PREDISTILLATION CONDENSOR CW F 100-VE-01 PREDISTILLATION REFLUX DRUM G 100-CO-04 GASOLINE FRACTIONATOR COLUMN H I 100-HX-10 GASOLINE FRACTIONATOR CONDENSOR J 100-VE-04 GASOLINE FRACTIONATOR REFLUX DRUM 1 1 2 Solvent C5+ CR Gasoline 100-HX-02 14 5 2 To EDC 3 100-VE-01 3 1 15 CW 100-PP-01A/B 100-HX-10 4 4 3 4 100-VE-04 CW 100-PP-05A/B 5 22 23 100-HX-01 2 5 Naptha HPS 100-HX-03 6 16 100-CO-01 21 100-HX-12 100-TK-05 6 CW MPS 100-CO-04 7 17 25 26 100-HX-11 24 100-HX-13 100-PP-06A/B 100-TK-06 7 8 18 Solvent recycle 8 9 100-HX-03 PREDISTILLATION REBOILER 100-PP-01 A/B PREDISTILLATION REFLUX PUMP 100-HX-11 GASOLINE FRACTIONAT OR REBOILER 100-PP-05 A/B GASOLINE FRACTIONATOR REFLUX PUMP 100-PP-06 A/B GASOLINE FRACTIONATOR BOTTOMS PUMP 100-HX-12 AROMATICS GASOLINE COOLER 100-HX-13 HEAVY FEED AROMATICS COOLER 100-TK-05 AROMATIC GASOLINE STRORAGE TANK 100-TK-06 HEAVY FEED AROMATICS STRORAGE TANK Sheet: 01/02 Date: 05/2013 Drawn: Group O H PFD – BENZENE EXTRACTION AREA:100 REVISION No. The figure shows the two major units the pre-distillation and gasoline columns – Sheet 1 4 .

The figure shows the two major units the EDC and solvent extraction units – Sheet 1 5 .A 100-TK-01 SOLVENT MAKEUP STRORAGE TANK Solvent Recycle to mixer B 100-CO-02 EXTRACTIVE DISTILLATION COLUMN CW 17 C 100-HX-05 EXTRACTIVE DISTILLATION REBOILER D 100-HX-04 EXTRACTIVE DISTILLATION CONDENSOR CW E 100-VE-02 EXTRACTIVE DISTILLATION REFLUX DRUM F 100-PP-02A/B EXTRACTIVE DISTILLATION REFLUX PUMP G 100-CO-03 STRIPPER COLUMN H 100-HX-06 STRIPPER COLUMN CONDENSOR 1 I 100-VE-03 STRIPPER COLUMN REFLUX DRUM J 100-HX-08 BENZENE COOLER 1 2 2 100-HX-09 26 6 100-HX-04 100-TK-02 3 18 19 100-VE-02 CW 3 Steam Air 100-SE-01 4 100-TK-01 Stream 5 from 100CO-01 100-PP-02A/B 5 4 100-HX-06 100-VE-03 5 CW 8 9 5 HPS 100-HX-05 6 100-HX-08 100-CO-02 7 100-TK-03 100-PP-03A/B 6 HPS 7 100-CO-03 100-HX-07 11 10 12 100-TK-04 7 8 100-PP-04A/B 100-TK-02A/B PARAFFINIC RAFFINITE STRORAGE TANK 100-PP-03A/B STRIPPER COLUMN RELUX PUMP 13 100-TK-04 A/B/C/D/E SOLVENT PURGE STRORAGE TANK Recycle to heat exchanger 8 9 100-TK-03 BENZENE STRORAGE TANK 100-HX-09 LEAN SOLVENT HEATER 100-PP-04 A/B LEAN SOLVENT PUMP 100-HX-07 STRIPPER COLUMN REBOILER 9 Sheet: 02/02 Date: 05/2013 Drawn: Group O H PFD – BENZENE EXTRACTION AREA: 100 REVISION No. Rev 01 I J A B C D E F G Figure 2: PFD for the benzene extraction process.

00 0.02 0.00 0.999 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.09 0.03 0.00 0.29 4.06 0.00 0.00 123 0.90 10 8.00 0.10 0.09 0.00 0.00 0.44 4.00 0.60 1.10 0.00 0.00 0.44 4.08 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.45 0.00 0.00 0.06 0.00 4.00 0.3 2290 1610 0.00 0.00 0.07 0.00 0.00 0.82 0.06 18100 0.00 113 3570 18100 1910 7050 17.08 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.09 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.06 0.00 76.00 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.07 4.45 0.7 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.62 0.00 0.00 0.00 123 0.00 0.00 123 113 0.00 0.00 1.04 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.18 0.01 0.66 0.08 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.12 0.24 0.00 1 0.06 0.00 0.00 0.03 0.58 0.00 7050 0.06 0.00 0.00 1.23 23.00 0.10 88.00 0.05 0.12 0.00 0.00 1.07 0.00 0.1 674 936 3390 416 423 1 - 0.00 124 124 124 124 124 0.00 0.00 0.06 0.16 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 12 13 14 15 16 17 26 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 LIQUID LIQUID LIQUID LIQUID LIQUID LIQUID LIQUID LIQUID LIQUID LIQUID LIQUID LIQUID LIQUID LIQUID LIQUID 212 212 212 212 136 190 40 40 40 179 113 46 168 45 46 4.00 0.00 1970 2650 4630 4630 4630 4630 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.06 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.5 2 433 165 268 165 433 433 2 435 394 351 351 43 43 43 250 49700 18900 30800 18900 49700 49700 256 50000 40500 34700 34700 5860 5860 5860 3 684 260 424 260 684 585 3 588 1030 782 720 154 132 132 1 0.00 113 3570 18100 1910 7050 17.00 0.00 0.06 0.00 49600 0.00 1940 1940 1940 1940 1940 0.44 4.5 17.00 0.00 0.00 0.20 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.07 0.00 0.05 0.00 249 0.1 674 936 3390 416 423 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.23 23.20 0.00 0.29 12 11.00 1 0.00 0.00 0.00 30800 0.00 0.00 0.48 0.00 0.00 0.06 0.00 0.05 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.20 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.99 12 11.44 4.00 0.00 0.30 0.06 0.00 0.07 0.00 0.00 0.00 7.00 2.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.3 2290 1610 0.09 0.00 0.00 0.06 0.00 0.00 0.00 780 780 780 780 780 0.00 256 1 1 1 0.03 0.00 0.00 0.Table 1: Stream table for the benzene extraction process: (mass basis) State Temperature Pressure Molar flow Mass flow Volumetric flow Vapour fraction Liquid fraction Mass Flow CYCLOPENTANE 1-PENTENE 2-METHYL N-PENT N-HEX 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 7.00 0.01 0.00 0.45 0.00 1 0.03 0.00 46.10 0.00 0.40 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.02 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.58 0.00 0.00 0.04 0.01 0.7 0.00 5150 6110 11300 11300 11100 56 11200 11100 11100 123 123 1620 2730 4350 4350 785 781 4.999 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.99 1 0.12 0.00 0.5-HEXANE BENZENE N-HEPT TOLUENE N-OCTANE ETHYLBENZENE STYRENE O-XYLENE N-NONANE 1-METH-2 N-DECANE N-BUTBEN N-UNDECANE SOLVENT Mass Frac CYCLOPENTANE 1-PENTENE 2-METHYL N-PENT N-HEX 1.44 4.00 49900 49900 0.00 0.58 49900 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.07 0.00 0.5 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.04 0.00 0.11 0.58 0.00 0.00 0.04 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.02 0.59 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.19 4.29 4.00 0.00 0.00 49600 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.30 0.00 423 423 423 423 423 0.07 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.59 4.00 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.17 0.00 0.00 0.00 1 0.00 0.00 0.16 0.00 0.00 0.03 0.50 1.00 0.00 0.02 0.03 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.07 1 0.23 23.00 0.01 0.19 0.00 0.99 1 0.00 0.00 0.07 4.04 0.00 18800 0.07 0.45 0.00 0.02 0.00 7050 7050 7050 17.00 1 0.00 0.5 17.04 0.00 0.00 0.20 0.00 1910 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.06 0.08 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.07 0.00 13900 4210 18100 18100 1.01 0.01 0.16 0.52 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.02 0.38 0.04 0.08 0.00 2280 936 3390 416 423 49900 0.10 7.44 4.00 0.5 1820 1910 1910 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.16 0.04 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.44 4.01 0.00 2310 0.02 1.01 0.00 2.90 4.00 0.00 0.00 0.5 0.04 0.18 0.07 0.00 0.00 1 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.13 8.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.50 7.00 0.00 17.1 674 936 3390 416 423 0.00 49600 0.44 4.00 0.00 0.00 0.3 0.00 7.00 0.5-HEXANE BENZENE N-HEPT TOLUENE N-OCTANE ETHYLBENZENE STYRENE O-XYLENE N-NONANE 1-METH-2 N-DECANE N-BUTBEN N-UNDECANE SOLVENT 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 UNITS LIQUID LIQUID LIQUID LIQUID LIQUID LIQUID LIQUID LIQUID LIQUID LIQUID LIQUID °C 182 40 126 145 114 102 186 45 45 212 212 atm 8.00 0.00 18800 0.68 0.00 0.00 0.00 46.00 0.15 0.68 0.00 0.00 0.05 0.52 0.07 1 0.00 0.02 0.00 3570 7.00 0.12 0.00 123 0.01 0.04 0.09 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.07 0.44 4.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.03 0.00 0.5 2310 2310 2310 670 1610 2280 2280 936 936 936 967 2420 3390 3390 416 416 416 423 423 423 6.00 0.22 0.00 0.00 0.02 0.18 0.54 0.12 0.00 - 6 .00 0.00 0.44 kmol/hr 386 271 657 657 263 121 577 142 142 435 435 kg/hr 35300 26000 61300 61300 20700 9620 61100 11100 11100 50000 50000 L/min 922 574 1480 1530 523 279 929 217 217 687 687 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 kg/hr 881 881 881 881 881 0.

00 0.00 0.00 0.18 0.04 0.29 0.00 0.00 0.79 23.4 0.50 144 43.00 0.02 0.7 1.00 431 0.00 0.00 0.00 164 0.00 0.00 0.8 53.2 45.8 7.00 1.6 197 16.22 0.00 0.86 10.12 0.00 0.00 0.8 17.02 0.03 0.00 0.78 66.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.10 2.03 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.8 53.00 0.00 0.00 0.07 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.06 0.00 0.20 0.00 0.00 0.8 78.00 0.00 0.00 0.86 10.00 0.07 0.00 1.00 0.04 0.04 0.00 0.06 0.5-HEXANE BENZENE N-HEPT TOLUENE N-OCTANE ETHYLBENZENE STYRENE O-XYLENE N-NONANE 1-METH-2 N-DECANE N-BUTBEN N-UNDECANE SOLVENT kmol/hr 12.00 0.05 0.01 0.10 2.71 0.00 0.07 0.00 0.5 0.00 433 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.22 6.00 0.0 3.01 0.00 0.00 0.50 143 7.00 0.7 1.01 0.04 0.00 0.00 0.7 1.8 0.10 0.79 23.08 0.07 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 1.80 0.08 0.00 12.7 15.00 1.26 7.00 0.00 0.86 10.71 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 26 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 21.19 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.07 0.00 0.44 35.00 0.00 0.00 0.6 7.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.26 7.01 0.00 0.00 1.18 0.6 27.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.10 2.08 0.8 3.00 0.00 0.05 0.00 0.17 0.00 0.00 0.6 5.00 0.4 197 16.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.57 0.00 1.58 0.00 0.01 0.6 5.08 0.00 0.04 0.00 0.09 0.07 0.9 12.00 0.00 0.00 0.22 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.17 0.22 5.12 0.00 0.00 0.09 0.00 0.00 0.71 12.00 1.54 0.00 0.17 21.00 0.02 0.00 0.01 0.05 0.00 1.6 27.00 142 0.86 10.00 433 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.02 0.10 0.02 0.8 17.00 0.6 197 16.00 144 0.00 0.56 0.6 12.00 0.00 0.00 0.06 0.08 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.00 1.79 23.00 0.00 0.00 0.03 0.8 3.00 0.00 0.75 12.17 21.00 0.00 0.17 21.22 0.71 0.00 433 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 431 0.00 0.00 0.04 0.00 0.10 2.00 0.00 0.00 0.57 0.5-HEXANE BENZENE N-HEPT TOLUENE N-OCTANE ETHYLBENZENE STYRENE O-XYLENE N-NONANE 1-METH-2 N-DECANE N-BUTBEN N-UNDECANE SOLVENT Mole Frac CYCLOPENTANE 1-PENTENE 2-METHYL N-PENT N-HEX 1.50 144 43.00 0.79 23.8 53.4 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.97 0.17 21.00 433 0.00 0.00 0.02 0.71 0.8 3.00 0.08 0.00 0.86 22.56 0.39 0.8 7.06 0.00 164 0.06 0.00 0.50 0.00 0.2 27.Table 2: Stream table for the benzene extraction process: (mol basis) 1 Mole Flow CYCLOPENTANE 1-PENTENE 2-METHYL N-PENT N-HEX 1.00 0.01 0.00 0.23 0.00 0.00 0.05 0.56 0.00 0.00 1.26 7.03 0.06 0.10 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.04 0.7 66.00 0.00 0.00 0.11 0.8 30.00 0.00 0.5 0.6 197 16.03 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.45 0.00 0.10 0.9 1.01 7 .79 17.79 23.79 23.00 0.17 21.00 0.08 0.00 0.00 0.57 0.02 0.30 0.2 151 0.00 0.00 0.05 0.00 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.8 3.00 0.06 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.72 7.50 0.7 66.18 0.10 2.00 0.00 0.17 5.00 0.6 5.00 0.8 17.00 1.02 0.4 197 16.04 0.05 0.22 5.4 0.56 0.06 0.00 0.03 0.00 0.8 3.50 65.00 267 0.25 0.00 0.7 66.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.60 0.8 3.00 0.00 1.10 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.60 0.6 5.01 0.00 0.10 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.80 2.09 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.03 0.6 5.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.17 0.6 12.06 10.8 53.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.03 0.00 2 0.30 0.00 0.22 5.00 0.04 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.12 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.8 7.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.06 0.44 35.7 1.7 66.06 0.00 0.04 0.6 27.00 0.9 16.05 0.00 0.04 0.11 0.00 0.6 27.00 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.02 0.00 142 0.58 0.00 0.08 0.00 0.56 0.6 27.00 0.00 0 0.00 0.00 0.7 66.00 0.00 0.04 0.71 0.71 0.00 0.4 0.00 0.00 0.03 0.00 1.57 0.10 2.00 0.44 35.00 431 0.03 0.4 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.8 12.00 0.04 0.19 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.4 0.06 0.00 0.10 0.00 0.00 2.00 0.00 0.17 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.03 0.00 0.08 0.00 0.00 0.

3 Equipment list Table 3: Equipment list describing the distillation units for the process 100-CO-01 100-CO-02 100-CO-03 100-CO-04 preextractive Stripper Fractionat Description distillation distillation column or column column column Quantity 1 1 1 1 Height m 37.77 1.75 2.58 4.45 1.76 3.54 3.64 1018 Mild (low carbon) Steel MoC 8 .22 o Design Temperature 139 C Design Pressure barg 7. of 58 51 14 55 trays MoC 1018 Mild (low carbon) Steel Table 4: Equipment list describing the distillation reflux drums for the process Equipment Code Description 100-VE-01 100-VE-02 100-VE-03 100-VE-04 Extractive Fractionato Stripper distillation r reflux reflux drum reflux drum drum 1 1 1 Horizontal Horizontal Horizontal 4.76 4.4 Internals Tray/Pack tray tray tray tray Type sieve sieve sieve sieve No.37 1018 Mild (low carbon) Steel 1018 Mild (low carbon) Steel 1018 Mild (low carbon) Steel Equipment Code Predistillation reflux drum Quantity 1 Orientation Vert/Horiz Horizontal Length/Height m 6.8 33.47 2.56 2.75 7.4 36 Diameter m 2.9 o Design Temperature 204 212 240 193 C Design Pressure barg 7.68 6.15 127 89 138 7.6 11.98 4.53 1.65 Diameter m 2.

9 50 22.5 18.7 9.8 100-PP-05 100-PP-06 Heavies Fractionator product reflux pump pump 1 1 Centrifugal.8 21.8 240 Design Pressure bar 7.8 12L14 free 12L14 free 12L14 free machining machining machining steel steel steel 9 .35 12L14 12L14 free 12L14 free free machining machining machining steel steel steel 100-PP-01 100-PP-04 Solvent recycle pump 1 Centrifugal.5 10.12 3. Centrifugal. Single Single Stage Stage Stage 188 60.5 73.6 17.6 13.3 Diameter m 16.Table 5: Equipment list describing the storage tank details Equipment Code 100-TK-01 100-TK-02 100-TK-03 100-TK-04 100-TK-05 Solvent Solvent Benzene Gasoline Raffinate purge Description make-up storage storage storage storage tank tank tank tank Quantity 1 2 1 5 1 Orientation Vert/Hori Vertical Vertical Vertical Vertical Vertical Cylindrical Cylindrical Cylindrical with with with Tank Type Cylindrical Cylindrical floating floating floating head head head Height m 12.7 26 20.2 19.3 2. Single .5 22 71.7 7. Single Stage 45.35 2.7 6290 SA285 Table 6: Equipment list describing pump details Equipment Code Description Quantity Type Capacity/Flow rate Head Efficiency Power NPSH available MoC m /h m % kW m 3 100-PP-02 100-PP-03 Benzene pre-distillation EDC reflux product reflux pump pump pump 1 1 1 Centrifugal Centrifugal Centrifugal.6 16. . Single Single Stage Stage 169 10.3 14.8 3 Tank volume 2780 5980 10400 6210 3270 m Materials of construction SA285 SA285 SA285 SA285 SA285 100-TK-06 Heavies storage tank 1 Vertical Cylindrical 16.6 3.7 Design Temperature °C 65 70 70 70.4 14.9 71 65 63 29 58.2 4.4 4.25 4.2 181 210 73 35 84.2 65 60.6 403 38.8 4.

6 138/70 1018 Mild (low carbon) Steel 53.32 12400 4.75/8.8/4.75/8.3 118 4.6 kg/h 18.2 0.52 1.2 Utility conditions Type LPS Supply pressure bar 4.4 279/193 1018 Mild (low carbon) Steel 194 1.37 4950 7.6 219/70 1018 Mild (low carbon) Steel 100-HX-12 100-HX-13 fractionator fractionator Fractionator Fractionator distillate bottoms reboiler condenser cooler cooler 1 1 1 1 shell and tube shell and tube shell and tube double pipe 335 1.7 58 283 274 m area Shell diameter m 1.07 1.4/8.Table 7: Equipment list describing details for the heat exchanges Equipment Code Description 100-HX-01 feed preheater 100-HX-02 100-HX-03 100-HX-04 EDC condenser 100-HX-05 EDC reboiler 100-HX-06 Stripper condenser pre-distillation pre-distillation condenser reboiler Quantity 1 1 1 1 1 1 Type shell and tube shell and tube shell and tube shell and tube shell and tube shell and tube Heat transfer 2 122 176 381.4/8.75/8.37 Duty KW 6020 Des bar/bar 45.75 7.75 7.83 0.3 0.8/7.6 89/70 100-HX-09 recycle solvent trim cooler 1 shell and tube 192 1.9 1.6 45.65 4/8.8/7.6 45.6 138/70 1018 Mild (low carbon) Steel 12.2 0.9 1460 14/8.52 Duty KW 862 11 400 12000 3140 8900 6 050 Des bar/bar 7.46 Supply temperatureoC 156 MoC SST 316 10 .6 193/70 1018 Mild (low carbon) Steel 100-HX-10 100-HX-10 Quantity 1 Type shell and tube Heat transfer 191 m2 area Shell diameter m 1.8/4 P:Shell/Tube Des o o 279/240 C/ C T:Shell/Tube MoC 1018 Mild 1018 Mild (low (low carbon) carbon) Steel Steel Table 9: Equipment list describing the details for the steam injectors Equipment Code Quantity Type Suction pressure Air-in leakage 100-SE-01 1 K Single stage ejector bar 0.22 1.75/7.3 532 14/8.6 P:Shell/Tube Des o o 171/237 139/70 279/205 126/70 279/211 89/70 C/ C T:Shell/Tube 1018 Mild 1018 Mild 1018 Mild 1018 Mild 1018 Mild 1018 Mild MoC (low carbon) (low carbon) (low carbon) (low carbon) (low carbon) (low carbon) Steel Steel Steel Steel Steel Steel Table 8: Equipment list describing details for the heat exchanges (continued) Equipment Code Description 100-HX-07 Stripper reboiler 100-HX-08 Benzene stream cooler 1 double pipe 8.68 10600 45.

4 Utility Summary Table Table 10: Cooling water utility table Equipment code 100-CO-01 100-CO-02 100-CO-03 100-CO-04 100-HX-09 100-HX-12 100-HX-13 100-HX-08 Equipment description Pre-distillation condenser EDC condenser Stripper condenser Fractionator condenser Solvent trim cooler Fractionator distillate cooler Fractionator bottoms cooler Stripper distillate cooler Duty KW 11425 3140 6052 12419 4950 1464 532 118 Utility usage kg/h 655354 180115 347151 712371 283939 83977 30516 6769 Table 11: HP steam utility summary table Equipment code 100-HX-07 100-HX-03 100-HX-05 Equipment description Stripper reboiler Pre distillation reboiler EDC reboiler Duty KW 6024 12013 8902 Utility usage kg/hr 12645 25217 18686 Table 12: MP steam utility summary table Equipment code 100-HX-10 Equipment description Fractionator reboiler Duty KW 10548 Utility usage kg/hr 19034 11 .

12 22.6 12 .9 58.Table 13: LP steam utility summary table Equipment code 100-SE-01 Equipment description Single stage steam ejector Duty KW 11 Utility usage kg/hr 19 Table 14: Summary table of electricity usage of the process Equipment code 100-PP-01 A/B 100-PP-02 A/B 100-PP-03 A/B 100-PP-04 A/B 100-PP-05 A/B 100-PP-06 A/B Equipment description Pre-distillation reflux pump EDC Reflux pump Benzene product pump Stripper bottoms pump Gasoline reflux pump Gasoline bottoms pump Duty KW 27.2 84.5 10.7 9.

for 330 days of the year. The plant would operate for 24 hours.1% of labour cost). The average salary for each employee was determined using www. FC = Lang Factor*(∑ P Calculations of Operating Expenses The operating expenses were calculated from the fixed cost and variable cost.4% of labour cost). The variable cost was made up of raw material cost and utility cost. employee relations overheads (5. Depreciation = (Cost price of equipment – scrap vale)/ (life span of unit) The net profit is then calculated using equation 5 using a tax rate of 28% Net profit = (Gross profit – depreciation)*(1-tax rate) [5] 13 [4] . and general business overhead (7. Using the revenue and operating expenses the gross profit before depreciation is determined.018 US$/kg of LP and HP steam and 0. It was assumed that the plant would purchase raw materials C5 feed. Gross profit = Revenue –Expenses [3] )*Delivery factor [2] The depreciation was determined for a 10 year period using the straight line method. Revenue and Net profit calculations The Revenue is obtained by selling the gasoline and benzene at 1 062 US $/ton and 1 500 US $/ton respectively.134 US$/kWH for electricity. and solvent at 1 062 US$/ton for C5 and Naphtha and 3 000 US $/ton for the solvent. 0. 0.com. Naphtha feed.345 US$/kg for cooling water. The general operating overhead cost was made up of general plant overheads (7. It was further assumed that the cost of delivery would account for 15% of the total cost of the equipment.5 Process Economic analysis 5. The utilities needed will also be purchased at 0.9% of labour cost). annual plant maintenance cost.1 Summary methods and assumptions used for profitability analysis Calculation of the Total Capital The total capital was calculated using the fixed capital and working capital. The fixed cost was made up of labour cost. Total capital = Fixed capital cost + Working capital [1] The fixed capital cost was estimated from the total purchase cost of all major equipment using Lang Factors for a continuous fluid process. 7 days a week. and general operating overhead cost. The plant will employ a total of 12 technical staff that will operate over 2 shifts.0166 for MP steam. The working capital was assumed to cover two months of the operating expenses and the capital required for a once-off purchase of 50 tons of solvent for the recycle.payrole.

The NPV for the first 5 and 10 years of the operation are both negative. 14 . The ROI indicates that for the selling price of benzene the project will run at a loss of 15.6 -4.77 -$212 504 096 5.15 From the data it is seen that the project will not be profitable over the next 10 years.2 Standard Profitability indicators summary The profitability indicators are used to decide if an investment is a worthwhile venture. The NPV also becomes more negative as the time period increases indicating that the project will continue to operate at a loss as the operating time increases.5 -6. This indicates that the project will not be profitable over the next 10 years. The IRR has no meaning in this case as there will be no discount rate at which the project will break even since the project will continually operate at a loss.6% for the next 10 years on the original investment.5. The payback period for the first 5 and 10 years are negative indicating that the project will not be able to pay back the original investment. The following indicators where used to assess the benzene extraction unit at the current selling price of benzene of 1500 US$/ton over a 5 and 10 year periods tabulated below.37 -$317 282 232 5.5% for the first 5 year and 23. Table 15: Profitability indicators for the benzene extraction unit Period in years ROI (%) Payback Period (Years) NPV ($) IRR (%) Minimum Payback period 5 -15.15 10 -23.

To improve the profitability of the process with regards to this parameter. have been discussed below. This fluidity in the benzene price makes it an important parameter in profitability. Heat integration was applied to the pre-distillation feed heater to reduce the amount of steam requirements. Price of utilities Utility costs are the major operating costs in the process. This option will be profitable in the long term since the price of natural gas is low compared to the purchase price of steam from utilities providers. The five most important parameters namely. This means that the income for this plant is solely dependent on the benzene price. It should also be noted that there were no feed pre-heaters to the other columns which reduced the utility requirements and reduced the number of 15 . prices of benzene and utilities. It also happens that a firm demand of benzene on the market due to downturn in supply tends to produce favourable benzene prices. The most important of these is the cost of the steam since it is about 95% of the overall utilities with an absolute value of about 9million dollars. Since there were no other sections on the plant that required heating the heat integration was on applied to this section of this plant. Market price of benzene The process of benzene extraction from gasoline does not add value to the gasoline itself. As such these variable costs are cancelled out so that steam becomes the important of the variable costs and thus has a direct impact on profitability. coolers and condensers can be replaced with fin fan coolers which are cheaper to operate. the capital cost of tanks and salaries. Utilities include cooling water and heating steam which are purchased from utilities provider.3 Parameters affecting profitability The profitability of the process will be affected by a number of factors. The benzene can be hydrogenated to produce compounds with a higher market value. Alternatively the plant could consider having its own cooling tower for cooling water utility and a furnace for generating its own steam. To minimize costs related to utilities. As such the buying price of the gasoline fed into the process is the same as the selling price of the gasoline produced by the process. If the price is low the plant incurs losses to operate but an increase in the price results in profits. Other uses of benzene such as its use in the production of styrene or cumene can be investigated. solvent. This will obviously require more units to be installed on the plant as such a further economic evaluation will need to be done. the elasticity of demand and supply of benzene on the market can be monitored and the plant run in times that align with low supply.5. From the profitability analysis it was seen that the current price of $1500/ton results in an unfavourable operation but with an increase in the price to $2000/ton the payback period becomes less than 3 years with a breakeven point of $1825. It should be noted that the buying price of the other raw materials (feed streams) which makes up the other variable costs is the same as the selling price of the product.

The feed stage for the columns could also be investigated because different column specifications might reduce the reboiler and condenser duties. To reduce the cost related to purchasing the makeup solvent. A smaller purge also means that there a smaller heat exchanger is required to cool the purge and in turn a decrease in the cooling water required. Tanks The tanks are used in the process for storing gasoline. The solvent can be regenerated on/offsite for later use. raffinate. The plant could consider the use of lower purity benzene (97-98wt %) instead of the traditional high purity benzene and this would lower the steam required for the columns. With tanks 16 . heavy aromatics and the benzene extracted. This make up solvent constitute a raw material to the process and it also expensive ($3000/ton). a makeup stream of solvent is required. It could also be incinerated but this means producing NOx gases and thus NOx scrubbers will need to be installed. The existing plant which produced a gasoline stream contaminated in benzene had storage tanks for storing it.005. This reduced the required solvent make up from 5000kg/h to 250kg/h.heat exchangers and therefore the capital cost. The solvent tanks also decrease in size which means lower tanks capital costs. 2005). This also reduced the carbon footprint of the plant and in turn reduced the carbon tax. This option has the advantage of benefiting in terms of emission reductions and this is further discussed in section 6 of the report. To note also is the fact that there is a once off 50000kg of solvent that must be purchased and this affects the payback period. To this effect the purge fraction was reduced from the original 0. it was assumed that the existing tanks would be used as intermediate storage before the feeds are sent to the proposed benzene extraction plant. This means the flow of solvent fed into the process impacts the cost of the raw materials and in turn the profitability. As such lower flow rates of the solvent will improve profitability. To decrease the payback period of the project.1 to 0. it is required to meet the design specifications at the minimum capital costs. the handling of the spent solvent must also be considered. However this will also affect the capital costs as regeneration infrastructure will need to be purchased. Solvent Solvent is continuously required for the running of the process since spent solvent is purged in the process. This may result in an economic advantage of 30-40% (Netzer. This also increases the capital costs of the plant which affects payback period of the plant. To maintain a constant solvent recirculation rate. This also meant that the amount of solvent lost was reduced. With the proposed benzene extraction plant. This then meant the benzene extraction plant had to have its own storage tanks for the gasoline product in addition to the tank for storing the benzene extracted from the process.

Alternatively the hold-up time of the tanks could be reduced from 30 days to 15 days. This contribution to the operating costs is dependent on the number of people employed on the plant. Of the operating costs. workers from the existing plant can be employed on the new plant. To reduce the cost of salaries. 17 .accounting for 80% of the total capital cost for the project. a sensible option would be not to use the existing tanks as intermediate storage tanks but for storing the gasoline and benzene products from the plant. salaries contribute the most. This would reduce the number of tanks required for the benzene extraction plant and thus the capital investment required. This has the potential to decrease the tanks’ cost by approximately 50%. Alternatively. This will reduce the capital costs of the tanks by a maximum of 50%. This will result in fewer operators per unit. The floating heads for gasoline tanks could be replaced with air blankets. a section of the process can be automated. This will be cheap in that the salary increase due to the increased work load will be smaller as compared to employing people dedicated to working only within the new plant. Salaries Salaries contribute to the total operating costs.

This will increase the required capital cost. Exceeding the quota carries a charge of R120 per ton (Department of national treasury.6 Environmental analysis Table 16: Shows the emissions associated with the plant operations Emissions Indirect Electricity consumption fin fans Steam consumption Direct Flaring* Electricity consumption pumps Total *Depends on the frequency of the pressure relief trip.013 11.83 178 304 2 3314 SO2 Mtons/year 21.9 0 0 0. In addition.6 The biggest carbon dioxide emissions are from cooling water utilities followed by flaring and steam consumption. Impacts on profitability All options considered for disposing the spent solvent incur costs. Other emissions Purge solvent is also an emission from the process.6 0 0 0. Potential changes to process Disposing the spent solvent through incineration may require NO X scrubbers to bring the NOX emissions to the minimum levels. it will also increase the operating costs for the process. 2012). One possible solution for reducing carbon footprint is to operate the distillation columns at atmospheric pressure. Legal limits and waste disposal Currently no legal limit exists for carbon dioxide emissions.9 NOx Mtons/year 11. In handling the purge solvent it is proposed to incinerate it to recover energy from it. this solution carries a penalty for increased NOX emissions from the process. Carbon tax threshold for petroleum industries is predicted to be 70% of the total emissions. Approved companies have to be contracted to dispose the waste on the user’s behalf.01 21.  18 . However. Alternatively the solvent can be regenerated offsite and re-used again in the process as make up.  The legislation is very strict concerning the disposal of industrial waste. CO2 Mtons/year 2.

the ability of refineries to supply the required benzene is questionable as more countries are looking at renewables instead of crude oil.6 Mton/year NOx. These gases are vented into the atmosphere and are responsible for global warming and acid rain which causes water pollution and many other environmental phenomena. 2013).395/ton. A study of the benzene market shows that the market is very unstable and highly dependent on the supply and demand for benzene. With more big refineries soon to follow. It is therefore recommended that a more detailed market analysis and design analysis be done before considering to take the project further.5 billion over the next five years to extract benzene (Creamer. The benzene extraction unit produces 3 314 Mton/year CO2. In evaluation of the benzene market it is seen that the operation will continue to operate at a loss. 19 . the supply from South Africa will be large and could potentially create a surplus of benzene flooding the market. However.9 Mton/ year SO2 and 11. the proposed benzene extraction unit requires the price of benzene to be $1. 21.825 to break even (IHS Media . The benzene price has recently reached an all-time high of $1440/ton and is now stabilising at around $13801.7 Discussion of profitability and environmental impact of the process The South African government has recently launched its clean fuels initiative to reduce the percentage of benzene in liquid petroleum. with the new South African clean fuels policy more South African refineries will look into the benzene market to cover the cost of the benzene extraction units. BP South Africa has just announced plans to invest R 5. However. In 2011 the world demand was estimated as 42 million tons. This will most likely decrease the supply resulting in an increase in the cost of benzene. 2012). However. However more investigation is needed to decrease the emissions from the process which will result in increased cost. The extraction of benzene is needed according to the clean fuels initiative. The demand for benzene is expected to increase as the Chinese market grows. with the biggest buyers being the Asian and European countries. This could decrease the price of benzene resulting in a greater loss for our current benzene operation.

8 Process Control Strategy From Solvent Recycle to heat exchanger PIC 103 13 CW 100-VL-05 C5+ Catalytic Reforming Gasoline 100-VL-01 PT 103 14 100-HX-02 100-VL-12 100-VL-07 100-VE-01 100-VL-13 LT 104 LIC 104 FIC 101 100-VL-03 FT 101 TIC 104 FT 105 100-PP-01A/B 100-VL-08 1 TT 101 3 4 RC 102 FT 104 FT 106 5 TO EDC 2 FT 102 FIC 102 100-HX-01 RC 101 FT 103 100-VL-09 100-VL-02 Naphtha 100-VL-10 LT 103 LIC 103 HPS 100-VL-04 100-HX-03 100-CO-01 20 100-VL-11 15 16 To Gasoline Fractionator From recycle level valve 100-VL-06 17 To recycle Sheet: 01/04 Date: 05/2013 Drawn: Group O PFD CONTROL– BENZENE EXTRACTION AREA: 100 SECTION A Figure 3: Shows the benzene extraction process control loops for Area 100 section A 20 .

CW 100-VL-68 TIC 105 TT 105 17 Solvent Recycle to mixer 100-HX-09 26 CW 100-VL-35 100-VL-64 FT 112 LIC 109 LT 109 PT 106 FIC 104 PIC 106 100-VL-37 100-HX-04 100-VL-40 100-VL-38 LT 100-VE-02 100-VL-39 100-VL-32 100-VL-33 FIC 103 FT 111 18 19 110 Solvent LIC 110 FT 115 100-VL-31 100-TK-03 100-VL-34 100-PP-02A/B 6 100-VL-41 Stream 5 from 100-CO-01 5 RC 105 FT 113 FT 114 RC 106 FT 116 100-VL-65 LIC 111 100-VL-45 LT 111 100-VL-42 HPS 100-VL-36 100-HX-05 100-CO-02 100-VL-43 LT 111 LIC 111 100-VL-46 100-TK-05 Raffinite 100-VL-47 7 To Stripper 100-VL-44 Sheet: 02/04 Date: 05/2013 Drawn: Group O PFD CONTROL – BENZENE EXTRACTION AREA:100 SECTION:B Figure 4: Shows the benzene extraction process control loops for Area 100 section B 21 .

Air PIC 107 Steam 100-VL-49 CW PT 107 100-HX-06 100-VL-50 100-VE-03 100-VL-51 CW 100-VL-53 LIC 112 LT 112 100-VL-57 TIC 104 TT 104 9 LIC 115 FT 119 100-PP-03A/B 8 100-VL-58 100-VL-59 LT 115 From EDC 7 FT 118 FT 117 RC 108 FT 120 100-VL-52 100-HX-08 Benzene 100-VL-60 100-TK-05 100-VL-54 LT 113 100-VL-66 RC 107 100-VL-55 100-CO-03 100-VL-61 LT 100-VL-62 Solvent 10 11 HPS 12 116 LIC 116 100-VL-48 100-HX-07 LIC 113 100-TK-07 100-VL-63 100-VL-56 100-PP-04A/B 13 Recycle to heat exchanger Signal to recycle split Sheet: 03/04 Date: 05/2013 Drawn: Group O PFD CONTROL – BENZENE EXTRACTION AREA:100 SECTION: C Figure 5: Shows the benzene extraction process control loops for Area 100 section C 22 .

CW PIC 104 100-VL-15 100-HX-09 PT 104 LIC 105 LT 105 100-VL-16 100-VL-17 100-VE-04 CW TIC 102 TT 102 22 100-VL-18 100-HX-11 100-TK-06 100-VL-19 100-PP-05A/B 100-VL-24 FT 110 21 FIC 105 100-VL-25 100-VL-26 LT 107 LIC 107 Aromatic Gasoline From 100-CO-01 20 RC 103 FT 107 FT 108 100-VL-27 CW 100-VL-20 MPS 100-VL-14 100-CO-04 100-HX-10 24 23 100-PP-06A/B 100-VL-22 100-HX-12 100-TK-07 100-VL-21 TT 103 25 100-VL-29 100-VL-30 2 3 100-VL-28 LT 108 LIC 108 Heavy Aromatics LT 106 LIC 106 100-VL-23 TIC 103 100-VL-67 Sheet: 04/04 Date: 02/2013 Drawn: Group O PFD CONTROL – BENZENE EXTRACTION AREA: 100 SECTION: D Figure 6: Shows the benzene extraction process control loops for Area 100 section D 23 .

8. the disturbance and manipulated variables were identified. reflux drums and storage tanks since the levels within these vessels are required to remain within a specific range. 2012) Level Level controllers are required when a liquid-vapour interface exists (Sinnott & Towler. pressure and temperature controls. Refer to appendix E for a more detailed strategy. These systems are described further in appendix E with reference to (Willis. The level loop is controlled by manipulating the outflow of the operating unit. These loops include level. These systems consist of orifice plates to measure the flowrate. 1999). These strategies are explained more in appendix E. a signal is sent to the control valve and the appropriate action is applied. The objectives of control is to adhere to formal safety and environmental constraints.1 Process control diagram The process control diagram was compiled by identifying the control loops necessary for a steady plant operation. (Patrascioiu. 24 . This in turn controls the amount of vapour condensed which regulates the vapour pressure in the column. A combination of feedforward and feedback control systems was chosen for this process. The strategy applied varies between the identified units concerning the manipulated streams. flows and holdup are maintained within appropriate ranges) and ensure the plant is economic (meeting specifications and product purity). ensure the operability of the plant (ie. If the limits are exceeded. A summary of the control strategy applied is described below.2 Steady state strategy Flow control All streams leading to major pieces of equipment where the inventory is monitored were controlled using flow control loops.8. flow. This strategy avoids the use of control valves on vapour lines because these lines would require large and expensive control valves. These controllers were placed on the columns. a flow transducer and a feedback controller which then sends the signal to the control valve to take action. In order to complete these control loops. Pressure Pressure control loops are applied to distillation columns while pressure relief valves are used for storage tanks to maintain pressure in both situations. 2009). Pressure is indirectly maintained in distillation columns through the control of the flow of cooling water in the condenser. The flow system contains a control valve as the control element.

Scotland. Once reaching simultaneous material and heat balance control. Once the first column has drained the subsequent columns’ liquid levels will drop and drained to auxiliary storage tanks. Once the column has reached a minimum level. Shutdown is performed in the reverse order to start-up. 8. 8. These are controlled in ratio with distillate and feed flows respectively.4 Shutdown strategy Shutdown procedures are performed under controlled conditions and units are placed in a safe state to avoid mechanical damage. This is achieved through the control of the flow of the respective heating or cooling medium involved. The entire unit is brought to required conditions (ratios are set. Feed to the first column in the process is stopped. the preceding columns are started until the first column is reached. the unit is put into automated production state.3 Start-up strategy The process under inspection involves reversible unit operations and therefore finishing distillation columns are started first. Once these columns reach stabilisation. It follows that the top and bottom temperatures of the distillation columns are controlled using reflux and boil-up rates.Temperature Temperature control loops are applied to maintain the set temperature of heat exchanger exiting streams. This strategy was not applied to condensers since there were no sub-cooled streams nor was it applied to reboilers since saturated steam is at a fixed temperature. pumps. It was chosen to control temperature through the boil-up rate and reflux rate since this is a process with complex operating conditions therefore the control of critical temperature on each stage can be very difficult to achieve. The remaining liquid in the column and reflux drums are drained to auxiliary storage tanks with the condenser still running. levels and flow controllers are put into service) by putting reboilers and condensers into service under total reflux and control valves set to manual. The reboiler is switched off and the column liquid level is allowed to drop to a minimum. Composition By controlling the temperature through ratio controllers the composition is consequently controlled as the reflux ratio and boil-up ratios are altered. In each column the following procedure is followed: Feed is introduced to the column using cold products from auxiliary storage tanks and circulation from the distillation column to the auxiliary tanks is established. 2012). The change in reflux/boil-up changes the temperature profile in the column and hence the composition (University of Edinburgh. the reflux and bottoms pumps are switched off. 25 . The products are circulated to the auxiliary storage tanks until they are running close to specification.

3 646 898 3300 23900 307 1020 10100 334 834 245 756 124 5210000 26 . normal and maximum flow specifications (continued) Minimum Flow Normal Flow Maximum Flow (assume 50% Normal) (Massbalance)(l/min) (Assume 110% Normal) 100-VL-23 100-VL-24 100-VL-34 100-VL-35 100-VL-36 100-VL-37 100-VL-40 100-VL-41 100-VL-44 100-VL-48 100-VL-49 100-VL-53 100-VL-52 100-VL-56 100-VL-57 100-VL-66 254 700 1. normal and maximum flow specifications Minimum Flow Normal Flow Maximum Flow (assume 50% Normal) (Massbalance)(l/min) (Assume 110% Normal) 100-VL-01 100-VL-02 100-VL-03 100-VL-04 100-VL-05 100-VL-06 100-VL-07 100-VL-08 100-VL-11 100-VL-14 100-VL-15 100-VL-18 100-VL-19 100-VL-22 461 287 130 9180 5460 212 979 261 515 24900 5940 391 782 66 922 574 260 18400 10900 424 1960 523 1030 49800 11900 782 1560 132 1010 632 286 20200 12000 467 2450 575 1130 54800 13100 861 1960 146 Table 13: Control valve specification summary table showing the minimum.5 294 408 1500 9580 139 465 4600 152 333 111 344 56 2370000 509 1400 3 588 817 3000 19200 279 929 9210 303 667 222 687 113 4730000 559 1540 3.9 Control Valve Specification Table 17: Control valve specification summary table showing the minimum.

plant area.10 Plant and Site Layout Auxiliary access road Railway Expansion Emergency water Control room Fire station Benzene extraction plant Analyser house Tank farm Workshop and laboratory Parking Canteen Offices 1 Existing plant Offices 2 Existing utilities plant Flare alley Control room Emergency shutdown station Pa rki ng Fire vehicle parking Auxiliary access road Scale1cm:8m Figure 7: Schematic of the site layout showing the tank farms. office area and emergency systems location Main entrance 27 .

100-PP-01A/B B 100-PP-05A/B 100-PP-06A/B 100-PP-02A/B 100-PP-03A/B 100-PP-04A/B Pipe rack with road underneath pumps 9m 5m 100-HX-08 Emergency showers 100-HX-01 100-HX-09 100-HX-03 100-HX-02 100-HX-11 100-HX-10 100-HX-12 100-HX-05 100-HX-04 100-HX-07 100-HX-06 Heat exchangers 100-HX-13 Process equipment 12m 100-CO-01 100-VE-01 100-CO-04 100-VE-04 100-CO-02 100-VE-02 100-CO-03 100-VE-03 B A Fire truck access way A Figure 8: Plant layout for the benzene extraction unit showing the location of all the major equipment in the plant 9m Scale: 1/150 28 .

Access way Pipe rack Section A-A Section B-B Plant Scale By: For: Date: PFD benzene extraction plant elevations 1cm : 2m Peter Van Wyk CHE4049F 05 March 2012 Figure 9: Side elevation for a distillation tower with pumps. reboilers and condensers 29 .

the refinery. Man ways are also shown on the columns for internal access. Flare alley is located far away from operations to reduce inhalation of combustion gases. The motor control room must not be located close to the plant equipment but must maintain a safe distance. The condenser is located above the reflux drum to create a gravitational drive for the flow of stream. For equipment such as heat exchangers enough space was left in front of the equipment to allow removal of tubes for cleaning. Emergency shutdown room is also located at least 75m away from the plant for remote shutdown in case of benzene leak (KLM Technology Group. which produces the feed for this plant. The equipment was arranged to minimize piping runs. For process requirements the equipment was laid out along the flows on the process flow diagram (KLM Technology Group. The first thing to note is that the tank farm is not on the plant. The pipe rack which is located 5m away from the heat exchangers and above an access way has an overhead clearance of 5m.1m for easy maintenance. The minimum distance between equipment was at least 2. there shall be located beneath the pipe rack. The side elevation shown in figure 9 shows mainly the importance of natural elevation for the location of upstream/downstream units. This is because the refinery is an oil to gasoline plant and this makes it easier to get the raw material from the oil rig out at sea. 30 . In figure 8. The pipe rack was put between the pumps and the all the other major equipment in a single rack type layout. the EDC. The minimum distance was taken to be 15m (KLM Technology Group. This benzene extraction plant is an auxiliary plant and will be situated next to the main plant. 2011). KwaZulu-Natal along the coastal areas where the refinery is located. Since the pumps require some roofing. 2011).10. Provision was also given for expansion of the extraction plant and space was left for future expansion. The reflux drum is also at three meters above ground level to avoid cavitation of the reflux pumps. It will be situated away from the plant for safety reasons. The utility units are close by to avoid excessive distribution piping costs. condenser and reflux drum are collectively located. The plant will be located in Durban.1 Explanation of strategy In the site layout (figure 7) the plant areas were shown as blocks. For safety reasons the offices and shops blocks are situated away from the process plant. the plant layout. For example. The access way is 9m wide which is enough for a fire truck to run through and can also make a U-turn in the 12m wide connecting road. Thus the site area shows the main plant and has been expanded to include the benzene extraction plant. There are sufficient open spaces around the plant for a fire truck to be operated. the major equipment were shown. 2011). the EDC reboiler.

Determining the design capacity: The design capacity for the pump was determined using the following equation: Q 1 1(Q ) 12 Q +1. g. The suction pressure is calculated using equation 3 P = P (1) + Static head loss [3] P (1) .1*(Qfeed) [1] The volumetric flow rate for the distillate and reflux was determined from the Aspen simulation.Appendix A: Detailed Equipment Sizing and Costing Appendix A1-Pump sizing The following procedure outlines the method used to size each of the pumps for the benzene extraction unit.Pressure of the destination vessel Static head .Gravitational acceleration (m/s2) Z1. P P(2) S P( ) P( ) P( ) P( ) P [5] P (2) .Pressure of the source vessel feeding the pump. S 1 [4] – Density of the liquid in the tank (kg/m3). The pump discharge pressure was calculated using equation 5.Liquid level in the feed tank (m) Pdis is the discharge pressure of the pumps and accounts for the all the pressure losses on the discharge line. P P -P [2] Psuc is the pressure on the suction side of the pump and account for all the pressure losses on the suction line. Note: for a reflux pump the Qfeed = 0 Calculating the pressure drop across the pump: Equation 2 is used to calculate the pressure drop across the pump. The static head account for the liquid hold up in the tank and the elevation height of the tank this was calculated using equation 4.Calculated using equation 4 31 .

P -P [6] Determining pump type and efficiency The pump type and efficiency is determined using heuristic 4-7 from table 9. The safety factor was determined from heuristic 4 in table 9. density of the liquid and the gravitational acceleration.Accounts for the pressure drop of the control valve and was determined using heuristic # form table # ).Pump Power (kW) Q .9. Calculating the pump power The pump power is calculated using the design capacity. The pump type and efficiency is based on the design capacity calculated in equation 1. pressure drop and efficiency. P 1 Q P [7] P.9.Line loss – The line loss was determined using heuristic 1 from table 9.11 ).Is a safety factor used to account for fluctuations in the pressure drop P( on the discharge line.Accounts for the pressure drop for a heat exchanger on the discharge line this was determined using heuristic 5 from table 9.Accounts for the pressure drop for other equipment on the discharge line P( and was determined ). suction pressure.Accounts for the pressure drop of the flow orifice on the discharge line P( and was determined using heuristic # from table # P( ).1 of the heuristics tables P ( ). The power is determined using equation 7 found from heuristic 2 in table 9.Design capacity (m3/min) P-Pressure drop across the pump (bar) .Pump efficiency 32 .8 Calculation of the pump head: The pump head is calculated using the discharge pressure.

22 = 4.30 + 0.25(122.Sample Calculations for reflux pump P-100 Design capacity calculations Qdesign Qdistilate Qreflux Qdesign 1.4 m3/h = 117 m3/h = 1.1*(Qfeed) =31.1(31.81 m/s2 = = 0.22 bar Psuc = 4.0 kg/m3 = 3.25 Qreflux +1.1(Qdistilate) 1.80) = 181 m3/h Design pressure calculations Suction pressure calculations = P (1) + Static head loss P(1) Ρ Z1 g SHL = 4.30 bar = 660.80) +1.52 bar 33 .35 m = 9.

69+0.10+0.67 bar Line loss ΔP (orifice) ΔP CV ΔP safety Pdis ` = 1.81 m/s2 Head = 60.3 =8.10 bar = 0.38 +0.67 +1.65 m 34 .81 m/s2 = = 1.30 bar = 660.52*1e5 = 452 000 Pa ρ g = 660.3 bar = 4.38 bar = 0.69 bar = 0.0 kg/m3 = 25.Discharge pressure calculation ( ) ( P(2) ρ Z2 g SHL = 4.44 bar ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Pump head calculation Pdis = 8.80 m = 9.30 +1.44*1e5 = 844 000 Pa Psuc = 4.0 kg/m3 = 9.

9 kW 35 .71 = 27.Power calculations ( Qdeg ΔP )( )( ) = 181 m3/h = 8.44 -4.52 = 1.87 bar ε P = 0.

74 33.6 843845 451690 660 9.12 9.80 9.99 13.20 0.20 2.8 # 4 % kW NPSH m 3.30 1.9 27.10 0. .4 11.57 1209 4.52 4.23 0.69 0.39 40.79 0.9 # 2 36 .8 3.30 Centrifugal. Single Stage 71 27.81 1.30 0.9 396800 79178 832 9. Single Stage 50 22.24 739 3.9 993030 116906 1209 9.00 0.81 1.76 1209 23.00 38.81 1.8 # 1 Pdis P(2) Static head Z2 g Line loss ΔP ΔP ΔP w orifice) ΔP ΔP S Type efficiency Power bar bar kg/m3 m m/s2 bar bar bar bar bar bar 8.30 210 1436800 129816 633 9.00 60.4 0 739 0 9.81 0.80 9.3 2.4 0 633 0 9.30 Centrifugal.24 1.30 Centrifugal.7 3.81 1.81 0.30 633 4.69 0.30 9.30 Centrifugal.97 1 0 832 0 9.81 1.Table 18: Detailed sizing calculations for pumps Equipment Code Design Capacity Distillate flow Reflux flow Origin Capacity Head Pdis Psuc g Psuc P(1) Static head Z1 g Line loss m3/h m3/h m3/h m3/h m Pa Pa kg/m3 m/s2 bar bar bar kg/m3 m m/s2 bar 100-PP-01 A/B 181 31.00 Calculated Below Calculated Below From Aspen Liquid Density from Aspen Gravity = 9.00 100-PP-04 A/B 45.38 0.67 660 25.81 1. efficiency For liquids at bubble point NPSH=Z1 Table 9.31 575 23.10 0.O .81 0.00 9.81 4.11#5 Table 9.30 1.81 0.60 0.00 0.9 # 1 P Table 9.00 0.81 0.40 73.38 0.22 660 3.00 0.S Destination Pressure S * 1*g Liquid Density Z2 = tank elevation + liquid level in tank Gravity = 9.46 0.00 0.38 0.00 0.1 4.80 9.10 0.81 1.81 4.25 9.00 41.8 # 1 Table 9.35 9.33 4.21 0.00 0.81 0.35 9. Single Stage 65 58.38 0.00 0.4 117 0. Single Stage 35 10.00 100-PP-05 A/B 168.20 1.38 0. Single Stage 63 9.2 14.30 Centrifugal.10 0.50 0.69 0.00 0.81 1.30 9.54 0.50 0.00 0.00 0.44 4.69 0.25 4.62 bar for other services ΔP O 0 b ΔP F w O 01b ΔP 03b 0 9b 10% ΔP O w Formulas/Comments Heuristics Tables Taken Form Aspen simulation Lecture Notes Table 9.50 0.17 0.38 0.93 4.4 11.69 0.73 0.81 m/s2 Psuc = P(1)+Static head Pressure at the source S * * 1)*1e-5 Liquid Density from Aspen Z1= tank elevation + liquid level in tank Gravity = 9.35 2.60 0.50 0.00 100-PP-06 A/B 10.F w .19 832 2.81 m/s2 ΔP L 20 /100 ΔP 01 b b 0 2-0.10 0.87 93.81 0.24 16.6 Table 9.00 0.69 0.13 575 2.00 181 1436800 123555 739 9.00 100-PP-02 A/B 60.30 Centrifugal.8 Biased on Design Capacity (m3/min) Power [1 * F w 3/ * ΔP b / ].9 # 4-7 (KW)= Table 9.10 0.72 46. Single Stage 73 84.5 14.30 9.00 403 2708184 432969 575 9.00 100-PP-03 A/B 64.81 1.35 4.81 m/s2 ΔP L 20 /100 N b Pump is close to tank) Assume distance between units is 30 m=100 ft Pdis = P(2) + Static Head + Line loss + ΔP .

Q. and frictional efficiency for of the electric motor. pump head. Determining the pump size factor (S) The size factor for the pump is a function of the pump head and flow rate and accounts for the fact that a given centrifugal pump can operate over a range of flow rates and head combinations.01199 (lnQ)2 ηM = 0.24015 (lnQ) – 0.5 [8] Q.Design capacity of the pump (gpm) H. The size parameter is the motors power consumption Pc.Pump Head (ft) ρ – Liquid density (lb/gal) ηP = -0.316 +0.stage radial centrifugal pump in 2006.Appendix A2. H. Seader. Seader. Lewin and Widagdo. ηM. QHρ 33 000 ηp ηm [9] [10] Pc .Pump head (ft) Determining the cost of a single stage centrifugal pump with no motor in 2006 The pump is cost is determined using Figure 22. The power consumption is calculated using the volumetric flow rate. S QH 0.3 from Seider.80 + 0. ηP. Cost 2013 = Cost 2006 [CEPCI 2013 / CEPCI 2006] Determine the cost of Electric Motors in 2006 To cost the motor needed to drive the pump the size parameter for the motor needs to be determined. The costing method is taken from Product and Process Design Principles by Seider. Using the base cost of the pump in 2006 the cost of the pump in 2013 can be determined using CEPCI values.Pump size factor (Hp) Q – Design Capacity (gpm) H . frictional efficiency.Pump Costing The following procedure outlines the method used to cost each of the pumps for the benzene extraction unit. The figure makes use of the size factor (S) to determine the cost of a single. ρ. Lewin and Widagdo.0319(ln(Q*H* ρ -0.00182 ln Q H ρ 2 [11] [12] 37 . density of the liquid.

The cost of the motor is determined using figure 22. 38 .4 from Seider. The total cost of the pump is then determined by adding the cost of the pump shell and motor. Lewin and Widagdo. Seader. The motor cost for 2013 is then determined using Equation 9.

316 +0. Lewin and Widagdo Purchase Cost (2006) for the pump with no motor = $ 5 500 (US $) Purchase Cost (2013) for the pump with no motor = $ 5 500 (575.00182(ln (830*202*5.51)/(33 000 *0.01199 (ln (830))2 = 0.895 (Hp) Pc = (830*202*5.80 + 0.24015 (ln (830)) – 0.0319(ln (830*202*5.756 (gpm) ηm = 0.4 from Seider.4/500) = $ 2 877 (US $) Total cost of pump and motor (2013) = $ 9 206 (US $) 39 . Lewin and Widagdo.4/500) = $ 6 329 (US $) Cost for pump motor QHρ 33 000 ηp ηm Q H ηp = 830 (gpm) = 202 (ft) = -0. Seader.5 = 11 792 (gpm)(ft)2 Using figure 22.Sample Cost Calculation for reflux pump 100-PP-01A/B Cost for pump with no motor ( ) Q H S = 830 (gpm) = 202 (ft) = (830)*(202)0. Purchase Cost (2006) for the motor = $ 2 500 (US $) Purchase Cost (2013) for the pump with no motor = $ 2 500 (575.51)) -0. Seader.756*0.51))2 =0.3 from Seider.895) = 41 (Hp) Using figure 22.

873 13 45 701 5.748 0.56 Motor Cost (2006) Motor Cost (2013) US $ US $ 2500 2877 6000 6905 800 921 2000 2302 11000 12659 800 921 Total Cost Pump and Motor US $ (2013) Cost of all Pumps and Motors US $ (2013) 9206 12889 5754 6905 20714 4603 60072 40 .756 0.620 0.425 0.920 US $ US $ 5500 6329 5200 5984.16 4200 4833.51 0.36 4000 4603.895 90 265 1345 4.29 0.17 0.95 0.6 3200 3682.80 0.Table 19: Detailed costing for the process pumps Equipment Code S Q H 100-PP-01A/B (gpm)(ft)^2 11792 gpm ft 830 202 100-PP-02A/B 9727 265 1345 100-PP-03A/B 3259 286 130 100-PP-04A/B 3147 201 246 100-PP-05A/B 18257 743 604 100-PP-06A/B 1193 45 701 Cost of Pumps with no Electric Motors Pump Purchase Cost (2006) Pump Purchase Cost (2013) Cost of Electric Motors Pc Q H ρ np nm Hp gpm ft lb/gal gpm Hp 41 830 202 5.09 0.905 129 743 604 6.883 13 286 130 6.659 0.915 27 201 246 10.2 7000 8055.651 0.

Shell Diameter calculation: D_shell 90√ A/102 174 cm All components are hydrocarbons.7a#1.7.7 bar above steam pressure. 〖∆T〗_min=T_steam-T_bottoms=76⁰C Maximum operating pressure is 1. Heat transfer coefficient was 1140 W/m2.2).1(max.Appendix A3: Reboiler Sizing Pre-distillation column reboiler Steam was placed in shell-side and pre-distillation column bottoms in tube-side (Heuristics T9.oC as this is a reboiler. Reflux ratio (R) was taken from Aspen simulation and was found to be 3. so the material of construction chosen was carbon steel. Q_design= Q_simulation ((1.25R)/(1+R))=12310 kW Heat transfer area: A=Q_design/(F*U*〖∆T〗_min )=391 m^2 This heat transfer area is greater than 18.11#4). pressure). Also.6 m2 so a shell-and-tube heat exchanger was chosen as the area is too huge for a double pipe heat exchanger. The minimum temperature approach rule was still obeyed as the temperature difference between steam and the bottoms stream was greater than 10oC. F (correction factor) was taken to be 1 as steam is the only component condensing. 42 bar) is used for this reboiler. Tbottoms = 179oC so high pressure steam (255oC. 41 .1+1. The design pressure is 0. design temperature was taken to be 25oC above the maximum temperature (T9.

Shell Diameter calculation: D_shell 90√ A/102 163 cm All materials are hydrocarbons so chosen MoC is carbon steel.25R)/(1+R))=10521 kW Heat transfer coefficient = 1140 (Table 9.1+1.11#4) Tbottoms = 168oC so medium pressure steam (189oC. Q_design= Q_simulation ((1.94 kW/m^2 Calculated flux is lower than the maximum allowable flux for reboilers (31. P_design=P_steam+1.5) The heat transfer area is too huge for a double-pipe heat exchanger so a shell-andtube heat exchanger is chosen.35 bar) was used. 42 . Reflux ratio =2 and heat duty was 8768 kW (from ASPEN). 11.11#8) Heat transfer area: A=Q_design/(F*U*〖∆T〗_min )=440 m^2 Reboiler flux: Flux=Q_design/A=23.Gasoline Fractionator reboiler Steam was placed in shell-side and gasoline fractionator bottoms in tube-side (Heuristics T9.7+1.7=14.75 bar T_design=T_steam+25=214℃ Minimum temperature approach: 〖∆T〗_min=T_steam-T_bottoms=21⁰C F=1 because there is only a pure component (steam) condensing.

Modified heat transfer area: A=Q_design/31. Heat transfer coefficient was 1140 W/m2. 〖∆T〗_min=T_steam-T_bottoms=68. The design pressure is 0.7 ⁰C Maximum operating pressure is 1. pressure).1(max.oC as this is a reboiler. F (correction factor) was taken to be 1 as steam is the only component condensing. 43 .5=283 m^2 Shell Diameter calculation: D_shell 90√ A/102 150 cm Most of the components in this column are hydrocarbons and there is no corrosion involved so choose carbon steel as the material of construction. Also.Extractive distillation column reboiler Steam was placed in shell-side and the column bottoms in tube-side (Heuristics T9. Reboiler flux: Flux=Q_design/A=78 kW/m^2 Calculated flux exceeds the maximum allowable flux for reboilers (31.1+1. Reflux ratio (R) was taken from Aspen simulation and was found to be 2. The minimum temperature approach rule was still obeyed as the temperature difference between steam and the bottoms stream was greater than 10oC.7 bar above steam pressure.5) so adjust heat transfer area. 42 bar) is used for this reboiler.7a#1. Q_design= Q_simulation ((1.6 m2 so a shell-and-tube heat exchanger was chosen as the area is too huge for a double pipe heat exchanger.11#4).2). Tbottoms = 187oC so high pressure steam (255oC. design temperature was taken to be 25oC above the maximum temperature (T9.25R)/(1+R))=8901 kW Heat transfer area: A=Q_design/(F*U*〖∆T〗_min )=113 m^2 This heat transfer area is greater than 18.

Tbottoms = 212oC so high pressure steam (255oC.5=191 m^2 Shell Diameter calculation: D_shell 90√ A/102 123 cm Most of the components in this column are hydrocarbons and there is no corrosion involved so choose carbon steel as the material of construction.4 ⁰C Reflux ratio (R) was taken from Aspen simulation and was found to be 3.25R)/(1+R))=6023 kW Heat transfer area: A=Q_design/(F*U*〖∆T〗_min )=122 m^2 This heat transfer area is greater than 18. Q_design= Q_simulation ((1.1+1. Reboiler flux: Flux=Q_design/A=49 kW/m^2 Calculated flux exceeds the maximum allowable flux for reboilers (31. 〖∆T〗_min=T_steam-T_bottoms=43.6 m2 so a shell-and-tube heat exchanger was chosen as the area is too huge for a double pipe heat exchanger. Modified heat transfer area: A=Q_design/31. 42 bar) is used for this reboiler.Stripper reboiler Steam was placed in shell-side and stripper bottoms in tube-side (Heuristics T9. 44 .5) so adjust heat transfer area.11#4).

Seider.shell=Design pressure in the shell side (psi) A=Heat transfer area (ft2) Costing information is from the prescribed textbook.976 0.2000*(CEPI2012/CEPI2000) CEPI2012=574 CEPI2000=394 45 .05 FM 1 Pdesign. For kettle reboilers Cost in 2000 Cunit FM FL F exp(11.0017 ( ) 100 100 2 FL 1.Appendix A4: Reboiler Costing The method for reboiler costing was followed as outlined in Product and process design principles by .Equipment costing All reboilers were chosen as kettle reboilers to allow for moderate resident times and a degree of thermal expansion. Cost in 2012 Cunit=Cunit.09 ln(A)2 ) p Fp Pdesign shell Pdesign shell 0.8709 ln(A) 0.018 ( ) 0.98 0.

976-0.018 ( ) 0.Sample calculation Pre-distillation reboiler Cost in 2000 Pdesign.2000*(CEPI2012/CEPI2000) CEPI2012=574 CEPI2000=394 Cunit.4 Table 15: Summary of reboiler costs Equipment code 100-HX-03 100-HX-05 100-HX-07 100-HX-11 Equipment description Pre-distillation reboiler EDC reboiler Solvent stripper reboiler Fractionator reboiler Cost $ 104457 87397 57518 10750 46 .shell=48 bar Adesign=381 m2 Fp Cunit FM FL F Pdesign Pdesign 0.7 Cost in 2012 Cunit=Cunit.0017 ( ) 100 100 2 1.19 p exp(11.8709 ln(A) 0.98 0.09 ln(A)2 )=$71700.2012=71700*(574/394)=$104 457.

47 . Steam fed in the shell side.1 Design duty (Q) Required duty x safety factor (SF) 862 KW Table 9.35 bar Tf=146oC Assume a shell and tube heat exchanger.3 ℃ ∆T1 ln ( ) ∆T2 184 oC 146 oC ∆T1=38 LMTD Required duty 784 KW Safety factor (SF) 1.Appendix A5 Condenser and Cooler Sizing and Costing The following were obtained from Aspen for the purpose of rating the heat exchangers:    Reflux/Reboiler ratio Inlet and outlet temperatures of target streams Required duty for the stream Pre-distillation feed pre-heater 100-HX-01 Stream condition Ti=126oC P=4. 184 oC ∆T2=58 126 oC Distance along heat exchanger ∆T1 ∆T2 47. Use medium pressure steam for heating.11 #H4 Steam condensing.11 #H1 F=1 Table 9.

35+1. MoC=Carbon steel Steam requirement ∆Hvap=1715 KJ/kg for medium pressure steam ̇ M Q 1 809 kg/hr ∆Hvap 48 .7=14.11 #H2 Shell diameter=30cm Tube length=16 ft Table 9. thus carbon steel can be used.LMTD Table 9.75 bar Design temperature=146+25=171oC Shell side Design pressure=11.1 The stream consists of hydrocarbons which are not corrosive.7=7.7+1.7 #H2 Tube side Design pressure=4.7+1.7 bar Design temperature=184+25=209oC Table A-XI.oC A Q 21.4 m2 U.11 #H8 For condensers U=850 W/m2.3+1.F.Table 9.

11 #H8 For condensers U=850 W/m2.35 bar Tf=114. Table 9.4 ℃ ∆T1 ln ( ) ∆T2 LMTD Required duty 9365 KW Lecture notes #10.11 #H4 Stream condensing.1 1.F.25R 1.1oC P=4. Stream fed in the shell side.74 Design duty (Q) Required duty x safety factor (SF) 11 425KW Table 9. and 12 Safety factor (SF) 1.22 1 R Where R=reflux ratio=3.LMTD 49 .oC A Q 176m2 U. 11.1oC Assume a shell and tube heat exchanger 114 oC ∆T2=84 30 oC 114 oC 45 oC ∆T1=69 Distance along heat exchanger ∆T1 ∆T2 76.Pre-distillation condenser 100-HX-02 Stream conditions and requirements: Ti=114.there is phase change Table 9.11 #H1 F=1.

1 The stream consists of hydrocarbons which are not corrosive.pg523-525 Fp Pdesign Pdesign 0.Table 9.018 ( ) 0.11 #H2 176 0.7=8.9 is cm.35+1.5 Shell diameter 90 ( ) 118 cm 102 Tube length=16 ft (Thakore & Bhatt. MoC=Carbon steel Cooling water requirement Cp=4.∆T Costing Use a fixed head for the heat exchanger due to low temperatures.75 bar Design temperature=114+25=139oC Table A-XI.98 0. the closest shell diameter 121.7+1. Using the costing approach in Seider.6 bar Design temperature=45+25=70oC Shell side Design pressure=4.7 #H2 Tube side Design pressure=5.7+1.184 KJ/Kg ̇ M Q 655 354 kg/hr Cp. Table 9.7=7.35+1.05 FM 1 50 . thus carbon steel can be used.0017 ( ) 100 100 2 1 FL 1. 2007: 142) From the table of standard shell diameters.

078 ln(A)2 ) p 5343 Cost in 2012 Cunit=Cunit.9228 ln(A) 0.054 0.2000*(CEPI2012/CEPI2000) Cunit=$7784 51 .Cost in 2000 Cunit FM FL F exp(11.

11 #H8 For condensers U=850 W/m2.2 1 R Where R=reflux ratio=2 Design duty (Q) Required duty x safety factor (SF) 3140 KW Table 9.there is phase change Table 9.25R 1.LMTD 52 .35 bar Tf=101oC Assume a shell and tube heat exchanger 101 oC ∆T2=71 30 oC Distance along heat exchanger ∆T1 ∆T2 64 ℃ ∆T1 ln ( ) ∆T2 101 oC 45 C o ∆T1=56 LMTD Required duty 2617 KW Lecture notes #10. Stream fed in the shell side. 11.11 #H4 Stream condensing. Table 9. and 12 Safety factor (SF) 1.F.oC A Q 58 m2 U.1 1.11 #H1 F=1.Extractive distillation column condenser 100-HX-04 Stream conditions and requirements Ti=101oC P=4.

75 bar Design temperature=101+25=126oC Table A-XI.7+1.6 bar Design temperature=45+25=70oC Shell side Design pressure=4.7=7.7 #H2 Tube side Design pressure=5.Table 9.7=8.7+1.∆T 53 .184 KJ/Kg ̇ M Q 180 138 kg/hr Cp. thus carbon steel can be used.1 The stream consists of hydrocarbons which are not corrosive.11 #H2 Tube length=16 ft Table 9. MoC=Carbon steel Cooling water requirement Cp=4.35+1.35+1.

Costing Use a fixed head for the heat exchanger due to low temperatures.018 ( ) 0. Using the costing approach in Seider.9228 ln(A) 0.054 0.05 FM 1 Cost 2000 Cunit FM FL F exp(11.0017 ( ) 100 100 2 1 FL 1.078 ln(A)2 ) p 4434 Cost in 2012 Cunit=Cunit.pg523-525 Fp Pdesign Pdesign 0.98 0.2000*(CEPI2012/CEPI2000) CEPI2012=574 CEPI2000=394 Cunit=$6460 54 .

11 and 12 Safety factor (SF) 1.oC A Q 274 m2 U.Solvent stripper condenser 100-HX-06 Stream conditions and requirements: Ti=64oC P=4.F.1 1.35 bar Tf=64oC Assume a shell and tube heat exchanger 64 oC ∆T2=34 30 oC 64 oC 45 oC ∆T1=19 Distance along heat exchanger ∆T1 ∆T2 26 ℃ ∆T1 ln ( ) ∆T2 LMTD Lecture notes # 10.11 #H4 Stream condensing.11 #H1 F=1.11 #H8 For condensers U=850 W/m2.LMTD 55 .25R 1. Table 9.21 1 R Where R=reflux ratio=3 Design duty (Q) Required duty x safety factor (SF) 6052 KW Table 9. Stream fed in the shell side.there is phase change Table 9.

Table 9.59+1. MoC=Carbon steel Cooling water requirement Cp=4.184 KJ/Kg ̇ M Q 347 151 kg/hr Cp.7+1. 2007: 142) From the table of standard shell diameters.Table 9. thus carbon steel can be used.7=8.4 cm.∆T 56 .7+1.7 #H2 Tube side Design pressure=5.1 The stream consists of hydrocarbons which are not corrosive.5 Shell diameter 90 ( ) 148 cm 102 Tube length=16 ft (Thakore & Bhatt.7=4 bar Design temperature=64+25=89oC Table A-XI.35+1.11 #H2 274 0.6 bar Design temperature=45+25=70oC Shell side Design pressure=0. the closest shell diameter is 152.

Using the costing approach in Seider.991 FL 1.0017 ( ) 100 100 2 0.98 0.054 0.9228 ln(A) 0.018 ( ) 0.078 ln(A)2 ) p 6143 Cost in 2012 Cunit=Cunit.2000*(CEPI2012/CEPI2000) CEPI2012=574 CEPI2000=394 Cunit=$8950 57 .05 FM 1 Cost 2000 Cunit FM FL F exp(11.Costing Use a fixed head for the heat exchanger due to low temperatures.pg523-525 Fp Pdesign Pdesign 0.

2 1 R Where R=reflux ratio=2 Design duty (Q) Required duty x safety factor (SF) 12 419 KW Table 9. Stream fed in the shell side. 11 and 12 Safety factor (SF) 1.Fractionator condenser 100-HX-10 Stream conditions and requirements: Ti=113oC P=4.25R 1.F.LMTD 58 .there is phase change.35 bar Tf=113oC Assume a shell and tube heat exchanger 113 oC ∆T2=83 30 oC 113oC 45 oC ∆T1=68 Distance along heat exchanger LMTD ∆T1 ∆T2 75.11 #H1 F=1.1 1.11 #H4 Stream condensing.3℃ ∆T ln ( 1 ) ∆T2 Required duty 10349 KW Lecture notes # 10.oC A Q 194 m2 U. Table 9. Table 9.11 #H8 For condensers U=850 W/m2.

1 The stream consists of hydrocarbons which are not corrosive.7 #H2 Tube side Design pressure=5. 2007: 142) From the table of standard shell diameters.6 bar Design temperature=45+25=70oC Shell side Design pressure=1+1.5 Shell diameter 90 ( ) 124 cm 102 Tube length=16 ft (Thakore & Bhatt.∆T 59 . the closest shell diameter is 131.Table 9. MoC=Carbon steel Cooling water requirement Cp=4.7=4. Table 9.7=8.184 KJ/Kg ̇ M Q 712 371 kg/hr Cp.4 bar Design temperature=113+25=138oC Table A-XI.7+1. thus carbon steel can be used.35+1.7+1.72 cm.11 #H2 194 0.

054 0.078 ln(A)2 ) p 5418 Cost in 2012 Cunit=Cunit. Using the costing approach in Seider.98 0.05 FM 1 Cost 2000 Cunit FM FL F exp(11.018 ( ) 0.pg523-525 Fp Pdesign Pdesign 0.0017 ( ) 100 100 2 0.9228 ln(A) 0.991 FL 1.Costing Use a fixed head for the heat exchanger due to low temperatures.2000*(CEPI2012/CEPI2000) CEPI2012=574 CEPI2000=394 Cunit=$7894 60 .

F=0.Need to find F.8 Table 9.11 #H4 Stream condensing.Recycle solvent cooler 100-HX-09 Stream conditions and requirements: Ti=212oC P=4.11 #H1 ∆T1 greatly different from ∆T2.95 30 212 30 45 0. 61 .35 bar Tf=40oC Assume a shell and tube heat exchanger 212 oC ∆T2=167 45 oC 40 oC 30 C Distance along heat exchanger ∆T1 ∆T2 55.76℃ ∆T ln ( 1 ) ∆T2 o ∆T1=10 LMTD Required duty 5155 KW Safety factor (SF) 1.1 Design duty (Q) Required duty x safety factor (SF) 5671 KW Table 9. Stream fed in the shell side. P R 40 212 0.07 40 212 CHE2040S heat exchanger design notes From the F tables for 1 shell pass.

∆T Can exchange heat with pre-distillation feed by heat integration.11 #H8 For water to liquid U=850 W/m2.35+1. MoC=Carbon steel Cooling water requirement Cp=4.11 #H2 150 0.oC A Q 150 m2 U.7=4.7+1. the closest shell diameter is 114.F. 62 . Table 9.5 Shell diameter 90 ( ) 109 cm 102 Tube length=16 ft (Thakore & Bhatt.7=8. 2007: 142) From the table of standard shell diameters.6 bar Design temperature=45+25=70oC Shell side Design pressure=1+1.7+1.184 KJ/Kg ̇ M Q 325 296 kg/hr Cp. thus carbon steel can be used.1 The stream consists of hydrocarbons which are not corrosive.LMTD Table 9.3 cm.4 bar Design temperature=113+25=138oC Table A-XI.Table 9.7 #H2 Tube side Design pressure=5.

3 (136 Ti ) Required recycle solvent split M1 Cp 0.required=40 oC and Ti=212oC Q=5155 KW from Aspen Thus MCp Q (Tf -Ti ) 30 KW as before. To allow for easy control of the recycle stream as discussed in the control section of the report. One stream is directed to the pre-heat heat exchanger and the other used for control purposes.38 MCp 38% of the recycle stream should be directed to the pre-heat heat exchanger Calculating the temperature of the recombined bypass stream and heat exchanger effluent Energy balance over the mixing point M1 Cp(Tunknown -136) M2 Cp(Tunknown -212) 0 …………1 63 .Heat integration Solvent recycle stream Q MCp(Tf Ti ) Tf. Heat required by feed stream to pre-distillation column= Need to find the Tf of the solvent after heat exchange The stream has a lot of heat to exchange. Mass flow to the pre-heat heat exchanger Let: m1=Mass flow to the pre-heater m2=Bypass mass flow Final temperature of the stream has to be 10oC greater than the entrance of the stream to be heated which is 126oC Qdesign M1 Cp(136 Ti ) M1 Cp Qdesign 11. the recycle stream is split into two streams.

13 136 212 CHE2040S heat exchanger design notes From the F tables for 1 shell pass. F=0.11 #H4 Solvent in the shell side.From the mass balance of the solvent splitter M1Cp+M2Cp=MCp Thus M2Cp=18.11 #H1 ∆T1 greatly different from ∆T2. P R 136 212 0.68℃ ∆T ln ( 1 ) ∆T2 o ∆T1=10 LMTD Required duty 784 KW Safety factor (SF) 1.1 Design duty (Q) Required duty x safety factor (SF) 862 KW Table 9.7 using 2 Finding the Tunknown=190oC using 1 The temperature profile along the pre-heat heat exchanger Assume a shell and tube heat exchanger 212 oC …………2 ∆T2=66 146 oC 136 oC 126 C Distance along heat exchanger ∆T1 ∆T2 29.85 Table 9.Need to find F. 64 .88 126 212 126 136 0. More fouling.

7+1.75 bar Design temperature=212+25=237oC Shell side Design pressure=4. the closest shell diameter is 106.LMTD Table 9.7+1.7 #H2 Tube side Design pressure=4.7=7.11 #H8 For liquid to liquid U=280 W/m2.1 The stream consists of hydrocarbons which are not corrosive.35+1. MoC=Carbon steel Re-designed pre-distillation column feed heater. 2007: 142) From the table of standard shell diameters. thus carbon steel can be used.Table 9.7=7.35+1. 65 .75 bar Design temperature=146+25=171oC Table A-XI.F.5 Shell diameter 90 ( ) 98 cm 102 Tube length=16 ft (Thakore & Bhatt. Table 9.7 cm.11 #H2 122 0.oC A Q 122 m2 U.

98 0.2 Cost in 2012 Cunit=Cunit.Costing Use a fixed head for the heat exchanger due to low temperatures. Using the costing approach in Seider Fp Pdesign Pdesign 0.054 0.018 ( ) 0.078 ln(A)2 ) p 4918.05 FM 1 Cost 2000 Cunit FM FL F exp(11.9228 ln(A) 0.2000*(CEPI2012/CEPI2000) CEPI2012=574 CEPI2000=394 Cunit=$7165 66 .0017 ( ) 100 100 2 1 FL 1.

5℃ ∆T ln ( 1 ) ∆T2 o ∆T1=10 LMTD With the MCp found from heat integration calculations: Qrequired duty MCp(Tf Ti ) 4500 KW Safety factor (SF) 1.Need to find F.1 40 190 CHE2040S heat exchanger design notes From the F tables for 1 shell pass. P R 40 190 0.11 #H4 Cooling water in the tube side.94 30 190 30 45 0. 67 . F=0.35 bar Tf=40oC Assume a shell and tube heat exchanger 190 oC ∆T2=145 45 oC 40 oC 30 C Distance along heat exchanger ∆T1 ∆T2 50.1 Design duty (Q) Required duty x safety factor (SF) 4950 KW Table 9.11 #H1 ∆T1 greatly different from ∆T2.Recycle solvent trim cooler 100-HX-09 (re-designed) Stream conditions and requirements Ti=190oC P=4. More fouling.6 Table 9.

oC A Q 192 m2 U.Table 9. Table 9.2 cm. MoC=Carbon steel Cooling water requirement Cp=4.LMTD Table 9.7+1.6 bar Design temperature=45+25=70oC Shell side Design pressure=4.5 Shell diameter 90 ( ) 123 cm 102 Tube length=16 ft (Thakore & Bhatt.7=8. the closest shell diameter is 137.7=7.75 bar Design temperature=190+25=215oC Table A-XI.1 The stream consists of hydrocarbons which are not corrosive.35+1.11 #H8 For water to liquid U=850 W/m2.∆T 68 .35+1.7+1. 2007: 142) From the table of standard shell diameters.F.7 #H2 Tube side Design pressure=5.11 #H2 192 0.184 KJ/Kg ̇ M Q 283 394 kg/hr Cp. thus carbon steel can be used.

018 ( ) 0. Using the costing approach in Seider.9228 ln(A) 0.054 0.05 FM 1 Cost 2000 Cunit FM FL F exp(11.2000*(CEPI2012/CEPI2000) CEPI2012=574 CEPI2000=394 Cunit=$7962 69 .0017 ( ) 100 100 2 1 FL 1.98 0.pg523-525 Fp Pdesign Pdesign 0.Costing Use a fixed head for the heat exchanger due to low temperatures.078 ln(A)2 ) p 5465 Cost in 2012 Cunit=Cunit.

70 .Aromatic Gasoline cooler 100-HX-12 Stream conditions and requirements: Ti=113oC P=10.925 Table 9.5 45 30 CHE2040S heat exchanger design notes From the F tables for 1 shell pass. P R 45 30 0.18 113 30 113 45 4.11 #H1 ∆T1 greatly different from ∆T2.Need to find F.11 #H4 Cooling water in the tube side. More fouling.6 bar Tf=45oC Assume a shell and tube heat exchanger 113oC ∆T2=68 45 oC 45o ∆T1=15 C o 30 C Distance along heat exchanger ∆T1 ∆T2 35℃ ∆T ln ( 1 ) ∆T2 LMTD Required duty 1331 KW Safety factor (SF) 1.1 Design duty (Q) Required duty x safety factor (SF) 1464 KW Table 9. F=0.

7+1.6 bar Design temperature=45+25=70oC Shell side Design pressure=10. thus carbon steel can be used.LMTD Table 9.184 KJ/Kg ̇ M Q 83 977 kg/hr Cp.11 #H2 Tube length=16 ft Table 9.∆T 71 .oC A Q 53.7+1.F.1 The stream consists of hydrocarbons which are not corrosive.2 m2 U. MoC=Carbon steel Steam requirement Cp=4.7 #H2 Tube side Design pressure=5.Table 9.35+1.11 #H8 For water to liquid U=850 W/m2.7=14 bar Design temperature=113+25=138oC Table A-XI.6+1.7=8.

018 ( ) 0.054 0.Costing Use a fixed head for the heat exchanger due to low temperatures.078 ln(A)2 ) p 4505 Cost in 2012 Cunit=Cunit.0017 ( ) 100 100 2 1. Using the costing approach in Seider.pg523-525 Fp Pdesign Pdesign 0.98 0.9228 ln(A) 0.02 FL 1.05 FM 1 Cost 2000 Cunit FM FL F exp(11.2000*(CEPI2012/CEPI2000) CEPI2012=574 CEPI2000=394 Cunit=$6564 72 .

Heavy feed aromatics cooler 100-HX-13 Stream conditions and requirements Ti=168oC P=10.6 bar Tf=45oC Assume a shell and tube heat exchanger 168o C ∆T2=123 45 oC

45o Co 30 C

∆T1=15

Distance along heat exchanger ∆T1 ∆T2 51.3℃ ∆T ln ( 1 ) ∆T2

LMTD

Required duty 484 KW Safety factor (SF) 1.1 Design duty (Q) Required duty x safety factor (SF) 532 KW Table 9.11 #H1 ∆T1 greatly different from ∆T2.Need to find F. P R 45 30 0.11 168 30 168 45 8.2 45 30

From the F tables for 1 shell pass, F=0.85 Table 9.11 #H4 Cooling water in the tube side. More fouling. Table 9.11 #H8 For water to liquid U=850 W/m2.oC 73

A

Q 14.4 m2 U.F.LMTD

Table 9.11 #H2

Tube length=16 ft Table 9.7 #H9 Use double pipe heat exchanger because 9.3<A<18.6 m2. Now F=1 A Q 12.24 m2 U.F.LMTD

Table 9.7 #H2 Tube side Design pressure=5.35+1.7+1.7=8.6 bar Design temperature=45+25=70oC Shell side Design pressure=10.6+1.7+1.7=14 bar Design temperature=168+25=193oC Table A-XI.1 The stream consists of hydrocarbons which are not corrosive, thus carbon steel can be used. MoC=Carbon steel Steam requirement Cp=4.184 KJ/Kg ̇ M Q 30 516 kg/hr Cp.∆T

74

Costing Using the plot in Seider,pg524 for costing. Cost 2000 Cunit=$2150 Cost in 2012 Cunit=Cunit,2000*(CEPI2012/CEPI2000) CEPI2012=574 CEPI2000=394 Cunit=$3133

75

F.1 Design duty (Q) Required duty x safety factor (SF) 118 KW Table 9. Table 9.oC A Q 9.11 #H4 Cooling water in the tube side. More fosuling. Use F=0.9.11 #H2 Tube length=16 ft 76 .Benzene cooler 100-HX-08 Stream conditions and requirements Ti=64oC P=1 bar Tf=45oC Assume a shell and tube heat exchanger 64o C ∆T 2=19 45 oC 45o ∆T1=15 Co 30 C Distance along heat exchanger ∆T1 ∆T2 LMTD 17℃ ∆T1 ln ( ) ∆T2 Required duty 107 KW Safety factor (SF) 1.LMTD Table 9.11 #H8 For water to liquid U=850 W/m2. Table 9.11 #H1 ∆T1 does not vary greatly from ∆T2.1 m2 U.

35+1.7=8.7 #H9 Use double pipe heat exchanger even though it’s not between 9.Table 9.1 The stream consists of hydrocarbons which are not corrosive.2 m2 U.7+1.pg524 for costing.7+1.4 bar Design temperature=64+25=89oC Table A-XI. MoC=Carbon steel Steam requirement Cp=4.6 bar Design temperature=45+25=70oC Shell side Design pressure=1+1. thus carbon steel can be used.7 #H2 Tube side Design pressure=5.6 m 2.F.184 KJ/Kg ̇ M Q 6 769 kg/hr Cp. Cost 2000: Cunit=$2020 Cost in 2012 Cunit=Cunit. Now F=1 A Q 8.3<A<18.LMTD Table 9.2000*(CEPI2012/CEPI2000) CEPI2012=574 CEPI2000=394 Cunit=$2943 77 .∆T Costing Using the plot in Seider.7=4.

7 + 1.358 Need to use ideal gas law avg.14#5-7 (trade-off between pressure drop and cost) Although valve trays are the cheapest they also have the highest pressure drop.7 L/D <30 T9.02 m2 Diameter 2.14#1 spacing L 37.14#4 tray 0.5 T9.5 m/s (kg/m3)0.5 Seider p578: 0.7 = 7. T 150. upper limit chosen u 0. Sieve is in the midpoint o Design T 204 C 179 + 25 = 204: T & P (T9.8 T9.S) 6.13#13 L/D 13.75. so L is Ok 78 . A = V/u D 4 x A/∏ 0.007 bar/tray T9.7#1.89 9.83 m Diameter Tray type sieve T9.2) Design P 7.35 + 1.03175m thickness was assumed for the initial estimate Do = Di + 2 x wall thickness C J/mol.0318 m thickness Outer 2.77 m wall 0.14#2 cross-sectional area.1 tray ε 0.75 bar 4.Appendix A6 Column Sizing Table 20: Pre-distillation column sizing Feed D R V (molar) 61300 263 3.74 kg/hr kmol/hr kmol/hr kmol/s o from aspen V = D(R+1) unit conversion average T across column (from T-profile in aspen) from aspen ideal gas law to get V: V= (n x R x T)/P ρv = (P x MM)/RT : MM is the average molar mass for the vapor obtained from aspen T9.2 to 1. Bottom temperature and pressure used overhead T can use cooling water >38 oC bottoms T no need to heat with a furnace <250 oC Pressure 0. R pressure V ρv 8.5 F in the range 1.314 435000 2.6 m T9.8 m T9.481 m/s A (C.14#2 linear velocity u F/ρv0.5.9 1300 0.K Pa m3/s kg/m3 F 1.13#14 height of the column < 53.14#3 drop MoC Carbon steel (hydrocarbons) T A-XI Ntheoretical 46 aspen Nact 58 (Ntheor/ε x 1.

4 bar 1 + 1.1 L 36 m T9.6 m T9.14#2 cross-sectional area.836 m/s A (C.5 Seider p578: 0.K Pa m3/s kg/m3 F 1.14#5-7 (trade-off between pressure drop and cost) Although valve trays are the cheapest they also have the highest pressure drop.03175m thickness was assumed for the initial estimate Do = Di + 2 x wall thickness J/mol.293 kg/hr kmol/hr kmol/hr kmol/s from aspen V = D(R+1) unit conversion Need to use ideal gas law avg.0 3.007 bar/tray T9.13#13 L/D 9.Table 21: Gasoline Fractionator sizing calculations Feed D R V 40600 351 2 1050 0. T 140 R pressure V ρv 8.0 m2 Diameter 3.7 = 4.14#3 drop MoC Carbon steel (hydrocarbons) T A-XI Ntheoretical 44 aspen tray ε 0.13#14 79 .91 m wall 0.7#1.5 T9. upper limit chosen u 0.14#4 tray spacing 0.S) 12.98 m diameter Tray type sieve T9.5 m/s (kg/m3)0.314 100000 10.8 T9.4.14#2 linear velocity u F/ρv0.0318 m thickness Outer 3. A = V/u D 4 x A/∏ 0. Bottom temperature and pressure used overhead T can use cooling water >38 oC bottoms T no need to heat with a furnace <250 oC Pressure 0. Sieve is in the midpoint o Design T 193 C 179 + 25 = 204: T & P (T9.5 F in the range 1.22 o C average T across column (from T-profile in aspen) from aspen ideal gas law to get V: V= (n x R x T)/P ρv = (P x MM)/RT : MM is the average molar mass for the vapor obtained from aspen T9.2 to 1.5.7 + 1.20 L/D <30 T9.14#1 Nact 55 (Ntheor/ε x 1.2) Design P 4.

7 + 1.13#13 L/D 22.9 T9.0318 1. A = V/u D 4 x A/∏ 0.47 0.K Pa m3/s kg/m3 m/s (kg/m3)0.5 Seider p578: 0.1 tray ε 0.7#1.13#14 L/D<30 but 20 < L/D < 20 therefore special design is be required 80 .35 + 1.803 9.6 m T9.75.314 435000 0.14#2 linear velocity u F/ρv0.5 0.14#3 Carbon steel T A-XI (hydrocarbons) 37 aspen 51 (Ntheor/ε x 1.101 Need to use ideal gas law avg.7 = 7.475 1.75 o kg/hr kmol/hr kmol/hr kmol/s o from aspen V = D(R+1) unit conversion average T across column (from T-profile in aspen) from aspen ideal gas law to get V: V= (n x R x T)/P ρv = (P x MM)/RT : MM is the average molar mass for the vapor obtained from aspen T9.5 m/s m2 m m m cross-sectional area.S) Diameter wall thickness Outer Diameter Tray type Design T Design P overhead >38 oC bottoms <250 oC Pressure drop MoC Ntheoretical Nact 8. T 145 R pressure V ρv F u A (C.96 1.8 T9.14#5-7 (trade-off between pressure drop and cost) 186.53 sieve 212 7.6 m T9.2) 4.7 + 25 = 212: T & P (T9.5 T9.007 bar/tray T9.03175m thickness assumed for the initial estimate Do = Di + 2 x wall thickness was C bar T9. Bottom temperature and pressure used T can use cooling water T no need to heat with a furnace 0.69 1.14#4 tray spacing 0.Table 22: Extractive Distillation Column sizing calculations Feed D R V 70700 121 2 362 0.14#2 C J/mol.14#1 L 33.

03175m thickness assumed for the initial estimate Do = Di + 2 x wall thickness was C bar T9.8 0.7#3 (for vessels with pressure 0 .76 o from aspen V = D(R+1) unit conversion average T across column (from T-profile in aspen) from aspen ideal gas law to get V: V= (n x R x T)/P ρv = (P x MM)/RT : MM is the average molar mass for the vapor obtained from aspen T9.14#5-7 (trade-off between pressure drop and cost) 215 + 25 = 240: (T9.5 1.02 1. T 140 C R pressure V ρv F u A (C.14#2 J/mol. design P is 2.0318 3.5 T9.14#1 T9.05 sieve 240 2.13#14 81 .S) Diameter wall thickness Outer Diameter Tray type Design T Design P overhead T >38 o C bottoms T <250 o C Pressure drop MoC Ntheoretical Nact tray ε tray spacing L L/D 8.14#4 T9.36 1. A = V/u D 4 x A/∏ 0.007 bar/tray T9.Table 23:Stripper Column sizing calculations Feed D R V 61087 kg/hr 142 kmol/hr 3 568 kmol/hr 0.314 60000 9.6 11.69 bar.14#2 F/ρv0.13#13 L/D<30 T9.76 bar) can use cooling water no need to heat with a furnace 0.1 T9.99 0.02 2.5 Seider p578: 0.158 kmol/s Need to use ideal gas law to get V o avg.K Pa m3/s kg/m3 m/s (kg/m3)0.81 m m (Ntheor/ε x 1.4 3.28 7.5 m/s linear velocity u m2 m m m cross-sectional area.14#3 Carbon steel T A-XI (hydrocarbons) 10 aspen 14 0.0.7#1) T9.

85kg/kg air.Vacuum pressure in the stripper column The vacuum pressure in the stripper column was created using a single stage steam jet ejector. This can be seen from the figure below where 0. 450 mm Hg Figure A6-1: Estimation chart for steam ejector (IPS. To maintain the pressure of the stripper column at 0.6bar the amount of steam needed is 0. 1993) 82 .6bar is ca.

02kg steam/kg air . The solvent stripper has a cross-sectional area of 7. Thus using T9. 18.2kg/h. However 20% is added for typical size correction factor so that 1.02 m2 and a height of 11. W = 18. Using Table 9.10 heuristic 10 the suction air required can be calculated using W = kV2/3 where w is the flow rate of air. k = 0.98 and V is the volume of the equipment.02kg steam/kg air is required for the steam ejector and thus the steam required in this case is 1.02kg steam/kg air is required.85kg steam/kg air.6 kg/h.2kg air/h = 18.10#10.4m so that the volume V = A. From the figure above it is known that 1.06 m3. 83 .L = 80.At 450 mm Hg a single stage steam ejector requires 0.

The wall thickness was calculated using the wall thickness necessary to withstand the internal pressure (tP).vacuum columns: ts = t p + t w tp = PdDi 2SE-1. Lewin and Widagdo from chapter 22 was used to determine the cost of the distillation towers. E – Frictional weld efficiency which was assumed to be 1 tw = ( ) Do – Outside diameter of the vessel in inches 84 . Seader.8Di)tsρ The internal diameter and length of the column was determined from the Aspen simulation. wall thickness of the column in ft (ts). which is corrected by adding a wall thickness factor (tEC). and the wall thickness necessary to withstand the wind load for very large columns (tW ). For non. W = (Di + ts)(L +0. Determining the cost of a vessel with no trays To determine the cost of the column shell with no trays the weight of the column was determined using the internal diameter in ft (Di). the length of the column in ft (L). and the density of the material in lb/ft3 (ρ).Appendix A7 Column Costing The method stated by Seider. The calculated wall thickness is rounded up to the closest standard available thickness.2 Pd Di – internal diameter in inches Pd – design pressure in psig S – Maximum allowable stress of the shell material at design temperature (13 750 psi for carbon steel). However for vacuum columns the wall thickness is calculated from the necessary wall thickness to withstand the internal and external pressure difference (tE).

19 The cost of the vessel shell platform and manholes with no internals is calculated using equations below CP = FMCV+ CPL CP – total purchase price of the column including platforms and manholes FM – Material Factor (FM = 1 for carbon steel) CV.000.2) *(1e-5) – 0.Cost of platforms and ladders For vertical vessels 4.Cost of empty vessel with nozzles.0132 + 0.3 DO ( ) ( )) DO– Outside diameter of the vessel in inches Em – Modulus of Elasticity determined form the operating temperature (psi) Pd – Design pressure in psig L – Length of the column in inches tEC = L(0. manholes and supports CPL.Do = Di + 1.02297[ln(W)]2 } 85 .200 < W < 1. For a vacuum column ts = tE + tEC tE= 1. 000 lb: Cv = exp {7.25 in L – Length of the column in inches S – Maximum allowable stress of the shell material at design temperature (13 750 psi for carbon steel).18255[ln(W)] + 0.18 Di -2.

000 < W < 2.81 0.065 0.2756 + 0.069 0. FNT – Tray factor number FNT = 2.80161 Cost of the column internals The cost of the column internals and installation of the internals is calculated using the following equations: CT = NTFNTFTTFTMCBT CT – Total cost of column internals including plates. down comers and the installation of the internals.8 0.094 35.000 lb: Cv = exp {7.9(Di) 0.091 0.08 0.25/1.43 490 ts ft ts ft L ft ρc lb/ft3 86 .066 102 490 Stripper Col 9.500.0414NT FTT –Tray factor type (FTT = 1 for sieve trays) FTM –Material factor number (FTM = 1 for carbon steel) The total cost of the column shell and internals was calculated as follows: Ctotal = CP + CT Table 24: Summary table of variables needed for determining the cost for the distillation towers Distilation Unit Internal Diameter Di Wall thickness Standard wall thick Height of tank ρ Carbon Steel Predistil ft 9.080 124 490 Gasoline 12.63316(L)0.18255[ln(W)] + 0.02297[ln(W)]2 } CPL = 300.046 0.052 108 490 EDC 4. NT – Total number of trays within the column.For vertical vessels 9.83 0.

08 + 0.214)(1)(1)(2 270) = $28 175 Total cost for the predestination tower in 2013 CT (2013) = (28 175 +385 710)(575.Sample Calculations for the Pre-distillation columns: Calculating the wall thickness tP = (112*109)/2*(13750)*(1)-1.08) 0.02297[ln( 147 795)]2 } = $327 747 Calculating the cost of the platforms and ladders CPL = 300.08* 490 = 147 795 lb Calculating the cost of the column shell with manholes Cv = exp {7.18255[ln( 147 795)] + 0.0414^(58)) = 0.2756 + 0.08)) = $ 2 270 Calculating the tray factor number: FNT = 2.80161 = $57 963 Total cost of shell and platforms including ladders and man holes in 2006 CT = 327 747 + 57 963 = $385 710 Calculating the cost of column internals: CBT = 468 exp( 0.9(9.448 in tW= 0.08)*0.069 ft tS (standard) = 0.3710 = 0.63316(124)0.3710 in tS = 0.488 + 0.4/500) = $ 476 300 87 .8*9.2*(112) = 0.22*(109+18)*(1488)2/(13750*(109)2 = 0.1739 (9.859 in = 0.08)( 124 +0.08 ft Calculating the weight of the column W = (9.25/(1.214 Total cost of trays and down comers in 2006: CT = 58(0.

8 112 40.19562 0.9 118 o Design Temp Td F 399 379 413 464 Max allowable S psi Stress 13750 13750 13750 13750 Weld efficiency E 1 1 1 1 Calculation of wall thickness to withstand wind (tW) [not for vacuum columns] tW in 0.54356 0.1 tE Wall thickness to withstand press diff in 1 Pd (design pressure) psi 40 Do (outside diameter) in 119 L (height of column) in 425 EM (Modulus of Elasticity) psi 27000000 tEC Corrected wall thickness in -0.448 0.4 Weight of Column lb 147 795 122 253 52 760 61 834 Purchase Cost (2006) no US $ $386 819 $351 254 $192 269 $199 529 trays Purchase Cost (2013) no US $ $445 152 $404 224 $221 264 $229 618 trays Cost of installed try’s and downCt US $ $28 177 $64 358 $17 023 $44 485 comers (2006) Number of trays Nt 58 50 47 13 Tray num factor Fnt 0.028 Outside Diameter Do in 109 154 58 119 Column height L in 1488 1299 1228 425 Calculation of wall thickness to for vacuum column (tv) (in) 1.358 0.33 Tray type Factor Ftt 1 1 1 1 Material Factor Ftm 1 1 1 1 Base cost of try’s Cbt US $ 2270 4348 1083 2577 Cost of installed ’ w Ct US $ $32 426 $74 063 $19 590 $51 193 comers (2013) Total Cost of distillation US $ $477 578 $478 287 $240 854 $280 811 Tower Total Cost of all distillation US $ Tower $1 477 529 88 .238 0.0 Internal Diameter Di in 109 154 57.334 1.37710 0.Table 25: Summary table of calculations for the distillation cost Stripper Predistil Gasoline EDC Distillation Unit Col Calculation of wall thickness to withstand Column Pressure (tP) [not for vacuum columns] tp in 0.296 0.1093 CECI (2006) 500 CECI(2013) 575.172 Design press Pd psig 112 63.214 0.

Sample calculation for the Benzene storage tank Freeboard = (0. (Table 9.9m3. Capacity = 30days x 24 hrs x 13m3/hr. Freeboard Table 9. 2 and 3.7B # 5 indicates a 10% freeboard is required for a capacity greater than 1.7B number 1. Then using the volumetric flow of the streams entering the tanks. if the capacity exceeds 38m3 then vertical tanks on concrete pads are used. =9377 m3 Orientation According to the heuristic from table 9.Appendix A8 Vessel Sizing Storage Tanks Tank type Cylindrical tanks were chosen for the pressure and temperature of storage. the volume of liquid was found.1) 9377m3 =938m Therefore another way of calculating the tank volume is to determine 110% of the capacity: Sample calculation for the Benzene storage tank Tank Volume = (110/100) x 9377m3 = 10315 m3 L/D Ratio 89 . Sample calculation for the Benzene storage tank Volumetric flowrate from ASPEN= 13m3/hr.7A number 4) Capacity The capacity was determined using the heuristic number 6 in table 9.7B indicating that a thirty-day holding time is required. These tanks are fit with floating heads for the volatile components subject to breathing losses.

According to CHE4049F lecture notes from lecture 10.12.7 + operating pressure.11. Operating pressure = 1 bar 90 .75 = 19.69-1. Diameter According to the calculation for cylindrical volume: Since L=0. they should be designed to store at atmospheric pressure. its operating temperature is 45°C therefore design Temperature= 70°C Design Pressure According to table 9. an L/D ratio of between 0. The max operating pressure is determined as 1.7A heuristic number 1 indicates that a vessel should be designed 25°C above the operating temperature. In the case of benzene. In the case of storage tanks. Therefore to aim in achieving the lowest height and diameter.5m Design Temperature According to table 9.75 and 1.5 should be chosen.7A heuristic number 2 indicates that a vessel should be designed 10% above or 0.7bar above the max operating pressure. 0.75 was chosen.75D Sample calculation for the Benzene storage tank D = 26 m Length/ Height L/D L = 0.

The diameter of this tank is 38. This will also serve as a safety precaution in case one tank has some form of emergency such as leakages or flooding. The paraffinic raffinate. carbon steel is the most effective material of construction and it is cheaper than stainless steel too. Benzene and Gasoline storage tanks required floating heads as they contain low to medium flash point liquids. Number of tanks It is noted that the volumes exceed 25000m3 in the case of the gasoline storage tank.Max operating pressure =1 bar + 1.7bar + 1.7bar =4.7B.7bar Design pressure =2. 91 . This was also done to allow for extra tanks in the tank farm while maintenance is underway. storage tanks containing liquids with high volatilities require internal floating heads to avoid vapour losses to the atmosphere.4bar Material of construction Table A-XI-I indicates that for hydrocarbons such as those present in the gasoline we are separating. Therefore the capacity was divided to remain within a specific region.7m which exceed 20m (set as a limit in our design). then another tank is available with product therefore lessening the loss of product.7 bar =2. The floating roof moves along with the rising or falling liquid level thus ensuring that evaporation levels are kept at a minimum. Tank type According to heuristic number 4 in table 9.

7bar Design Pressure= Max operating +1.0 Carbon Steel 6.0 4.08 6.2 21.75 26.96 4.96 4.20 720 130 40.69 2.75 38.00 0.2 720 31100 45.90 720 5720 46.75 22.8 1.12 m3/h h m3 °C atm bar Hydrocarbons 0.69 7.08 6.78 m m3 13.38 100-TK-06 Hydrocarbons 7.3 1.44 4.7 720 12050 45 1.99 Comment Table 9.39 938 10315 0.99 100-TK-04 Hydrocarbons 43.7B#6 Thirty-day capacityfor products Max allowable vol=24000m3 Test pressure (10%) Test pressure (+1.69 2.00 0.0 143 0.70 Carbon Steel 2.5 4.38 100-TK-02 Hydrocarbons 16.39 1205 13300 0.96 4.7A#2 Table 9.7bar) Freeboard Volume of Tank L/D D=(V*4/pi())^(1/3)) L MOC Max operating pressur= normal operating pressure+ 1.75 6.75 28.20 720 148 212 4.5 Carbon Steel Table 9.4 16.7B#5 CHE4049F Lectur notes 10.9m3 capacity Lowest L/D for least diameter and height m m Table A-XI-I Hydrocarbon components Table 27: Further calculations for process vessels FURTHER CALCULATIONS Max allowable volume is 24000m3 while max height is 20 m therefore split storage tanks into smaller volume tanks 100-TK-01 (sol in) Quantity New volume L/D D= L= m3 m m 100-TK-02 (Raff) 2 6630 0.00 0.44 4.99 100-TK-03 Hydrocarbons 13.99 100-TK-05 Hydrocarbons 0.0 720 9380 45.7bar Design Pressure= Max operating +10% Freeboard 10% above 1.75 6.69 2.00 0.7A#2 Table 9.5 Carbon Steel 2.6 100-TK-05 (Sol purge) 100-TK-06 (Heavy) 92 .11.69 7.20 4.96 4.39 572 6293 0.78 15 163 0.0 1.2 Carbon Steel 2.9 Carbon Steel 2.0 19.6 18.8 100-TK-03 (Benz) 100-TK-04 (Gaso) 5 6220 0.7 29.75 22.69 2.90 20.Table 26:Detailed calculations for process vessels BREAKDOWN 100-TK-01 Components Volumetric flow Time Capacity Temperature Pressure Operating Pressure Max Pressure Operating bar 6.0 16.7A#2 Table 9.39 3108 34192 0.

Hold-up time According to Table 9. That was then used to determine the volumetric flowrate for the mixture.Reflux drums In the case of the reflux drums.6# 5 the hold-up time for a reflux drum is 5min for half a drum. L/D Ratio For reflux drums L/D is 3 but the ranges 2.6 # 2 indicates that liquid drums are horizontal. the same procedure was followed as for storage tanks however the volumetric flowrate was determined by adding the distillate and reflux mass flowrate and assuming the density of the mixture is the same as the individual streams. Orientation Table 9.5-5 is common 93 .

64 100-VE-02 Horizontal 9620 19200 16.28 2.24 5.97 2.94 4.6#5 Table 9.19 6.7 23.53 7.84 6.00 2.51 3.7bar) 100-VE-01 Horizontal 20700 77500 31.59 0.00 4.7 16.6#5 5 minutes for half-filled drum Table 9.3 0.Table 28: Detailed breakdown of process reflux drums sizing Orientation dist mass flow (kg/h) Reflux mass flow (kg/h) Dist Vol flow (m3/h) Density (kg/m3 feed mass flow (m3/h) Feed Dist Vol flow (m3/h) Hold-up Time (hr) Liquid Capacity (m3) Drum capacity (m3) Optimum L/D D m V/ 3/4 ^ 1/3 L(m) Temperature (°C) Design Temperature Pressure (atm) Normal Pressure (bar) Max operating pressure Test pressure (10%) Test pressure (+1.29 4.42 7.7A #2 Operating pressure +107bar Table 9.8 3.15 6.58 2.94 6.67 2.08 12.45 8.7bar 94 .6#2 ASPEN ASPEN ASPEN ASPEN Reflux mass flow+Distillate mass flow Feed mass flow / Density Table 9.19 4.56 4.4 24.57 114 139 4.7A #2 Max pressure +10% Table 9.37 Table 9.90 102 127 4.99 0.9 739 104000 141 0.7A#1 T normal +25 Table 9.00 1.54 100-VE-03 Horizontal 11100 33300 13.08 11.45 113 138 0.89 3.98 100-VE-04 Horizontal 34700 69400 46.96 14.3 832 44400 53.08 4.08 144 287 3.4 660 98200 149 0.7A #2 Max pressure +1.7 28900 1720 0.67 64 89 0.5 3.14 5.00 2.6#4 Comment Liquid Table 9.

6b) Purchase cost:: CEPCI2013 Purchase Cost Bare Cost Pressure factor material factor ( ) US CEPCI1998 Reflux Drum 2 (100-VE-02) Vessel diameter = 1.65 m Design Pressure = 7.54 bar Pressure factor = 1.scribd.5 (http://www.58 m Design Pressure = 7.1 MoC is carbon steel and material factor is 1 CEPCI1998 = 389.com/doc/32627641/CEPCI) CEPCI2013 = 575 Bare cost = US $ 7300 (Coulson & Richardson figure 6.1 MoC is carbon steel and material factor is 1 CEPCI1998 = 389.6b) Purchase cost: CEPCI2013 Purchase Cost Bare Cost Pressure factor material factor ( ) US CEPCI1998 11854.3 95 .64 bar Pressure factor = 1.22 m Vessel height = 6.3 22734.Appendix A9 Vessel Costing REFLUX DRUMS Reflux Drum 1 (100-VE-01) Vessel diameter = 2.scribd.com/doc/32627641/CEPCI) CEPCI2013 = 575 Bare cost = US $ 14000 (Coulson & Richardson figure 6.5 (http://www.53 m Vessel height = 4.

6b) Purchase cost: CEPCI2013 Purchase Cost Bare Cost Pressure factor material factor ( ) US CEPCI1998 11810.5 (http://www.scribd.15m Vessel height = 6.56 m Vessel height = 4.com/doc/32627641/CEPCI) CEPCI2013 = 575 Bare cost = US $ 13000 (Coulson & Richardson figure 6.37bar Pressure factor = 1 MoC is carbon steel and material factor is 1 CEPCI1998 = 389.scribd.98 bar Pressure factor = 1 MoC is carbon steel and material factor is 1 CEPCI1998 = 389.68 m Design Pressure = 3.Reflux Drum 3 (100-VE-03) Vessel diameter = 1.45 m Design Pressure = 4.6b) Purchase cost: CEPCI2013 Purchase Cost Bare Cost Pressure factor material factor ( ) US CEPCI1998 19191.3 96 .5 (http://www.0 Reflux Drum 4 (100-VE-04) Vessel diameter = 2.com/doc/32627641/CEPCI) CEPCI2013 = 575 Bare cost = US $ 8000 (Coulson & Richardson figure 6.

2m Vessel thickness (t) = 0.7#5) MoC is carbon steel Carbon steel density ρ Vessel weight: W 490 lb/ft3 =7849.7 Because there is only 1 vessel.STORAGE TANKS 100-TK-01 Number of vessels = 1 Vessel diameter (Di) = 16.8 kg/m3 (Di t) (L 0.7#5) MoC is carbon steel Carbon steel density ρ Vessel weight: W (Di t) (L 0.8Di ) t ρ 230303.7m Vessel height (L) = 16.8Di ) t ρ 383523. then: Total Purchase Cost Purchase Cost 1 US 100-TK-02 Number of vessels = 2 Vessel diameter (Di) = 21.0097 m (Table 9.6 m Vessel thickness (t) = 0. page 528) 97 . Second edition. Second edition.8 m Vessel height (L) = 12.8 kg/m3 525380.13 of Product & Process Design Principles.6 lb 490 lb/ft3 =7849.7 Bare Cost = US $ 530000 (read off from figure 16. page 528) CEPCI2000 = 394 CEPCI2013 = 575 Purchase Cost: Purcase Cost Bare Cost (CEPCI2013 ) US 2000 CEPCI 525380.0097 m (Table 9.13 of Product & Process Design Principles.0 lb Bare Cost = US $ 360000 (read off from figure 16.

page 528) CEPCI2000 = 394 CEPCI2013 = 575 Purchase Cost: Purcase Cost Bare Cost (CEPCI2013 ) US 2000 CEPCI 1021573 Because there is only 1 vessel.13 of Product & Process Design Principles.7#5) MoC is carbon steel Carbon steel density ρ Vessel weight: W 490 lb/ft3 =7849.3 (Di t) (L 0.6 m Vessel height (L) = 18.6 m Vessel thickness (t) = 0.8 kg/m3 1546954.0097 m (Table 9.5 m Vessel thickness (t) = 0.7 lb Bare Cost = US $ 700000 (read off from figure 16. then: Total Purchase Cost Purchase Cost 1 US 100-TK-04 Number of vessels = 5 Vessel diameter (Di) = 20.7#5) MoC is carbon steel Carbon steel density ρ 490 lb/ft3 =7849.1 Because there are 2 vessels altogether.6 .0097 m (Table 9.CEPCI2000 = 394 CEPCI2013 = 575 Purchase Cost: Purcase Cost Bare Cost (CEPCI2013 ) US 2000 CEPCI 773477. then: Total Purchase Cost Purchase Cost 2 US 100-TK-03 Number of vessels = 1 Vessel diameter (Di) = 26.8Di ) t ρ 552835.0 m Vessel height (L) = 19. Second edition.8 kg/m3 98 1021573.

8 kg/m3 3794416.8Di ) t ρ 256254.2 (Di t) (L 0. then: Total Purchase Cost Purchase Cost 1 US 583756.4 lb Bare Cost = US $ 520000 (read off from figure 16.Vessel weight: W (Di t) (L 0.13 of Product & Process Design Principles.7 lb Bare Cost = US $ 400000 (read off from figure 16. Second edition.3 99 .7 m Vessel height (L) = 13.7#5) MoC is carbon steel Carbon steel density ρ Vessel weight: W 490 lb/ft3 =7849.8Di ) t ρ 381767. then: Total Purchase Cost Purchase Cost 5 US 100-TK-05 Number of vessels = 1 Vessel diameter (Di) = 17. page 528) CEPCI2000 = 394 CEPCI2013 = 575 Purchase Cost: Purcase Cost Bare Cost (CEPCI2013 ) US 2000 CEPCI 758883. Second edition.3 583756. page 528) CEPCI2000 = 394 CEPCI2013 = 575 Purchase Cost: CEPCI2013 Purcase Cost Bare Cost ( ) US CEPCI2000 Because there is only 1 vessel.13 of Product & Process Design Principles.0097 m (Table 9.3 m Vessel thickness (t) = 0.2 Because there are 5 vessels altogether.

5 m Vessel thickness (t) = 0.7 lb Bare Cost = US $ 550000 (read off from figure 16.8 kg/m3 (Di t) (L 0. then: Total Purchase Cost Purchase Cost 1 US 802665.8Di ) t ρ 256254.0 m Vessel height (L) = 16.0097 m (Table 9. page 528) CEPCI2000 = 394 CEPCI2013 = 575 Purchase Cost: Purcase Cost Bare Cost (CEPCI2013 ) US 2000 CEPCI 802665.13 of Product & Process Design Principles.0 100 .100-TK-06 Number of vessels = 1 Vessel diameter (Di) = 22.0 Because there is only 1 vessel. Second edition.7#5) MoC is carbon steel Carbon steel density ρ Vessel weight: W 490 lb/ft3 =7849.

Appendix B: Detailed Utility Calculations and Analysis
Analysis of emissions sample calculations Carbon dioxide emissions from electricity usage From Eskom’s integrated report of 2012, it is reported that 0.0077 kt of SO2,0.004 kt of NOX and 0.99 kt of CO2 is produced per GWh generated. Fin fan cooler electricity power Total cooling duty for the cooling water is 40100KW. Qduty 40100. (1000) MJ/hr Table 9.11 #H12 Fin fan power 2.5.Qduty ( hr )=360900 KW Total direct and indirect electricity usage=360900 consumption) =36113 KW Using the total electricity usage, the following is obtained:    SO2 emissions=11.5 tons /year NOX emissions=22 tons/year CO2 emissions=2832 tons/year +213 (Pump electricity
MJ 3600

Assuming 330 days of plant operation Emissions from flaring the vent gases resulting from over pressure Assumption The unit’s pressure relieve valves trip once a day Model compounds:     Pre-distillation= hexane EDC=Hexane Stripper=Benzene Fractionator=Octane

Using the ideal gas law to calculate the amount of the vapour which has to be expelled in case of a trip in every reflux drum N (Pdesign Poperation ).V R.Tdesign

V vapour volume of the reflux drum which is half of the reflux drum’s volume. Table 9.6 # 5 Using the pre-distillation column as an example Pdesign=7.75 bar Poperation=4.35 bar 101

Tdesign=387 K V d2)*L/8=12.7 m2 N=1346 moles Based on the combustion of hexane 2C6H14+19O2=12CO2+14H2O For every 1 mole expelled, 6 moles of CO2 are produced Nco2=N*6=8074 moles Mass of CO2 produced=Molar mass of CO2 xNco2 =355.26 kg/day Emissions steam consumption Assumptions   Natural gas gives the heat of combustion to the steam No heat losses result during the heat transfer

Natural gas requirements for steam duties Mnatural gas .∆Hcombsution Qsteam duty MJ ∆Hcombsution 50 engineeringtoolbox.com kg Sample calculation Total duty of high pressure steam from the process is Qduty steam=26938 KW Mnatural gas 3600.Qsteam duty 1940 kg/h ∆Hcombustion

Combustion of natural gas CH4+2O2=CO2+2H2O For every 1 kg of CH4, 2.75 kg of CO2 is produced. kg MCO2 2.75 1940 5334 kg/hr hr

102

Appendix C: Detailed Profitability analysis
The following procedure outlines the procedure for the profitability analysis Estimation of Total capital cost The total capital cost was calculated using the fixed capital and working capital cost Total Capital = Fixed Capital +Working Capital [1]

The fixed capital cost was estimated from the total purchase cost of all major equipment using Lang Factors for a continuous fluid process. It was further assumed that the cost of delivery would account for 15% of the total cost of the equipment. FC= (1.15*(Total Purchase cost of equipment))*(Lang Factor) [2]

The working capital was assumed to cover two month of the operating expenses and the capital required for a once of purchase of 50 tons of solvent for the recycle. WC = ((Annual operating expenses/6) + 50*(Annual cost solvent per ton) Estimation of operating expenses The operating expense was calculated from the fixed cost and variable cost. Operating Expense = Fixed Cost + Variable Cost [4] [3]

The fixed cost is calculated from the operating labour cost, maintenance cost and operating overhead cost. Fixed cost = Labour + Maintenance + Overheads [5]

For the calculation of the labour cost it was assumed that the plant would require 14 technical staff to operate the plan for a 24 hour period 7 days a week. The staff will be spilt into two teams working 12 hour shifts. Each team will be made up of 1 professional chemical engineer who will manage the operation, 4 control engineers each responsible for operating a column in the unit, and 2 technical support engineers responsible for repairs, maintenance and technical support. The average salary for each staff member was determined using www.payscale.com. Labour Cost = ∑ b [6]

The annual maintenance cost was assumed to be 2% of the total purchase cost of major equipment Maintenance Cost = 0.02*(Total Purchase cost of equipment) [7]

103

Gross profit The gross profit is calculated form the revenue and the operating expenses. employee related overheads and general business overheads.01656 /kg for MP steam. and $ 0.The plant overheads were calculated from the general plant overheads.074*(labour Cost) [9] [10] [11] The variable cost is calculated using the cost for raw materials and utilities. LP steam. The overheads are calculated as percentage of the total labour cost. Overheads = General + Employee +Business [8] Overheads account for other cost associated with the monthly running of the plant.059*(labour Cost) = 0. Naphtha feed and Solvent and utilities cooling water.018 /kg for LP and HP steam. $ 0. Total revenue = Cost of sales for benzene + Cost of sales for Gasoline [15] Note: The cost if benzene and gasoline are determined based on the volumetric flow rates determined form aspen.345/kg for cooling water. naphtha feed and solvent was assumed to be $ 1062 /ton for the C5 and naphtha and $ 2000/ton. Estimations for revenue The projects revenue will be generated by selling gasoline and benzene at a selling price of $1 062 /ton and $ 1 500/ton respectively. The cost of C5 feed. MP steam and HP steam will be bought from supplies at the battery limit. It was assumed that the raw materials C5 feed.071*(labour Cost) = 0. LP steam. Variable cost = Raw material cost + Utility cost Raw materials = C5 feed +Naphtha Feed + Solvent Feed Utility Cost = Cooling water + LP steam +MP steam +HP steam [12] [13] [14] Note: the cost of the Raw materials and utilities will be calculated based on the volumetric flow rate determined from aspen. The cost for cooling water. MP steam and HP steam was assumed to be $ 0. Gross Profit = Revenue – Operating expenses [16] 104 . General Overheads Employee Overheads Business Overheads = 0.

It was assumed that the lifespan of all major equipment was 10 years therefore. the scrap value after the 10 year period is zero. Gross profit before tax = Gross profit – ∑ Net profit after tax The net profit after tax it calculated based on a tax rate of 28% for South Africa Net profit = Gross profit before tax *(1-tax rate) [19] [18] 105 .Depreciation The depreciation on the asses was calculated using the straight line method for a period of 10 years. Depreciation = Gross profit before tax - [17] The gross profit before tax it the gross profit minis the equipment depreciation.

Calculations of the profitability indicators The profitability indicators the ROI.The number of years The discounted cash flow is then determined by discounting the cash flows back to the current year at a specified discount rate. NPV and IRR. The depreciation is then subtracted and the total is taxed to obtain the net profit. PBP = (Cash Flows)/ (Total Capital investment) [23] The net present value was determined by summing the total discounted cash flows for the time period NPV = ∑ Discounted Cash Flows [24] 106 . are calculated by doing a cash flow and discounted cash flow analysis for a number of years. The discount rate was assumed to be 10 % Discounted CF = i – Discount rate The profitability analysis was performed for a 5 and 10 year period. PBP. The depreciation is then added to the total to determine the total cash flow.1*( – ) . The ROI was calculated using the average net profit for the time period and the total capital cost.Dep)* (1.tax rate)] +Dep) [20] N . ROI = (Average Annual Net Profit) / (Total Capital investment) [22] F w 1N [21] The PBP was calculated using the total capital investment and the average cash flows for the time period. Cash flow = ([1. The cash flow analysis is calculated by increasing the revenue and operating expenses by an inflation rate accounting for the increase in cost for each year. The inflation rate for this project was assumed to be a constant rate of 10 % annually.

Table 29: Balance Sheet for the benzene extraction process Total cost of major equipment excluding delivery Distillation Columns with installed trays Pumps and Motors Reboilers Condensers Heat exchangers Reflux Drums Storage Tanks Lang Factor (accounting for delivery cost) Total Capital Cost Total Fixed Capital Cost Working Capital Cost Operating Expenses Fixed Cost Variable Cost Revenue Annual Revenue Gross Profit Depreciation Gross Profit after depreciation Net Profit after tax Table 30:Fixed Cost associated with the plant operations Fixed Cost Operations (labour Related) (O) Technical Engineer Specialist Technical Support Engineer Control Engineer Maintenance (M) Annual Equipment maintenance Operating Overheads General Plant overheads Employee Relation Overheads Business Overheads $655 268 $383 181 $89 653 $55 064 $238 464 $193 918 $193 918 $78 169 $27 206 $22 608 $28 355 $9 695 886 $1 447 529 $60 072 $260 757 $33 655 $27 833 $69 974 $7 796 066 5 $137 800 079 $48 479 430 $89 320 649 $535 923 897 $655 268 $535 268 629 $509 708 428 $509 708 428 -$26 215 469 969589 -$27 185 057 -$19 573 241 107 .

Table 31:Variable Cost calculations associated with the process operations Variable Cost Raw material Cost C5 feed Naphtha feed Solvent Utility Cost Cooling Water LP steam HP steam MP steam Electricity Table 32:Revenue generated for the operation Revenue Petroleum Benzene $509 708 428 $388 406 473 $121 301 955 $535 268 629 $525 076 200 $296 489 160 $218 687 040 $9 900 000 $10 192 429 $362 891 $2 652 $7 336 773 $2 489 349 $763.96 Table 33:Gross profit calculations for a 10 year period with inflation rate of 10 % Revenue 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 $560 679 271 $616 747 198 $678 421 917 $746 264 109 $820 890 520 $902 979 572 $993 277 529 $1 092 605 282 $1 201 865 810 $1 322 052 391 Expenses 589516286 648467915 713314707 784646177 863110795 949421874 1044364062 1148800468 1263680515 1390048566 Gross Profit -$28 837 016 -$31 720 717 -$34 892 789 -$38 382 068 -$42 220 275 -$46 442 302 -$51 086 533 -$56 195 186 -$61 814 704 -$67 996 175 Depreciation 969589 969589 969589 969589 969589 969589 969589 969589 969589 969589 108 .

37 -317282232 5.49 -$231 146 626 5.9 -5.15 10 -23.15 109 .6 -4.Table 34: Discounted cash flow calculations for a 10 year period at a discount rate of 10% Year Net Profit Cash Flow DCF 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 -$21 460 755 -$23 537 020 -$25 820 912 -$28 333 193 -$31 096 702 -$34 136 561 -$37 480 407 -$41 158 638 -$45 204 691 -$49 655 350 -$137 800 079 -$20 491 167 -$22 567 432 -$24 851 323 -$27 363 604 -$30 127 113 -$33 166 973 -$36 510 819 -$40 189 049 -$44 235 102 -$48 685 761 -$137 800 079 -$18 628 333 -$18 650 770 -$18 671 167 -$18 689 710 -$18 706 567 -$18 721 892 -$18 735 823 -$18 748 488 -$18 760 002 -$18 770 468 Table 35:Profitability indicators summary table for a 5 and 10 year period Period in years ROI (%) Payback Period (Years) NPV ($) IRR (%) Minimum Payback period 5 -18.

Appendix D: Detailed Environmental Calculations and Analysis
Analysis of emissions sample calculations Carbon dioxide emissions from electricity usage From Eskom’s integrated report of 2012, it is reported that 0.0077 kt of SO 2,0.004 kt of NOX and 0.99 kt of CO2 is produced per GWh generated. Fin fan cooler electricity power Total cooling duty for the cooling water is 40100KW. Qduty 40100. (1000) MJ/hr Table 9.11 #H12 Fin fan power 2.5.Qduty ( hr )=360900 KW Total direct and indirect consumption) =36113 KW electricity usage=360900+213 (Pump electricity
MJ 3600

Using the total electricity usage, the following is obtained:    SO2 emissions=11.5 Mtons /year NOX emissions=22 Mtons/year CO2 emissions=2832 Mtons/year

Assuming 330 days of plant operation Emissions from flaring the vent gases resulting from over pressure Assumption The unit’s pressure relieve valves trip once a day Model compounds:     Pre-distillation= hexane EDC=Hexane Stripper=Benzene Fractionator=Octane

Using the ideal gas law to calculate the amount of the vapour which has to be expelled in case of a trip in every reflux drum

110

N

(Pdesign Poperation ).V R.Tdesign

V=vapour volume of the reflux drum which is half of the reflux drum’s volume. Table 9.6 # 5 Using the pre-distillation column as an example Pdesign=7.75 bar Poperation=4.35 bar Tdesign=387 K V d2)*L/8=12.7 m2

N=1346 moles Based on the combustion of hexane 2C6H14+19O2=12CO2+14H2O For every 1 mole expelled, 6 moles of CO2 are produced Nco2=N*6=8074 moles Mass of CO2 produced=Molar mass of CO2 xNco2 =355.26 kg/day Emissions steam consumption Assumptions   Natural gas gives the heat of combustion to the steam No heat losses result during the heat transfer

Natural gas requirements for steam duties Mnatural gas .∆Hcombsution Qsteam duty ∆Hcombsution 50 MJ kg engineeringtoolbox.com

111

Sample calculation Total duty of high pressure steam from the process is Qduty steam=26938 KW Mnatural gas 3600.Qsteam duty 1940 kg/h ∆Hcombustion

Combustion of natural gas CH4+2O2=CO2+2H2O For every 1 kg of CH4, 2.75 kg of CO2 is produced. MCO2 2.75 1940 kg 5334 kg/hr hr

112

ensure the operability of the plant (ie. a feedback controller which then sends the signal to the control valve to take action. Distillation column control Since distillation columns consume so much energy it is necessary to control bottom and tray temperatures to optimize separation. A sample of this loop can be seen in the process control diagram for the feed streams to the process as well as the streams leading to the distillation columns. 2009). The variable which fluctuates and causes the process output to deviate from a specific setpoint is the disturbance variable while manipulated variables are those chosen to control a specific output variable. and maximize yield (General Cybernation Group Inc. (Patrascioiu. the disturbance and manipulated variables were identified. These systems consist of orifice plates to measure the flowrate.Appendix E: Detailed Process Control Analysis Steady-state control scheme The process control diagram was compiled by identifying the control loops necessary for a steady plant operation. flows and holdup are maintained within appropriate ranges) and ensure the plant is economic (meeting specifications and product purity). 2012) Heat Exchanger control Temperature The temperature of the streams exiting a heat exchanger is controlled through the flow of the cooling or heating medium. Temperature control is not effective in the case of condenser (unless the stream is sub-cooled) and reboilers since the temperature of saturated steam is fixed at constant pressure (Sinnott & Towler. flow. 2013). Refer to appendix for the degrees of freedom analysis around the distillation column identifying the number of control loops needed. In the case of the solvent recycle a bypass is used since the two streams exchanging heat are both process streams at fixed flows. a flow transducer which is made of a diaphragm as a primary element and a differential pressure transducer which measures the difference. A combination of feedforward and feedback control systems were chosen for this process. 113 . avoid flooding. The objectives of control is to adhere to formal safety and environmental constraints. The flow system contains a control valve as the control element. The control strategy followed is described below. These loops include level. minimize steam consumption. In order to complete these control loops. Stream flow control All streams leading to major pieces of equipment where the inventory is monitored were controlled using flow control loops. pressure and temperature controls.

It was chosen to control temperature through the boil-up rate and reflux rate since this is a process with complex operating conditions therefore the control of critical temperature on each stage can be very difficult to achieve. Once the levels are exceeded a signal is sent to the controller to open or close the control valve on the bottoms stream. It is not recommended to merely control pressure in the column by placing a valve on the vapour line as this will result in the use of an expensive. The control is placed on the discharge line from the pump to avoid cavitation. However in this case composition was regulated using the steam flow to the reboiler. the distillate composition is controlled by the distillate rate instead since the composition is sensitive to the distillate flow rather than the reflux rate. If the pressure is too high. Scotland. 114 . Level Column level Column levels were controlled using level controls positioned at the base of the column. the cooling water flow is increased therefore more vapour is condensed reducing the vapour pressure (and vice versa). 2012). 100-CO-02 and 100-CO-04. Ratio control (determined and set during start up) is used when two flows are desired to flow at a constant ratio. By adjusting the cooling water flow in the condenser the amount of vapour condensed is altered and therefore the vapour pressure in turn is altered. The boil-up rate and feed flow rate was varied in ratio to on another to control both temperature and composition. This was achieved by using two flow indicators (distillate and reflux rate) and a ratio controller. However.Pressure The pressure in distillation columns. The level loop is controlled by manipulating the outflow of the operating unit. The change in reflux changes the temperature profile in the column and hence the composition (University of Edinburgh. large control valve. The top composition of the distillation column was controlled by the reflux ratio. Composition and Temperature The composition and temperature in the column is controlled by using a ratio control of reflux and boil-up entering the column. The loop operates using an upper and lower bound which the process variable should not exceed. for the solvent stripper (100-CO-04) where high purity tops are desired. were indirectly controlled using the condenser. The same logic as the first thee columns was applied for the bottom temperature and composition. 100-CO-01.

1999) 115 . Pressure control Pressure relief valves were attached to the storage tanks containing solvents. These controllers are attached to the distillate of the column in the case of columns 1. and heavy feed aromatics. Feedforward and Feedback system This system is set up in such a way to adjust controller to alter the manipulated variable to ensure a desired level of operation is achieved if the controlled variable deviates from a specific setpoint. If upper and lower bounds are exceeded. Storage tank control Level The level is monitored in a storage tank since an interface exists between vapour and liquid. these valves are opened and air/ vapour is allowed to exit the storage tank. air is allowed to enter the tank since low pressures have been found to cause internal damage to storage tank walls. The reflux drum is maintained at a specific level using level controllers. Disturbance and manipulated variables The variable which fluctuates and causes the process output to deviate from a specific setpoint is the disturbance variable while manipulated variables are those chosen to control a specific output variable. The higher and lower bounds are selected and identified during startup based on the level of the process variable to protect the level from running too high or too low during plant upsets. the control valve responds in the appropriate manner to increase or decrease flows to and from the storage tank. These relief valves are specialised valves which do not require control loops however they are added as safety precautions for the pressure in the storage tanks. 2009). If the pressure measuring device indicates a high pressure in the tank. In the case when pressure is found to be too low in the tanks. 2 and 3 however in column 4 (solvent stripper) the level is controlled by the reflux rate. The feedforward control compensates for the influence a deviated variable may have on a controlled variable (Willis. These are usually in the form of a bleed to a spare storage tank on site.Reflux drum level Since a liquid-vapour interface exists in the reflux drum a required level must be provided (Sinnott & Towler.

Upper and Lower Bound According to (General Cybernation Group Inc.Material balance control The control scheme followed is known as a material balance control since the control loops exist in such a way to achieve desired product purity by manipulating the material balance of the column. 2013)’the upper and lower bounds are the bounds for the process variable (PV) being controlled. An actuator which carries out the needed action to avoid hazard. Thus.’ Alarms and safety trips Alarms are used in processes to alert the operators when a deviation in control parameters has occurred. These are "intelligent" upper and lower boundaries that are typically the marginal values the PV should not exceed. 116 . the Upper and Lower Bounds for PV are very different from the OP constraints. According to Sinnott & Towler (2009) the basic components of an automatic trip system includes:    A sensor monitoring the variable and providing a signal when the parameters of the variable have been exceeded. A device to transfer the signal to the actuator. If a delay in the action of the operator could lead to a serious hazardous situation arising. PV is a process variable that can only be varied by manipulating the OP. instruments are fitted with automatic trip systems to avert the hazard. PV is unlike the controller output (OP) where a hard limit or constraint can be set.

Appendix F: Control Valve Control valve 100-VL-08 from 100-PP-01A/B to 100-CO-02 To size and select a control valve the Cv should be calculated as follows: ∆P_Pump. ∆P(RO) = 2 x 0.8#1-3. the heuristic for piping indicates that for liquid pump discharge ∆P 2.138bar =0. Since heuristics are provided for Line Loss suct disch SG Cv V̇ √ ∆P ∆P RO ∆P HE ∆P SF . Therefore the RHS of the equation will be constant since ∆P is constant.20 bar 117 .1bar according to CHE4049F Lecture10 notes.1bar =0. A distance of 30m 100ft was predicted between pieces of equipment.P_2-P_1 -ρg∆H Line Loss suct disch ∆P RO ∆P HE ∆P SF ∆P CV The RHs of the equation can be determined using the max.0psi/100ft. The pressure drop over an orifice plate should be 0. This then automatically leads to the LHS being constant. normal and minimum flowrates which stem from the mass balance. we can calculate CV using: [1] V̇ = Volumetric flowrate (gpm) ΔP Pressure change psi ρ SG= Specific Gravity= L L ) kg m3 1000 Using Table 9. ∆P(line loss)= 1 x 0.138 bar P RO) Two orifice plates are present on this pumped line.

11. However to calculate Cv min and max.69bar The sum of these variables are is the total pressure drop which is constant for min.3 according to the CHE4049F lecture 10.62bar =0 bar ∆P SF The safety factor is a set value of 0.89. This total equates to 1. By applying equation 1 Cv can be determined(taking units into account) 118 .21 ∆PNORM CHE4049F Lecture 17 notes.2 and 0. the pressure drop is between 0.3bar ∆P According to table 9. ∆P SF)= 0.P ) No heat exchanger is present between the control valve and the distillation column.12 notes. normal and max flow.5 QNORM → ∆PMIN 0.8 number 4.62 bar for services other than boiling. ∆P(HX)= 0 x 0. Therefore for normal operation/flow we assume this: ∆P(CV)= 0.1QNORM → ∆PMAX 1. Therefore using heuristic number 5 from table 9.69bar pressure drop for good control.25 ∆PNORM QMAX 1. the difference between the total pressure drop and (Line Loss suct disch ∆P RO ∆P HE ∆P SF ) was found. This generates ∆P CV . heuristic for piping indicates that the control valves require at least 0.11. The following relationship is used to determine the min and max pressure drops: QMIN 0.

300 1.17 16.8#1-3 Heuristics for piping: TABLE 9.242 0.200 0.3 ∆Pmin ∆Pnorm 0 0.5 43.25 ∆PNORM QMAX 1.69 0.0 0 0.06 Conversion from l/min to gpm ASPEN 0.1 0.21 ∆PNORM Cv (psi) 13.5037738 psi QMIN 0.05 0.33 1.9 10.11#5 Heuristics for piping: TABLE 9.034 0.264172 Heuristics for heat exchangers: TABLE 9.363 1.69 0.138 0.62 0.167 0.660 Density of stream (kg/m3) 660 SG 0.56 8.33 0.33 COMMENT Aspen max 575 152 ∆Pmax 0 0.1 138 Number HE LINE RO CV SF TOTAL CV (bar) Cv psi ∆P 0 1 2 1 1 bar 0.1QNORM → ∆PMAX 1.137895146 0.63 35.5 SG Cv V̇ ∆P 𝑉̇ =Volumetric flowrate (gpm) ΔP Pressure change psi m3 SG= Specific Gravity= 1000 ρ( kg 119 .8#4 CHE4049F Lecture10 notes CHE4049F Lecture10 notes CHE4049F Lecture17 notes Conversion: 1bar = 14.660 min norm Volumetric flow (l/min) 261 523 Volumetric flow (gpm) 69.5 QNORM → ∆PMIN 0.Table 36:Control valve sizing calculation table Control valve 100-VL-08 from 100-PP-01A/B to 100-CO-02 Density of stream (g/cm3) 0.075 1.

40 (ASPEN) = 922.Control valve specification For each control valve in the control scheme.2 =461(3 sig fig) Min Volumetric flowrate (l/min) = 922.40 (50%) = 461. the min.9 6.37 1000 25200 655000 19000 180000 712000 30500 84000 18700 12600 33300 6770 283900 18. normal and max flowrates were determined by the following equations (taken from : CHE4049F Lecture 17 notes) Minimum Flowrate Normal flowrate Maximum Flowrate = 50% Normal Flowrate = Mass balance(ASPEN) = 110% Normal Flowrate (standard) = 125% Normal Flowrate (reflux) Sample calculation: 100-VL-01 Normal Volumetric flowrate (l/min) Min Volumetric flowrate (l/min) = 922.40 (110%) = 1014.6 =1010 (3 sig fig) Table 37:Utilities property table Density of HPS Density of MPS Cooling water density HPS Predistillation column CW PDC Condenser MPS Fractionator EDC Condenser Fractionator condenser CW heavy cooler CW gasoline cooler HPS EDC HPS stripper Reflux Stripper CW stripper cooler CW stripper trim cooler Air to steam ejector 22.2 kg/m3 kg/m3 kg/m3 kg/hr kg/hr kg/hr kg/hr kg/hr kg/hr kg/hr kg/hr kg/hr kg/hr kg/hr kg/hr Kg/hr 120 .

Ch. General Cybernation Group Inc. In Richardson's.ncl. In D. Typical control systems.ed.M.co.aspx?EventID=Q6UJ 9A00MR7L&Qtype=U [Accessed 01 March 2013].. Scotland.cybosoft. 2013. University of Edinburgh. 2012. D. [Online] University of Newcastle upon Tyne Available at: http://lorien. Centrifugal Pumps.pdf [Accessed 29 April 2013]. [Online] Available at: http://www. MFA Control and Optimization of Distillation Columns.chemeng. 2010. W. Seader. Inc. Fluid Flow control. Product and Process Design Principles. Seider .com/ats/ats_14. C.271-80. 4.nsf/veritydisplay/b18bcd185bebfee1c125 695800554ad6/$file/DLC_1GG.uk/ming/pid/pid2.&.PDF [Accessed 29 April 2013]. 2012.. Engineering News's print magazine email.cmaiglobal. R.za/article/sapref-upgrade-central-to-bps-r55bninvestment-plan-for-sa-moz-2013-04-23 [Accessed 01 March 2013]. Some Conventional Orocess Control Schemes.D. Oxford: Elsevier. Papantonis.html [Accessed 26 April 2013]. Module 3. D.1: Control of Distillation Columns. Romania: InTech. pp.ac.uk/courses/control/restricted/course/fourth/course/modul e3-1. [Online] Available at: http://www.Bibliography ABB Instrumentation. & Widagdo.engineeringnews. T. IHS Chemical.htm [Accessed 28 April 2013]. Depatrment of national treasury . 2013.com/global/scot/scot203. 2012. Depatrment of treasury 2013 Carbon tax policy paper.abb. Third Edition ed. 1997. 2013. C. Creamer.ac. IHS Media . & Towler. Chemical Engineering Design.. [Online] Available at: http://www05..J. Willis. Lewin. ed. S. G.com/EventixWebRegistration/Default. Drum Level Control Systems in Process Industries. [Online] Available at: http://eweb. 1999.. [Online] Available at: https://eventix.. 121 . Sinnott. pp. Patrascioiu. Asia: John Wiley & Sons. 2009.63-90.

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