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Introduction Mechanism of Roll Lubrication Requirements of a Rolling Oil Trends (Past/Present/Future) Evaluations of Rolling Oil

Our Lab Mill Trials at RDCIS Emulsion Management Popular Brands of Rolling Oils in India Rolling Mills in India Rolling Oil Potential

Cold Rolling Oil

An Oil / Emulsion introduced at the Rollbite in the process of Cold Rolling to control Friction at the interface of Work Rolls and Strip

Various Processes in Steel Rolling

Type of Cold Rolling Mills

Why Cold Rolling?

Limitation of HSM to produce thinner gauge with
Superior surface finish desired mechanical & metallurgical properties

Potential application of the product in consumer goods industry Newer cold rolled products are being continuously developed both in bare & coated variety

Type of Cold Rolling Mills 2 Hi Mill

Suitable for hot or cold rolling of ferrous and nonferrous metals.

Ideal for breakdown, run down, tempering and skin pass operations.

Type of Cold Rolling Mills 4 Hi Mill

Undesirable contact area results in a bending force which causes edge drop.

Type of Cold Rolling Mills 4 Hi Mill

Used both as Non-reversing Mills for intermediate rolling and as Reversing Mills for finish rolling Smaller rolls reduce thickness of metal being rolled more easily and with much less pressure than large rolls of a 2-High Mill

This decreased pressure reduces roll bending and separating forces and permits rolling of wider and thinner materials with a more uniform gauge 4-hi mills are a cost-effective means for industry to product a wide range of sheet products . 90% of Mills are of this type.

Type of Cold Rolling Mills

Reversing Mills
Advantages 1. Less Capital Cost 2. Occupy less space 3. Any required gauge can be obtained Disadvantages 1. Low output 2. High Roll Consumption

Continuous Mills
Advantages 1. Suitable for large outputs 2. Higher gauge accuracy Disadvantages 1. High capital cost

2. Large production of one size product

Type of Cold Rolling Mills 4 Hi Tandem Mill

Type of Cold Rolling Mills 6 Hi Mill

Provide improved flatness due to their workroll bending mechanism and intermediate roll adjustment in an axial direction. Main advantages are improved shape of rolled strip, increased reductions and greater rolling efficiency.

Drawbacks : Complicated and hard to maintain roll cluster unit Cooling problems resulting from the smaller circumferential area of their working rolls.

Type of Cold Rolling Mills 6 HI Mill

Undesirable contact area is virtually eliminated by shifting the intermediate rolls axially. This can be done quickly and easily, making the HCMILL the ideal solution for the real world. Use of the HC-MILL not only significantly improves quality, but has significant ramifications for the system.

Type of Cold Rolling Mills 20 Hi Mill

Type of Cold Rolling Mills 20 Hi Mill

Tandem Mill Continuous Mill

Modern Tandem Cold Mill consists upto 6 sets of independently driven pairs of Work rolls, each pair being supported by a large no. of back-up rolls Cumulative Mill reduction could be in the range of 50% - 90% Ensures high gauge accuracy and proper flatness Roll separating force involved in rolling 1250 mm wide strip may be as high as 1000T

Mechanism of Roll Lubrication

Friction is a necessity as a transmitter of Deformation Energy Optimization of friction
Adequately high to Ensure traction in the Roll bite Low enough to optimize Mill Motor Power requirement

Mechanism of Roll Lubrication

Oil Pooling at the Bite
Positive Pressure gradient at the inlet zone Viscous component of the oil diffuse more in the roll bite Higher Strip temperature (120 200 oC) evaporates water in emulsion Fatty substance affinity to the strip/roll surface

Mechanism of Roll Lubrication

Vo>Vp>Vi At neutral Point Vx=Vp Contact angle is about 3-4 Degrees only Pressure on the rolls buildup from entry to the neutral point and then declines till exit.

Mechanism of Roll Lubrication

Lubrication Regimes in
Pre-deformation Zone
Elasto Hydrodynamic

Deformation Zone
Plasto Hydrodynamic Boundary EP Lubrication

Some Important Formulae

d {(2 K p)y} ( )Rp 0 d

ti tf p Cy R e 2 K 2 R p Cy e where 2K 2R R R 1 2 tan where tf tf

t f R 2 y 2 2

R R 1 2 tan tf tf

p x ( ) before (1 )e i 2K ti 2K p 2y ( ) x ( ) (1 ) e and 2K before ti 2K and x p 2y ( p ) after 2y (1 x )e ( 2K ) after tf(1 2K )e


Some Important Formulae 2y ( )

Pressure Distribution




6V 2r hfilm (1 ) 3 y ieldtan

Functions of a Cold Rolling Oil

Control friction, wear and surface damage of rolls and strip

Heat Dirt Wear Debris

Requirements of a Rolling Oil

Optimum lubricity, high film strength, shear stability, high plate-out characteristics High heat transfer coefficient Optimum Emulsion stability/Good chemical stability Long emulsion life Easy maintenance High cleanliness properties Good Burn off characteristics Good emulsion detergency Minimum soap formation Easy disposal Environment friendliness Bio-degradable

Additional Requirements of a Rolling Oil

Good rust/corrosion protection capacity Good resistance to tramp oil contamination Easy removability after rolling Complete System Compatibility Rolling Mill & Strip Components Pickling Oil/acid traces carry over from pickling line Economical

Constituents of Cold Rolling Oils

Lubricant Base (80% - 90%) Natural Oils Fats & their Derivatives Mineral Oils Synthetic Esters

Boundary Additives Molecules with permanent dipole moment like Derivatives of Fatty Oils (acids, alcohols, amines) Long chain acids are preferred Neutral soaps of Esters

Constituents of Cold Rolling Oils

Emulsifiers HLB Value Emulsion stability Oil Particle Size Plate Out Shear Stability Dispersant / Surfactants

EP & AW Additives
Chlorinated Paraffins Sulfurized Mineral Oils/Fats Chloro-sulphides Sulfur-phosphorus compounds Nitrogen-phosphorus compounds

Properties of Rolling Oils

Higher Film thickness Viscosity

Saponification Value
Indicates amount of Esters present Higher SAP value means better lubricity Higher SAP may impair Cleanliness behavior of oil

Free Fatty Acid (FFA)

Help decreasing friction due to adsorption on strip & roll surface thus provide good boundary lubrication Prone to oxidation, polymerization and formation of sticky deposits on storage. Affects Cleanliness behavior of oil

Properties of Rolling Oils

Iodine No. Pour Point
Indicates degree of un-saturation of fatty materials/esters Lower value is desired May help cooling efficiency Too low pour oils using short chain compounds may possess poor lubricity & load bearing ability Vital for emulsifiers effectiveness Affected by Carryovers from pickling lines Water Quality Tramp Oils Degeneration/Oxidation of the Rolling Oil itself

pH Value

Properties of Rolling Oils

Ash Content
Low ash formulations are preferred

Oil Particle Size

Greatly affects Lubricity, Plate-out, Iron Content of emulsion Indication of shear stability of the oil
Parameters Mean Particle Size, ESI,% Sheet Rolling 2-5 80 - 90 Tin Plate Rolling 3.5 - 10 50 - 95

Oil Plate-out, mg/m2

Iron Content, ppm

350 - 600
0 - 300

500 - 1100
100 - 700

Palm Oil
Natural Oil/ Fats/ Derivatives

Fatty Oils & Mineral Oils

Synthetic Esters

Evaluations of Rolling Oils

Laboratory Tests
Physico-chemical Tests Functional Tests

Tribological Tests Lab. Mill Trial Industrial Trials

Laboratory Tests of Rolling Oils

Physico-chemical Tests
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Ash Content, % Wt Carbon Residue, CCR, % Wt Flash Point, COC, oC Free Fatty Acid, Oleic % Iodine Number Kinematic Viscosity, @ 40 oC, cSt 7. pH of 2% Emulsion in Distilled Water 8. Pour Point, oC 9. Saponification Value, mg of KOH/gm

Laboratory Tests of Rolling Oils Functional Tests

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Burn-Off Characteristics Emulsion Stability Index Mean Particle Size, m Plate-out Characteristics Cleanability Iron Corrosion HLB Value Staining Tendency

Tribological Test Rigs

Soda Pendulum Amsler Wear Test SRV Test Rig LFW1 Rig

Contact Configuration
Pin on Two Pairs of Balls 4 Pairs of Crowned Discs Ball or Roller on Disc Ring on Block

Type of Contact
Point Contact Line Contact Point/Line Contact Line Contact Surface Contact Line Contact

Ring Ring on Platen Compression Test Plint Tribometer Pin on Sheet

Tribological Test Rigs LFW 1 Oscillating Test

A steel block pressed Test Description against a lubricated

oscillating ring.

Test Result

Static and dynamic friction coefficient , wear in mm, life time of lubricant ASTM D 2714, ASTM D 2981, ASTM D 3704


Tribological Test Rigs LFW 1 Rotating Test

A steel block pressed Test Description against a lubricated rotating ring. Static and dynamic friction coefficient , wear in mm, life time of lubricant

Test Result


ASTM D 2714, ASTM D 2981, ASTM D 3705

Tribological Test Rigs Falex Pin & Vee Block Tester

A lubricated, rotating steel Test Description shaft between two V-shaped steel blocks under specified load.

Test Result

Friction coefficient , wear in mm, endurance life in h, load carrying capacity N

ASTM D 2670, ASTM D 2625, ASTM D 3233, ASTM D 3704


Tribological Test Rigs Falex Pin & Vee Block Tester

Tribological Test Rigs Falex Pin & Vee Block Tester

Tribological Test Rigs SRV Tester

Tribological Test Rigs SRV Tester

Test Description Measure friction and wear under oscillatory or rotational motion. Coefficient of friction , wear rate in mm DIN 51834, ASTM D 5706-7, DIN 50324

Test Result


Tribological Test Rigs Four Ball Machine

Test Description
Wear properties and weld load of consistent lubricants in a four ball system (rotating ball on three fixed balls). Welding load in N, wear scare in mm DIN 51350

Test Result Standards

Tribological Test Rigs Amsler Wear Test

Tribological Test Rigs Amsler Wear Test


Plint Tribometer

Emulsion Management
Good emulsion management provides
Consistent performance of oil Longer emulsion life

Emulsion Management
What all to manage of an emulsion?
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Concentration Temperature pH Conductivity Oil Particle Size (OPS) Tramp Oil Iron fines Bacterial Count

Emulsion Concentration
Variations in actual production line may be high owing to:
Disproportionate Oil addition Evaporation of Water Change in emulsion characteristics of oil Skimming of tramp oil

Online oil concentration measurement helps

The oil content directly relates to the velocity of sound in the fluid. A change of 1% oil content brings about an change of approx. 2 m/s.

Emulsion Temperature
Higher emulsion temperature than desired
Brings down oil film thickness by decreasing viscosity Declines Cooling Efficiency Emulsifiers behavior may get affected

Normally kept within 45 55oC

Emulsion pH
Emulsifier system is pH sensitive
Causes of pH disturbances
Acid carry over from pickling line Inferior feed water for emulsion Tramp Oil mixing

Preferred pH range: 5.0 7.0

pH < 5.0 Increase Particle size Corrosion Problem Erratic Rolling pH > 7.0 Reduce Particle size More metallic soaps Affects cleanliness

Emulsion Conductivity
Major contributors: H+, OH-, Cl-, SO42Minor Contributors: Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+

Conductivity of Emulsion < 200 S/cm Should never exceed 500 S/cm
Conductivity of De-mineralized Water < 10 S/cm Industrial Hard Water < 500 S/cm

Tramp Oil
Oil in emulsion that doesn't derive from the emulsion concentration itself is uncontrollable and therefore undesirable. Sources of tramp oil
oil leaks from transmissions, hydraulic systems and other lubrication points

Negative effects of Tramp Oil

Loss of cooling & wetting properties Deplete emulsifiers Nullifying rust-inhibitors Cuts off air and thereby provides an excellent base for growth of anaerobic bacteria

Reduce amount of sulfur additives Drop in pH Create bad smell Low pH increases ionization of heavy metal in coolant and this in turn may create unhealthy working atmosphere.

Desired Values of Some Important Emulsion Parameters

1 2 Chloride in Pickling Rinse Water Chloride on Pickled Strips

Desired Value
< 60 ppm < 0.03 mg/ft2

4 5 6 7 8 9

Emulsion Conductivity
Hardness of Water Bacteria Yeast Tramp Oil Iron in Emulsion pH Variation

< 500 mS/cm2

< 250 ppm < 5 x 106 counts/ml < 200 counts/ml < 20 - 30 % < 200 ppm + 0.5 - 1.0 < 100 mg/m2 < 100 mg/m2

10 Iron on CR Strip 11 Oil on CR Strip

12 Carbon on Annealed Strip

< 7 mg/m2

Emulsion Management
Analysis of Used Extracted Oil

Usually lower than Fresh Oil as some FFA are lost due to soap formation with Iron & hard water salts Lowered due to Mineral Oil Contamination May increase due to excessive bacterial activity

Emulsion Management
Analysis of Used Extracted Oil SAP Value Lowered with contamination of Tramp Oils % drop Indicates reduction of the active oil in emulsion Should not fall below 70% IR Spectroscopy Predicts Ester content & Fatty acid concentration Identify contamination

Cold Rolling Mills in India

No. of units Unit Capacity (TPA) Width Range (mm) Total capacity

16 15 5 2

up to 30,000
up to 72,000 up to 300,000 up to 300,000 > 1,000,000

upto 450
450-700 700-1250 1250-1560 > 1560

570,000 1,420,000 1,310,000 2,690,000



Rolling Oil Potential in India

Specific Rolling Oil consumption in Cold Rolling:
1.2 kg/T of Rolled Sheet for Mineral Oils 0.6 kg/T of Rolled Sheet for Semisynthetic/Synthetic Oils

Considering the above, Cold Rolling Oil potential would be about 3500 5000 KL per Annum

Popular Cold Rolling Oils

D A Stuart Quaker Chemicals B&L Indian Oil HPCL Houghton

Brand Name
Rolkleen 1000, 2000, 3000 Quakerol CA 29
Balmerol Aquaroll 431, 432

Servo Steerol C4, C6 HP Cold Rolling Oil